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156 Hot Agriculture Research Topics For High Scoring Thesis

agriculture research topics

Are you preparing an agriculture research paper or dissertation on agriculture but stuck trying to pick the right topic? The title is very important because it determines how easy or otherwise the process of writing the thesis will be. However, this is never easy for many students, but you should not give up because we are here to offer some assistance. This post is a comprehensive list of the best 156 topics for agriculture projects for students. We will also outline what every part of a thesis should include. Keep reading and identify an interesting agriculture topic to use for your thesis paper. You can use the topics on agriculture as they are or change them a bit to suit your project preference.

What Is Agriculture?

Also referred to as farming, agriculture is the practice of growing crops and raising livestock. Agriculture extends to processing plants and animal products, their distribution and use. It is an essential part of local and global economies because it helps to feed people and supply raw materials for different industries.

The concept of agriculture is evolving pretty fast, with modern agronomy extending to complex technology. For example, plant breeding, agrochemicals, genetics, and relationship to emerging disasters, such as global warming, are also part of agriculture. For students studying agriculture, the diversity of the subject is a good thing, but it can also make selecting the right research paper, thesis, or dissertation topics a big challenge.

How To Write A Great Thesis: What Should You Include In Each Section?

If you are working on a thesis, it is prudent to start by understanding the main structure. In some cases, your college/ university professor or the department might provide a structure for it, but if it doesn’t, here is an outline:

  • Thesis Topic This is the title of your paper, and it is important to pick something that is interesting. It should also have ample material for research.
  • Introduction This takes the first chapter of a thesis paper, and you should use it to set the stage for the rest of the paper. This is the place to bring out the objective of the study, justification, and research problem. You also have to bring out your thesis statement.
  • Literature Review This is the second chapter of a thesis statement and is used to demonstrate that you have comprehensively looked at what other scholars have done. You have to survey different resources, from books to journals and policy papers, on the topic under consideration.
  • Methodology This chapter requires you to explain the methodology that was used for the study. It is crucial because the reader wants to know how you arrived at the results. You can opt to use qualitative, quantitative, or both methods.
  • Results This chapter presents the results that you got after doing your study. Make sure to use different strategies, such as tables and graphs, to make it easy for readers to understand.
  • Discussion This chapter evaluates the results gathered from the study. It helps the researcher to answer the main questions that he/she outlined in the first chapter. In some cases, the discussion can be merged with the results chapter.
  • Conclusion This is the summary of the research paper. It demonstrates what the thesis contributed to the field of study. It also helps to approve or nullify the thesis adopted at the start of the paper.

Interesting Agriculture Related Topics

This list includes all the interesting topics in agriculture. You can take any topic and get it free:

  • Food safety: Why is it a major policy issue for agriculture on the planet today?
  • European agriculture in the period 1800-1900.
  • What are the main food safety issues in modern agriculture? A case study of Asia.
  • Comparing agri-related problems between Latin America and the United States.
  • A closer look at the freedom in the countryside and impact on agriculture: A case study of Texas, United States.
  • What are the impacts of globalisation on sustainable agriculture on the planet?
  • European colonisation and impact on agriculture in Asia and Africa.
  • A review of the top five agriculture technologies used in Israel to increase production.
  • Water saving strategies and their impacts on agriculture.
  • Homeland security: How is it related to agriculture in the United States?
  • The impact of good agricultural practices on the health of a community.
  • What are the main benefits of biotechnology?
  • The Mayan society resilience: what was the role of agriculture?

Sustainable Agricultural Research Topics For Research

The list of topics for sustainable agriculture essays has been compiled by our editors and writers. This will impress any professor. Start writing now by choosing one of these topics:

  • Cover cropping and its impact on agriculture.
  • Agritourism in modern agriculture.
  • review of the application of agroforestry in Europe.
  • Comparing the impact of traditional agricultural practices on human health.
  • Comparing equity in agriculture: A case study of Asia and Africa.
  • What are the humane methods employed in pest management in Europe?
  • A review of water management methods used in sustainable agriculture.
  • Are the current methods used in agricultural production sufficient to feed the rapidly growing population?
  • A review of crop rotation and its effects in countering pests in farming.
  • Using sustainable agriculture to reduce soil erosion in agricultural fields.
  • Comparing the use of organic and biological pesticides in increasing agricultural productivity.
  • Transforming deserts into agricultural lands: A case study of Israel.
  • The importance of maintaining healthy ecosystems in raising crop productivity.
  • The role of agriculture in countering the problem of climate change.

Unique Agriculture Research Topics For Students

If students want to receive a high grade, they should choose topics with a more complicated nature.This list contains a variety of unique topics that can be used. You can choose from one of these options right now:

  • Why large-scale farming is shifting to organic agriculture.
  • What are the implications of groundwater pollution on agriculture?
  • What are the pros and cons of raising factory farm chickens?
  • Is it possible to optimise food production without using organic fertilisers?
  • A review of the causes of declining agricultural productivity in African fields.
  • The role of small-scale farming in promoting food sufficiency.
  • The best eco-strategies for improving the productivity of land in Asia.
  • Emerging concerns about agricultural production.
  • The importance of insurance in countering crop failure in modern agriculture.
  • Comparing agricultural policies for sustainable agriculture in China and India.
  • Is agricultural technology advancing rapidly enough to feed the rapidly growing population?
  • Reviewing the impact of culture on agricultural production: A case study of rice farming in Bangladesh.

Fun Agricultural Topics For Your Essay

This list has all the agricultural topics you won’t find anywhere else. It contains fun ideas for essay topics on agriculture that professors may find fascinating:

  • Managing farm dams to support modern agriculture: What are the best practices?
  • Native Americans’ history and agriculture.
  • Agricultural methods used in Abu Dhabi.
  • The history of agriculture: A closer look at the American West.
  • What impacts do antibiotics have on farm animals?
  • Should we promote organic food to increase food production?
  • Analysing the impact of fish farming on agriculture: A case study of Japan.
  • Smart farming in Germany: The impact of using drones in crop management.
  • Comparing the farming regulations in California and Texas.
  • Economics of pig farming for country farmers in the United States.
  • Using solar energy in farming to reduce carbon footprint.
  • Analysing the effectiveness of standards used to confine farm animals.

Technology And Agricultural Related Topics

As you can see, technology plays a significant role in agriculture today.You can now write about any of these technology-related topics in agriculture:

  • A review of technology transformation in modern agriculture.
  • Why digital technology is a game changer in agriculture.
  • The impact of automation in modern agriculture.
  • Data analysis and biology application in modern agriculture.
  • Opportunities and challenges in food processing.
  • Should artificial intelligence be made mandatory in all farms?
  • Advanced food processing technologies in agriculture.
  • What is the future of genetic engineering of agricultural crops?
  • Is fertiliser a must-have for success in farming?
  • Agricultural robots offer new hope for enhanced productivity.
  • Gene editing in agriculture: Is it a benefit or harmful?
  • Identify and trace the history of a specific technology and its application in agriculture today.
  • What transformations were prompted by COVID-19 in the agricultural sector?
  • Reviewing the best practices for pest management in agriculture.
  • Analysing the impacts of different standards and policies for pest management in two countries of your choice on the globe.

Easy Agriculture Research Paper Topics

You may not want to spend too much time writing the paper. You have other things to accomplish. Look at this list of topics that are easy to write about in agriculture:

  • Agricultural modernization and its impacts in third world countries.
  • The role of human development in agriculture today.
  • The use of foreign aid and its impacts on agriculture in Mozambique.
  • The effect of hydroponics in agriculture.
  • Comparing agriculture in the 20th and 21st centuries.
  • Is it possible to engage in farming without water?
  • Livestock owners should use farming methods that will not destroy forests.
  • Subsistence farming versus commercial farming.
  • Comparing the pros and cons of sustainable and organic agriculture.
  • Is intensive farming the same as sustainable agriculture?
  • A review of the leading agricultural practices in Latin America.
  • Mechanisation of agriculture in Eastern Europe: A case study of Ukraine.
  • Challenges facing livestock farming in Australia.
  • Looking ahead: What is the future of livestock production for protein supply?

Emerging Agriculture Essay Topics

Emerging agriculture is an important part of modern life. Why not write an essay or research paper about one of these emerging agriculture topics?

  • Does agriculture help in addressing inequality in society?
  • Agricultural electric tractors: Is this a good idea?
  • What ways can be employed to help Africa improve its agricultural productivity?
  • Is education related to productivity in small-scale farming?
  • Genome editing in agriculture: Discuss the pros and cons.
  • Is group affiliation important in raising productivity in Centre Europe? A case study of Ukraine.
  • The use of Agri-Nutrition programs to change gender norms.
  • Mega-Farms: Are they the future of agriculture?
  • Changes in agriculture in the next ten years: What should we anticipate?
  • A review of the application of DNA fingerprinting in agriculture.
  • Global market of agricultural products: Are non-exporters locked out of foreign markets for low productivity?
  • Are production technologies related to agri-environmental programs more eco-efficient?
  • Can agriculture support greenhouse mitigation?

Controversial Agricultural Project For Students

Our team of experts has searched for the most controversial topics in agriculture to write a thesis on. These topics are all original, so you’re already on your way towards getting bonus points from professors. However, the process of writing is sometimes not as easy as it seems, so dissertation writers for hire will help you to solve all the problems.

  • Comparing the mechanisms of US and China agricultural markets: Which is better?
  • Should we ban GMO in agriculture?
  • Is vivisection a good application or a necessary evil?
  • Agriculture is the backbone of modern Egypt.
  • Should the use of harmful chemicals in agriculture be considered biological terror?
  • How the health of our planet impacts the food supply networks.
  • People should buy food that is only produced using sustainable methods.
  • What are the benefits of using subsidies in agriculture? A case study of the United States.
  • The agrarian protests: What were the main causes and impacts?
  • What impact would a policy requiring 2/3 of a country to invest in agriculture have?
  • Analysing the changes in agriculture over time: Why is feeding the world population today a challenge?

Persuasive Agriculture Project Topics

If you have difficulty writing a persuasive agricultural project and don’t know where to start, we can help. Here are some topics that will convince you to do a persuasive project on agriculture:

  • What is the extent of the problem of soil degradation in the US?
  • Comparing the rates of soil degradation in the United States and Africa.
  • Employment in the agricultural sector: Can it be a major employer as the population grows?
  • The process of genetic improvement for seeds: A case study of agriculture in Germany.
  • The importance of potatoes in people’s diet today.
  • Comparing sweet potato production in the US to China.
  • What is the impact of corn production for ethanol production on food supply chains?
  • A review of sustainable grazing methods used in the United States.
  • Does urban proximity help improve efficiency in agriculture?
  • Does agriculture create economic spillovers for local economies?
  • Analysing the use of sprinkle drones in agriculture.
  • The impact of e-commerce development on agriculture.
  • Reviewing the agricultural policy in Italy.
  • Climate change: What does it mean for agriculture in developed nations?

Advanced Agriculture Project Topics

A more difficult topic can help you impress your professor. It can earn you bonus points. Check out the latest list of advanced agricultural project topics:

  • Analysing agricultural exposure to toxic metals: The case study of arsenic.
  • Identifying the main areas for reforms in agriculture in the United States.
  • Are developed countries obligated to help starving countries with food?
  • World trade adjustments to emerging agricultural dynamics and climate change.
  • Weather tracking and impacts on agriculture.
  • Pesticides ban by EU and its impacts on agriculture in Asia and Africa.
  • Traditional farming methods used to feed communities in winter: A case study of Mongolia.
  • Comparing the agricultural policy of the EU to that of China.
  • China grew faster after shifting from an agro to an industrial-based economy: Should more countries move away from agriculture to grow?
  • What methods can be used to make agriculture more profitable in Africa?
  • A comprehensive comparison of migratory and non-migratory crops.
  • What are the impacts of mechanical weeding on soil structure and fertility?
  • A review of the best strategies for restoring lost soil fertility in agricultural farmlands: A case study of Germany.

Engaging Agriculture Related Research Topics

When it comes to agriculture’s importance, there is so much to discuss. These engaging topics can help you get started in your research on agriculture:

  • Agronomy versus horticultural crops: What are the main differences?
  • Analysing the impact of climate change on the food supply networks.
  • Meat processing laws in Germany.
  • Plant parasites and their impacts in agri-production: A case study of India.
  • Milk processing laws in Brazil.
  • What is the extent of post-harvest losses on farming profits?
  • Agri-supply chains and local food production: What is the relationship?
  • Can insects help improve agriculture instead of harming it?
  • The application of terraculture in agriculture: What are the main benefits?
  • Vertical indoor farms.
  • Should we be worried about the declining population of bees?
  • Is organic food better than standard food?
  • What are the benefits of taking fresh fruits and veggies?
  • The impacts of over-farming on sustainability and soil quality.

Persuasive Research Topics in Agriculture

Do you need to write a paper on agriculture? Perfect! Here are the absolute best persuasive research topics in agriculture:

  • Buying coffee produced by poor farmers to support them.
  • The latest advances in drip irrigation application.
  • GMO corn in North America.
  • Global economic crises and impact on agriculture.
  • Analysis of controversies on the use of chemical fertilisers.
  • What challenges are facing modern agriculture in France?
  • What are the negative impacts of cattle farms?
  • A closer look at the economics behind sheep farming in New Zealand.
  • The changing price of energy: How important is it for the local farms in the UK?
  • A review of the changing demand for quality food in Europe.
  • Wages for people working in agriculture.

Work With Experts To Get High Quality Thesis Paper

Once you pick the preferred topic of research, it is time to get down and start working on your thesis paper. If writing the paper is a challenge, do not hesitate to seek thesis help from our experts. We work with ENL writers who are educated in top universities. Therefore, you can trust them to carry out comprehensive research on your paper and deliver quality work to impress your supervisor. Students who come to us for assistance give a high rating to our writers after scoring top grades or emerging top in class. Our trustworthy experts can also help with other school assignments, thesis editing, and proofreading. We have simplified the process of placing orders so that every student can get assistance quickly and affordably. You only need to navigate to the ordering page to buy a custom thesis paper online.

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130 Agriculture Research Topics To Write An Excellent Paper

The preparation of an agriculture research paper involves several nuances and complexities. The first aspect is technical requirements, such as text formatting, structure, and source list. It's also important to choose those agriculture topics that you can analyze and find expert material. Any research paper is based on theses and statements, which are supported by evidence and factual information.

This is especially important when you tend to choose agricultural controversial topics. Then you need to find studies with verified information and prepare arguments for your paper. The whole process of work requires meticulous data collection and analysis of alternative sources. Then choosing any agricultural essay topics won't seem like a heady decision.

Your academic paper may relate to environmental factors, the economic feasibility of starting a farm, or the nuances of breeding. The main plus is that you can choose any of the agricultural related topics for research preparation. Here are 130 options for you.

Fisheries And Aquaculture

Such agricultural research paper topics allow revealing the topic of fishery and agricultural procurement. Students can concentrate on many aspects of the payback of farms and fisheries. The topics are quite extensive, and you can find a lot of research on the Internet for choosing trust sources.

