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  • Water For All

Water for all - Importance of water

Table of contents, introduction, interesting facts about water, why is water important, water conservation, water harvesting.

Water is one of the most important resources gifted to us after the air. It forms the basis of life for every living organism on earth. Life without water is unimaginable and impossible. This is the sole reason why finding traces or signs of water is an important criterion of planetary exploration. Life on earth probably would not have even begun if not for water.

  • World water day is celebrated on 22nd March every year
  • Earth consists of 78% water, and the rest constitutes land
  • 60% of your body is made up of water on average, Jellyfish have over 95%
  • 97% of the water on earth is salt water
  • 0.01% of the water available is fresh water(drinkable/potable)
  • More than 69% of freshwater is trapped in glaciers

Scientists theorize that life originated from water, hence nearly all organisms need water to exist and survive. Water also forms the base for all living organisms. As much water is lost from our bodies, the same or more needs to be replenished.

  • Water is used in everyday life, for drinking, farming, construction, agriculture, industries, hospitals, and water cycle to name a few
  • Water boosts metabolism, helps in blood circulation
  • Helps create saliva and provides oxygen to cells of the body
  • It houses different aquatic creatures
  • Used as a means of transportation

After understanding how important water is and how there is a scarcity of fresh water in the world, let us look at some of the ways in which we can sensibly use water and conserve it as much as possible.

Also Read:  Disappearing Act of Water

Water can be conserved and used for various purposes. Dams and water harvesting help towards fulfilling this criterion.

For More Information On the Conservation Of Water, Watch The Below Video:

assignment for water

How are lakes and reservoirs created? How is electricity generated?

Dams are the answers to these questions. Dams are huge barriers created along water bodies to restrict and confine the flow of water. This confinement helps generate electricity because the water is stored at a height creating potential energy, the water confined is also used for irrigation and agricultural purposes etc.

Significance of Dams

  • One of the first and foremost uses of dams has to be the generation of hydroelectric power which produces electricity.
  • Helps in controlling a flood, as the rate at which water flows can be caught and controlled.
  • Dams store water to be used by farmers for irrigation purposes.
  • Serves the purpose of drinking to nearby people as water stored is fresh water and not salt water.
  • Water stored in a dam is called a reservoir. This water can be used for various water-related activities.

While there are a lot of benefits, dams negatively affect social, economic and environmental factors. For instance:

  • Dams can displace local tribes without providing necessary compensation and shelter
  • Dams can be a financial drain on the public
  • Results in loss of biological diversity and deforestation

Another method of conserving water is through water harvesting. Water harvesting is the practice of collecting rainwater or runoff/excess water for various household purposes. Care is taken to make sure that the water is pollutant-free at any given time; pollutants could be from the air, water, soil etc. Water for this can be obtained from various resources such as excess water from rooftops, seasonal flood streams, watershed management etc.

Uses of Harvesting Water

Water generally in these methods is not held up on the surface but beneath the ground.

  • Water can be purified and used for drinking purposes
  • Used for daily household chores
  • Water stored is also supplied to large-scale industries
  • Serves as a secondary resource of water for animals and plants
  • Helps increase biomass production
  • Mitigates droughts and floods
  • Increases the life of downstream reservoirs and dams
  • Recharges wells, provides moisture to the ground hence vegetation
  • Water does not dry up/Evaporate
  • Chances of water being contaminated by animals and humans are nullified.

Also Read:  Back to the oceans

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Water Conservation

Keywords: water conservation, water use, data collection; Grade Level: third grade; Total Time for Lesson: 30 minutes each day on two separate days; Setting: classroom instruction with assignment to be done at home

Concepts Covered

  • The importance of water in every day living.
  • The ways in which water is used in the school and home.
  • People can take added measures to help conserve water.

Goals for the Lesson

  • The students will list ways in which they use water both in school and at home,
  • The students will collect data to determine actual water usage within the home.
  • The students will conserve water.
  • The students will create a poster persuading others to conserve water.

Materials Needed

  • container of water
  • Data Collection Sheets (from Water Conservation with the Water Lion )
  • drawing paper
  • crayons, markers, paints, etc.

