2022 tax center.

  • Share It Share Tweet Post Email Print

How Much Stock Do You Have to Buy for an IPO?

Geri Terzo

6 Tips to Save Using the Most Popular Food Delivery Apps

For those investors who have access to an initial public offering, the minimum investment requirements varies. Depending on the source through which an investor buys shares of a new issue, the IPO standards could be applied to the number of shares that must be purchased or the monetary value of an allocation for an investor to qualify for participating in a deal. Minimum requirements could apply to investing in individual IPOs or mutual funds that buy new issues.

Obtaining shares in an IPO is contingent on accounts and relationships established in the investment community. According to investment research provider Morningstar, IPO underwriters, which are the financial institutions that set deal criteria, traditionally sell IPO shares to other institutions and rich investors. Morningstar suggests that the average investor cannot participate in most IPO deals. If an investor has an account with brokerage firms or asset managers who have relationships with IPO underwriters, however, he might gain access to a new issue.

Minimum & Maximum

Gibraltar Capital, an asset management firm, established a program through which investors can buy shares of new issues in the markets. The average minimum investment requirement for clients is 10,000 shares of an IPO, while investors may be limited to buying no more than 30,000 shares of a new issue. The precise criteria may vary for each IPO. According to the Gibraltar website, investors must also agree to eventually sell shares according to terms outlined by the asset management firm.

Employee Rights

A corporation that plans to issue shares in the equity markets through an IPO may offer employees special access to the new stock. According to an article on the Huliq website, when automaker General Motors planned an IPO after the company emerged from bankruptcy, it allowed investors access to buying shares of the new issue. Current and former employees as well as auto dealerships meeting a minimum investment requirement of $1,000 were able to buy shares of the IPO over a given time period.

There may be minimum investment requirements attached to mutual funds that buy shares in multiple IPOs on behalf of investors. A benefit for investors is gaining access to the prowess and buying power that a professional investment fund and manager has. Renaissance Capital oversees one such IPO fund that allocates capital to new issues around the world. The investment minimum for standard accounts is $5,000 and a lesser $2,500 minimum attached to individual retirement accounts.

  • Morningstar: Investing in IPOs
  • Renaissance Capital: Global IPO Fund FAQ
  • Gibraltar Capital: IPO Program
  • Huliq; General Motors to offer stock options to employees; Patrick Rall; October 2010

Geri Terzo is a business writer with more than 15 years of experience on Wall Street. Throughout her career, she has contributed to the two major cable business networks in segment production and chief-booking capacities and has reported for several major trade publications including "IDD Magazine," "Infrastructure Investor" and MandateWire of the "Financial Times." She works as a journalist who has contributed to The Motley Fool and InvestorPlace. Terzo is a graduate of Campbell University, where she earned a Bachelor of Arts in mass communication.

How to Find a Property Parcel Number

woman working with digital cadastral map land register database on computer in office

Every plot of land within a county or other local jurisdiction has a unique, multiple-digit identification number assigned by the county tax assessor or other local government office.


The number, known as a property parcel number, serves to identify land according to the property lines for tax purposes only, and is not part of the land's legal description. Depending on your location, tax officials may refer to it as a parcel number, a property index number or an assessor's parcel number.

Video of the Day

Because parcel numbers and property records are public, most counties offer multiple ways for homeowners, property appraisers or property owners to find this information. Make sure you know the correct street address as well as the owner's name before beginning your property assessment research.

1. Check prior year tax statement

Look for the number on a previous tax year's statement or a property tax revaluation notice. The number will likely be in the tax information section, usually at the top of the bill.

2. Contact your Lender

Contact your lender if property taxes are included in your mortgage payment and you either can't find or didn't get a copy of the property tax bill to your correct mailing address.

3. Check the Listing Sheet

Check for the number on the property's ‌ listing sheet ‌, in the tax section of the title report, or on the property deed.

4. Ask your real estate agent

Ask your real estate agent for the property information or the parcel map.

