• Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU)
  • University of the Punjab
  • Scholarships in USA
  • Scholarships in Canada
  • Scholarships in Belgium
  • Scholarships in Germany
  • Scholarships in Russia
  • Scholarships in Taiwan
  • Scholarships without English Proficiency
  • Online Courses
  • Privacy Policy
  • Terms of Services

Edudictive Logo

Download AIOU Solved Assignments 2021: Spring & Autumn • PDFs

AIOU Solved Assignments for All programs in PDf

Now you can download your AIOU Solved Assignments either of Semester Spring or Semester Autumn for FREE. All assignments are in PDF and easily accesible for the students.

So, here below are the Solved Assignments for Matric, Intermediate (FA, I.Com), Bachelors (BS, BA, B.Ed), Masters (MA, MEd, M. phil), PhD. Find AIOU Tutor online for All Program by Roll Number

Note : All Assignments are uploaded and updated from third-party service. If some assignments are not available then wait for a span of time. We do not upload these assignment directly from us.

Check Also: Download AIOU Books in PDF online of All Program

AIOU Intermediate (FA, I.Com) Solved Assignments 2021

Students who take admission in AIOU Intermediate Programs are really newbies to AIOU System and not much familiar with the AIOU Rules and Regulations.

Allama Iqbal Open University Intermediate (FA, I.Com) solved assignments are available in PDF Format and you can easily save these or download these files into your Mobile or PC easily.

Download your AIOU Intermediate Solved Assignments from the above mentioned button.

Note: Check AIOU Tutor Letter online by Roll Number [Updated]

AIOU B.Ed Solved Assignments 2021

Allama Iqbal Open University offers B.Ed program of 1.5, 2.5 & 4 years. You have to submit your Assignments in each semester and it is mandatory to get passing marks in each assignment.

All assignments are updated for AIOU B.Ed program for 2021 in Semester Spring & Semester Autumn on the page.

Click on the link above above and download your desired solved assignment in PDF, which will be easily accessible.

Note: Check AIOU BA Program Details [Admission, Fee, Result, Books]

AIOU BA Solved Assignments 2021

BA (Gen. Group) is the most enrolled program by students in Allama Iqbal Open University. And, students have to submit their assignments because the Obtained Marks in assignments will be counted in final exams.

So, download all BA codes assignments from the below button of both Semester Spring & Semester Autumn.

If you can an assignment of a specific code is missing or there is any issue regarding this then you may let us know by sending us a comment from below.

Note: Download AIOU Books in PDF 2021

AIOU BS ODL Solved Assignments 2021

There is a wide-range program offered by Allama Iqbal Open University to its students. Students of BS ODL are also required to send Assignments to their Tutor every semester.

All assignments will be checked by your tutor and the Obtained Marks will be counted counted in final exams.

Note: Check AIOU Date Sheet of All Programs 2021

AIOU Associate Degree Program (ADP) Solved Assignments 2021

Associate Degree Program is also a best choice for the students of AIOU. Assignments are also mandatory for ADP students to submit them to assigned tutor.

You are requested not to copy these solved assignments as same as they are. All these solved assignments are just for your guidance.

Note: Check AIOU Roll Number Slip 2021

AIOU Masters (MA, MSc, M.Ed) Solved Assignments 2021

All you need to download the AIOU MA, M.Ed Assignments is click on the click below button. It will redirect you to dedicated page for AIOU Solved Assignments.

Solved Assignments for both Semester Spring & Semester Autumn are updated. All these solved assignments are just a click away.

Note: Check AIOU Result 2021 by Roll Number [Updated]

How to submit AIOU Assignments?

Well, now in this 2002 Allama Iqbal Open University has provided two options to submit their assignments. Either you can use AIOU LMS (Agahi Portal) to submit your assignments or you can send your assignments to your Tutor.

So, first of check your Updated AIOU Tutor Letter record from here.

And, just send these assignments in an envalope at your Tutor Address.

And, the second option is to scan your hand-written assignments to soft-form and upload them on AIOU LMS (Agahi Portal).

Keep remembered that the maximum size for one assignment to upload is 5 MB and only PDF or DOCX files are permitted.

Follow us on our Facebook Page  or  Join our Facebook group for AIOU updates

Follow us on Twitter

You can use any Scanner (CamScanner) in your Mobile Phone and can scan the pages of written assignments to a PDF file in that Scanner App.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How much assignments marks are added in final result.

It is mandatory for every student to submit the assignments and get passing marks in Assignments. In the final result, 70% Marks are counted from your Final Exams and 30% Marks are counted from your Assignments.

What if I do not submit Assignments?

If you do not submit your assignments or you are failed to get passing marks in assignments then in your result Re-Appear will be written. This means that you have to take the exams again and have to submit your assignments again.

Is it necessary to submit Assignments to Allama Iqbal Open University- AIOU?

Yes, It is necessary to submit AIOU Assignments to your tutor else you will be considered to fail in your final result. You will also get failed in your final results if you are unable to get passing marks in your assignments. Your AOU Tutor marks your assignments in the same way as your papers are checked in the annual examination.