State Standards Addressed: Humans and the Environment (4.8.D); Know the Importance of Natural Resources in Daily Life; Identify Ways to Conserve Our Natural Resources

Teaching Model: Think/Pair/Share-Data Collection-Discussion-Persuasive Project

  • Introduce the lesson by showing the students the container of water. Ask them what they think you will use it for. Allow them to share only a few of their ideas. Explain that you could do many different things with that water. Tell them they will make a list of all the things we use water for.
  • Think/Pair/Share: Distribute a piece of paper to each student. Have the students generate lists, independently, of all the possible uses of water. After approximately five minutes, pair the students and encourage them to share their ideas with their partner and expand their lists. After an additional ten minutes, ask the pairs of students to share some of their ideas. A class list can be generated and students can continue adding ideas to their lists.
  • Data Collection (taken from Water Conservation with the Water Lion ): Compliment the students on their good thinking of uses of water. Explain that over the next few days, they will collect information about where, when and how they actually use water at school and home. Distribute Activity I: Average Water Use Tally from the 4-H curriculum and go over the directions with the students.
  • After they have tallied their water use over 3 days, ask the students if they used as much water over the 3-day period as they expected. Allow students to share their experiences.
  • Did you use water in any manner that was not listed on the data collection sheet?
  • Did you use more or less water than you expected?
  • If you knew you would not have that much water, which activities would you eliminate, and why?
  • Did you use water unnecessarily?
  • Do you think you used water wisely? If not, explain what was unwise?
  • How could you use less water and still do all of the activities listed in the data collection sheets?
  • Explain that this is called conservation and that it is important to conserve water whenever possible so that there will be enough clean water for when we need it. Explain that it is important for them and others to conserve water.

Persuasion Poster

Tell the students that since they had so many good ideas for conserving water, it would be helpful for them to share their information with others so that even more people can conserve water. Explain that it is called persuasion when you want to convince other people to do something. Explain that they will be creating a poster to persuade people to conserve water. They must choose one method of water conservation. Their poster must show and tell the reader how to conserve water. Ask a few children to share ideas of what could be done. (for example: Write "turn off the water while you are brushing your teeth" and draw a picture of someone brushing his/her teeth with the water not running at the same time.)

Provide the students with drawing paper and writing instruments. Give the students ample time to complete a poster. Allow the students to display their posters throughout the school or perhaps in local businesses.

Could the students identify at least 10 ways in which water is used? Did they complete the data collection? Did the students identify and illustrate one way of conserving water?

Drohan, Joy R., William E. Sharpe, and Sanford S. Smith. Water Conservation with the Water Lion. The 4-H Water Project Unit 1 (2001). University Park, Pa.: Center for Watershed Stewardship, The Pennsylvania State University.

Hope Wenzel, Tyrone Elementary

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Brought to you by CU Engineering (University of Colorado Boulder)

FREE K-12 standards-aligned STEM

curriculum for educators everywhere!

Find more at TeachEngineering.org .

  • TeachEngineering
  • Water Filtration Project: Make Your Own Water Filters

Hands-on Activity Water Filtration Project: Make Your Own Water Filters

Grade Level: 4 (3-5)

Time Required: 1 hour

This activity also requires some non-expendable items; see the Materials List for details.

Group Size: 3

Activity Dependency: None

Subject Areas: Number and Operations, Science and Technology

NGSS Performance Expectations:

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Engineering connection, learning objectives, materials list, worksheets and attachments, more curriculum like this, introduction/motivation, investigating questions, user comments & tips.

Engineering… Turning your ideas into reality

Clean water is not available in all parts of the world. Many people live with polluted water that is unhealthy to drink and bathe in. Civil, environmental , materials and mechanical engineers all contribute to developing technologies and systems to purify unclean water. Purifying water can be done easily if it is a small amount that is fairly clean, but larger amounts that are very polluted are much more complicated. Typical steps for full water treatment include aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection.

After this activity, students should be able to:

  • Understand how filtration works.
  • Create creative design methods.
  • Problem solve given a design challenge.
  • Apply mathematics (multiplication) reinforcement.
  • Engage in teamwork to solve a challenge.