  • Trout breeding in freshwaters.
  • Effect of algae on oxygen levels in fish rates.
  • Seasonal spawning of oceanic fish.
  • Prohibited fishing waters in the United States.
  • Exploration of the Pacific Ocean.
  • The impact of cyclones on fishing.
  • Poisonous fish and the reasons for their breeding in North America.
  • Seasonal diseases of trout.
  • Sea horse: A case study.
  • Risk analysis of water quality in aquaculture.

Plant Science And Crop Production

Crop Production agricultural research topics and plant science are not the easiest, but they contain a ton of information on the Internet. It is not a problem to find research by leading scientists and create your own research paper based on their statistics. The plus is that you don't have to start from scratch.

  • Innovative plant breeding.
  • Reclamation as a method of increasing yields.
  • Hybrid plants of Montana.
  • Citrus growing methods.
  • Technical cannabis and plantations in the USA.
  • Analysis of the yield of leguminous crops.
  • Method for creating genetically modified plants.
  • Field analysis of wheat for pesticides.
  • New plants and methods of growing them.
  • Hybrids and cold-resistant plants.

Topics in Agricultural Science

Agriculture essay topics like this allow you to select a specific aspect to research. You can concentrate on vegetation breeding or high tech greenhouse methodology. A large amount of research is a definite plus because you can build your theses on the basis of available data, criticizing or supporting research by scientists.

  • Harvesting robots.
  • Methodology for improving agricultural performance.
  • The influence of technology on the growth of grain crops.
  • How important is the timely irrigation of fields?
  • Climatic changes and impact on yield.
  • Breeding earthworms.
  • Hydroponic gardening.
  • Genetically modified organisms and their distribution.
  • Starting a garden.
  • How can we make medicine from plants?

Topics in Agronomy

Agronomy agriculture projects for students allow you to consider the aspects of growing crops in conditions with a specific soil type and natural characteristics. You can base your claims on statistics with the ability to draw on facts from other research. For example, this is relevant for papers examining the fertility of the topsoil.

  • Choosing the type of soil for the cornfield.
  • Innovative land reclamation.
  • New branches in agronomy.
  • Phosphate-free fertilizers.
  • Hydroponics and greenhouses.
  • Hybrid yield analysis.
  • Methodology for assessing agronomic losses.
  • Stages of preparing a field for harvesting.
  • The role of GMOs in the fight against insect pests.
  • Cultivation of technical hemp and soil fertilization methods.

Topics in Animal Breeding And Genetics

Agriculture related topics are interesting because you can touch on aspects of genetics and breeding. Students can concentrate on specific aspects of species modification and animal rearing. The research paper will look more convincing when there are references to real scientific papers with statistics and experimental results.

  • Breeding new types of sheep.
  • Breeding bulls and genetic engineering.
  • The influence of selection on the growth of the animal population.
  • Proper nutrition for livestock in winter.
  • Vitamin complexes for animals.
  • Genetic changes in chickens for resistance to cold.
  • Nuances of animal genetic modifications.
  • Stages of caring for newborn kittens.
  • What is a negative selection?
  • Basic methods of genetic experiments on animals.

Topics in Animal Production And Health

Such agriculture research paper topics are especially interesting because you can write about farming aspects in the context of raising animals, vegetables, and various crops. It is broad enough, so you will not be limited by narrow boundaries and will be able to consider many aspects of your research paper.

  • Environmental threats to the oversupply of the sheep population.
  • The role of livestock in marginal areas.
  • Livestock digitalization.
  • Animal selection for meat preparation.
  • Analysis of livestock farms.
  • Animal production evaluation technique.
  • Cow health during calving.
  • The importance of animal vaccination.
  • Technical aspects of the medical treatment of animals.
  • Environmental aspects of animal husbandry.

Topics in Ecotourism And Wildlife

Ecotourism is gaining momentum all over the world. The new trend is aimed at bringing people closer to nature and exploring the beauty of different countries. This issue will be of interest to those who want to talk about wildlife and nature reserves. The topic is quite extensive, so students will not have problems with preparing a research paper.

  • Minnesota and Eco-Tourism.
  • The influence of wolves on the formation of the local ecosystem.
  • Recreational tourism in the USA.
  • Methods for preparing resorts for eco-tourism.
  • Lakes and environmental factors.
  • A technique for preserving wildlife in its original form.
  • Classic models of eco-tourism.
  • Stages of creating ecological reserves.
  • The role of tourism in the restoration of the ecological environment.
  • The main factors of wildlife conservation.
  • The legislative framework for wildlife protection.
  • The nuances of creating a farm in reserve.
  • Consolidation of resources for the development of a livestock farm.

Topics in Farm Management

Managing a farm can be a complex and multifaceted process. Many students may choose this topic to talk about aspects of breeding and breeding pets or crops. The topic is quite extensive and allows you to touch on any aspect of the farmer's activities related to the production and sale of products.

  • Farm methods to improve performance.
  • Stages of creating a livestock farm.
  • Farm success analysis forms.
  • Management of the process of planting crops.
  • The role of modern equipment in cow milking.
  • Farm reporting and profitability analysis.
  • Breeding exotic animals.
  • Rabbit population management.
  • Statistical methodology for farm control.
  • Stages of the animal population control on the farm.

Topics in Fisheries And Aquaculture

A similar topic is associated with fish farming, introductory aquaculture, and general aquaculture. Quite a few students can prepare a good research paper if they turn to other people's research and use it as a basis to prove or disprove their own claims and theories. It is also a good opportunity to select food related research topics as you can touch upon the aspect of fish farming and marketing.

  • Creation and management of a fish rate.
  • Sturgeon breeding and distribution.
  • Methods for improving the ecological state of water bodies.
  • Planting plants in reservoirs for liquid purification.
  • Fish spawning control.
  • The aquaculture aspect and social trends.
  • Methods for increasing fish resources.
  • Breeding in the fishing industry.
  • Methods for creating a fish farm.
  • River resource monitoring and digitalization.

Topics in Agric Business And Financial Management

Control of a livestock or vegetable enterprise depends on many factors, so such a topic's choice will be extremely relevant. The student's most important task is to bring only proven facts and arguments of his own judgments. These agriculture topics for students include an overview of many business processes and farm management.

  • The farm cost reduction methodology.
  • US agricultural financing sector.
  • Agricultural business practices.
  • Data analysis and farming development.
  • Financial management of small livestock farms.
  • Impact of drought on yield.
  • Cost and payback of farms.
  • Selecting a region for creating a farm.
  • A method for analyzing animal resources on a farm.
  • Management of automated farming enterprises.
  • Local farming business.
  • Key factors of farm management.
  • Farm reports and breeding work.

Topics in Agric Meteorology And Water Management

Meteorological aspects are very important for the management of a company or agricultural enterprises. Another aspect of this topic is water management, which may also be interesting for those who are going to reveal the nuances of fish farming in local waters. The topic will be especially interesting for those who want to connect their lives with agronomy and a similar field.

  • Cattle breeding methodology.
  • Pig breeding methods.
  • Water management to maximize profits.
  • The choice of a reservoir for growing fish.
  • Analysis of the ecological situation in water bodies.
  • Farm equipment management techniques.
  • Water supply for farm households.
  • Analysis and selection of a farm development methodology.
  • Finding the right methods for creating protected reservoirs.
  • Stages of development of a water farm.

Other Agric Topics

Sometimes choosing a specific topic can be difficult. This is because students are not quite sure which study to base their paper on. You can take a neutral topic that has no specific relation to breeding, meteorology, or farming aspects in such cases.

  • Innovative farming methods.
  • Choosing the right water farm management model.
  • The nuances of trout breeding.
  • Population control and livestock farm development plan.
  • Financial analytics and purchase of farm animals.
  • The self-sufficiency period of the fish farm.
  • How to create fish spawning tanks?
  • Selection of breeds of cows for farming.
  • Methodology for calculating farm risks.
  • Time management and selection of plants for the plantation.
  • Features of the legal registration of a farm household.
  • Modern agricultural drones.
  • The difference between Ayn Rand's anthem and George Orwell's animal farm.
  • Animal rights vs. animal welfare.

How to Write a Good Agriculture Research Paper?

One of the main life hacks for getting a high mark is choosing controversial agricultural topics. Choosing this option allows students to consider an interesting statement and back it up with real facts. A paper-based on real statistics with proof of student work is valued above all else.

But even when choosing a good topic, you still need to prepare the right outline for writing your research paper. The introduction should be of the highest quality as well as the final paragraph since these are the main parts that affect the assessment. Real facts and statistics must support all the statements above if you are talking about specific figures. Many colleges and universities have their own paper requirements as well as the nuances of the design of research work. You must consider each parameter in order to get the best result.

If it is difficult to find controversial topics in agriculture and write a high-quality research paper, we can help you with this issue. Our  best essay writing service has been in operation for many years and provides writing assistance for many types of essays, research papers, and theses. We will help you synchronize your preparation process and create an expert paper that gets high marks. You can switch to other tasks and get the opportunity to free up some time to study other disciplines.

An Inspiration List:

  • Agricultural Research
  • Current Agriculture Research Journal
  • Agricultural Research & Technology
  • Journal of Agriculture and Food Research
  • Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research
  • Journal of Bioscience and Agriculture Research
  • Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research

186 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Questions + Examples

Are you looking for the best agriculture topics to write about? You’re at the right place! StudyCorgi has prepared a list of important agriculture research topics. On this page, any student can find essay questions and project ideas on various agricultural issues, such as food safety, genetically engineered crops, and sustainable farming practices.