How I can download these AIOU Solved Assignments?

Well, you can download these solved assignments in PDF by going to the section for which you want to download Solved Assignments. If you want to download AIOU Solved Assignment for the B.Ed program then click on the Button above for B.Ed solved assignment. And, you will be directed toward a dedicated page for B.Ed Solved Assignments where you can download them in PDF.

What if I get failed in Assignment Marks even after sending them to Tutor?

If you sent your written assignments to your tutor or uploaded them on AIOU LMS portal and still you get failed in Assignments Marks then you should contact AIOU Regional office. Provide them your receipt of sending assignments to Tutor and fill an Application Form for the correction of your result.

Ask your Question

You can easily ask your questions in the  comments  below. Our team will try their best to promptly help you and will answer your questions as soon as possible.


Aiou previous result of all years | 2022 to 2021 history of result, aiou extends the last date of admissions (spring 2022), aiou admission 2022 apply online: semester spring & autumn, [2022] download aiou books pdf (all programs), download aiou roll no slips 2022 • all programs, 49 comments.

i need solved assignments of code 8611 8623 8624 8625 and 8626 ;AIOU 2ND SEMESTER, KINDLY .

456.1413.1414.1416.1430.1428 Sir ye assignment agr PDF samster autumn 2021 ki hon to plz send Karen

Asslam o alikum sir, Muja M.L۔I.S ki solved assignment chaiya code 5500,5501,5502,5503,5504 hai plz send me

Please send me the assignment of course code 6435,6436,6437,6441 and 6441

For assignment kindly contact this num +923121093909

AOA.im here new aiou student my subject code are 0416.0417.1423 0413 send assignment questions and answers thanks for informing..

I need 336 assignment please send me.

I want assignments of ba second semester,,code 485,472,1431

1431. 1429.1424.484.487 En ki aSsegnment PDf bnani hn

Asslam o alikum sir, Muja M.A islamic studies ki solved assignment chaiya code 2621,2624,2627,2632 hai plz send me

Plz send me m.a Urdu solved assginment 2 semester

Please send 1424,1429,473 solved assignments

MILS Semester 2nd spring 2021 all assigment

Assignment spring 2021 387″2 Or assignment 364″2 Or assignment 312″3 Nae h ager h to old h so please in ki corection kr dain

F.A assignments code no 343,305,330 spring 2021

B.a bussniss maths ki spring2021 ki assignment nai hai kia


Matric assingment code#201 and code#202

Bs english smster fourth 9056,9057,9058,9059,9060,9061 Pdf bna dy

B.com assignment 1413. 1414. 1416. 1428 Yh sab k PDF ni mil ry h sir

Plz send me adp in library and information science second solved assignment

LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

AIOU MASTER ACADEMY - Educational Guide Line to Students of AIOU. But This is Not an Official AIOU Web

B.Ed/BS Solved Assignments Autumn 2021

AIOU Master Academy Solved Assignments

Single Girls Friendship

Sta630 mega file – papers (mid/final) – solution vu, aiou solved assignments 2 code 8610 autumn & spring 2023, aiou solved assignments 2 code 8606 autumn & spring 2023, aiou solved assignments 2 code 8604 autumn & spring 2023, spring 2023 aiou solved assignment matric, fia new update 2023 || fia most important information 2023, aiou solved assignments 2 code 8603 autumn & spring 2023, aiou assignments || aiou solved assignments 2023.

  • AIOU Solved Assignments Autumn & Spring 2023-2024

AIOU solved assignments of spring 2023 and autumn 2024 are available of Matric, FA, BA, BS (Old), Associate Degree, BSc, B.Ed, MA, MSc, and M.Ed levels. Any student can download AIOU solved assignment  from here. Click on the concerned level for the download assignment.

AIOU Solved Assignments of Autumn & Spring 2023-24

Since the day Allama Iqbal Open University was established, it has been striving to provide quality education to its students. Today, the university is not only recognized in Pakistan but also across the globe. It is the largest distance learning institution in Asia and offers more than 700 programs to its students. One of the advantages of studying at AIOU is that the university provides solved assignments to its students. These assignments are a great resource for students as they help them prepare for their exams and improve their grades. In this blog post, we will be providing you with a list of AIOU solved assignments for Autumn & Spring 2023-24. We hope that these assignments will be of help to you as you prepare for your examinations.

What is AIOU Solved Assignment?

AIOU solved assignment is the solution of a particular problem that has been assigned to a student by his/her instructor. The solution is written in detail and is provided to the student so that he/she can understand the concept behind the problem and how to solve it.

There are many benefits of using AIOU solved assignments. Firstly, it saves a lot of time as the student does not have to figure out the solution on his/her own. Secondly, it helps the student understand the material better as the solutions are usually explained in detail. Thirdly, it provides a sense of direction to the student as to how he/she should approach similar problems in future. Lastly, it also reduces stress levels as the student knows that someone has already figured out the solution and he/she just has to follow the steps.