5. Search Government Sites

Search for the number online. County government websites usually have property search tools, including maps and searchable databases that require only the property address to search for parcel information.

If you can't find your county assessor's office website, look for it on your state Department of Revenue website.

Visit the tax assessor's office in person. Some offices have self-service computers where you can look up the number. Staff members can also provide assistance.

Report an Issue

Screenshot loading...

Verilog assign statement

Hardware schematic.

Signals of type wire or a similar wire like data type requires the continuous assignment of a value. For example, consider an electrical wire used to connect pieces on a breadboard. As long as the +5V battery is applied to one end of the wire, the component connected to the other end of the wire will get the required voltage.


In Verilog, this concept is realized by the assign statement where any wire or other similar wire like data-types can be driven continuously with a value. The value can either be a constant or an expression comprising of a group of signals.

Assign Syntax

The assignment syntax starts with the keyword assign followed by the signal name which can be either a single signal or a concatenation of different signal nets. The drive strength and delay are optional and are mostly used for dataflow modeling than synthesizing into real hardware. The expression or signal on the right hand side is evaluated and assigned to the net or expression of nets on the left hand side.

Delay values are useful for specifying delays for gates and are used to model timing behavior in real hardware because the value dictates when the net should be assigned with the evaluated value.

  • LHS should always be a scalar or vector net or a concatenation of scalar or vector nets and never a scalar or vector register.
  • RHS can contain scalar or vector registers and function calls.
  • Whenever any operand on the RHS changes in value, LHS will be updated with the new value.
  • assign statements are also called continuous assignments and are always active

In the following example, a net called out is driven continuously by an expression of signals. i1 and i2 with the logical AND & form the expression.


If the wires are instead converted into ports and synthesized, we will get an RTL schematic like the one shown below after synthesis.

assign statement reg verilog

Continuous assignment statement can be used to represent combinational gates in Verilog.

The module shown below takes two inputs and uses an assign statement to drive the output z using part-select and multiple bit concatenations. Treat each case as the only code in the module, else many assign statements on the same signal will definitely make the output become X.

Assign reg variables

It is illegal to drive or assign reg type variables with an assign statement. This is because a reg variable is capable of storing data and does not require to be driven continuously. reg signals can only be driven in procedural blocks like initial and always .

Implicit Continuous Assignment

When an assign statement is used to assign the given net with some value, it is called explicit assignment. Verilog also allows an assignment to be done when the net is declared and is called implicit assignment.

Combinational Logic Design

Consider the following digital circuit made from combinational gates and the corresponding Verilog code.


Combinational logic requires the inputs to be continuously driven to maintain the output unlike sequential elements like flip flops where the value is captured and stored at the edge of a clock. So an assign statement fits the purpose the well because the output o is updated whenever any of the inputs on the right hand side change.

After design elaboration and synthesis, we do get to see a combinational circuit that would behave the same way as modeled by the assign statement.

combinational gate schematic

See that the signal o becomes 1 whenever the combinational expression on the RHS becomes true. Similarly o becomes 0 when RHS is false. Output o is X from 0ns to 10ns because inputs are X during the same time.


Click here for a slideshow with simulation example ! Protection Status

  • Stack Overflow Public questions & answers
  • Stack Overflow for Teams Where developers & technologists share private knowledge with coworkers
  • Talent Build your employer brand
  • Advertising Reach developers & technologists worldwide
  • Labs The future of collective knowledge sharing
  • About the company

Collectives™ on Stack Overflow

Find centralized, trusted content and collaborate around the technologies you use most.

Q&A for work

Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search.

Verilog reg assignment?

I'm totally new to Verilog programming and I do not understand where to initialize reg variables?

Let's have a look at the following snippets: Edit: Warning at synthesize

Give me: Using initial value of led since it is never assigned at the line: reg led = 1'b1;

Are reg types only assigned in always@ block?

Another example:

Here the reg has an initial value of 0 but I've set it before to 1... What's wrong? Thank you!