👨‍🌾 TOP 7 Agriculture Research Topics – 2024

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  • Globalization Impact on Sustainable Agriculture
  • Agriculture and Its Role in Economic Development
  • Agricultural Biotechnology and Its Pros and Cons
  • Food Safety Issues in Modern Agriculture
  • Agriculture: Personal Field Visit
  • Commercial Agriculture, Its Role and Definition
  • In Support of Robotics Use in Agriculture
  • The Impact of Pesticides’ Use on Agriculture Pesticides are mostly known for their adverse effects and, therefore, have a mostly negative connotation when discussed among general audiences.
  • Agricultural Influences on the Developing Civil Society Agriculture had a significant influence on developing societies, ranging from creating trade to bringing industrialization, education, and social classes.
  • Agriculture and Food in Ancient Greece The paper states that agricultural practices and goods from Greece extended to neighboring countries in the Mediterranean as the dominance increased.
  • Industry and Agriculture: Use of Technology Industry and agriculture are among the areas that have experienced a vast rise in effectiveness and performance quality due to the integration of new types of technology into them.
  • Soil: The Essential Aspect of Agriculture Soil is an integral part of human life as it determines one’s quality of life. The health of the soil is reduced by erosion and degradation due to human activities.
  • Agricultural Role in African Development Diao et al. attempt to determine the role of agriculture in overcoming the challenge of poverty in rural areas of Africa compared to alternative theories of economic growth.
  • Population Growth and Agriculture in the Future The current industrial agriculture needs to be advanced and developed in combination with sustainable agricultural practices.
  • Hunting and Gathering Versus Agricultural Society The hunting and gathering society is considered the most equitable of all seven types, while the agricultural community gives rise to the development of civilization.
  • Agriculture the Backbone of Ancient Egypt’s Economy In pre-industrial societies, agriculture was the backbone of most economies. This is true in ancient times and very much evident in ancient Egypt.
  • Improving Stress Resistance in Agricultural Crops The essay suggests that stress-resistant crops are needed to ensure yield stability under stress conditions and to minimize the environmental impacts of crop production.
  • Virtual Water Trade and Savings in Agriculture This essay discusses the savings associated with virtual water trade in agriculture and touches on the effects of a shift to local agricultural production on global water savings.
  • Repeasantization: Impact on Agriculture The repeasantization led to fundamental changes that created a new system of agriculture that is still relevant today.
  • History of Agricultural Technology Development Agricultural technologies were majorly developed during the Medieval period to ensure sufficient product yields for growing populations around the world.
  • The Big History of Civilizations – Origins of Agriculture: Video Analysis This paper aims to analyze the origins of agriculture – what was a foraging economy and way of life like, as well as compare foragers and farmers.
  • Agriculture: Application of Information Technology IT application in agriculture has contributed to food security in most modern communities. Farming has become easier than before as new inventions are made.
  • Food and Agriculture of Ancient Greece The concepts of agriculture and cuisine both have a deep connection to Greek history, culture, development, and social trends.
  • The Neolithic Era: Architecture and Agriculture The improvements to agriculture, society, architecture, and culture made during the Neolithic period had an undeniable impact on aspects of the world.
  • Sustainable Agriculture Against Food Insecurity The paper argues sustainable agriculture is one way to reduce food insecurity without harming the planet because the number of resources is currently decreasing.
  • Agricultural Technology Implementation by Medieval Europeans and West Africans The paper examines how West Africans and Medieval Europeans were affected by their corresponding climates and why their methods were unique to their respective locations.
  • Agricultural Traditions of Canadians In Canada there is a very good agricultural education, so young people can get higher education in agriculture and use it on their own farms.
  • Climate Changes Impact on Agriculture and Livestock The project evaluates the influences of climate changes on agriculture and livestock in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Food Safety: A Policy Issue in Agriculture Today Food safety constitutes proper preparation, storage and preservation of all foods. Markets are increasingly calling for improvement in the quality and safety standards of food crops.
  • Colonialism and Economic Development of Africa Through Agriculture The colonial period is characterized by the exploitation of the agricultural sector in Africa to make a profit and provide Western countries with raw materials.
  • Agriculture Development and Related Theories There are two main domestication models used to describe the development of agriculture: unconscious and conscious.
  • Agriculture in Honduras: Existing Challenges and Possible Solutions This paper tackles the issue of existing challenges and possible solutions to the problems of agriculture in Honduras.
  • Market Revolution: Agriculture and Global Trade In the era of traders, the vast land area and rich natural resources created many economic opportunities. Most people lived in rural areas and were engaged in agriculture.
  • Agriculture and Food Production in the Old Kingdom
  • Agriculture and the Transition to the Market in Asia
  • Agrarian Reform and Subsistence Agriculture in Russia
  • Agriculture, Nutrition, and the Green Revolution in Bangladesh
  • Agriculture Business and Management
  • Agriculture, Horticulture, and Ancient Egypt
  • Agriculture and Food Production in the Old Kingdom of Egypt
  • Administrative and Transaction-Related Costs of Subsidising Agriculture
  • Agriculture and Economic Growth in Argentina, 1913-84
  • Agriculture and Economic Development in Brazil, 1960-1995
  • Agriculture and Greenhouse Gas Cap-And-Trade
  • Croatian Agriculture Towards World Market Liberalization
  • Adapting Credit Risk Models to Agriculture
  • Agriculture and European Union Enlargement
  • Agriculture and Food Security in Pakistan
  • Cash Flows and Financing in Texas Agriculture
  • Current Problems With Indian Agriculture
  • Agriculture and Its Drain on California
  • Agriculture and the Economic Life of India
  • Agriculture and Global Climate Stabilization
  • Achieving Regional Growth Dynamics in African Agriculture
  • Agriculture and Non-agricultural Liberalization in the Millennium Round
  • Corporate Agriculture and Modern Times
  • Agriculture and Rural Employment Agricultural in Bolivia
  • Climatic Fluctuations and the DI¤Usion of Agriculture
  • Agriculture Global Market Briefing
  • Agriculture and the Industrial Revolution of the Late 1700s
  • Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Ecuador
  • Biofuels, Agriculture, and Climate Change
  • Aggregate Technical Efficiency and Water Use in U.S. Agriculture
  • Agriculture, Water, and Food Security in Tanzania This paper evaluates the strategies applicable to the development and further maintenance of agriculture, water, and food security in Tanzania.
  • The Australian Agriculture Company’s Financial Analysis The Australian Agriculture Company shows a positive sign for investment due to its financial analysis indicating company resilience and strong prospects of growth.
  • Governmental Price Control in Agricultural Sector The consequences of real-life governmental price control are the evolutionary nature of transformations in the agricultural sector.
  • The Agriculture Industry’s Digital Transformation This study seeks to explore the dynamics of digital technology in agriculture over the past two decades, focusing on the perspectives and perceptions of the farmers.
  • Aspects of Pesticide Use in Agriculture This paper investigates socio-environmental factors connected with pesticide use in agriculture and food production. It has a destructive impact on the environment
  • Agriculture-Led Food Crops and Cash Crops in Tanzania This paper aims to explore the contributions of the agriculture sector in Tanzania to the country’s industrialization process by using recent data about its food and cash crops.
  • Cuisine and Agriculture of Ancient Greece There are many reasons for modern students to investigate the development of cuisine and agriculture in Ancient Greece.
  • Agriculture and Food Safety in the United States Agriculture in the United States has grown progressively centralized. The shortcomings in the 2018 U.S. farm legislation resulted in multiple challenges in the food system.
  • Sustainable Agriculture and Future Perspectives Sustainable agriculture is essential to the earth’s environment. When farmers take care of their land and crops, they are taking care of environmental sustainability.
  • Agricultural Adaptation to Changing Environments The paper discusses the impact of climate change on agriculture in Canada. This phenomenon is real and has affected the industry over at least the last three decades.
  • Trade Peculiarities in Food and Agriculture Food trading is a peculiar area, as food is the basis for surviving the population. The one who controls food production and trading routes, also controls all populations.
  • Multinational Agricultural Manufacturing Companies’ Standardization & Adaptation The most popular approaches that multinational companies use to serve their customers from various countries are standardization and adaptation.
  • Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Food This paper will examine four aspects of climate change: variation in the rainfall pattern, water levels, drought, temperature, and heatwaves.
  • Canadian Laws Regarding Agricultural Sector The unions in Canada are the concept over which there has been an excessive dispute involving court proceedings and questioning the constitutional rights of citizens.
  • Sharecropping. History of Racial Agriculture Sharecropping became a variation of racialized agriculture, that which has negative impact on the capabilities of the black population to generate and pass down wealth.
  • Food Additives Use in Agriculture in the United States Food additives in agriculture become a debatable issue because their benefits do not always prevail over such shortages like health issues and environmental concerns.
  • Radio-Frequency Identification in Healthcare and Agriculture Specifically, radio-frequency identification (RFID) has gained traction due to its ability to transmit data over distance.
  • Mechanism of US Agricultural Market The fact that lower interest rates increased the number of potential customers for real estate in the 2000s shows that housing prices should have increased.
  • A Biological Terror Attack in Agriculture The United States is highly vulnerable to terror attacks of biological nature in agriculture yet such an occurrence can cripple the economy.
  • The Economics of Race, Agriculture and Environment This research paper is going to answer the question; do public policies reduce or enhance racial inequality in agricultural and environmental affairs?
  • Impact of Bioterrorism on the U.S Agriculture System The paper describes that the term bioterrorism has several definitions depending upon the origin of the attack but in general terms, it refers to any form of terrorist attack.
  • Impacts of Genetic Engineering of Agricultural Crops In present days the importance of genetic engineering grew due to the innovations in biotechnologies and Sciences.
  • The Effects of Genetic Modification of Agricultural Products Discussion of the threat to the health of the global population of genetically modified food in the works of Such authors as Jane Brody and David Ehrenfeld.
  • Climate Change and Its Potential Impact on Agriculture and Food Supply The global food supply chain has been greatly affected by the impact of global climate change. There are, however, benefits as well as drawbacks to crop production.
  • Agriculture and Mayan Society Resilience The Yucatan peninsula had a vast landscape which was good for agriculture thus making agriculture to be the main economic base for the Mayans.
  • Homeland Security in Agriculture and Health Sectors Lack of attention to the security and protection of the agricultural sector in the U.S. economy can create a serious threat to the health and safety of the population.
  • Water Savings and Virtual Trade in Agriculture Water trade in agriculture is not a practice that is unique to the modern generation. The practice was common long before the emergence of the Egyptian Empire.
  • Virtual Water Trade of Agricultural Products Virtual water trade is a concept associated with globalization and the global economy. Its rise was motivated by growing water scarcity in arid areas around the world.
  • Virtual Water Savings and Trade in Agriculture The idea of virtual water was initially created as a method for assessing how water-rare nations could offer food, clothing, and other water-intensive products to their residents.
  • European Invasion and Agriculture in the Caribbean The early invasion of the Europeans in the Caribbean did not prompt the employment of the slave trade in the agricultural activities until the development of the sugar plantations.
  • Freedom in American Countryside and Agriculture This paper portrays how freedom has been eliminated in the countryside by the state agriculture department, and whether the farmer has a moral right to do his farming practices.
  • Agricultural Problems in Venezuela Agriculture has been greatly underdeveloped in Venezuela, yet it is a country that has vital minerals and resources required for the global economy.
  • America’s Agriculture in the Period of 1865-1938 This paper analyzes America’s contribution in prevention of natural calamities, decline of soil quality, promotion of production outlay and provision of sufficient food.
  • Capital Taxes and Agriculture
  • Canadian Trade With the Chinese Agriculture Market
  • Agriculture and Its Impact on Economic Development
  • Bacteriocins From the Rhizosphere Microbiome From an Agriculture Perspective
  • Agriculture and Its Impact on Financial Institutions
  • Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the Irish Economy
  • Adoption and Economic Impact of Site-Specific Technologies in U.S. Agriculture
  • Cash Rents and Land Values in U.S. Agriculture
  • Crises and Structural Change in Australian Agriculture
  • Biotechnology and Its Application in Agriculture
  • Alternative Policies for Agriculture in Europe
  • Agriculture and Food Security in Asia by 2030
  • Agriculture and Coping Climate Change in Nepal
  • Agriculture and Ethiopia’s Economic Transformation
  • Culture: Agriculture and Egalitarian Social
  • Adaptation, Climate Change, Agriculture, and Water
  • Agriculture and the Literati in Colonial Bengal, 1870 to 1940
  • Agriculture and Barley Farming Taro
  • Agriculture and Agricultural Inputs Markets
  • Agriculture and Environmental Challenges
  • Challenges for Sustainable Agriculture in India
  • Agriculture and German Reunification
  • Agriculture and Tourism Relationship in Malaysia Tourism
  • 21st Century Rural America: New Horizons for U.S. Agriculture
  • Canadian Agriculture and the Canadian Agricultural Industry
  • California Agriculture Dimensions and Issues
  • Advancements and the Development of Agriculture in Ancient Greece and Rome
  • Agriculture and Early Industrial Revolution
  • Aztec: Agriculture and Habersham County
  • Agriculture and Current Deforestation Practices
  • How Has Agriculture Changed From Early Egypt, Greece, and Rome to the Present?
  • What Are the Advantages of Using Pesticides on Agriculture?
  • Are Digital Technologies for the Future of Agriculture?
  • How Did Agriculture Change Our Society?
  • Does Agriculture Help Poverty and Inequality Reduction?
  • Can Agriculture Prosper Without Increased Social Capital?
  • Are Mega-Farms the Future of Global Agriculture?
  • How Can African Agriculture Adapt to Climate Change?
  • Does Agriculture Really Matter for Economic Growth in Developing Countries?
  • Can Conservation Agriculture Save Tropical Forests?
  • How Can Sustainable Agriculture Be Better for Americans?
  • Are U.S. and European Union Agriculture Policies Becoming More Similar?
  • Should Pollution Reductions Count as Productivity Gains for Agriculture?
  • Can Market Access Help African Agriculture?
  • How Does Genetic Engineering Affect Agriculture?
  • Does Individualization Help Productivity of Transition Agriculture?
  • Can Spot and Contract Markets Co-Exist in Agriculture?
  • How Has Biotechnology Changed Agriculture Throughout the Years?
  • Does Trade Policy Impact Food and Agriculture Global Value Chain Participation of Sub-Saharan African Countries?
  • Can Sustainable Agriculture Feed Africa?
  • How Can Multifunctional Agriculture Support a Transition to a Green Economy in Africa?
  • Does Urban Agriculture Enhance Dietary Diversity?
  • How Did Government Policy, Technology, and Economic Conditions Affect Agriculture?
  • Can the Small Dairy Farm Remain Competitive in US Agriculture?
  • What Are the Main Changes in French Agriculture Since 1945 and What Challenges Does It Face Today?
  • How Can Marketing Theory Be Applied to Policy Design to Deliver Sustainable Agriculture in England?
  • Will African Agriculture Survive Climate Change?
  • How Has Agriculture Changed Civilizations?
  • Does Urban Agriculture Improve Food Security?
  • Can US and Great Plains Agriculture Compete in the World Market?
  • The effect of climate change on crop yields and food security.
  • Sustainable agricultural practices for soil health.
  • Precision agriculture techniques and applications.
  • The impact of genetically engineered organisms on crop yields and safety.
  • The benefits of agroforestry systems for the environment.
  • Current challenges in water management in agriculture.
  • The environmental impact of organic farming.
  • The potential of urban agriculture to address food insecurity.
  • Food waste in the agricultural supply chain.
  • Comparing the effectiveness of aquaponic and hydroponic systems.
  • Organic vs. conventional farming.
  • Can regenerative agriculture combat climate change?
  • Agricultural subsidies: pros and cons.
  • Should harmful pesticides be banned to protect pollinators?
  • Should arable land be used for biofuels or food production?
  • Do patent protections of seeds hinder agricultural innovation?
  • Agricultural robots: increased efficiency or displaced rural labor?
  • Should GMO labeling be mandatory?
  • Do the benefits of pesticides outweigh their potential health harms?
  • Is it unsustainable to grow water-intensive crops in arid regions?
  • The economics of organic farming.
  • The need for climate-adaptive crops.
  • The role of bees in agriculture and threats to their survival.
  • Smart agriculture: transforming farming with data and connectivity.
  • The journey of food in modern agricultural supply chains.
  • The role of agri-tech startups in agricultural innovation.
  • Youth in agriculture: inspiring the next generation of farmers.
  • Why should we shift to plant-based meat alternatives?
  • The importance of preserving indigenous agricultural practices.
  • Smart irrigation systems: optimizing water use in agriculture.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, March 1). 186 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Questions + Examples. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/agriculture-essay-topics/

"186 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Questions + Examples." StudyCorgi , 1 Mar. 2022, studycorgi.com/ideas/agriculture-essay-topics/.

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1. StudyCorgi . "186 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Questions + Examples." March 1, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/agriculture-essay-topics/.

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StudyCorgi . "186 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Questions + Examples." March 1, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/agriculture-essay-topics/.

StudyCorgi . 2022. "186 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Questions + Examples." March 1, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/agriculture-essay-topics/.

These essay examples and topics on Agriculture were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.

This essay topic collection was updated on January 21, 2024 .

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114 Agriculture Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

Inside This Article

Agriculture plays a vital role in the development and sustainability of societies around the world. From crop cultivation to animal husbandry, agriculture encompasses a wide range of practices that affect our food production, environment, and economy. If you're looking for essay topics related to agriculture, we've compiled a comprehensive list of 114 ideas and examples to inspire your writing.

  • The impact of climate change on agriculture: challenges and adaptation strategies.
  • The role of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in modern agriculture.
  • Organic farming: benefits, challenges, and future prospects.
  • The use of pesticides in agriculture: balancing productivity and environmental concerns.
  • Agricultural subsidies: their impact on farmers and the economy.
  • The importance of soil health for sustainable agriculture.
  • Precision farming: the integration of technology in agricultural practices.
  • The role of women in agriculture: empowerment and gender equality.
  • Urban agriculture: promoting food security in cities.
  • The impact of globalization on agriculture: opportunities and threats.
  • The role of agricultural education in shaping the future of farming.
  • Food waste in agriculture: causes, consequences, and solutions.
  • Sustainable livestock production: balancing meat consumption and environmental impact.
  • The role of small-scale farmers in global food production.
  • The ethics of animal welfare in modern farming practices.
  • Agricultural trade policies: implications for developing countries.
  • The impact of deforestation on agricultural practices.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in feeding a growing population.
  • The challenges and benefits of aquaculture in meeting global seafood demand.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on water resources.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in supporting small-scale farmers.
  • The future of vertical farming: opportunities and limitations.
  • The impact of agricultural pollution on human health.
  • Agroforestry: integrating trees into agricultural landscapes.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in rural development.
  • The potential of hydroponics in urban agriculture.
  • The impact of industrial agriculture on biodiversity.
  • The role of agricultural research and development in innovation.
  • The influence of social media on consumer perceptions of agriculture.
  • The challenges and opportunities of agricultural mechanization in developing countries.
  • The role of agricultural insurance in mitigating risks for farmers.
  • The impact of land tenure systems on agricultural productivity.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in sustainable development.
  • The potential of vertical farming to reduce food miles and carbon footprint.
  • The impact of agricultural subsidies on food prices for consumers.
  • The role of urban agriculture in community development.
  • The importance of seed banks in preserving agricultural biodiversity.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on pollinators and ecosystem services.
  • The role of agricultural drones in precision farming.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to regenerative agriculture.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on soil erosion.
  • The role of agricultural education in fostering entrepreneurship.
  • The potential of agricultural waste management in bioenergy production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural livelihoods.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in improving market access for small-scale farmers.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic dairy farming.
  • The impact of climate-smart agriculture on resilience and adaptation.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in improving crop yields.
  • The potential of agroecology in sustainable farming.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on air quality.
  • The role of agricultural research in addressing food security challenges.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable palm oil production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on wildlife conservation.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting fair trade.
  • The potential of precision livestock farming in improving animal welfare.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural migration patterns.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic vegetable farming.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in addressing malnutrition.
  • The potential of urban rooftop gardens in enhancing food security.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on groundwater contamination.
  • The role of agricultural entrepreneurship in rural development.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to agroforestry systems.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food safety.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in empowering marginalized communities.
  • The potential of hydroponics in space agriculture.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on indigenous food systems.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable cotton production.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in reducing post-harvest losses.
  • The potential of vertical farming in food deserts.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural poverty alleviation.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting climate-smart agriculture.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic wine production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on soil degradation.
  • The role of agricultural education in promoting sustainable farming practices.
  • The potential of aquaponics in sustainable food production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food sovereignty.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable coffee farming.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in reducing pesticide use.
  • The potential of urban agriculture in reducing food waste.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on indigenous land rights.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting gender equality.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic beekeeping.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural resilience.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in promoting climate resilience.
  • The potential of rooftop farming in urban sustainability.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food culture.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable cocoa production.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in improving nutritional quality.
  • The potential of vertical farming in disaster-prone areas.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food sovereignty in indigenous communities.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting sustainable seafood.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic tea production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural social capital.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in promoting sustainable water management.
  • The potential of hydroponics in space exploration.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food justice.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable sugar production.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in reducing food waste.
  • The potential of urban agriculture in promoting social cohesion.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on land rights in developing countries.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting sustainable palm oil.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic cotton farming.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural cultural heritage.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in promoting sustainable energy use.
  • The potential of aquaponics in sustainable urban development.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food sovereignty in marginalized communities.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable chocolate production.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in improving drought tolerance.
  • The potential of vertical farming in post-disaster recovery.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food security in conflict zones.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting sustainable timber production.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic coffee farming.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural cultural landscapes.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in promoting sustainable waste management.