Calculadora   Alicia By AIOU

Calculadora  de  Alicia  es una herramienta en línea que te permite realizar cálculos matemáticos de manera rápida y sencilla. Calculadora Alicia  is an education app developed by CDM DEV. The APK has been available since September 2022.  Calculadora Alicia has been used By 100k+ users monthly here You go for Calculadora Alicia .

AIOU Solved Assignment Matric To Masters

When students of Allama Iqbal Open University are searching for solved assignments of AIOU, they always type “AIOU Solved Assignment Matric To Masters” in Google.

There are different websites which provides solved assignments of AIOU but the problem is that most of these websites provides old and outdated solved assignments. Now the question is that from where students can get updated and latest solved assignments of AIOU? The answer is very simple, they can get it from here.

Yes, you have heard it right! We are providing latest and up to date solved assignments of Allama Iqbal Open University for all classes i.e Matric to Masters level. So if you are also looking for AIOU Solved Assignment Matric To Masters then you are at right place because we are going to provide you latest solved assignments of Autumn & Spring 2024.

You just need to send us email at [email protected] with your name, code number and address and we will send you required assignment(s) on your address via Pakistan post within 2 to 3 working days.

How To Submit AIOU Solved Assignment

Assuming that you have already downloaded and installed the Allama Iqbal Open University assignment submission form from their website, we will now move on to filling it out. The first thing you need to do is take a look at the solved assignment and find out which course it is for. Each solved assignment has a title page with this information.

In the “1” box on the submission form, you will need to write the code of the course for which you are submitting the solved assignment. In the “2” box, write the semester in which you took the course. For example, if you are submitting a solved assignment for a course you took in Spring 2024, then you would write “Spring 2023” in this box.

In the “3” box, write your name as it appears on your student ID card. In the “4” box, write your student ID number. In the “5” box, write your complete mailing address including your city and postal code.

At the bottom of the form, there is a section for attaching documents. You will need to attach your solved assignment here. Once you have done that, simply click on the “Submit” button and your assignment will be sent off to Allama Iqbal Open University!

How To Download Aiou Solved Assignment

There are generally two ways by which students can get their hands on AIOU solved assignments. The first is to buy them from external sources, and the second is to download them from the official website of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU).

If you want to purchase the solved assignments from an external source, then you will need to make sure that the seller is reliable and has a good reputation. You can check this by reading customer reviews or asking for recommendations from friends or family members. Once you have found a reliable seller, you can proceed with making your purchase.

If you would rather download the solved assignments from AIOU’s website, then you will first need to create an account on the site. Once you have done this, you will be able to log in and access all of the resources that are available to students. In order to find the solved assignment that you are looking for, simply use the search function on the site. Once you have found the assignment that you need, simply click on the “Download” button and follow the instructions provided.

Importance of AIOU Assignments 2023 – 2024

Aiou assignments are too much important for the students. Furthermore, without submitting  solved assignments  you can’t get passed your semester. Because of some issue, you don’t submit  a solved assignment  you’ll declare Failed. Even you attend your exams and got 90% marks doesn’t matter. So Assignment submission is compulsory.

People also ask: qdownloader

AIOU Solved Assignments Autumn & Spring Last Date 2023

AIOU announces the last date of  solved assignments  at the start of the semester. The Assignments are based on your course know you want to know what it means. Like some of your books have 2 assignments and some books have 4 assignments. So you don’t get worried about the assignments just focused on solved assignments and submit them.

Where TO Submit Aiou Solved Assignments 2023-2024

When you solved your assignments the main thing is to submit. Most students have a question we solved our assignments but know what to do. Students when you join aiou they will announce tutors every semester and you’ll get your Tutors Letter At home. After SOlving Assignments submit them to your AIOU Tutors they’ll check your assignments and submit your AIOU Solved Assignments Marks to the university.

AIOU HSSC (F.A) Solved Assignments Autumn & Spring 2023-24

We All know that there are many courses/degrees offered by aiou at this level e.g., F.A, ICS, and i. Com! These are also too difficult to solve assignments at this level due to the lack of inflexibility of new subjects. We have uploaded too few solved assignments for this level at this time. You can also buy  solved assignments  from us.

Bachelor (B.A) Aiou Solved Assignments Autumn & Spring 2023-24

Bachelor (B.a) level is an easy one for those who already attend F.a Degree from Allama Iqbal open university. Do you know why I say it easy for old students? if not then you may know that old students at any college or university are well known about the Institute Rule’s and study system. A lot of  Aiou Solved Assignments were already uploaded to the site. if you didn’t found your required one then you can contact us to buy aiou solved assignment .

AIOU Solved Assignment 2024?

Bachelor (B.a) level is an easy one for those who already attend F.a Degree from Allama Iqbal open university. Do you know why I say it easy for old students? If not then you may know that old students at any college or university are well known about the Institute Rule’s and study system. A lot of  Solved Assignment  were already uploaded to the site. If you didn’t found your required one then you can contact us to buy  aiou solved assignment 2024 .