M. Alex's user avatar

2 Answers 2

No, reg types can be assigned in always blocks and initial blocks (plus task and function but I'll skip them in the scope of this question)

For your fourBitCounter , the reg[3:0] counter declared in the initial block creates a local variable also called counter that is only accessible within the scope of the block it was created in. You need to remove the reg[3:0] in the initial block so that the assignment get applied the the intended counter . But it will still not work because you declared counter as an inferred wire type and always / initial blocks cannot assign wires.

counter was declared as an output of a 4-bit inferred wire ( output [3:0] counter is synonyms to output wire [3:0] counter ). Since counter is assigned in an always block and initial block it needs to be a reg type. Therefore it should be declared as output reg [3:0] counter .

Also, you declared clk as in input and as a local wire, it cannot be both. Ports can be accessed locally, there is no reason to re-declare them as local nets.

FYI: for a 4-bit value, 15+1 equals 0 because there is nothing to store the MSB.

For Verilog, assign statements can only be applied on net types (e.g. wire ). This is legal:

This is illegal:

Greg's user avatar

  • Thank you for your answer! It helped me to fix my wrong mistakes, yet I have one more question: Why you used a non-assignment inside a procedural block? Why not: counter <= 4'b1. P.S. counter is still 0 at the beginning, maybe initial block is not synthesizable? –  M. Alex Nov 29, 2016 at 7:07
  • In the initial block I used a a blocking assignment ( = ). In the always block I used a non-blocking assignment ( <= ), this should used to assign intended flops/latches in always blocks. I could have used non-blocking in the initial block but I typically don't with my coding style. Non-blocking postpones the update in the scheduler which is useful on clock edges but not at time zero –  Greg Nov 29, 2016 at 7:26
  • All makes sense now except the following: Can I Assign a reg to a wire, like in my very first example? What is wrong there? Even if I did assign the led inside initial block, I would still get: Using initial value of led since it is never assigned –  M. Alex Nov 29, 2016 at 11:07
  • I could of course assign directly LED0 to 1, but I wanted to see if it possible to assign a reg to a wire. Please take a look at the picture from my first post I uploaded. Thank you so much for your time! All of you! –  M. Alex Nov 29, 2016 at 11:15
  • The issue with led is a synthesis warning. Except for ROMs, it is not common to initialize a reg and then never updated it. It is legal, but usually unintentional as it is more likely a bug or incomplete code; hence it being a warning. I recommend resolving as many warnings as possible; it makes debugging a little easier when trying to figure out what went wrong when the design doesn't work as expected. –  Greg Nov 29, 2016 at 17:43

From your first code sample:

The same issue exists in your second sample; you're declaring a separate register in the initial block. Don't use the keywords reg or wire if you're just trying to assign a value.

  • Yes, indeed I made a mistake. But even without the reg or wire in front of the variable name does not make it work. How about my first example? –  M. Alex Nov 28, 2016 at 17:45

Your Answer

Sign up or log in, post as a guest.

Required, but never shown

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service and acknowledge that you have read and understand our privacy policy and code of conduct .

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged verilog or ask your own question .

  • The Overflow Blog
  • Fighting comment spam at Facebook scale (Ep. 602)
  • What it’s like being a professional workplace bestie (Ep. 603)
  • Featured on Meta
  • Moderation strike: Results of negotiations
  • Our Design Vision for Stack Overflow and the Stack Exchange network
  • Temporary policy: Generative AI (e.g., ChatGPT) is banned
  • Call for volunteer reviewers for an updated search experience: OverflowAI Search
  • Discussions experiment launching on NLP Collective