These essay topic ideas cover a wide range of aspects related to agriculture, providing a plethora of opportunities for research and critical analysis. Whether you're interested in environmental sustainability, social justice, or technological innovation, there is a topic here that will inspire your writing and contribute to the ongoing dialogue about the future of agriculture.

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45 Research Project Ideas in Agriculture – Innovative Approaches to Sustainable Farming

Explore 45 research project ideas in agriculture for sustainable farming.

Dr. Somasundaram R

Agriculture is a vast and dynamic field that plays a critical role in feeding the world’s population. As the global population continues to grow, the demand for food production is also increasing, making agriculture one of the most important sectors for ensuring food security and sustainable development. However, the challenges facing the agriculture industry today are numerous, ranging from climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity, and pest infestation to biodiversity loss and food waste.

To tackle these issues and promote sustainable agriculture, researchers and professionals in the field are continuously exploring new and innovative ways to improve agricultural practices, increase productivity, and reduce environmental impact. In this article, we will present 45 research project ideas in agriculture that can help address some of the most pressing issues facing the industry today.

These research projects cover a wide range of topics, from soil health and crop yields to livestock farming, aquaculture, and food systems, providing a comprehensive overview of the latest trends and innovations in agricultural research.

Whether you are a student, researcher, or professional in the field, these research project ideas can help guide your work and contribute to a more sustainable and resilient agriculture industry.

  • Evaluating the effectiveness of natural pest control methods in agriculture.
  • Investigating the effects of climate change on crop yields and food security.
  • Studying the impact of soil quality on plant growth and crop yields.
  • Analyzing the potential of precision agriculture techniques to increase yields and reduce costs.
  • Assessing the feasibility of vertical farming as a sustainable solution to food production.
  • Investigating the impact of sustainable agriculture practices on soil health and ecosystem services.
  • Exploring the potential of agroforestry to improve soil fertility and crop yields.
  • Developing strategies to mitigate the effects of drought on crop production.
  • Analyzing the impact of irrigation management techniques on crop yields and water use efficiency.
  • Studying the potential of biochar as a soil amendment to improve crop productivity.
  • Investigating the effects of soil compaction on crop yields and soil health.
  • Evaluating the impact of soil erosion on agriculture and ecosystem services.
  • Developing integrated pest management strategies for organic agriculture.
  • Assessing the potential of cover crops to improve soil health and reduce erosion.
  • Studying the effects of biofertilizers on crop yields and soil health.
  • Investigating the potential of phytoremediation to mitigate soil pollution in agriculture.
  • Developing sustainable practices for livestock farming and manure management.
  • Studying the effects of climate change on animal health and productivity.
  • Analyzing the impact of animal feeding practices on meat quality and safety.
  • Investigating the potential of aquaponics to increase food production and reduce environmental impact.
  • Developing strategies to reduce food waste and loss in agriculture.
  • Studying the effects of nutrient management practices on crop yields and environmental impact.
  • Evaluating the potential of organic agriculture to improve soil health and reduce environmental impact.
  • Investigating the effects of land use change on agriculture and biodiversity.
  • Developing strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.
  • Analyzing the impact of agricultural policies on food security and sustainability.
  • Studying the potential of precision livestock farming to improve animal welfare and productivity.
  • Investigating the impact of agrochemicals on soil health and biodiversity.
  • Developing sustainable practices for fisheries and aquaculture.
  • Studying the potential of bioremediation to mitigate pollution in aquaculture.
  • Investigating the effects of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture.
  • Developing strategies to reduce water pollution from agriculture and aquaculture.
  • Studying the impact of land use change on water resources and aquatic ecosystems.
  • Evaluating the potential of agroecology to promote sustainable agriculture and food systems.
  • Investigating the impact of climate-smart agriculture practices on food security and resilience.
  • Studying the potential of agrobiodiversity to improve crop productivity and resilience.
  • Analyzing the impact of agricultural trade on food security and sustainability.
  • Investigating the effects of urbanization on agriculture and food systems.
  • Developing strategies to promote gender equity in agriculture and food systems.
  • Studying the potential of agroforestry to promote biodiversity and ecosystem services.
  • Analyzing the impact of food systems on public health and nutrition.
  • Investigating the effects of climate change on pollination and crop yields.
  • Developing strategies to promote agrotourism and rural development.
  • Studying the potential of agroforestry to promote carbon sequestration and mitigate climate change.
  • Analyzing the impact of agricultural subsidies on food security and sustainability.

I hope this article would help you to know the new project topics and research ideas in Agricultural.

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Dr. Somasundaram R

How to Write a Research Paper? A Complete Guide

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agriculture related research paper topics

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  • Published: 15 October 2018

Sustainable agriculture

Nature Sustainability volume  1 ,  page 531 ( 2018 ) Cite this article

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  • Agriculture
  • Environmental impact
  • Psychology and behaviour
  • Sustainability

Achieving food security is possible, if we better understand the complexity of the agricultural system and re-design practices accordingly.

Early in September, the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World report was released through a joint press conference at the FAO headquarters in Rome. The analysis ( The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World FAO; 2018) is the outcome of a close collaboration between five United Nations agencies — the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme and the World Health Organization — and one of the key messages from the report is, perhaps not surprisingly, alarming: the world is not on track to meet the ‘Zero Hunger’ Sustainable Development Goal, SDG 2.

figure a

Alex Ramsay/Alamy Stock Photo

Drawing attention to the drivers of hunger and malnutrition, the report includes updated estimates of a number of indicators related to food security and its health implications, including the number of hungry people in the world, data on child stunting, adult obesity, and childhood obesity among others.

The report, which uses data from 2017, shows how hunger has increased worldwide for the third consecutive year, and childhood malnutrition has not improved or, even worse, in some cases has declined. Countries must take urgent action to meet SDG 2 by 2030.

This year’s edition of the annual report focuses on the need to build climate resilience for food security and nutrition. Acknowledging the dependency of our nutritional needs on the natural environment should indeed be a critical component of any food-policy strategy.

More specifically, the sustainability of the food system should be at the heart of the international food-security debate. Despite increasing hunger globally, the demand of food has been rising rapidly and has had a significant environmental cost: degradation of agricultural land, pollution of rivers and aquifers due to agro-chemicals, increased freshwater consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions from agriculture and land-use change, loss of agro-biodiversity and other negative consequences. All of these environmental impacts severely undermine our ability to continue to feed a growing population and ultimately will jeopardize the opportunity to meet SDG 2, unless more-sustainable food-production practices are embraced globally.

Enhanced agricultural productivity (intensification) has been a major response to the growing food demand, but intensification could be done better. In an Analysis by Pretty et al. published in our August issue, the authors underline how environmental considerations in agriculture intensification have been traditionally limited to minimizing negative impacts. Instead, with their analyses, they show that, for example, a move away from fertilizers to nitrogen-fixing legumes as part of rotations or intercropping could improve intensification without increasing environmental stress. Their point is that agriculture intensification can be sustainable if the system is adequately re-designed and if all players involved accept that no new designed system will succeed forever.

Increasing food production can impact conservation strategies — another issue likely to have long-term negative consequences for our ability to provide healthy levels of nutrition to all. Keesing and colleagues, in an Article in this issue, show however that a conflict between the two shouldn’t be the case. They analyse the potential trade-offs between management for wildlife and for livestock in an East African savannah, and find potential ecological and economic benefits from integrating the two.

However, even while considering effective strategies, it remains clear that human activities do affect biodiversity around the world, and that applies to agricultural practices as much as to other activities. In a Brief Communication in the August issue, Mehrabi et al. analyse the implications of the conservationists’ proposal to give back half the Earth’s surface to nature (the ‘Half-Earth’ project). Among other results, they find that, depending on the landscape conservation strategy, 23–25% of non-food calories and 3–29% of food calories from crops globally could be lost if the proposal were implemented. They do show that the trade-offs between agriculture and the Half-Earth proposal will be much lower if landscapes remain mosaics of shared land uses.

So, what are we left with? We can certainly improve agricultural practices as discussed earlier in this Editorial, and increase their sustainability. Will it be enough to achieve our societal goals? Perhaps we need to also look at our individual behaviour. We know that we need to manage our dependence on nature sustainably. And sustainable management hinges on deep understanding of human–nature relationships. Behavioural sciences can bring invaluable insights to our ways of mapping the complexity of such relationships. Going back to the sustainability of agricultural practices, the different ways in which individuals’ mindsets represent a system and the causal relationships among its components (mental models) can capture more or less complexity, as discussed in an Article by Levy and colleagues in our August issue. The authors show that, for example, mental models characterized by direct, unidirectional causation allow fast decision-making but might fail to anticipate consequences of actions in the presence of strong interdependences. Understanding these cognitive mechanisms has important implications for individual and collective decision-making about sustainable agriculture. And that is crucial to better orient food-security strategies. With the right set of changes in practices and interventions, informed by academic research and practice, there is still hope to achieve SDG 2 on time.

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85 Farming Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best farming topic ideas & essay examples, 👍 good essay topics on farming, 💡 most interesting farming topics to write about.