AIOU Matric Solved Assignments Autumn & Spring 2023 Download Free

AIOU Small Degree program is Matric. Many of the aiou matric students don’t know how to download matric aiou solved assignments from the sites on google. They just search their codes and the open site even they have no content or they are paid but. EDUCATION TUTORS providing aiou solved assignments free of cost no single penny. ALLAH Says that “I’ll give you that of course what that you have tried to get” Check Also:  AIOU Tutor 2023

AIOU Solved Assignment Autumn & Spring HSSC (I.COM, FA, ICS “All Intermediate Courses”)

The other and the bigger degree program after Metric is HSSC. AIOU has many courses in HSSC like ICOM FA FA IT ICS and others. As well as we are also providing HSSC solved assignments to all our Brother and sister they are getting an education from aiou. We update our solved assignments session at the start of every new semester in spring and autumn. SO if you want solved assignments then GET in touch with us.

AIOU Solved Assignments For Becholer’s & Master’s level

aiou solved assignments

AIOU Solved Assignments

How To Submit AIOU Solved Assignment 2023 To AIOU Tutors

99 thoughts on “ aiou solved assignments autumn & spring 2023-2024 ”.

I want to win lottery

Gulam yasdani Indian jub sudi madina Al Manhal water company mobile number 0580593674

Gulam yasdani Indian Job sudi madina Al Manhal water company pohne number 0580593674 Website no

Gulam yasdani Indian Job sudi madina Al Manhal water company Phone number 0580593674

We want eating food every day 3 time so I need lottery money no have you work

Vasantharajan my Ac No:164401000009055

Lottery program of Shaikha Mahara of Dubey for public like in the world

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

cropped aiou 2

  • Uncategorized

AIOU Course Code 846-1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

AIOU Course Code 846 1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

Assignment No.1

Q.1      Explain various activities occurring in each phase of teaching while highlighting on the different phase of teaching.

Through teaching the teacher brings a desirable change in the learner. Both the concepts teaching and learning are interrelated to each other. Development of all-round personality of the learner is the final goal of teaching and learning. During teaching an interaction takes place between an experienced person (teacher) and an inexperienced person (student). Here the main aim is to bring change in the behavior of the student.

Teachers teach students at three levels. They have to keep in mind about the developmental stage of the learners so that desired educational objectives can be achieved. These three levels are

  • Memory level: Thoughtless teaching
  • Understanding level: Thoughtful teaching
  • Reflective level: Upper thoughtful level

I’ll be doing a separate article on these levels of teaching but for now, in this article, we will have the gist of all these three levels of teachings along with their advantages and disadvantages.

Memory level of teaching

It is the first and thoughtless level of teaching. It is concerned with memory or mental ability that exists in all living beings. Teaching at memory level is considered to be the lowest level of teaching. At this level,

  • the thinking ability does not play any role.
  • students only cram the facts, information, formulas and laws that are taught to them.
  • the teaching is nothing but learning the subject matter by rote.[Bigge, Morris L(1967)]
  • the role of the teacher is prominent and that of the student is secondary.
  • The study material is organized and pre-planned. The teacher presents the study material in a sequential order.
  • Memory level teaching lacks insight. Psychologically, it is cognitive level teaching.

Merits of memory level teaching

  • Useful for children at lower classes. This is because of their intellect us under development and they have a rote memory.
  • The role of the teacher is important in this level of teaching and he is free to make choices of subject matter, plan it and can present it at will.
  • The knowledge acquired at memory level teaching forms a basis for the future i.e. when student’s intelligence and thinking is required.
  • Memory level teaching acts as the first step for understanding and reflective levels of teaching. It is pre-requisite for understanding level teaching.

Demerits of memory level teaching

  • This does not contribute to the development of the student’s capabilities.
  • Since at this level student learns by rote, the knowledge gained does not prove helpful in real life situations as it does not develops the talents of students.
  • The pupils are kept in strict discipline and cramming is insisted on this teaching.
  • Intelligence does not carry any importance in this type of teaching and it lacks motivation

Reflective level of teaching

This level is also known as introspective level. Reflecting on something means giving careful thought to something over a period of time. It also means thinking deeply about something.

Reflective level of teaching is considered to be the highest level at which teaching is carried out.

  • It is highly thoughtful and useful.
  • A student can attain this level only after going through memory level and understanding level.
  • Teaching at the reflective level enables the students to solve the real problems of life.
  • At this level, the student is made to face a real problematic situation. The student by understanding the situation and using his critical abilities succeeds in solving the problem.
  • At this level emphasis is laid on identifying the problem, defining it and finding a solution to it. The student’s original thinking and creative-abilities develop at this level.
  • The role of the teacher in this level of teaching is democratic. He does not force knowledge on the students but develops in their talents and capabilities.
  • The role of the students is quite active.
  • reflective level of teaching is that which is problem-centered and the student is busy in original imagination.

Merits of reflective level teaching

  • The teaching at this level is not teacher-centered or subject-centered, it is leaner-centered.
  • There is an interaction between the teacher and the taught at the reflective level teaching.
  • At this level, teaching is appropriate for the higher class.
  • At this level, teaching is highly thoughtful and useful than the teaching at the memory or understanding level.