Hot Network Questions

  • "Just" at the end of a question tag
  • Ask for a reduction in conference registration fees
  • How to properly define volume for beginner calculus students?
  • Why did 1990s-2000s LCD all use 60 Hz refresh?
  • how early can people build a giant clock?
  • Correcting how a student writes symbols
  • How did Catwoman manage to pierce Batman's armor using a sewing claw?
  • What do Americans say instead of “can’t be bothered”?
  • Two ideal ohmmeters in parallel
  • Outlining the boundary of a shape defined by intersections in TikZ
  • If Weird Al Yankovic Wrote Riddles
  • Express a "not equal to A or B" criterion in Select
  • 13 puzzles I like
  • Why is there a voltage difference between these two grounds?
  • Is there a socially-optimal way to drive on a busy interstate?
  • What type of security measure/contingent conditions could make jumping into a portal impossible inside a laboratory?
  • What are all the possible codes for {{A\\B}}?
  • Why do the Nordics have a low birth rate despite their government providing all parents with free childcare and parental leave?
  • Why quantum entanglement for a non-local object needs explanation?
  • What are the balance implications of removing spell lists?
  • How does a Presta valve core work?
  • Was there a German embassy open in 1941 Lisbon?
  • Is it safe to create a public ID by hashing a private key?
  • Poetry of the stars

assign statement reg verilog

Your privacy

By clicking “Accept all cookies”, you agree Stack Exchange can store cookies on your device and disclose information in accordance with our Cookie Policy .

Javatpoint Logo

  • Interview Q

Verilog Tutorial


  • Send your Feedback to [email protected]

Help Others, Please Share


Learn Latest Tutorials

Splunk tutorial


Tumblr tutorial

Reinforcement Learning

R Programming tutorial

R Programming

RxJS tutorial

React Native

Python Design Patterns

Python Design Patterns

Python Pillow tutorial

Python Pillow

Python Turtle tutorial

Python Turtle

Keras tutorial



Verbal Ability

Interview Questions

Interview Questions

Company Interview Questions

Company Questions

Trending Technologies

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

AWS Tutorial

Cloud Computing

Hadoop tutorial

Data Science

Angular 7 Tutorial

Machine Learning

DevOps Tutorial

B.Tech / MCA

DBMS tutorial

Data Structures

DAA tutorial

Operating System

Computer Network tutorial

Computer Network

Compiler Design tutorial

Compiler Design

Computer Organization and Architecture

Computer Organization

Discrete Mathematics Tutorial

Discrete Mathematics

Ethical Hacking

Ethical Hacking

Computer Graphics Tutorial

Computer Graphics

Software Engineering

Software Engineering

html tutorial

Web Technology

Cyber Security tutorial

Cyber Security

Automata Tutorial

C Programming

C++ tutorial

Control System

Data Mining Tutorial

Data Mining

Data Warehouse Tutorial

Data Warehouse

Javatpoint Services

JavaTpoint offers too many high quality services. Mail us on h [email protected] , to get more information about given services.

  • Website Designing
  • Website Development
  • Java Development
  • PHP Development
  • Graphic Designing
  • Digital Marketing
  • On Page and Off Page SEO
  • Content Development
  • Corporate Training
  • Classroom and Online Training

Training For College Campus

JavaTpoint offers college campus training on Core Java, Advance Java, .Net, Android, Hadoop, PHP, Web Technology and Python. Please mail your requirement at [email protected] . Duration: 1 week to 2 week

RSS Feed

Verilog Pro

Verilog reg, Verilog wire, SystemVerilog logic. What’s the difference?

The difference between Verilog reg and Verilog wire frequently confuses many programmers just starting with the language (certainly confused me!). As a beginner, I was told to follow these guidelines, which seemed to generally work:

  • Use Verilog reg for left hand side (LHS) of signals assigned inside in always blocks
  • Use Verilog wire for LHS of signals assigned outside always blocks

Then when I adopted SystemVerilog for writing RTL designs, I was told everything can now be “type logic”. That again generally worked, but every now and then I would run into a cryptic error message about variables, nets, and assignment.

So I decided to find out exactly how these data types worked to write this article. I dug into the language reference manual, searched for the now-defunct Verilog-2005 standard document, and got into a bit of history lesson. Read on for my discovery of the differences between Verilog reg , Verilog wire , and SystemVerilog logic .

Verilog data types, Verilog reg, Verilog wire

Verilog data types are divided into two main groups: nets and variables. The distinction comes from how they are intended to represent different hardware structures.