  • The Farmers’ Market Analysis For the farmers the benefit lies in the cost saving of the production transportation and in the ability of the wholesale with the large grocery companies.
  • Natureview Farm: Problem Case It is in this regard that Wagner advised the management to increase the firm’s revenues from $13 million to $20 million before the end of 2001.
  • Natureview Farm’s Strategic Plans The chief executive officer of Natureview analyzed the market stance and tasked his team to develop strategic plan to ensure that the revenue growth increase by over 50% at the end of the year 2001.
  • Dairy Meal as an Important Concentrate in Dairy Cow Farming The number of times that the dairy meal is fed to cows depends on the management regime of the cow. The dairy meal is one of the feeds that guarantee better productivity to the farmer.
  • Smart Farming and Sustainable Agriculture Smart farming allows for a wide range of options, from robotization and satellite imagery to the Internet of Things and the blockchain technology that increases the efficiency of crop cultivation by optimizing the use of […]
  • The Entomo Farms Company’s Analysis Such an approach contributes to improved control over the company’s development and ensures that Entomo can incorporate customers’ feedback for enhancement.
  • Kimango Farm Enterprises: Business Plan Cultural values in a country guides business operations as well as it is important to be sensitive and understanding of these norms and attitudes.
  • Fish Farming Impacts on the Environment To begin with, according to Abel and Robert, fish farming has been generalized to have adverse effects on the environment, which ranges from the obliteration of the coastal habitats which are sensitive in the environment, […]
  • Agriculture and Farming in Abu Dhabi Many researches have been done on soil taxonomy in the UAE, with the invention of a non-absorbent type of soil that was one of the breakthroughs that have greatly influenced agriculture in Abu Dhabi.
  • The Process of Raising Factory Farm Chickens The lives of the chickens that are raised in the factory farm begin at the hatching machines. As such, the welfare of the chickens is secondary to profitability.
  • Rearing of Cattle: Deprecating the Beef Farming It is for this reason that the whole world has to pose as ask the question “What are the causes of global warming?” The answer is simple, climate change and resultant global warming has to […]
  • Hog Farming Industry: Global Economic Impact China and the United States are the largest producers of pork products from the hog farming industry. This is due to the fact that the United States is a major exporter of pork products.
  • Food and Farming: Urban Farming Benefits the Local Economy Urban farming and foraging play essential roles not only in the lives of communities but in the ecosystems as well. Such responsive attitudes allow people to protect the environment and create more opportunities for local […]
  • Decline in the Honeybee Population and Farmers in the United States The analysis of farming in the country shows that the added revenue to crop production because of the pollinators’ activity is about $18 billion. Statistics evidence the topicality of the problem and the necessity to […]
  • The Ethics of Farm Animal Biotechnology From an Anthropological Perspective Biotechnology is one of the most important branches of science, the results of which are used in many areas. The use of animals in the context of biotechnology is a daily routine for researchers.
  • “The Biggest Little Farm” Movie Critique The film is a documentary and shows the real life and the desire of the husband and wife to create their wonderful farm where they can grow vegetables and fruits, as well as have different […]
  • Prices at Farmers Markets vs. Grocery Stores When evaluating the items ordered at grocery retail locations to those acquired at local traders’ marketplaces, it is revealed that the commodities purchased at hypermarkets are more reliable and outstanding in form and structure.
  • Smart Farms Hiring People with Disabilities Although Smart Farms is a non-profit organization and benefits from donations, the workers play their role in income generation by working on the farms and sales.
  • Marketing of Indoor Farming in the UAE Adding to that, the delivery service, health benefits, and availability of Local Leaves products can be advertised on all social media platforms to help the company get the recognition it needs in a short period […]
  • Demand for Indoor Farming Services in the UAE For any business, it is essential to be sure of the readiness of customers to buy the product. The likelihood of buying the service may be defined by the data, indicating the popularity of the […]
  • Sunrise Farm’s Research of Its Customers Needs In this regard, the exploratory mixed methods approach was chosen to study the possibilities of diversifying the activities of Sunrise Farm. In particular, a semi-structured approach to the interviews was chosen that is suitable for […]
  • Role of Technology in the Future of Farming The role technology has to play in farming in the future needs to be in great as it has been in the transportation sector in the past.
  • Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs) and Their Development The process involves the establishment of the limiting factors like site boundary, the maximum number of facilities to be installed, identification of dwellings that rotor blade shadows may affect, and a minimum spacing of the […]
  • Cato’s “On Farming”, a Translated Part of Famous Treatise “De Agri Cultura” Review From this point of view, Cato’s recommendations are ideal: the location of the willow tree immediately after the vineyard and the garden is not accidental, since in this passage a scale of the main and […]
  • Farm-to-Table Food: Dissemination Portfolio Modern American families try to adhere to the principles of Healthy People 2020 with its promotion of the so-called farm-to-table food and farm-to-school programs.
  • Law: Legislation Regarding Marijuana Farming To evaluate the applicability of the proposed marijuana farming bill, the current marihuana production legislation needs to be reviewed, and the changes in social norms regarding criminal behavior are to be analyzed.
  • Artificial Intelligence in Drone Technology for Farming Automated drones fitted with spraying features are used in the monitoring of agricultural processes and crops to schedule tasks and expeditiously address the observed issues throughout plant life.
  • Problems Facing American Farmer Workers The owners of farms will continue to exploit these people since they are not afraid of any law that is in place and working as it should to protect this group of people.
  • Food Processing and Farming Methods Afoakwa, Budu, and Merson note that nutrient loss in canned food depends on the amount of heat that is applied during the pre-treatment step, the type of tin, and the type of nutrients in the […]
  • Face Recognition in Farming: The Multi-UAV Framework Indeed, the consumer wants a delicious and quality meat product, and it is known that the absence of stress in the life of an animal directly affects the structure of the meat.
  • Using IoT Low-Cost Sensors for Smallholder Farms It is, therefore, essential for the users and IoT systems and devices developers to collectively ensure that the internet and the users of such components are not exposed.
  • Fish Farming in the United States In the present day, the potential of the country’s fish farming is substantively limited by national, state, local, or tribal policies and opposition by national and local interest groups. Nevertheless, the supporters’ recent efforts and […]
  • Artificial Intelligence in Smart Farming Owing to the development of the smart farming concept and precision agriculture, farmers all over the world gained a chance to implement digital tech to their daily operations and utilize AI to support some of […]
  • Building a Sky Garden: Vertical Farming System Business Plan It helps farmers to appreciate the benefits of valuing more the depth of land fertility than the size of land holdings.
  • United States History in 1864-1900 Years: Industrialization, Urbanization, and the Commercialization of Farming The Western frontier advanced in the years 1864 and 1900 by the establishment of democracy in America, industrialization, urbanization and the commercialization of farming.
  • Competitive Market: Farm Income and Costs Connecting the farms in the US to the concept of the perfectly competitive market, the definition and the characteristics of such a market should be outlined.
  • Agro-Food Geographies: Food, Nature, Farmers and Agency Therefore, the important thing in food and nature depends on the geographies of food and the beneficially is the subject, Currently, agro-food study is affected continuously by the current improvements in the agro-food geographies, especially […]
  • Standards for Confining Farm Animals One major concern that has been brought to the attention of animal farmers, in general, is the issue of whether or not it is appropriate to confine all or certain farm animals.
  • Linking Small-Scale Farmers to Input-Output Markets Output markets refer to the markets that are used by the farmers or businessmen to market their products while the input market is used by the same group to access products that are to be […]
  • How to Reduce Carbon Footprint by Using Solar Farms In fact the living beings on the earth use solar energy in many ways already, but now scientists and technologists have started thinking about the ways and means which could help us in tapping the […]
  • Organic Farming and Agriculture Those combinations that are selected will constitute the best part of the genetic make-up of subsequent generations, resulting in the development of ecotypes adapted to local ecological conditions. On the whole, yield performance of organic […]
  • Farmers Exchange Bank’s Strategic Human Resources Every employee of the bank is bounded to maintain the secrecy of the customers. This principle of the bank has greatly contributed to the success of the firm and increased the profitability of the business.
  • Why the Best Soil in the Province of BC Is Not Used for Farming The opportunity cost for farming is, therefore, lower than the opportunity cost for the warehouses/airports. So you have got no opportunity cost for this because this is the best option for your building and it […]
  • Fish Friendly Farming Case FFF viewed farmers as people with a vast amount of knowledge about the land and agricultural practices and those who were interested in supporting their lands fertile and farming productively. The case of FFF and […]
  • New Zealand Farming Industry. Organization Theory and Design One of the most critical issues that the Guy fielding farm is facing is the organizational structure of the company. The gathering of 2009 and Macdonald’s fear that he will be left out, heated the […]
  • Farming and Regulations in California The American government made multiple attempts to control the flow of immigrants to the county and the degree of their involvement in work in the agricultural industry.
  • 3rd World Farmer: Interactive Resources An educator’s main task is to explain the main causes of the appearance of these problems and the background that preconditions the formation of a particular environment.
  • The Farm Labor Organizing Committee Movement Chapter 3 of the book by Barger, Reza, and Velasquez is dedicated to the history of the Farm Labor Organizing Committee and the movement associated with this labor union and the promotion of immigrant farmworkers’ […]
  • Sprouts Farmers Market Company’s Entry to Canada The proportion of older people in Canada is also increasing thanks to improved living standards and access to affordable health care.
  • Farmers and Their Role in the American Agriculture The recent changes in the world’s largest countries’ economies can be a good illustration of the exclusive role of agriculture which can enable a state to play an important role in the world.
  • Farmer’s Market as a Food Event: Fresh and Straight From the Farm If I were to describe the entire scene an apt description would be to call it a scene of ordered chaos in that despite the sheer amount of people crisscrossing in front of me there […]
  • Moral Status of Animals at Factory Farming Stewart is concerned about the extent to which human beings are willing to mechanize animal farming to meet their needs. As human beings, we are faced with moral dilemmas of whether to compromise an animal’s […]
  • Kimango Farms Environmental Factors In 2015, the government established the Tanzania Agriculture Development Bank which is focused on assisting in developing the agricultural sector and assisting in the implementation of policies.
  • Farmers Views: Should Organic Food Be Promoted From? Organic food is grown and produced using natural methods, and it is believed that such products are safer and more nutritious than conventionally processed ones due to the rejection of the use of any artificial […]
  • Kimango Farm Enterprises: Business Analysis of Tanzania The primary motivation and purpose of the company is to grow healthy and organic foods through sustainable farming techniques and to offer the world a piece of Tanzania.
  • Impact of Antibiotics on Farm Animals One of the primary reasons for this condition in people is the use of antibiotics in farming. However, the use of antibiotics is associated with the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in people.
  • Pre-Industrial Societies and Farming Patricia Crone has created a work where she discusses the trends and elements of pre-industrial societies in the world, particularly those that existed in the West. Farming was a key element in the pre-industrial era […]
  • Susan Ferriss: United Farm Workers in “The Fight in the Fields” The focus of the reading is on the identity of Chavez and the evolution of the United Farm Workers, which is also the major event in the book.
  • The Impact of Factory Farming The fish population is also subject to this problem, as the long-term overcrowding may lead to the higher competition for food and result in stress and decline of the immune defense, which can cause the […]
  • Bernard Matthews’ Farm Marketing Issues Valuable prizes and practical involvement should elicit in the customers the necessity to purchase Bernard Matthews’ products and actively participate in the life of the brand. Nonetheless, the key changes should be performed in the […]
  • Farm, Companion, Laboratory Animals in Canada This paper will give facts on four categories of animals kept in Canada; the farm animals, animals used in experiments, animals used as companions to people and those used in entertainment. The category of wild […]
  • Native Americans’ History, Farming, Agriculture Nowadays, the task of primary importance is to educate the society and convey the idea that the rich past of the American Indians should be remembered.
  • Farm Security Administration and New York Photo League The disagreement regarding the focus of the Film and Photo league served as the basis for the emergence of The Photo League in 1936.
  • Tasty Farms’ Changes and Communication Networks Following all the steps of effective change management models is crucial in ensuring that available resources are properly aligned to meet the objectives of change. Due to the resistance from the employees, the process of […]
  • Laying Hens Farm: Peach Farm and Olive Farm In the Peach Farm, the chain feeders are placed at a lower position than the average height of the hens. Therefore, if the perch space is sufficient, as in the Olive Farm, the hens are […]
  • Managing Farm Dams to Support Waterbird Breeding The frequent fires and forest clearance in these areas have led to extensive migration of different species of birds. For example, they should take some of the endangered birds and breed them separately in a […]
  • Agriculture Improvement: The US Farm Bill Nadine Lehrer, who has been studying the bill, asserts, “The bill was developed in the wake of 1930’s farm crisis to bring farm incomes up to the par with the required minimum incomes”.
  • The US Farm Bills and Policy Reforms This law is very good in that it considers the health of the nation, the bill will a continuation of the 2002 Farm Bill.
  • What Kind of Energy Can Be Produced from Corn in Farms Over the years, corn has been used to produce alcohol in the form of ethanol, a major raw material for the production of energy.
  • Organic Farming for Sustainable Food Production The article is titled “Will Organic Agriculture Feed the World,” and it provides its readers with an overview of the statistics that apply to the sustainability of organic farming.
  • Farming and Ranch Management Considering the varied nature of the job of a Farm or Ranch Manager, the college offers “the Farm and Ranch Management Degree and the Agriculture Management Certificate”.
  • Farming Effects on Golden Sun Moth Agriculture has led to the destruction of the natural habitat of the moth. Farming practices have led to the dramatic reduction of the grass needed for the survival of this moth.
  • Farmer Definition and Culture The era of information the has led, to the creation of the particular image of success, and mass media created an image of a successful and stylish businessman.
  • Genetically Modified Organisms in Farming Farming is one of the backbones of the US economy given the fact the country is the leading exporter of various agricultural products.
  • The Near-Shore Wind Farm Controversy Case The developers and the investors made the decision to persuade the residents to accept their position regarding the importance of the wind turbines.
  • Farm Standard Council Case: Cost Allocation Some costs cannot be classified as either fixed or variable costs and yet they have to be allocated somewhere in the process of allocating costs to different cost centers.
  • Greater Gabbard Wind Farm Mega Project The project management unit must understand the needs of all the stakeholders identified in the first stage, and how these needs are aligned to the needs of the project.
  • Large-Scale Organic Farming and Food Supply The issue of environmental sustainability comes up due to the emerging ways of farming like the great shift of the farmers to the use of organic methods of farming.
  • Compensation System of State Farm Insurance With the philosophy, State Farm should provide insurance brands to students and young adults falling in this age gap in order to detach them from other insurance and make them independent.
  • Irrigation Systems in Farming Because of the changing climate, and the region landscape, most farmers use irrigation schemes to support their practices of subsistence farming.
  • Swidden Agriculture: Shift Farming Although this farming technique has been efficient in the past, it has proved to be unsustainable with the current increase in the global population.
  • Small Scale Farm-Household System In general, a farm household system is comprised of the various parameters that govern the operation and sustainability of the system.
  • Farming and Animal Consumption In essence, debate on farming methods and animal consumption has been a challenge not only to farmers but also to the society. It is, therefore, necessary to consider that numerous changes would be required to […]
  • Large-Scale Shift to Organic Farming to Increase World Food Supply However, the acceptance of non-organic farming as the solution to the world’s food problem is not unanimous and there has emerged a vocal group advocating for the use of organic farming.
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1. Activated Carbon

Activated carbon is made from any substance with a high carbon content, and activation refers to the development of the property of adsorption. Activated carbon is important in purification processes, in which molecules of various contaminants are concentrated on and adhere to the solid surface of the carbon. Through physical adsorption, activated carbon removes taste and odor-causing organic compounds, volatile organic compounds, and many organic compounds that do not undergo biological degradation from the atmosphere and from water, including potable supplies, process streams, and waste streams. The action can be compared to precipitation. Activated carbon is generally nonpolar, and because of this it adsorbs other nonpolar, mainly organic, substances. Extensive porosity (pore volume) and large available internal surface area of the pores are responsible for adsorption. Activated carbon also found wide application in the pharmaceutical, alcoholic beverage, and electroplating industries; in the removal of pesticides and waste of pesticide manufacture; for treatment of wastewater from petroleum refineries and textile factories; and for remediation of polluted groundwater. Although activated carbons are manufactured for specific uses, it is difficult to characterize them quantitatively. As a result, laboratory trials and pilot plant experiments on a specific waste type normally precede installation of activated carbon facilities.

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Insect outbreaks have plagued crop production throughout human history, but the growth of commercial agriculture since the middle of the nineteenth century has increased their acuteness and brought forth the need to devise efficient methods of insect control. Methods such as the spraying of insecticides, the application of cultural methods, the breeding of insect-resistant plants, and the use of biological control have increasingly been used in the twentieth century. Traditionally limited to checking the populations of insect pests through the release of predatory or parasitic insects, biological control now refers to the regulation of agricultural or forest pests (especially insects, weeds and mammals) using living organisms. It also includes other methods such as the spraying of microbial insecticides, the release of pathogenic microorganisms (fungi, bacteria or viruses), the release of male insects sterilized by radiation, the combination of control methods in integrated pest management programs, and the insertion of toxic genes into plants through genetic engineering techniques. Biological control is also directed against invasive foreign species that threaten ecological biodiversity and landscape esthetics in nonagricultural environments.

3. Crop Protection and Spraying

Humans have controlled agricultural pests, both plants and insects, that infest crops with a variety of biological and technological methods. Modern humans developed spraying pest management techniques that were based on practical solutions to combat fungi, weeds, and insects. Ancient peoples introduced ants to orchards and fields so they could consume caterpillars preying on plants. Chinese, Sumerian, and other early farmers used chemicals such as sulfur, arsenic, and mercury as rudimentary herbicides and insecticides. These chemicals were usually applied to or dusted over roots, stems, or leaves. Seeds were often treated before being sowed. As early as 200 BC, Cato the Censor promoted application of antipest oil sprays to protect plants in the Roman Republic. The nineteenth century potato famine and other catastrophic destruction of economically significant crops including vineyard grapes emphasized the need to improve crop protection measures. People gradually combined technological advances with biological control methods to initiate modern agricultural spraying in the late nineteenth century. Such crop protection technology was crucial in the twentieth century when large-scale commercial agriculture dominated farming to meet global demands for food. Individual farms consisted of hundreds to thousands of acres cultivated in only one or two crop types. As a result, spraying was considered essential to prevent devastating economic losses from pest damage associated with specific crops or locales.

4. Dairy Farming

Throughout the world, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, milk, cheese, butter, ice cream, and other dairy products, have been central elements of food production. Over the centuries improvements in cattle breeding and nutrition, as well as new dairy techniques, led to the increased production of dairy goods. Hand-operated churns and separators were used to make butter and cream, and those close to a barnyard had access to fresh milk. By the late nineteenth century, new science and technology had begun to transform dairy production, particularly in the U.S. and Europe. Rail transportation and iced and refrigerated boxcars made it easier to transport milk to more distant markets. Successful machinery for separating milk from cream came from the DeLaval Corporation in 1879, and the Babcock butterfat tester appeared in 1890. The first practical automated milking machines and commercial pasteurization machines were in use in the decades before 1900. Louis Pasteur’s contribution to the dairy industry— discovering the sterilization process for milk— was substantial. By heating milk, pasteurization destroys bacteria that may be harmful to humans. The pasteurization process also increases the shelf life of the product by eliminating enzymes and bacteria that cause milk to spoil. Milk is pasteurized via the ‘‘batch’’ method, in which a jacketed vat is surrounded by heated coils. The vat is agitated while heated, which adds qualities to the product that also make it useful for making ice cream. With the ‘‘continuous’’ method of pasteurization, time and energy are conserved by continuously processing milk as a high temperature using a steel-plated heat exchanger, heated by steam or hot water. Ultra-high temperature pasteurization was first used in 1948.