Educational Standards Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards. All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN) , a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org). In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g. , by state; within source by type; e.g. , science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc .

Ngss: next generation science standards - science, common core state standards - math.

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State standards, massachusetts - math, massachusetts - science.

  • 1 liter of water prepared in advance with soil and sand in it until it is thin but relatively opaque
  • 3 test tubes prepared with the water standards "A," "B" and "C" (C is filtered through some grass, B is filtered through a coffee filter, and A is filtered through 2 coffee filters with a paper towel in the middle)
  • cotton balls
  • gauze squares
  • tulle/netting
  • paper towels
  • coffee filters
  • gravel (aquarium gravel works great)
  • 3 test tubes per student
  • test tube racks
  • graduated cylinders
  • Design Components Worksheet

One of our most valuable and often overlooked resources is water. We can survive for a few weeks without food, but only a few days without water. Having clean water to drink is a luxury. The water that eventually comes out of our faucets sometimes does not start off being safe to drink. In most cases, it has gone through a water treatment plant designed by engineers prior to reaching our faucets.

This is a great activity for students to experience some "real-life" engineering.

Most any materials in a typical classroom can be adapted as filtration materials.

Water from lakes and rivers often has contaminants that make it unfit for drinking. The water may contain dirt, rocks and other objects that can be easily identified. Water may also contain bacteria and other microscopic organisms that cannot be seen easily. For these reasons, water that is delivered to our homes must go through a water treatment process. This is typically a five-part process that consists of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity is only concerned with filtration, which removes most but not all of the impurities from the water. Make sure students know that in this activity the filtered water is still unfit to drink.

Recommended Resources:

Information on the water treatment process and drinking water standards: https://www.epa.gov/ground-water-and-drinking-water .

Information on different types of filters and filtration processes: https://www.thoughtco.com/filtration-definition-4144961 .

Before the Activity

  • Gather materials and make copies of the Design Components Worksheet .
  • Make the liter of dirty water and the "A," "B" and "C" tubes.

With the Students

  • Engineering Challenge : Tell the students they have been hired by (your last name) Water Supply Company. With the ongoing drought, not enough water is available for all the things we need to supply – people, animals and plants. Tell them that they will each be given a sample of the dirty water they have remaining, and show them the tubes "A," "B" and "C." A is nearly ready for human use, B is nearly ready for animal use, and C is nearly ready to feed the plants. Remind them that no one must taste anything in the lab. They will be paid for their supply of filtered water: A gets $10 per ml, B gets $5 per ml, and C gets $1 per ml.
  • Have students complete the worksheet to make sure they understand the activity purpose, and to help them think about the components of engineering design.
  • Put trays of materials in front of the students. Let them decide in teams what materials they would like to use to filter their water. To challenge students, include one of the following constraints:
  • Limit the amount of materials allowed for the design.
  • Assign a price per unit of material and give students a budget to work within.
  • Have students draw schematics of the layers. Once completed, give each team 25 ml of the dirty water to begin to filter in their test tubes.
  • Once filtering is complete, have them bring the test tubes to you for observation. Decide if the water is A, B or C grade and help them measure their sample in a graduated cylinder. They must return to their desks and do the math to come up with their $ value. Have students put their $ values on the board.

Activity Embedded Assessment

Have students complete the Design Components Worksheet to assess their understanding of the activity and to encourage them to consider the design components involved in design a water filtration system. Sample answers are provided on the Design Components Worksheet Answer Key .

Post-Activity Assessment

Use the attached Rubric for Performance Assessment to evaluate students' design projects using criteria for the final filtering system and teamwork effort.

  • What was the best filtering agent and why?
  • What are other ways we purify our water?
  • Design a package for your "clean" water.

Safety Issues

Make sure students know that in this activity the filtered water is still unfit to drink.

assignment for water

Students learn about water quality testing and basic water treatment processes and technology options. Biological, physical and chemical treatment processes are addressed, as well as physical and biological water quality testing, including testing for bacteria such as E. coli.

preview of 'Test and Treat Before You Drink' Lesson

Students learn about the various methods developed by environmental engineers for treating drinking water in the United States.

preview of 'You Are What You Drink!' Lesson


Supporting program.