A net data type represents a physical connection between structural entities (think a plain wire), such as between gates or between modules. It does not store any value. Its value is derived from what is being driven from its driver(s). Verilog wire is probably the most common net data type, although there are many other net data types such as tri , wand , supply0 .

A variable data type generally represents a piece of storage. It holds a value assigned to it until the next assignment. Verilog reg is probably the most common variable data type. Verilog reg is generally used to model hardware registers (although it can also represent combinatorial logic, like inside an always@(*) block). Other variable data types include integer , time , real , realtime .

Almost all Verilog data types are 4-state, which means they can take on 4 values:

  • 0 represents a logic zero, or a false condition
  • 1 represents a logic one, or a true condition
  • X represents an unknown logic value
  • Z represents a high-impedance state

Verilog rule of thumb 1 : use Verilog  reg  when you want to represent a piece of storage, and use Verilog  wire  when you want to represent a physical connection.

Assigning values to Verilog reg, Verilog wire

Verilog net data types can only be assigned values by continuous assignments. This means using constructs like continuous assignment statement ( assign statement), or drive it from an output port. A continuous assignment drives a net similar to how a gate drives a net. The expression on the right hand side can be thought of as a combinatorial circuit that drives the net continuously.

Verilog variable data types can only be assigned values using procedural assignments. This means inside an always block, an initial block, a task , a function . The assignment occurs on some kind of trigger (like the posedge of a clock), after which the variable retains its value until the next assignment (at the next trigger). This makes variables ideal for modeling storage elements like flip-flops.

Verilog rule of thmb 2 : drive a Verilog  wire  with  assign  statement or port output, and drive a Verilog  reg  from an  always  block. If you want to drive a physical connection with combinatorial logic inside an  always@(*)  block, then you have to declare the physical connection as Verilog  reg .

SystemVerilog logic, data types, and data objects

SystemVerilog introduces a new 2-state data type—where only logic 0 and logic 1 are allowed, not X or Z—for testbench modeling. To distinguish the old Verilog 4-state behaviour, a new SystemVerilog logic data type is added to describe a generic 4-state data type.

What used to be data types in Verilog, like wire , reg , wand , are now called data objects in SystemVerilog. Wire , reg , wand (and almost all previous Verilog data types) are 4-state data objects. Bit , byte , shortint , int , longint are the new SystemVerilog 2-state data objects.

There are still the two main groups of data objects: nets and variables. All the Verilog data types (now data objects) that we are familiar with, since they are 4-state, should now properly also contain the SystemVerilog logic keyword.

There is a new way to declare variables, beginning with the keyword var . If the data type (2-state or 4-state) is not specified, then it is implicitly declared as logic . Below are some variable declaration examples. Although some don’t seem to be fully supported by tools.

Don’t worry too much about the var keyword. It was added for language preciseness (it’s what happens as a language evolves and language gurus strive to maintain backward-compatibility), and you’ll likely not see it in an RTL design.

I’m confused… Just tell me how I should use SystemVerilog logic!

After all that technical specification gobbledygook, I have good news if you’re using SystemVerilog for RTL design. For everyday usage in RTL design, you can pretty much forget all of that!

The SystemVerilog logic keyword standalone will declare a variable, but the rules have been rewritten such that you can pretty much use a variable everywhere in RTL design. Hence, you see in my example code from other articles, I use SystemVerilog logic to declare variables and ports.

When you use SystemVerilog logic standalone this way, there is another advantage of improved checking for unintended multiple drivers. Multiple assignments, or mixing continuous and procedural ( always block) assignments, to a SystemVerilog variable is an error, which means you will most likely see a compile time error. Mixing and multiple assignments is allowed for a net. So if you really want a multiply-driven net you will need to declare it a wire .