5. Farming and Agricultural Methods

Agriculture experienced a transformation in the twentieth century that was vital in increasing food and fiber production for a rising global population. This expansion of production was due to mechanization, the application of science and technology, and the expansion of irrigation. Yet these changes also resulted in the decimation of traditional agricultural systems and an increased reliance on capital, chemicals, water, exploitative labor conditions, and the tides of global marketing. A sign of the transformation of agriculture in the twentieth century was the shift from China and India as countries often devastated by famine to societies that became exporters of food toward the end of the century. As the world’s technological leader, the U.S. was at the vanguard of agricultural change, and Americans in the twentieth century experienced the cheapest food in the history of modern civilization, as witnessed by the epidemic of obesity that emerged in the 1990s. Unfortunately, this abundance sometimes led to overproduction, surplus, and economic crisis on the American farm, which one historian has labeled ‘‘the dread of plenty.’’

6. Farming and Growth Promotion

Early in the twentieth century, most farmers fed livestock simple mixtures of grains, perhaps supplemented with various plant or animal byproducts and salt. A smaller group of scientific agriculturalists fed relatively balanced rations that included proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and fats. Questions remained, however, concerning the ideal ratio of these components, the digestibility of various feeds, the relationship between protein and energy, and more. The discoveries of various vitamins in the early twentieth century offered clear evidence that proteins, carbohydrates, and fats did not supply all the needs of a growing animal. Additional research demonstrated that trace minerals like iron, copper, calcium, zinc, and manganese are essential tools that build hemoglobin, limit disease, and speed animal growth. Industrially produced nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, especially urea, have also become important feed additives. The rapid expansion of soybean production, especially after 1930, brought additional sources of proteins and amino acids within the reach of many farmers. Meanwhile, wartime and postwar food demands, as well as a substantial interest in the finding industrial uses for farm byproducts, led to the use of wide variety of supplements—oyster shells, molasses, fish parts, alfalfa, cod liver oil, ground phosphates, and more.

7. Farming Mechanization

Mechanization of agriculture in the twentieth century helped to dramatically increase global production of food and fiber to feed and clothe a burgeoning world population. Among the significant developments in agricultural mechanization in the twentieth century were the introduction of the tractor, various mechanical harvesters and pickers, and labor-saving technologies associated with internal combustion engines, electric motors, and hydraulics. While mechanization increased output and relieved some of the drudgery and hard work of rural life, it also created unintended consequences for rural societies and the natural environment. By decreasing the need for labor, mechanization helped accelerate the population migration from rural to urban areas. For example, in 1790, 90 percent of Americans worked in agriculture, yet by 2000 only about 3 percent of the American workforce was rural. Blessed with great expanses of land and limited labor, technologically inclined Americans dominated the mechanization of agriculture during the twentieth century. Due to mechanization, irrigation, and science, the average American farmer in 1940 fed an estimated ten people, and by 2000 the number was over 100 people. Yet even as mechanization increased the speed of planting and harvesting, reduced labor costs, and increased profits, mechanization also created widespread technological unemployment in the countryside and resulted in huge losses in the rural population.

8. Fertilizers

As the twentieth century opened, fertilizers were a prominent concern for farmers, industrialists, scientists, and political leaders. In 1898, British scientist William Crookes delivered a powerful and widely reported speech that warned of a looming ‘‘famine’’ of nitrogenous fertilizers. According to Crookes, rising populations, increased demand for soil-depleting grain products, and the looming exhaustion of sodium nitrate beds in Chile threatened Britain and ‘‘all civilized nations’’ with imminent mass starvation and collapse. Yet Crookes also predicted that chemists would manage to discover new artificial fertilizers to replace natural and organic supplies, a prophecy that turned out to encapsulate the actual history of fertilizers in the twentieth century. In addition to obvious links to increased agricultural production, the modern fertilizer industry has been linked with a number of concerns beyond the farm. For example, the short-lived phosphate boom on the Pacific island of Nauru offers a telling case study of the social consequences and environmental devastation than can accompany extractive industries. Further, much of the nitrogen applied to soils does not reach farm plants; nitrates can infiltrate water supplies in ways that directly threaten human health, or indirectly do so by fostering the growth of bacteria that can choke off natural nutrient cycles. To combat such threats, the European Union Common Agricultural Policy includes restrictions on nitrogen applications, and several nations now offer tax incentives to farmers who employ alternative agricultural schemes. Nevertheless, the rapidly growing global population and its demand for inexpensive food means that artificial fertilizer inputs are likely to continue to increase.

9. Fish Farming

Controlled production, management, and harvesting of herbivorous and carnivorous fish has benefited from technology designed specifically for aquaculture. For centuries, humans have cultivated fish for dietary and economic benefits. Captive fish farming initially sustained local populations by supplementing wild fish harvests. Since the 1970s, aquaculture became a significant form of commercialized farming because wild fish populations declined due to overfishing and habitat deterioration. Growing human populations increased demand for reliable, consistent sources of fish suitable for consumption available throughout the year. Fish farming technology can be problematic. If genetically engineered fish escape and mate with wild fish, the offspring might be unable to survive. Cultivated fish live in crowded tanks that sometimes cause suffocation, diseases, and immense amounts of waste and pollutants. Antibiotic use can sometimes result in resistant microorganisms. Coastal fish farms, especially those for shrimp, can be environmentally damaging if adjacent forests are razed.

10. Foods Additives and Substitutes

Advances in food and agricultural technology have improved food safety and availability. Food technology includes techniques to preserve food and develop new products. Substances to preserve and enhance the appeal of foods are called food additives, and colorings fit into this category of additives that are intentionally included in a processed food. All coloring agents must be proven to be safe and their use in terms of permitted quantity, type of food that can have enhanced coloring, and final level is carefully controlled. Fat substitutes on the other hand are technically known as replacers in that they replace the saturated and/or unsaturated fats that would normally be found in processed food as an ingredient or that would be added in formulation of a processed food. Usually the purpose is to improve the perceived health benefit of the particular food substance. Technically speaking, substitutes are not additives but their efficacy and safety must be demonstrated.

11. Food Preparation and Cooking

Twentieth century technological developments for preparing and cooking food consisted of both objects and techniques. Food engineers’ primary objectives were to make kitchens more convenient and to reduce time and labor needed to produce meals. A variety of electric appliances were invented or their designs improved to supplement hand tools such as peelers, egg beaters, and grinders. By the close of the twentieth century, technological advancements transformed kitchens, the nucleus of many homes, into sophisticated centers of microchip-controlled devices. Cooking underwent a transition from being performed mainly for subsistence to often being an enjoyable hobby for many people. Kitchen technology altered people’s lives. The nineteenth-century Industrial Revolution had initiated the mechanization of homes. Cooks began to use precise measurements and temperatures to cook. Many people eagerly added gadgets to their kitchens, ranging from warming plates and toasters to tabletop cookers. Some architects designed kitchens with built-in cabinets, shelves, and convenient outlets to encourage appliance use. Because they usually cooked, women were the most directly affected by mechanical kitchen innovations. Their domestic roles were redefined as cooking required less time and was often accommodated by such amenities as built-in sinks and dishwashers. Ironically, machines often resulted in women receiving more demands to cook for events and activities because people no longer considered cooking to be an overwhelming chore.

12. Food Preservation by Cooling and Freezing

People have long recognized the benefits of cooling and freezing perishable foods to preserve them and prevent spoilage and deterioration. These cold storage techniques, which impede bacterial activity, are popular means to protect food and enhance food safety and hygiene. The food industry has benefited from chilled food technology advancements during the twentieth century based on earlier observations. For several centuries, humans realized that evaporating salt water removed heat from substances. As a result, food was cooled by placing it in brine. Cold storage in ice- or snow-packed spaces such as cellars and ice houses foreshadowed the invention of refrigerators and freezers. Before mechanical refrigeration became consistent, freezing was the preferred food preservation technique because ice inhibited microorganisms. Freezing technology advanced to preserve food more efficiently with several processes. Blast freezing uses high-velocity air to freeze food for several hours in a tunnel. Refrigerated plates press and freeze food for thirty to ninety minutes in plate freezing. Belt freezing quickly freezes food in five minutes with air forced through a mesh belt. Cryogenic freezing involves liquid nitrogen or Freon absorbing food heat during several seconds of immersion.

13. Food Preservation by Freeze Drying, Irradiation, and Vacuum Packing

Humans have used processes associated with freeze-drying for centuries by placing foods at cooler high altitudes with low atmospheric pressure where water content is naturally vaporized. Also called lyophilization, freeze-drying involves moisture being removed from objects through sublimation. Modern freeze-drying techniques dehydrate frozen foods in vacuum chambers, which apply low pressure and cause vaporization. Irradiation is less successful than freeze-drying. Prior to irradiation, millions of people worldwide became ill annually due to contaminated foods with several thousand being hospitalized or dying due to food-borne pathogens. By exposing food to an electron beam, irradiation enhances food safety. Irradiated human and animal feed, especially grain, can be transported over distances and stored for a long duration without spoiling or posing contamination hazards. The radura is the international food packaging symbol for irradiation. Vacuum-packing food technologies involve a process that removes empty spaces around foods being packaged. Vacuum technology uses environments artificially modified to have atmospheric pressures that are lower than natural conditions. Vacuum packing extends the shelf life of food. The U.K. Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Foods warned that anaerobic pathogens such as C. botulinum can grow in vacuum-packed foods. Because vacuum packing often results in rubbery sliced cheese, some manufacturers use the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) system, which utilizes gases to fill spaces so that cheese can mature to become tastier inside packaging.

14. Irrigation Systems

Since the onset of human civilization, the manipulation of water through irrigation systems has allowed for the creation of agricultural bounty and the presence of ornamental landscaping, often in the most arid regions of the planet. These systems have undergone a widespread transformation during the twentieth century with the introduction of massive dams, canals, aqueducts, and new water delivery technology. In 1900 there were approximately 480,000 square kilometers of land under irrigation; by 2000 that total had surged to 2,710,000 square kilometers, with India and China as the world leaders in irrigated acreage. Globally, the agriculture industry uses about 69 percent of the available fresh water supplies, producing 40 percent of the world’s food on just about 18 percent of the world’s cropland. (It takes 1000 tons of water to produce 1 ton of grain.) New technologies to monitor evaporation, plant transpiration, and soil moisture levels have helped increase the efficiency of irrigation systems. The US is the world leader in irrigation technology, exporting upward of $800 million of irrigation equipment to the rest of the world each year, with the sales of drip irrigation equipment increasing 15 to 20 percent per annum in the 1990s. Golf course and landscape irrigation are also an increasing part of the irrigation technology market. Intense competition for water from cities and for environmental restoration projects might mean a reduction in irrigated agriculture in future years. At the same time, salinization of fields, infiltration of aquifers by sea water, and depleted water availability could lead to a reduction in land under irrigation worldwide.

15. Nitrogen Fixation

In 1898, the British scientist William Crookes in his presidential address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science warned of an impending fertilizer crisis. The answer lay in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Around 1900, industrial fixation with calcium carbide to produce cyanamide, the process of the German chemists Nikodemus Caro and Adolf Frank, was introduced. This process relied on inexpensive hydroelectricity, which is why the American Cyanamid Company was set up at Ontario, Canada, in 1907 to exploit the power of Niagara Falls. Electrochemical fixing of nitrogen as its monoxide was first realized in Norway, with the electric arc process of Kristian Birkeland and Samuel Eyde in 1903. The nitrogen monoxide formed nitrogen dioxide, which reacted with water to give nitric acid, which was then converted into the fertilizer calcium nitrate. The yield was low, and as with the Caro–Frank process, the method could be worked commercially only because of the availability of hydroelectricity.

16. Pesticides

A pesticide is any chemical designed to kill pests and includes the categories of herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, avicide, and rodenticide. Individuals, governments, and private organizations used pesticides in the twentieth century, but chemical control has been especially widespread in agriculture as farmers around the world attempted to reduce crop and livestock losses due to pest infestations, thereby maximizing returns on their investment in seed, fuel, labor, machinery expenses, animals, and land. Until the twentieth century, cultural pest control practices were more popular than chemicals. Cultural methods meant that farmers killed pests by destroying infested plant material in the fields, trapping, practicing crop rotation, cultivating, drying harvested crops, planting different crop varieties, and numerous other techniques. In the twentieth century, new chemical formulations and application equipment were the products of the growth in large-scale agriculture that simultaneously enabled that growth. Large scale and specialized farming provided ideal feeding grounds for harmful insects. Notable early efforts in insect control began in the orchards and vineyards of California. Without annual crop rotations, growers needed additional insect control techniques to prevent build-ups of pest populations. As the scale of fruit and nut production increased in the early decades of the century, so too did the insect problem.

17. Processed and Fast Food

Convenience, uniformity, predictability, affordability, and accessibility characterized twentieth-century processed and fast foods. Technology made mass-produced fast food possible by automating agricultural production and food processing. Globally, fast food provided a service for busy people who lacked time to buy groceries and cook their meals or could not afford the costs and time associated with eating traditional restaurant fare. As early as the nineteenth century, some cafeterias and restaurants, foreshadowing fast-food franchises, offered patrons self-service opportunities to select cooked and raw foods, such as meats and salads, from displays. Many modern cafeterias are affiliated with schools, businesses, and clubs to provide quick, cheap meals, often using processed foods and condiments, for students, employees, and members. Food-processing technology is designed primarily to standardize the food industry and produce food that is more flavorful and palatable for consumers and manageable and inexpensive for restaurant personnel. Food technologists develop better devices to improve the processing of food from slaughter or harvesting to presentation to diners. They are concerned with making food edible while extending the time period it can be consumed. Flavor, texture, and temperature retention of these foods when they are prepared for consumers are also sought in these processes. Microwave and radio frequency ovens process food quickly, consistently, and affordably. Microwaves are used to precook meats before they are frozen for later frying in fast-food restaurants. Nitrogen-based freezing systems have proven useful to process seafood, particularly shrimp. Mechanical and cryogenic systems also are used. The dehydrating and sterilizing of foods remove contaminants and make them easier to package. Heating and thawing eliminate bacteria to meet health codes. These processes are limited by associated expenses and occasional damage to foods. Processing techniques have been adapted to produce a greater variety of products from basic foods and have been automated to make production and packaging, such as mixing and bottling, efficient enough to meet consumer demand.

18. Synthetic Foods, Mycoprotein and Hydrogenated Fats

Food technologists developed synthetic foods to meet specific nutritional and cultural demands. Also referred to as artificial foods, synthetic foods are meat-free and are designed to provide essential fiber and nutrients such as proteins found in meats while having low saturated fat and lacking animal fat and cholesterol. These foodstuffs are manufactured completely from organic material. They have been manipulated to be tasty, nutritionally sound with major vitamins and minerals, have appealing textures, and safe for consumption. Synthetic foods offer people healthy dietary choices, variety, and convenience. Mycoprotein is created from Fusarium venenatum (also known as Fusarium graminearum), a small edible fungi related to mushrooms and truffles that was initially found in the soil of a pasture outside Marlow in Buckinghamshire, England. Concerned about possible food shortages such as those experienced in World War II Europe; as global populations swelled postwar, scientists began investigating possible applications for this organism as a widely available, affordable protein source. Scientists at one of Britain’s leading food manufacturers, Rank Hovis McDougall, focused on mycoprotein from 1964. At first, they were unable to cultivate fungus to produce mycoprotein in sufficient quantities for the envisioned scale of food production. Food technologists devoted several years to establishing procedures for growing desired amounts of mycoprotein. They chose a fermentation process involving microorganisms, somewhat like those historically used to create yogurt, wine, and beer. Food technologists create hydrogenated fats by processing vegetable oils, consisting of glycerides and fatty acids, with chemicals to achieve certain degrees of hardening. Partial hydrogenation stiffens oils, while full hydrogenation converts liquid oils into solid fat. The hydrogenation process involves moving hydrogen gas through heated oils in vats containing metals, usually copper, nickel, or zinc. When the metal reacts to the gas, it acts as a catalyst to relocate hydrogen molecules in the oil to create different, stiffer molecular shapes. This chemical reaction creates trans fats. Saturation of fats in these synthetic molecules increases according to the degree of hydrogenation achieved.