Demerits of reflective level teaching

  • not suitable for small children at the lower level of teaching. It is suitable only for mentally matured children
  • At this level, the study material is neither organized nor pre-planned. Therefore students cannot acquire systematic and c;rganized knowledge of their study courses.

Q.2      Discuss the planning of teaching with special reference to task analysis and taxonomy of objectives.                                                                                                     

Teaching is a complex task. We need systematic planning to perform this task. Teaching has to be done in steps. The different steps constituting the process are called the  phases of teaching . Each phase has some operations of teaching which create the situation for learning. Teaching process can be divided into three phases/stages.

  • Pre-active phase – refers to planning
  • Interactive phase – refers to the conduct and management
  • Post-active phase – refers to the follow-up and consolidation

Different phases involve different operations of teaching.

The pre-active phase of teaching:-

  • It is the phase of planning for teaching.
  • Good planning makes the task of teacher smooth, functional and successful.
  • There one two major steps involved in this phase.
  • Establishment of some kind of goals or objectives.
  • Discovering ways and means to active these objectives.

Operation of teaching at pre-active phase:-

Before classroom teaching, a teacher has to perform many tasks. This phase includes all these activities which a teacher performs before entering the classroom. This stage involves the following activities.

(1) The formulation or fixing up of goal:-

  • The teacher formulates in detail the instructional objectives in behavioral terms by using the taxonomy of educational objectives.
  • Objectives one determined according to student’s psychology and needs of the society and the school.
  • Objectives are determined according to what changes teacher expects in students by achieving these objectives.

(2) Selection of content or subject matter to be taught:-

  • After fixation of teaching objectives teacher decides about the content to be presented before learners.
  • For content selection following points should be kept in mind.
  • The demand of syllabus/curriculum.
  • The entry behavior of the accepted learners.
  • Level of the motivation of learners.
  • Teacher’s preference for assessment related to the content.

 (3) The arrangement of ideas and style of teaching:-

After selecting the presentable content, the teacher arranges the elements of the content in a logical and psychological sequence. Sequencing should be able to assist in the transfer of learning.

(4) Selecting Intuitional Methodology:-

The teacher has to select appropriate strategies and tactics of teaching, keeping in view, of the content and objectives of teaching. This operation is very important in teacher-education programme.

(5) Development of teaching strategies:-

The teacher should decide beforehand about strategies and tricks, which he has to use during the course of his classroom teaching. He should decide about

  • When and what device of teaching should be used.
  • When the teaching aids will be used.
  • When recapitulation or evaluation etc. will be done.

(6)  Deciding the duration, place, and management of classroom teaching.

(7)  A decision about evaluation tools and techniques.

So, this stage is about working out the details of the teaching or activities a teacher want to perform in the class. Here teacher hypothesizes about the possible outcome of his action.

The interactive phase of teaching:-

This phase refers to the execution of the plan made during the pre-active phase. This is actual classroom teaching. In this phase, the teacher gives students the learning experiences through some suitable modes.

In this phase, teachers give learners a pre-determined environment. The teacher interacts with students so that desired changes can be brought in the learner.

So learning is directed in pre-determined directions to achieve pre-determined goals. In this process, the teacher provides learners with verbal stimulation. This stimulation can be of various kinds. Few examples are:-

  • asking questions
  • listening to student’s response
  • providing guidance
  • making explanations etc.

Operations of teaching at interactive phase:-

This phase of teaching

  • includes all those activities which a teacher uses after entering the classroom.
  • includes actual teaching done in the classroom.

In this face to face encounter with learners. Here the teacher uses some of the techniques, aids, and material planned in the first phase. This helps the teacher in achieving the relevant objectives that were already set. Here the following operations are undertaken by the teacher.

(1) Setting up the class:-

It refers to the activity of perceiving the due size of the class, getting the feel of the mood of learners. here teacher should be aware of

  • how many in the group are looking attentive
  • how many are negligent and disinterested
  • who are sharper ones
  • who are troublemakers etc.

(2) Knowing the learners:-

Knowing the learners means to know about the previous knowledge of the new learners. It is done after preserving the class size. For this teacher can start by knowing the abilities, interests, attitudes and academic backgrounds of the new learners.

(3) Starting teaching:-

At this stage, the teacher starts teaching. This is done after diagnosing by questioning. Here, two types of activities are involved.

The initiation and response are known as ‘verbal interaction’

The interactive phase of teaching is the classroom interaction between teacher and students. The interaction may be verbal or non-verbal. Interaction is the most important at this stage. This is the interchange between teacher and student by initiation or response operations.

In this phase, all the activities performed by a teacher when he enters the classroom are combined together. These activities one concerned with the presentation of content in the class.

Q.3      Discuss and different between the term task analysis and content analysis. Give examples in support of your answer.

Task and/or content analysis is a set of activities that help instructional designers understand the domain (knowledge, skills, etc.) to be taught. It is a critical part of the instructional design process, solving at least three problems for the designer:

  • It defines the knowledge and skills required to solve the performance problem or alleviate a performance need. This step is crucial because most designers are working with an unfamiliar domain.
  • Because the process forces subject-matter experts to work through each individual step of what is required to solve a problem, subtle details of the knowledge and skills to be taught can be more easily identified.
  • During the process, the designer has the opportunity to view material from the learner’s perspective. Using this perspective, the designer can often gain insight into appropriate instructional strategies for the materials they will ultimately create.