In Verilog it was legal to have an assignment to a module output port (declared as Verilog wire or Verilog reg ) from outside the module, or to have an assignment inside the module to a net declared as an input port. Both of these are frequently unintended wiring mistakes, causing contention. With SystemVerilog, an output port declared as SystemVerilog logic variable prohibits multiple drivers, and an assignment to an input port declared as SystemVerilog logic variable is also illegal. So if you make this kind of wiring mistake, you will likely again get a compile time error.

SystemVerilog rule of thumb 1 : if using SystemVerilog for RTL design, use SystemVerilog  logic  to declare:

  • All point-to-point nets. If you specifically need a multi-driver net, then use one of the traditional net types like  wire
  • All variables (logic driven by  always  blocks)
  • All input ports
  • All output ports

If you follow this rule, you can pretty much forget about the differences between Verilog reg and Verilog wire ! (well, most of the time)

When I first wondered why it was possible to always write RTL using SystemVerilog logic keyword, I never expected it to become a major undertaking that involved reading and interpreting two different specifications, understanding complex language rules, and figuring out their nuances. At least I can say that the recommendations are easy to remember.

I hope this article gives you a good summary of Verilog reg , Verilog wire , SystemVerilog logic , their history, and a useful set of recommendations for RTL coding. I do not claim to be a Verilog or SystemVerilog language expert, so please do correct me if you felt I misinterpreted anything in the specifications.

  • Synthesizing SystemVerilog : Busting the Myth that SystemVerilog is only for Verification
  • 1800-2012 – IEEE Standard for SystemVerilog–Unified Hardware Design, Specification, and Verification Language
  • 1364-2005 – IEEE Standard for Verilog Hardware Description Language
  • A lively discussion in Google Groups on SystemVerilog var keyword

Sample Source Code

The accompanying source code for this article is a SystemVerilog design and testbench toy example that demonstrates the difference between using Verilog reg, Verilog wire, and SystemVerilog logic to code design modules. Download the code to see how it works!

[lab_subscriber_download_form download_id=8].

Share this:

  • Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
  • Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)
  • Click to email a link to a friend (Opens in new window)
  • Click to print (Opens in new window)

16 thoughts on “Verilog reg, Verilog wire, SystemVerilog logic. What’s the difference?”

Good article. However, there is one significant gotcha that users need to be aware of. When converting RTL from wire/reg to logic, if you were using a net declaration assignment for a wire, that will not work with logic! As a variable type, assigning a value to a logic variable as part of the declaration merely initializes it to that value. No continuous assignment is inferred.

This is the only case where logic has not been a drop-in replacement for me in RTL.

Example: wire mysignal0 = A & B; // continuous assignment, AND gate logic mysignal1 = A &B; // not synthesizable, initializes mysignal1 to the value of A & B at time 0 and then makes no further changes to it. logic mysignal2; assign mysignal2 = A & B; // Continuous assignment, AND gate

Thanks for pointing that out Evan! I looked through the assignment section of the LRM and you’re correct. Like you said, the particular form of assignment in the first row of your example code is called net declaration assignment (section 10.3.1 of SV-2012 LRM), and as the name suggests it only works on nets. The second line in your example is a variable declaration assignment (section 10.5), and would only initialize the variable and not continuously drive it. That is indeed a gotcha if one just replaced all instances of wire with logic. Great comment!

Would the rules of Verilog concerning blocking assignments(=) for combinational logic always blocks and non-blocking assignments(<=) for sequential logic always block also apply to SystemVerilog ?

Hi Varun. Yes, the same rules would apply when using SystemVerilog logic. You’ll have to be more careful about which SystemVerilog logic signal is intended to be combinational and which is intended to be sequential, because they will look the same in their declaration.

i have an old power verilog model it. i am re-using it and it is giving issues in compilation

it has a statement as below: bit power_on; assign power_on = vddmp & !gndmp;

now compilation is expecting some parentheses at end of “bit power_on;” statement

can anybody help how to solve this compilation issue thanks

Hi Shaily. Thanks for your comment. Are vddmp and gndmp functional signals? Or are they power supplies?

Thanks for a very nice article.

I have a very basic question about the logic design & Verilog.