Last modified: October 24, 2019

Module 11: Hydrology

Assignment: hydrology.

This assignment will need to be customized.

In the Virtual Lab, you will investigate how different types of soil hold water and which ones would make the best aquifer. You will collect data and use it to make observations about the relationship of soil porosity to soil permeability. This assessment consists of two parts: a virtual lab with lab report and a list of questions on groundwater and related features.

The list of questions follows the lab activity.

Basic Requirements (assignment criteria):

  • To select a type of soil, change the percentages of sand, silt, and clay by sliding the bars on the Soil Meter.
  • Click the Test This Soil button to move 100 mL of the soil mixture to the funnel.
  • Click the Pour Water button to begin pouring water on the soil. The water will automatically stop when the first drop of water begins to form at the bottom of the funnel.
  • Observe the readout that displays how much water was poured. This is the volume of water the soil held.
  • To find the porosity of the soil, divide the volume of water the soil held by the total volume of the soil. Multiply the decimal by 100 and type this percentage in the Table. In the formula below, V w stands for the volume of water and V s stands for the volume of soil. V w V s x 100 = % Porosity
  • Click Reset and repeat steps 1 through 5 for at least 10 of the 13 soil types.
  • Please enter your values in a table (you can use the one provided on the website by clicking on the icon at the bottom).
  • Save this table for your lab report (you can print it by clicking on the print button or take a screen shot or create your own table in word or excel).

For the lab report, use the data and procedures you have completed so far. Make sure you include ALL components that are necessary. The graph can simple be a bar graph showing the type of soil and its porosity.

The following are components must be included:

  • Cover page with name, date & lab title
  • Introduction
  • Data Section
  • Calculations and Interpretations
  • Discussion—make sure you include a discussion on the role of the water cycle (including processes), how permeability and porosity are affected by soil types and the role of different aquifers (are there specific types of aquifers that are more suited to pumping for example)?
  • Reference page should include all resources cited.

In addition to the above virtual lab, please complete the following questions on groundwater and groundwater related features.

  • If channel shape and water volumes are the same, which river below would have the greater transport velocity?

An aerial view of a twisting river

2. If you looked at the bottom of stream A, you would see:

An assortment of smooth, rounded rocks

3. Which of the above would you see at the bottom of River B?

4. The greater the velocity the greater the energy. The greater the energy, the ______ the particle size that can be carried. a) smaller     b) larger   c) will be the same   d) can’t tell this way

5. Shale is mostly made of clay. In which depositional environment would you expect it to form: a) mountain streams   b) braided rivers   c) lake bottoms   d) fast moving rivers

6. With time, sediment transport by a fluvial system: a) becomes rounded   b) becomes smaller c) becomes rounded and smaller d) becomes angular e) none of the above

Tiny rocks smaller than a penny embedded in sediment

7. In which of the above pictures of rock, has the sediment been carried the shortest distance?

8. Groundwater often produces some pretty spectacular features. Please provide a brief description for each of the following: geyser, sinkhole, karst topography, springs and disappearing streams.

Tips and hints can be found here .

The virtual assessment is adapted from “Virtual Lab” by M. Poarch, originally found  here .

The question assessment is adapted from “Sediment Transport”  by Austin Boyd, originally found here .


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  • Hydrology Assessment. Authored by : Kimberly Schulte. Provided by : SBCTC. Located at : http://www.columbiabasin.edu . License : CC BY: Attribution

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Water Cycle

Water Cycle introduces students to the continuous process water follows from evaporation to precipitation. Students will learn many terms related to the water cycle and be able to explain the process to others correctly. They will be able to recognize the different steps and put them in order.

In the “Options for Lesson” section of the worksheet, you will see some suggestions for additional or alternative things to do for the lesson. One suggestion is to have students work in pairs throughout the lesson as they learn about the water cycle. You could also have students present their 2D water cycle models to the class.