Task/content analysis does not begin in a vacuum. It begins with the needs or goals derived from the definition of the instructional problem. Designers should also consider what they uncovered during their learner analysis. An understanding of the learner’s knowledge and background related to the instructional domain helps designers determine the beginning point for the analysis as well as the depth and breadth of analysis. The output of a task/content analysis is documentation of the content that could possibly be included in the instructional materials. This output then serves as input for developing detailed instructional objectives.

A task/content analysis can take many different forms. Designers most often work with one or more subject-matter experts (SMEs), individuals who are experts in the content area. The SME is our link to the instructional domain; we rely on this individual (or individuals) to provide accurate, detailed information for use in developing the instructional unit. Our task as designers is to help the SME elaborate on the content and tasks in a meaningful, logical manner.

In this chapter, we describe the different kinds of content structures designers might encounter in their work, and how each can require different types of strategies to analyze (and later teach) effectively. We then describe three specific techniques for analyzing these knowledge and skill structures: (a) a topic analysis well suited for defining cognitive knowledge; (b) a procedural analysis for use with psychomotor tasks, job tasks, or cognitive sequences involving a series of steps; and (c) a critical incident method, which is useful for analyzing interpersonal skills.

Six structures are often associated with a task/content analysis: facts, concepts, principles and rules, procedures, and interpersonal skills.

A fact is an arbitrary association between two things. For example, ‘‘The chemical symbol for potassium is K’’ is a fact that describes a relationship between potassium and K. Most topics include many facts because they are the building blocks or tools of any subject—the ‘‘vocabulary’’ the learner must master for understanding. But unless facts are arranged in structured patterns, they will be of limited use to a learner and are often quickly forgotten.

Concepts are categories used for grouping similar or related ideas, events, or objects. For example, we might use the concept of soft drinks to categorize the aisle in the grocery store that contains colas, orange drink, root beer, and so forth. The concept of fruit would include apples, oranges, bananas, and dates, but not potatoes. We use concepts to simplify information by grouping similar ideas or objects together and assigning the grouping a name (e.g., fruit, islands, or democracies). Some concepts, such as fruit, are considered concrete concepts because we can easily show an example. Concepts such as safety, liberty, peace, and justice are abstract concepts because they are difficult to represent or illustrate.

Principles and Rules

Principles and rules describe a relationship between two concepts. In microeconomics, we can derive several principles from a supply-and-demand curve. For example, ‘‘as price increases, the supply increases’’ is a principle that describes a direct relationship between two concepts (i.e., price and supply) that increase and decrease together. ‘‘As price decreases, demand increases’’ describes a different relationship between price and demand that causes one to increase as the other decreases.

A procedure is an ordered sequence of steps a learner must execute to complete a task. A recipe for making a cake or casserole is a procedure. Similarly, a procedure could be a series of steps needed to plant a rosebush, or it could be a complex series of cognitive processes required to debug a computer program or diagnose the flu.

Interpersonal Skills

This broad category includes behaviors and objectives related to interpersonal communication, for example the development of interviewing skills, solving group conflict, leading a group, or how to sit (e.g., appropriate body language) when being interviewed on television.

A topic analysis is used to define connections and relationships between the facts, concepts, principles, and rules that make up a knowledge domain. Such an analysis is typically done in layers, much like what an archaeologist finds when excavating a site. First, the top layer of soil is scraped away. Then layers of earth are removed, and each artifact’s identity and location are recorded. Similarly, a designer working with the SME carefully reveals the first layer of information while looking for indicators of knowledge structures (i.e., facts, concept, and principles). Once the structure is revealed, additional detail is gathered for each structure, and new information appears as the designer digs deeper into the content.

A topic analysis thus provides two types of information. First, it identifies the content that will be the focus of the intended instruction. Second, it identifies the structure of the components. We should note that during a topic analysis, the designer might also identify one or more procedures that require analysis. While the topic analysis is not suited for analyzing procedures, our next methodology, procedural analysis, would be appropriate. As you conduct a topic analysis, then, you should remain focused on identifying the facts, concepts, and principles that make up the domain.

Analyzing a Topic

Let’s examine a topic analysis example. Imagine we are designing a beginning carpentry course. The course includes an introductory module on different types of wood fasteners. To begin, we can ask an SME to describe the different fasteners. Our question prompts the following outline:

The SME considered these three major categories adequate to describe the various types of fasteners. So we might next ask the SME to further define each category. He expanded our outline as we asked additional questions. To get started, we might ask from what material fasteners are made, how they are sized, and how they are used.