19. Transportation of Foodstuffs

Twentieth century foodstuffs were transported by land on vehicles and trains, by air on cargo planes, and by water on ships or barges. Based on innovations used in previous centuries, engineers developed agricultural technology such as refrigerated containers to ship perishable goods to distant markets. Technological advancements enabled food transportation to occur between countries and continents. International agreements outlined acceptable transportation modes and methods for shipping perishables. Such long-distance food transportation allowed people in different regions of the world to gain access to foodstuffs previously unavailable and incorporate new products they liked into their diets. Refrigerated trailers dominate road food transportation methods. This transportation mode minimizes food vulnerability to shipment damage from being harvested to placement on grocery shelves. Refrigerated transport enables fresh produce from milder climates to be shipped out-of-season to colder locations. Refrigeration is achieved by mechanical or cryogenic refrigeration or by packing or covering foods in ice. Ventilation keeps produce cool by absorbing heat created by food respiration and transferred through the walls and floor from the external air beneath and around the shipping trailer. Food technologists design packaging materials for food transportation. Most produce is shipped in corrugated and fiberboard cardboard boxes that are sometimes coated with wax. Wooden and wire-bound crates are also used in addition to bushel hampers and bins. Mesh plastic, burlap, and paper bags hold produce. Meat is often vacuum packed on plastic trays that are placed in wooden lugs. Foods are occasionally wrapped in plastic liners or packed in ice to withstand damage in transit and limit evaporation.

Agriculture and Food Technology

In late-twentieth century Western societies, food was available in abundance. Shops and supermarkets offered a wide choice in products and brands. The fast-food industry had outlets in every neighborhood and village. For those in search of something more exclusive, there were smart restaurants and classy catering services. People chose what they ate and drank with little awareness of the sources or processes involved as long as the food was tasty, nutritious, safe, and sufficient for everyone. These conditions have not always been met over the last century when food shortages caused by economic crises, drought, or armed conflicts and war, occurred in various places. During the second half of the twentieth century, food deficiency was a feature of countries outside the Western world, especially in Africa. The twentieth century also witnessed a different sort of food crisis in the form of a widespread concern over the quality and safety of food that mainly resulted from major changes in production processes, products, composition, or preferences.

Technology plays a key role in both types of crises, as both cause and cure, and it is the character of technological development in food and agriculture that will be discussed. The first section examines the roots of technological developments of modern times. The second is an overview of three patterns of agricultural technology. The final two sections cover developments according to geographical differences.

Before we can assess technological developments in agriculture and food, we must define the terms and concepts. A very broad description of agriculture is the manipulation of plants and animals in a way that is functional to a wide range of societal needs. Manipulation hints at technology in a broad sense; covering knowledge, skills, and tools applied for production and consumption of (parts or extractions of) plants and animals. Societal needs include the basic human need for food. Many agricultural products are food products or end up as such. However, crops such as rubber or flax and animals raised for their skin are only a few examples of agricultural products that do not end up in the food chain. Conversely, not all food stems from agricultural production. Some food is collected directly from natural sources, like fish, and there are borderline cases such as beekeeping. Some food products and many food ingredients are artificially made through complicated biochemical processes. This relates to a narrow segment of technology, namely science-based food technology.

Both broad and narrow descriptions of agriculture are relevant to consider. In sugar production for example, from the cultivation of cane or beets to the extraction of sugar crystals, both traditional and science-based technologies are applied. Moreover, chemical research and development resulted in sugar replacements such as saccharin and aspartame. Consequently, a randomly chosen soft drink might consist of only water, artificial sweeteners, artificial colorings and flavorings, and although no agriculture is needed to produce such products, there is still a relationship to it. One can imagine that a structural replacement of sugar by artificial sweeteners will affect world sugar prices and therewith the income of cane and beet sugar producers. Such global food chains exemplify the complex nature of technological development in food and agriculture.

The Roots of Technological Development

Science-based technologies were exceptional in agriculture until the mid-nineteenth century. Innovations in agriculture were developed and applied by the people cultivating the land, and the innovations related to the interaction between crops, soils, and cattle. Such innovation is exemplified by farmers in Northern Europe who confronted particular difficulties caused by the climate. Low temperatures meant slow decomposition of organic material, and the short growing season meant a limited production of organic material to be decomposed. Both factors resulted in slow recuperation of the soil’s natural fertility after exploitation. The short growing season also meant that farmers had to produce enough for the entire year in less than a year. Farmers therefore developed systems in which cattle and other livestock played a pivotal role as manure producers for fertilizer. Changes in the feed crop could allow an increase in livestock, which produced more manure to be used for fertilizing the arable land, resulting in higher yields. Through the ages, farmers in Northern Europe intensified this cycle. From about the 1820s the purchase of external supplies increased the productivity of farming in the temperate zones. Technological improvements made increases in productivity not only possible but also attractive, as nearby markets grew and distant markets came within reach as a result of the nineteenth century transportation revolution.

An important development at mid-nineteenth century was the growing interest in applying science to agricultural development. The two disciplines with the largest impact were chemistry and biology. The name attached to agricultural chemistry is Justus von Liebig, a German chemist who in the 1840s formulated a theory on the processes underlying soil fertility and plant growth. He propagated his organic chemistry as the key to the application of the right type and amount of fertilizer. Liebig launched his ideas at a time when farmers were organizing themselves based on a common interest in cheap supplies. The synergy of these developments resulted in the creation of many laboratories for experimentation with these products, primarily fertilizers. During the second half of the nineteenth century, agricultural experiment stations were opened all over Europe and North America.

Sometime later, experimental biology became entangled with agriculture. Inspired by the ideas of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, biologists became interested in the reproduction and growth of agricultural crops and animals. Botany and, to a lesser extent, zoology became important disciplines at the experimental stations or provided reasons to create new research laboratories. Research into the reproductive systems of different species, investigating patterns of inheritance and growth of plant and animal species, and experimentation in cross-breeding and selection by farmers and scientists together lay the foundations of genetic modification techniques in the twentieth century.

By the turn of the century, about 600 agricultural experiment stations were spread around the Western world, often operating in conjunction with universities or agricultural schools. Moreover, technologies that were not specifically developed for agriculture and food had a clear impact on the sector. Large ocean-going steamships, telegraphy, railways, and refrigeration, reduced time and increased loads between farms and markets. Key trade routes brought supplies of grain and other products to Europe from North America and the British dominions, resulting in a severe economic crisis in the 1880s for European agriculture. Heat and power from steam engines industrialized food production by taking over farm activities like cheese making or by expanding and intensifying existing industrial production such as sugar extraction. The development of synthetic dyes made crop-based colorants redundant, strongly reducing or even eliminating cultivation of the herb madder or indigo plants. These developments formed the basis of major technological changes in agriculture and food through the twentieth century.

Patterns of Technology Development

The twentieth century brought an enormous amount of technology developed for and applied to agriculture. These developments may be examined by highlighting the patterns of technology in three areas—infrastructure, public sector, and commercial factory—as if they were seen in cross section. The patterns are based on combined material and institutional forces that shaped technology.

A major development related to infrastructure concerns mechanization and transport. The combustion engine had a significant effect on agriculture and food. Not only did tractors replace animal and manual labor, but trucks and buses also connected farmers, traders, and markets. The development of cooling technology increased storage life and the distribution range for fresh products. Developments in packaging in general were very important. It was said that World War I would have been impossible without canned food. Storage and packaging is closely related to hygiene. Knowledge about sources and causes of decay and contamination initiated new methods of safe handling of food, affecting products and trade as well as initiating other innovations. In the dairy sector, for example, expanding markets led to the growth and mergers of dairy factories. That changed the logistics of milk collection, resulting in the development of on-farm storage tanks. These were mostly introduced together with compression and tube systems for machine milking, which increased milking capacity and improved hygiene conditions. A different area of infrastructure development is related to water management. Over the twentieth century, technologies for irrigation and drainage had implications for improved ‘‘carrying capacity’’ of the land, allowing the use of heavy machinery. Improved drainage also meant greater water discharge, which in turn required wider ditches and canals. Water control also had implications for shipping and for supplies of drinking water that required contractual arrangements between farmers, governing bodies, and other agencies.

During the twentieth century, most governments supported their agricultural and food sectors. The overall interest in food security and food safety moved governments to invest in technologies that increased productivity and maintained or improved quality. Public education and extension services informed farmers about the latest methods and techniques. Governments also became directly involved in technological development, most notably crop improvement. Seed is a difficult product to exploit commercially. Farmers can easily put aside part of the harvest as seed for the next season. Public institutes for plant breeding were set up to improve food crops—primarily wheat, rice, and maize—and governments looked for ways to attract private investment in this area. Regulatory and control mechanisms were introduced to protect commercial seed production, multiplication, and trade. Private companies in turn looked for methods to make seed reproduction less attractive to farmers, and they were successful in the case of so-called hybrid maize. The genetic make-up of hybrid maize is such that seeds give very high yields in the first year but much less in the following years. To maintain productivity levels, farmers have to purchase new seed every season. Developments in genetic engineering increased the options for companies to commercially exploit seed production.

Most private companies that became involved in genetic engineering and plant breeding over the last three decades of the twentieth century started as chemical companies. Genetic engineering allowed for commercially attractive combinations of crops and chemicals. A classic example is the herbicide Roundup, developed by the chemical company Monsanto. Several crops, most prominently soy, are made resistant to the powerful chemical. Buying the resistant seed in combination with the chemical makes weed control an easy job for farmers. This type of commercial development of chemical technologies and products dominated the agricultural and food sector over the twentieth century. Artificially made nitrogen fertilizers are one such development that had a worldwide impact. In 1908, Fritz Haber, chemist at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe, fixed nitrogen to hydrogen under high pressure in a laboratory setting. To exploit the process, Haber needed equipment and knowledge to deal with high pressures in a factory setting, and he approached the chemical company BASF. Haber and BASF engineer Carl Bosch built a crude version of a reactor, further developed by a range of specialists BASF assigned to the project. The result was a range of nitrogen fertilizer products made in a capital and knowledge-intensive factory environment. This type of development was also applied to creating chemicals such as DDT for control of various pests (dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane), developed in 1939 by Geigy researcher Paul Mu¨ ller and his team. DDT may exemplify the reverse side of the generally positive large-scale application of chemicals in agricultural production—the unpredictable and detrimental effects on the environment and human health.

The commercial factory setting for technology development was omnipresent in the food sector. The combination of knowledge of chemical processes and mechanical engineering determined the introduction of entirely new products: artificial flavorings, products, and brands of products based on particular food combinations, or new processes such as drying and freezing, and storing and packaging methods.

Patterns of Technology Development in the Western World

Technological developments in agriculture and food differ with regard to geography and diverging social and economic factors. In regions with large stretches of relatively flat lands, where soil conditions are rather similar and population is low, a rise in productivity is best realized by technologies that work on the economies of scale. The introduction of mechanical technologies was most intensive in regions with these characteristics. Beginning early in the twentieth century, widespread mechanization was a common feature of Western agriculture, but it took different forms. In the Netherlands, for example, average farm size was relatively small and labor was not particularly scarce. Consequently, the use of tractors was limited for the first half of the twentieth century as emphasis was placed on improved cultivation methods. Tractors became widely used only after the 1950s when equipment became lighter and more cost-effective and labor costs rose sharply. The result was an overall increase of farm size in these regions as well. The Dutch government changed the countryside with a land policy of connecting and merging individual parcels as much as possible. This huge operation created favorable conditions for expansion; but where the land was already under cultivation, the only way to expand was to buy up neighboring farms. The effect was a considerable reduction in the number of farm units. An exception to this process was the Dutch greenhouse sector, in which improvements in construction, climate regulation, and introduction of hydroponic cultivation, increased production without considerable growth of land per farm unit.

The Dutch greenhouse sector is also an exemplary case of technological support in decision making and farm management. In Western countries a vast service sector emerged around agriculture and food. This process in fact started early in the twentieth century with the rise of extension services, set up as government agencies or private companies. Experimental methods based on multivariate statistics, developed by the British mathematician Karl Fisher, are the major tool in turning results of field experiments into general advisories. In keeping with the development of modern computers, digital models of crop growth and farming systems became more effective. Computer programs help farmers perform certain actions and monitor other equipment and machinery; yet even in the most technologically advanced greenhouses, the skilled eye of the farmer is a factor that makes a considerable difference in the quality and quantity of the final product.

The means by which agriculture in the West raised productivity have been questioned. Doubts about the safety of food products and worries over the restoration of nature’s capacity became recurrent issues in public debate. Moreover, technological advances in tandem with subsidies resulted in overproduction, confronting national and international governing bodies with problems in trade and distribution, and a public resistance against intensive agriculture, sometimes called agribusiness. Technology is neither good nor bad; much of the knowledge underlying technologies with a detrimental effect also helps detect polluting factors and health hazards. Although a substantial part of research and technological efforts are aimed at replacing and avoiding harmful factors, many such ‘‘clean’’ technologies are commercially less interesting to farmers and companies. Subsidies and other financial arrangements are again being used to steer technology development, this time in the direction of environmentally friendly and safe forms of production.

Patterns of Technology Development in Less Developed Countries

From the beginning of the twentieth century, scientific and technological developments in the agricultural and food sector were introduced to less developed countries either by Western colonizing powers or by other forms of global interaction. The search for improved farming methods and new technology were mostly institutionalized at existing botanical gardens and established in previous centuries. Plant transfer and economic botany were a major modality of twentieth century technological improvement in less developed countries.

The early decades of the century featured an emphasis on technological improvement for plantation agriculture. Plantation owners invested in scientific research for agriculture, often supported by colonial administrations. The gradual abolition of slavery during the nineteenth century, increasing labor costs, was a reason to invest in technology. Other factors were more specific to particular sectors; for example, the rise of European beet sugar production encouraging cane sugar manufacturers to invest in technological improvement. Another example was the emergence of the automobile industry, which initiated a boom in rubber production.