As far as I know, it is not recommended to have combinational logic include

memory such as flip-flop and latch because it is combinational!

And that is the reason why inferred flip-flops & latch should be avoided,

which is induced by not including all inputs within sensitivity list in always block, uninitialized output, etc.

My question is if the reg variable inside the always *@ block holds the value until the next assignment, it may induce the flip-flops or latches.

Is it allowed to induce a latch or flip-flop inside the combinational logic with some intentions?

Thanks a lot

Hi Jaehyuk. A always@* block will be sensitive to all input signals to the block (with one exception). Therefore, if you use a reg type inside a always@* block, it will become combinational logic and not infer flip-flop or latches.

The one exception is if the always@* calls a function or task, and that function or task contains signals that are external to the function, task, and always@* block. SystemVerilog always_comb avoids this issue, so if you code in SystemVerilog, you should use always_comb instead of always@*. See my other article on always_comb and always_ff

Helpful article, thank you Jason.

Quote: wire [7:0] my_wire_bus; // implicitly means “wire logic[15:0] my_wire_bus”

Is there a minimal width of 16 bit in SystemVerilog or something?

No there isn’t. That just happens to be the example I came up with.

Nice write-up, thanks Jason! BTW, its a nice blog, please keep it up !

Thank you, Jason, for the article! One issue I see in replacing reg with logic is that it eliminates X from the variable. That way you may miss initialization problem. I think also using UPF will force X on the registers during power-down for verification. I am not sure that with that practice it will be compatible with UPF. What do you think?

Hi Dmitry. Using the logic keyword on its own actually declares a 4-state variable, so X’s can also be represented. There is no problem with representing X’s when using UPF, low power simulation, or x-propagation. I have used logic variables successfully on projects that use all these methodologies.

Good article. I certainly appreciate this site. Keep it up! buy viagra

Hi Jason, Your articles are really helpful. Can you post something related to UVM?

Leave a Comment Cancel reply

Notify me of follow-up comments by email.

Notify me of new posts by email.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed .

  • The Verilog-AMS Language
  • Initial and Always Processes
  • Assignment Statements

Assignment Statements 

Blocking assignment .

A blocking assignment evaluates the expression on its right hand side and then immediately assigns the value to the variable on its left hand side:

It is also possible to add delay to a blocking assignment. For example:

In this case, the expression on the right hand side is evaluated and the value is held for 10 units of time. During this time, the execution of the code is blocked in the middle of the assignment statement. After the 10 units of time, the value is stored in the variable on the left

Nonblocking Assignment 

A nonblocking assignment evaluates the expression on its right hand side without immediately assigning the value to the variable on the left. Instead the value is cached and execution is allowed to continue onto the next statement without performing the assignment. The assignment is deferred until the next blocking statement is encountered. In the example below, on the positive edge of clk the right-hand side of the first nonblocking assignment is evaluated and the value cached without changing a. Then the right-hand side of the second nonblocking assignment statement is evaluated is also cached without changing b. Execution continues until it returns to the event statement, once there the execution of the process blocks until the next positive edge of the clk. Just before the process blocks, the cached values finally assigned to the target variables. In this way, the following code swaps the values in a and b on every positive edge of clk:

Adding delay to nonblocking assignments is done as follows:

Using nonblocking assignment with delay in this manner is a way of implementing transport delay , as shown below:


Blocking versus Nonblocking Assignment 

Nonblocking statements allow you to schedule assignments without blocking the procedural flow. You can use the nonblocking procedural statement whenever you want to make several register assignments within the same time step without regard to order or dependence upon each other. It means that nonblocking statements resemble actual hardware more than blocking assignments.

Generally you would use nonblocking assignment whenever assigning to variables that are shared between multiple initial or always processes if the statements that access the variable could execute at the same time. Doing so resolves race conditions.

Blocking assignment is used to assign to temporary variables when breaking up large calculations into multiple assignment statements. For example:

Procedural Continuous Assignment 

Two types of continuous assignment are available in initial and always processes: assign and force .