  • Generally made from wire
  • Example: 7-penny nail is 2.25 inches long
  • Typically driven into one or more pieces of wood with a hammer or nail gun
  • Made from steel
  • Size determined by the gauge (thickness) and length
  • Length varies from 0.25 to 6 inches
  • Usually twisted into a hole with screwdriver
  • Provide a more secure joint than nails
  • Measured by length and diameter
  • Available in fine or coarse threads
  • Placed through a hole and then a nut is tightened from opposite side

Let’s examine the content structure identified in the outline. Some of the facts identified in the outline are as follows:

  • Nails are generally made from wire
  • Bolts are made of steel
  • Bolts are measured by length and diameter
  • Screw length varies from .25 to 6 inches

The concepts identified in the topic analysis are:

One procedure was identified in the task analysis:

Length of nails 10-penny or less is determined by dividing size by 4 and adding 0.5 inch.

Our SME helped us identify one principle in the content:

Screws provide a more secure joint than nails.

Next, we can ask the SME to provide detailed information on each fastener category, starting with nails. Once he finishes, we can organize the content using the following steps:

  • Identify the different content structures (facts, concepts, and principles; we might have also identified procedures, and interpersonal skills that we will also need to analyze using other procedures).
  • Group related facts, concepts, principles, and interpersonal skills. For example, in our full outline of wood fasteners, we would group all the information about nails, then the information about screws, and so forth.
  • Arrange the various components into a logical, sequential order.
  • Prepare the final outline to represent your task analysis.

Q.4      Critically examine the pedagogical models of teaching. Which model do you consider most important for the situation of Pakistan?

Instructions in higher education can be organized in different ways: The organization of learning activities can be made by the teacher or by the student.

Student-centered learning environments Student-centered learning environments reflect the characteristics of constructivism. There is not real consensus regarding the definition of student-centered learning (Lea, Stephenson, & Troy, 2003). However, there is some consensus about student-centered approaches: Students have responsibility over their own learning, opposed to a prominent role of the teacher. The following characteristics are part of student-centered approaches (Beaten, Kyndt, Struyven, & Dochy, 2010):

  • Students are active and independent.
  • The teacher has a guiding or coaching role.
  • Knowledge is viewed as tool instead of a goal.

In short, students are actively involved in the learning process rather than passive receivers of information in student-centered learning environments. One of the objectives of these environments is to stimulate deep learning (Beaten et al., 2010).

Examples of student-centered learning environments  Many different instructional methods in higher education exist that can be categorized as student-centered.

Problem-based learning One well-known method is problem-based learning (PBL). In PBL, students work collaboratively in small groups on realistic, ill-structured problems (e.g. description of a situation that could happen in real life), under guidance of a tutor (Barrows, 1996). The problem (i.e. authentic task) forms the starting point of the learning process. Students start a discussion about the problem based on common knowledge and their own experiences. Students need to formulate learning issues about the aspects of the problem that stayed unclear during the discussion. Afterwards, they search for relevant literature by themselves. After self-study, students discuss their findings and address the learning issues together in the group in the presence of a tutor. The tutor guides the discussion rather than he/she provides information to students (i.e., scaffolding) (Loyens, Kirschner, & Paas, 2012).

Project-based learning and Case-based learning Project-based learning is somewhat similar to problem-based learning, as learning is organized around a collaborative goal (Savery, 2006). The difference between both methods is that the vehicle is a project rather than a problem. Students need to accomplish a well-defined end product (i.e. project) and the learning process is to tackle the obstacles they meet when achieving the project. Teachers act as coaches to give expert guidance and suggestions for improvements. A similar instruction type is case-based learning. Students learn on the basis of well-structured cases, in order to prepare them for work in their profession (Savery, 2006).

Project- and case-based learning are somewhat different from problem-based learning, as in problem-based learning students have more autonomy in setting the goals of the problem and its outcomes.

Inquiry-based learning  Curiosity of the students plays big part in this student-centered instruction type. Questioning is the start of this approach. Students need to investigate, create new knowledge, and discuss. The role of the tutor is to both guide the group process, and to provide information to students (Savery, 2006).

Interactive lectures In general, lecturing is not typically student-centered. In traditional lecturing, a teacher transmits information to students and students rely on rote memorization. However, also during lectures, the teacher can try to turning the lecture into an interactive form, and focus more on the student. Mazur (2009) gives an example of this. During his lectures, students need to come prepared and they are asked (MC) questions. Students answer these questions with electronic devises, so the teacher can see the distribution of the given answers. Students are encouraged to discuss their (different) answers with peers. This way, students are stimulated to be engaged in the learning process and feedback for both teacher and student is provided.

Teacher-centered learning environments  Contrary to student-centered learning is teacher-centered learning. As can be expected in these types of learning environments, the teacher is more involved in the learning process of students. For example by directly providing information and instructions (e.g., in a traditional lecture). Typical for teacher-centered environments is that information is told independent of the context in which it occurs (Lea et al., 2003). Further, teacher-centered environments are characterized as more stable and well-structured (Elen, Clarebout, Léonard, & Lowyck, 2007).

Q.5      Discuss the model of reflective level of teaching and also explain the limitations of reflective level of teaching.