Most colonial administrations launched programs, based on the combination of botanical and chemical research, to improve food crop production in the first decades of the twentieth century. It was recognized that dispersion of new technologies to a small number of plantation owners was different from initiating change among a vast group of local food crop producers. The major differences concerned the ecology of farming (crop patterns and soil conditions) and the socioeconomic conditions (organization of labor or available capital). Agronomists had to be familiar with local farming systems, occasionally resulting in pleas for a technology transfer that would better meet the complexity of local production. The overall approach, however, was an emphasis on improvement of fertilization and crop varieties. Transfer of the Western model gained momentum in the decades after World War II. Food shortages in the immediate postwar years encouraged European colonial powers to open up large tropical areas for mechanized farming. Unfortunately, the result was largely either a short-lived disaster, as in the case of the British-run groundnut scheme in Tanzania, or a more enduring problem, as in case of the Dutch-run mechanized rice-farming schemes in Surinam. The 1940s also saw the beginnings of a movement that came to be known as the ‘‘green revolution.’’ Driven by the idea that hunger is a breeding ground for communism, American agencies initiated a research program for crop improvement, primarily by breeding fertilizer-responsive varieties of wheat and rice. Agencies were put together in a Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Technological progress was realized by bringing together experts and plant material from various parts of the world. Modified breeding techniques and a wide availability of parent material resulted in high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice. Encouraged by lucrative credit facilities, farmers, especially in Asia, quickly adopted the new varieties and the required chemicals for fertilization and pest control. Research on the adoption process of these varieties made clear that many farmers modified the seed technology based on specific conditions of the farming systems. In areas where such modifications could not be achieved—primarily rice growing regions in Africa—green revolution varieties were not very successful. Based on these findings, CGIAR researchers began to readdress issues of variation in ecology and farming systems. This type of research is very similar to that done by colonial experts several decades earlier. However, because of decolonization and antiimperialist sentiments among Western nations, much of this earlier expertise has been neglected. This is just one of the opportunities for further research in the domain of agriculture and food technology.

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Browse agriculture topics/papers by subfields, agriculture research papers/topics, determining the profitability of different npsb and nitrogen fertilizer rates on yield and yield attributes of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas l.) in the midland areas of guji southern oromia,.

The activity was proposed with the objective of determining the combined application rate of inorganic NPSB and N fertilizer that maximizes the yield and yield components of sweet potato. Sweet Potato variety Naspot-13, was used for the experiment. The experiment was arranged in factorial combination of four level of NPSB (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1) with four level of N2 (0, 23, 46 and 69 kg ha-1) in RCBD with 3 replications. The analysis of variance showed that the combination of 100 kg ha-...

Diet selection, intake and weight gain of dorper sheep fed on selected grasses in a cafeteria system in Machakos County, Kenya

Abstract: Livestock is a key asset and a primary livelihood resource for rural households in most parts of the world and accounts for nearly 95 per cent of family income in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASALs) in Kenya. Despite high economic importance of livestock, inadequate nutrition results to low livestock productivity in Kenya. Ruminant feeding in the ASALs is mainly based on the exploitation of range feed resources. Grazing ruminants forage on different plant species with varying leve...

Effect of transportation on welfare of indigenous chicken in Machakos County, Kenya

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate effect of transportation on welfare of indigenous chicken. A sample of 8 hens were randomly selected from the target population. Each treatment had an equal number of mature indigenous chicken hens weighing between 1.25 and 2.4 kg. The first batch of 4 birds were tied together and loaded on to an open vehicle roof top. The second batch of 4 birds was loaded into traditional transport cages and the cage loaded on top of the transport vehicle....

Effects of spacing and Negarim micro catchment on the growth of two provenances of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) in Kitui county, south eastern Kenya

Abstract: There has been an increased human population in arid and semi-arid areas. However, these areas are characterized by harsh climatic conditions hence low agricultural productivity, environmental degradation and over exploitation of natural resources. There's need to understand the best agronomic crop requirements for high value trees and shrubs like Moringa oleifera (Lamark) through climate smart agriculture. Limited studies on Moringa oleifera provenance trials, use of micro-catchme...

Comparative differences of whitefly-transmitted diseases between local and hybrid bean varieties in Kitui County, Kenya

Abstract: The typical dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is the essential food legume for direct human consumption. They play a significant role in food security and nutrition. Despite their nutritional importance, its production growth rates have declined in Kenya due to diseases, insect pests, plant nutritional deficiencies, and drought. Therefore, this study's main objective was to determine whether there are differences in bean varieties' tolerance to whitefly transmitted viral diseases. The ...

Factors influencing smallholder dairy cattle productivity in Tigania East sub-county, Meru County

Abstract: Dairy farming complements both food and cash crop farming in Kenya. Due to limited land sizes, smallholder dairy farming is popular and dominates the dairy sector in terms of milk production. Low milk production is a major constraint in Tigania East SubCounty despite the fact that the surrounding Sub-Counties produce high amounts of milk. A survey was carried out in Tigania East Sub-County involving 156 smallholder farmers randomly selected across three agro-ecological zones (AEZ1,...

Assessment of rain water harvesting technologies for improved food security in Kauwi sub-location, Kitui County

Abstract: Water is an essential natural resource, vital for any development to take place. However, not more than one percent of the water is freely available for human needs including agricultural production in the entire world. Arid and semi-arid lands globally are facing water scarcity challenges. Rain- fed agricultural system is the major farming method in these areas, but this has been challenged greatly by aridity and climatic uncertainty. Kitui County is an ASAL where farmers are expe...

Women participation in agroforestry technologies enhances climate change adaptation in Nguumo and Makindu locations, Makindu sub county, Makueni county, Kenya

Abstract: Agroforestry presents a promising option to sustainable agricultural productivity by providing a buffer to climate variability through permanent tree cover and varied ecological niches. Thus, agroforestry can be used as a strategy to adapt to climate change and variability challenges for smallholder farmers. Success of this strategy in adapting to climate change calls for active participation of men and women in agroforestry technologies. This study aimed to establish roles women p...

Identification and validation of African indigenous knowledge practices on management of crop pests in Kitui West sub-county

Abstract: Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa is predominantly subsistence and perennial food deficits, cyclic famines characterize it, and poverty is prompted largely by erratic rainfall patterns, declining soil fertility, and pests and diseases. In Kitui County, farmers are largely small-scale and face various challenges: from poor soil fertility to erratic rainfall. The farmers, too, have not been spared by the pest menace. Consequently, they have resorted to unwarranted and unregulated app...

Factors influencing adoption of giant bamboo (dendrocalamus asper {Schult} Backer) for agroforestry in selected subcounties of Nyandarua county, Kenya

Abstract: Giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) is a very fast growing plant in the family of Poaceae (Gramineae) with great potential in environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. It has over 1500 documented uses. However, with the reducing sizes and productivity of land in Kenya especially in high potential areas where bamboo is grown, there is a need to identify options of cultivating bamboo as an agroforestry crop. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to establish factors...

Growth, nodulation and yield of selected legumes under drought conditions in Kitui county, Kenya

Abstract: Loss of fertility in soil is the main limiting factor that affects production of crops in Kenya, especially in the Arid and Semi-arid regions. In the lower parts of Eastern Kenya, unreliable and low rainfall has led to the low yields in crop production. Lack of the use of commercial fertilizers is also a contributing factor to low crop yields. Amongst new solutions that can assist farmers facing this challenge of low yields includes the emerged potential role of rhizobia in crop pe...

Assessment of fish farmer’s vulnerability to climate variability and extreme climate events in selected parts of Kitui county, Kenya

Abstract: Fish farmers are a vulnerable group to climate variability and extreme climate events effects as their production heavily relies on precipitation and temperature. However, previous studies on vulnerability of fish farmers to climate variability and extreme events have been done on global, regional and national scales, thus failing to capture the local realities on spatial variability. The current study was carried out to assess the householdlevel vulnerability of fish farmers to cl...

Evaluation of farmers’ vulnerability to climate variability and extreme events in selected agro-ecological zones in Kitui county, Kenya

Abstract: Climate variability and extreme events are some of the most pressing environmental challenges occurring in the contemporary world. Farming communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Kenya are more vulnerable to climate variability and extreme events due to high dependence on weather patterns in their farming activities. There is little understanding of the vulnerability to climate variability and extreme events among farmers in Kitui County based on the agro-ecological zone...

Adoption of modern dairy technologies and its impact on milk production in Nzaui sub-county, Makueni county

Abstract: Dairy production is a biologically efficient system that converts large quantities of roughage in the tropics to milk. Milk production levels are determined by the levels of technologies applied to the dairy enterprise. However, information on levels of adoption of dairy technologies especially in the arid and semi-arid areas (ASALs) of Kenya is scanty. This study thus sought to evaluate the extent of adoption of modern dairy technologies and its impact on milk production in Nzaui ...

An evaluation of the use of a microcomputer on a livestock farm

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a microcomputer as a tool of information handling. Specifically, this involved developing software packages for use on an Apple II Plus microcomputer. The Willow Bend Demonstrational Farm in Union, West Virginia, was chosen. A farm records and budgets model was developed. Receipts and expenses from the Electronic Farm Accounting records were used to test the model for use by the farm operators in West Virginia. Enterpris...

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals (livestock), plants and fungi to produce food, feed, fiber and many other desired products to sustain and enhance life. The study of agriculture can lead to a variety of careers, including those associated with consulting, farming, management and research. Afribary publishes latest agriculture topics for students. Browse through Agriculture projects, agriculture project topics, Agriculture thesis, seminars, research papers etc. All papers and research works in agriculture and its sub-fields.

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  1. 156 Best Agriculture Research Topics For Your Thesis Paper

    Analysing the impact of fish farming on agriculture: A case study of Japan. Smart farming in Germany: The impact of using drones in crop management. Comparing the farming regulations in California and Texas. Economics of pig farming for country farmers in the United States.

  2. 130 Best Agricultural Research Paper Topics & Writing Tips

    Then choosing any agricultural essay topics won't seem like a heady decision. Your academic paper may relate to environmental factors, the economic feasibility of starting a farm, or the nuances of breeding. The main plus is that you can choose any of the agricultural related topics for research preparation. Here are 130 options for you.

  3. 186 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Titles + Examples

    This essay discusses the savings associated with virtual water trade in agriculture and touches on the effects of a shift to local agricultural production on global water savings. Food Safety: A Policy Issue in Agriculture Today. Food safety constitutes proper preparation, storage and preservation of all foods.

  4. 114 Agriculture Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    If you're looking for essay topics related to agriculture, we've compiled a comprehensive list of 114 ideas and examples to inspire your writing. The impact of climate change on agriculture: challenges and adaptation strategies. The role of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in modern agriculture.

  5. Agriculture

    Agriculture is the cultivation of plants, animals, and some other organisms, such as fungi, for the production of food, fibre, fuel, and medicines used by society.

  6. Agriculture Research Paper Topics

    See our list of agriculture research paper topics. The development of agriculture—the raising of crops and animals for food—has been fundamental to the development of civilization. Farming brought about the settlement of farm communities, which grew into towns and city-states. Farming also made possible sedentary (settled) lifestyles, which ...

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    20 Expanded Agriculture Research Paper Topics. Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Investigating innovative and sustainable agricultural practices, such as organic farming, agroecology, and permaculture, and their impacts on soil health, biodiversity, and food production. Precision Agriculture Technologies: Analyzing the use of advanced ...

  8. 45 Research Project Ideas in Agriculture

    In this article, we will present 45 research project ideas in agriculture that can help address some of the most pressing issues facing the industry today. These research projects cover a wide range of topics, from soil health and crop yields to livestock farming, aquaculture, and food systems, providing a comprehensive overview of the latest ...

  9. Advancing agricultural research using machine learning algorithms

    Advancing agricultural research using machine learning algorithms. Scientific Reports 11, Article number: 17879 ( 2021 ) Cite this article. Rising global population and climate change realities ...

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    PLOS' precision agriculture research explores and assesses the very latest agricultural technologies. Whether in controlled environments or directly in the field, our research highlights new methods and technologies for agricultural surveillance and intervention, such as sensors and chemical testing, or high-tech farm machinery and machine learning that measures, analyses, and improves crop ...

  11. Frontiers in Agronomy

    Modeling and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Pest Management. José Bruno Malaquias. Michael Caprio. 545 views. This exciting journal investigates how agronomy will develop in the 21st century as we address climate change, focus on food systems and find ways to produce enough, waste less, and recycle more.

  12. Hot topics in agricultural and environmental economics

    Hot topics in agricultural and environme ntal economics -. a large-scale bibliometric analysis. Nils Droste¹, Bartosz Bartkowski 2, Robert Finger 3. ¹ Department of Political Science, Lund ...

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    The Agriculture, Energy, and Transportation Infrastructure: Main Threats. Thus, the purpose of the work is to analyze the food/agricultural, energy, and transport sectors of critical infrastructure in terms of physical, cyber, or natural disaster threats. The Impact of Acetamiprid on Agriculture.

  14. Articles

    How Multiple Agricultural Production Systems Alter the Growth and Development of the Forage Cactus in a Semi-arid Environment. Hygor Kristoph Muniz Nunes Alves. Alexandre Maniçoba da Rosa Ferraz Jardim. Thieres George Freire da Silva. FULL-LENGTH RESEARCH ARTICLE 23 December 2023 Pages: 147 - 159.

  15. Sustainable agriculture

    And sustainable management hinges on deep understanding of human-nature relationships. Behavioural sciences can bring invaluable insights to our ways of mapping the complexity of such ...

  16. (PDF) Sustainable agriculture: The study on farmers' perception and

    Sustainable agriculture: The study on farmers' perception and practices regarding nutrient management and limiting losses March 2018 Journal of Water and Land Development 36(1):67-75

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    Natural Resources, Conservation, and Environment. Topics relating to the environment, including, weather and climate change, conservation practices, environmental justice, invasive species and soil.

  18. Topics

    Topics. NIFA supports research, educational, and extension efforts in a wide range of scientific fields related to agricultural and behavioral sciences. In all of these areas, you will find NIFA working in pursuit of our vision. To address contemporary agricultural challenges, we seek to catalyze transformative discoveries and enhance education ...

  19. Home

    Agricultural Research is a multi-disciplinary journal covering all disciplines of agricultural sciences to promote global research. The official publication of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS), India. Focuses on new and emerging fields and concepts in agricultural sciences. Provides a forum for Agricultural Scientists to ...

  20. 85 Farming Topic Ideas to Write about & Essay Samples

    The dairy meal is one of the feeds that guarantee better productivity to the farmer. The Entomo Farms Company's Analysis. Such an approach contributes to improved control over the company's development and ensures that Entomo can incorporate customers' feedback for enhancement. Fish Farming Impacts on the Environment.

  21. Agriculture and Food Technology Research Paper Topics

    This page lists 19 topics and provides an overview of agriculture and food technology development. 1. Activated Carbon. Activated carbon is made from any substance with a high carbon content, and activation refers to the development of the property of adsorption. Activated carbon is important in purification processes, in which molecules of ...

  22. PDF Current research needs for sustainable agriculture

    Figure 1: Key aspects of agricultural sustainability As a result, the productivity of agriculture has been stagnating in recent years and the output of agriculture at risk will result in migration from rural to the urban and suburban areas. The agricultural sector now faces the challenge of guaranteeing food safety amidst the constraints.

  23. Agriculture Research Papers, Project Topics

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate effect of transportation on welfare of indigenous chicken. A sample of 8 hens were randomly selected from the target population. Each treatment had an equal number of mature indigenous chicken hens weighing between 1.25 and 2.4 kg. The first batch of 4 birds were tied together and loaded on to ...