Additional information, what our water cycle lesson plan includes.

Lesson Objectives and Overview: Water Cycle teaches students how water flows through a continuous process from evaporation to precipitation. Students will learn and be able to define the terms that relate to the steps of this process. By the end of the lesson, they will be able to explain the process to others correctly. This lesson is for students in 4th grade, 5th grade, and 6th grade.

Classroom Procedure

Every lesson plan provides you with a classroom procedure page that outlines a step-by-step guide to follow. You do not have to follow the guide exactly. The guide helps you organize the lesson and details when to hand out worksheets. It also lists information in the yellow box that you might find useful. You will find the lesson objectives, state standards, and number of class sessions the lesson should take to complete in this area. In addition, it describes the supplies you will need as well as what and how you need to prepare beforehand. For this lesson, you will need to supply plastic cups, water, ice cubes, paper towels, construction paper, markers, glue, and other supplies that students may need to make a 2D model of the water cycle. Before giving the lesson, you will also need to gather the plastic cups and fill them with water about 3/4 of the way.

Options for Lesson

There are several suggestions in the “Options for Lesson” section that you could incorporate into the lesson if you have time or want to extend or adjust parts of the lesson. Several of these options relate specifically to the task of creating a 2D model. You may want students to work in pairs throughout the lesson, or just for the 2D model portion. Another idea is to let students present their models to the class. As an alternative idea, students could use PowerPoint or another slide deck software to present models of the water cycle.

Teacher Notes

The paragraph on the teacher notes page provides a little extra information for the lesson as you prepare. It suggests including hands-on activities whenever possible, such as showing a how a plant transpires over a period of time. You can use the blank lines on this page to write down ideas or thoughts you have as you read through the lesson document.


The water cycle.

The Water Cycle lesson plan contains two pages of content. The first page describes how the water people drink today could be millions of years old. The reason for this phenomenon is that the water on the Earth that everyone and everything uses has existed since the beginning of time. For instance, the rain falling from the sky may one day be the water we drink a few weeks later. This is possible because of the water cycle, which basically recycles water in a continuous cycle.

The lesson provides a diagram that roughly shows the different steps of the cycle. It shows clouds with falling rain and snow over some mountains. Rivers flow down from the mountain tops and into a lake or ocean. It also displays how water on the ground seeps through the Earth’s surface and eventually deposits into surface water sources, such as the ocean.

To illustrate evaporation, the diagram shows white circles in the air with arrows and a label signifying the upward direction. It does not outline the cycle exactly. Instead, it provides arrows to represent that snow and rain fall down, groundwater flows into a water source, and water vapor rises into the atmosphere.

Steps of the Cycle

Below the diagram, the lesson explains the four steps of the water cycle in detail. The first step is evaporation. Evaporation occurs when the sun heats up the waters of oceans, lakes, and other bodies of water. The heat turns the water into a gas, also called water vapor. The vapor then rises into the air (evaporates). This process doesn’t just happen for large bodies of water. Students will learn that even an open container of water inside a house will eventually evaporate.

Transpiration is the next step. It is the process by which plants lose water in the form of water vapor. It is similar to evaporation because it also moves water vapor into the air, except that the source is plants instead of water bodies. Transpiration occurs continuously as plants grow and use up the water that passes through the roots, later releasing it into the air again.

Students will then learn about condensation, the third step of the cycle. Condensation occurs when water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into a liquid. Clouds actually form during condensation, and when they fill up too much with the moisture in the atmosphere, it rains. One example of how condensation works is what happens to a bathroom mirror after a hot shower. The steam (water vapor) from the shower is hot, but when it touches the cool mirror, it becomes liquid again. As a result, the mirror looks hazy from the moisture.

The last step is precipitation, which involves rain, snow, sleet, or hail falling to the ground from the clouds. It occurs when the air can no longer hold the water that has evaporated. The clouds are too heavy with moisture, so the evaporated water falls back to the Earth as precipitation.

After Precipitation

After it rains or water returns to Earth in another form during precipitation, it becomes ground water. Ground water is what plants and animals use for drinking. It can also be stored in aquifers, which are underground layers of rock that get saturated with water. That water can return to the surface through natural springs. In addition, people can pump the water to the surface.