Teachers teach students at three levels. They have to keep in mind about the developmental stage of the learners so that desired educational objectives can be achieved.  I’ll be doing a separate article on these levels of teaching but for now, in this article, we will have the gist of all these three levels of teachings along with their advantages and disadvantages. It is the first and thoughtless level of teaching. It is concerned with memory or mental ability that exists in all living beings. Teaching at memory level is considered to be the lowest level of teaching. At this level,

  • The thinking ability does not play any role.
  • Students only cram the facts, information, formulas and laws that are taught to them.
  • The role of the teacher is prominent and that of the student is secondary.
  • Reflective level of teaching is that which is problem-centered and the student is busy in original imagination.

Merits and Demerits of reflective level teaching


Leave a Comment Cancel Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

علامہ اقبال اوپن یونیورسٹی  کی   حل شدہ اسائنمنٹس۔ پی ڈی ایف۔ ورڈ فائل۔ ہاتھ سے لکھی ہوئی، لیسن پلین، فائنل لیسن پلین، پریکٹس رپورٹ، ٹیچنگ پریکٹس، حل شدہ تھیسس، حل شدہ ریسرچ پراجیکٹس انتہائی مناسب ریٹ پر گھر بیٹھے منگوانے کے لیے  واٹس ایپ پر رابطہ کریں۔ اس کے علاوہ داخلہ بھجوانے ،فیس جمع کروانے ،بکس منگوانے ،آن لائن ورکشاپس،اسائنمنٹ ایل ایم ایس پر اپلوڈ کروانے کے لیے رابطہ کریں۔


Recent posts, 8618 school leadership, 8617 plan implementation and educational management, 8616 school administration, 8615 management strategies, 8614 educational statistics, 8612 professionalism in teaching, 8611 critical thinking and reflective practices, 8609 philosophy of education, 8606 citizenship education and community, 8605 educational leadership, to get all aiou assignments contact us on whatsapp​.

cropped aiou 2

WhatsApp Us Get Unique Assignments

Unique Assignments are also available. To Order Unique Assignments Contact us on WhatsApp


Copyright © All rights are reserved


  1. AIOU Solved Assignments 1 Code 1424 Autumn 2021

    aiou assignment solved autumn 2021

  2. AIOU Solved Assignments 2 Code 247 Autumn & Spring 2021

    aiou assignment solved autumn 2021

  3. AIOU Solved Assignment 8603/B.Ed Autumn 2020-2021 Solved Assignment No

    aiou assignment solved autumn 2021

  4. AIOU Solved Assignment 8603/B.Ed Autumn 2020-2021 Solved Assignment No

    aiou assignment solved autumn 2021

  5. Download AIOU Solved Assignments 1&2 Code 248 Autumn & Spring 2022

    aiou assignment solved autumn 2021

  6. aiou solved assignment autumn 2021 || code 426 assignment no.04

    aiou assignment solved autumn 2021


  1. aiou solved assignment code 464 autumn 2022


  3. AIOU Code 347 Solved Assignment No.1 Spring 2023 #aiou #aiousolveassignments

  4. AIOU Code 456 Solved Assignment No.2 Autumn 2022 #aiou #aiousolveassignments

  5. UOU Online Assignment Date 2022

  6. 8603 (Assignment 1) Spring 2023 Solution |#AIOU |#Assignment |#Mathematics_360


  1. Free Download AIOU Solved Assignments

    AIOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS - AIOU EDU PK ASSIGNMENTS - ALL POSTGRADUATE ASSIGNMENTS - Assignments - Allama Iqbal Open University. Menu; ... AIOU Programs AUTUMN 2021; 1:

  2. B.Ed/BS Solved Assignments Autumn 2021

    Master Academy provides an educational guideline to the students of AIOU. But this is not an official website of AIOU. We have all types of AIOU solved assignments, 5 years solved/unsolved past papers, guess papers, helpings notes, and key books, etc. Guideline for thesis, reports, and projects of AIOU and all other universities.

  3. Autumn 2021-2022

    Autumn 2022AIOU Solved Assignment Autumn 2021 & Spring 2022 AIOU solved assignments of spring 2022-23 and autumn 2021-22 are available of Matric, FA, BA, BS (Old), Associate Degree, Bsc, B.Ed, MA, MSc and M.Ed level. Autumn 2023 AIOU News FPSC PPSC Jobs 2021 Today Telenor Answer Autumn 2023 Trending Jobs Loan Scholarship

  4. AIOU Solved Assignments Autumn & Spring 2023-2024

    AIOU solved assignments of spring 2023 and autumn 2024 are available of Matric, FA, BA, BS (Old), Associate Degree, BSc, B.Ed, MA, MSc, and M.Ed levels. Any student can download AIOU solved assignment from here. Click on the concerned level for the download assignment. AIOU Solved Assignments of Autumn & Spring 2023-24

  5. AIOU Course Code 846-1 Solved Assignment Autumn 2021

    At this level, the study material is neither organized nor pre-planned. Therefore students cannot acquire systematic and c;rganized knowledge of their study courses. AIOU Course Code 846-1-solved assignments,assignments solved,solved assignments of aiou,autumn 2021 assignment.