The target of an assign statement must be a register or a concatenation of registers. The value is continuously driven onto its target and that value takes priority over values assigned in procedural assignments. Once a value is assigned with an assign statement, it can only be changed with another assign statement or with a force statement. Execution of deassign releases the continuous assignment, meaning that the value of the register can once again be changed with procedural assignments. For example, the following implements a D-type flip-flop with set and reset:

Assign statements are used to implement set and reset because they dominate over the non-blocking assignment used to update q upon positive edges of the clock c . If instead a simple procedural assignment were used instead, then a positive edge on the clock could change q even if r or s were high.

A force statement is similar to assign , except that it can be applied to both registers and nets. It overrides all other assignments until the release statement is executed. Force is often used in testbenches to eliminate initial x-values in the DUT or to place it in a particular state. For example:

assign statement reg verilog


  1. ️ Assign in verilog. Wire And Reg In Verilog. 2019-02-05

    assign statement reg verilog

  2. ️ Assign in verilog. Wire And Reg In Verilog. 2019-02-05

    assign statement reg verilog

  3. 😍 Verilog assignment. Conditional Operator. 2019-02-03

    assign statement reg verilog

  4. Verilog Construction

    assign statement reg verilog

  5. Verilog Assign Statement

    assign statement reg verilog

  6. Verilog initial block

    assign statement reg verilog



  2. Red Velvet Cake Cooking Android Gameplay

  3. L2-1 overview of Verilog part 1

  4. Verilog Data Types Part-1(@vlsigoldchips )

  5. UAS 0120101074 Matilda Marista Laus

  6. Verilog Processor Assignment explainer


  1. What Are Sundry Expenses?

    Sundry expenses are costs which may be relatively small or occur infrequently and are therefore not assigned to a specific ledger group. They are also known as miscellaneous expenses and are classified together as a group when they are pres...

  2. SEC Income Statement Requirements

    The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission is the federal agency responsible for oversight of the country's stock markets. Businesses that want to offer their stock publicly, or brokerage firms engaging in the purchase and sale of stocks, ...

  3. How to Find a Property Parcel Number

    A property parcel number is public information you can find on a property tax statement, closing documents and through your county tax assessor. Every plot of land within a county or other local jurisdiction has a unique, multiple-digit num...

  4. Verilog assign statement

    It is illegal to drive or assign reg type variables with an assign statement. This is because a reg variable is capable of storing data and does not require to

  5. Verilog reg assignment?

    You need to remove the reg[3:0] in the initial block so that the assignment get applied the the intended counter . But it will still not work

  6. Verilog Assign Statement

    Assign statements are used to drive values on the net. And it is also used in Data Flow Modeling. Signals of type wire or a data type

  7. Verilog HDL

    For an assign statement, only wire can be used as LHS. 3. Inside an initial block (Testbench) only reg can be used on the LHS. 4. The output of an instantiated

  8. When is the 'assign' statement used in Verilog?

    Assign construct in Verilog is used for “continuous assignment” or in other words to model combinational logic. · As the word continuous suggest, it means that

  9. Intro to Verilog

    However nets appearing on the. LHS of assignment statements inside of always blocks must be declared as type reg. I don't know why Verilog has this rule!

  10. Verilog reg, Verilog wire, SystemVerilog logic. What's the difference?

    Verilog net data types can only be assigned values by continuous assignments. This means using constructs like continuous assignment statement (

  11. Assignment Statements

    Assign statements are used to implement set and reset because they dominate over the non-blocking assignment used to update q upon positive edges of the clock c

  12. Verilog In One Day Part-III

    An assign statement is used for modeling only combinational logic and it is executed continuously. So the assign statement is called 'continuous assignment

  13. Continuous Assignment in Verilog

    In this video, we introduce the concept of continuous assignment and how ... Verilog Blocking and Non Blocking statements | Blocking Vs Non

  14. Wire Assignments

    A wire can be declared and continuously assigned in a single statement - a wire assignment. This is a shortcut which saves declaring and assigning a wire