When there is a large amount of precipitation, it runs over the soil and collects in oceans, lakes, or rivers. This excess water from storms, meltwater, or other sources is called runoff. In other words, runoff is the water that remains on the Earth’s surface rather than absorbing into the soil. The water from runoff evaporates, starting the whole cycle over again.

A fun fact that students will also learn is that sweating is an example of condensation in action. When the moisture drips off the skin, it is essentially like precipitation. The sweat begins to dry due to evaporation. However, since people aren’t plants, the body does not transpire. Instead, they perspire, which occurs when moisture escapes into the air. That means that the water a person sweats could some day become the water they drink!

The lesson provides another diagram that shows how plants transpire. The roots of the plant absorb water from the soil and into the root hairs. The water then travels through the plant’s stem and leaves. After it begins to transpire, the water starts to evaporate from the surface of the leaves and into the atmosphere once more.

Here is a list of the vocabulary words students will learn in this lesson plan:

  • Evaporation: the process by which water returns to the atmosphere
  • Transpiration: the process by which plants lose water in the form of water vapor
  • Condensation: the process by which water vapor in the air becomes cold and changes back to a liquid
  • Precipitation: the process by which water falls to the ground in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail
  • Ground water: the water that soaks into the surface of the Earth after it rains, snows, or hails
  • Aquifer: an underground layer of rock that saturates with water that can reach the surface again through natural springs or by pumping
  • Runoff: the flow of excess water from storms, meltwater, or other sources that remains on the Earth’s surface


The Water Cycle lesson plan includes three worksheets: a journal page, a rubric, and a homework assignment. The guidelines on the classroom procedure page describe when to hand out each assignment to the class.


You will use the journal pages before you distribute any of the content pages. The classroom procedure lists the steps to follow for an object lesson. The journal page is for students to answer questions that relate to the things they observe as you go through the object lesson. The classroom procedure page also provides you with the list of questions to ask. Students will write the questions you ask them in the boxes on the worksheet and write in their answers. There are a total of 10 questions.


As part of the classroom procedure, students will create a 2D model of the water cycle. They will need to include labels, arrows, and other information so that it is clear for viewers to understand. The rubric page shows students what you will assess them on. For instance, does their model show all the steps of the cycle? Did students label the model correctly? Does the model clearly show multiple types of perspiration? There is space near the bottom of the rubric for you to provide comments.


For the homework assignment, students will complete a crossword puzzle. There are a total of 20 terms and clues for them to figure out.

Worksheet Answer Keys

The last page of this document is an answer key for the homework assignment. If you choose to administer the lesson pages to your students via PDF, you will need to save a new file that omits this page. Otherwise, you can simply print out the applicable pages and keep this as reference for yourself when grading assignments.

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Amazing, my students enjoy the lesson.

Water cycle review....Excellent

Beautiful and easy, my student enjoyed the class and it was easier for me to explain

Preliminary Review

I really like the videos on water, but I need to test them out with my elementary school teachers in our Trout in the Classroom Program.

This review of the water cycle served as an excellent source to differentiate my reading levels for my students and still provided quality content. Thanks so much for all you do, Clarendon Learning!

This exercise was concise with a practical activity that was easy for my 7 year old do independently given the criteria to follow.

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  • Water Management


You know that there is a scarcity of water, but do you know how to save water? What is Water Management? Why is it necessary to save water? Let’s find out more about Water Management.

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Water management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of  water resources. Water is a basic necessity. No living creature can live without water. There’s a scarcity of water. To avoid this scarcity, water is saved and managed efficiently.

Water Management

Ways to Save Water

Some of the ways to save water are as follows :

  • Rainwater harvesting:  It is a method of collection and storage of rainwater into natural reservoirs or tanks or the infiltration of surface water into subsurface aquifers.
  • Groundwater harvesting:  Groundwater harvesting is a method to save water placed under the ground to control the groundwater flow in an aquifer and to raise the water table.
  • Drip irrigation:  Drip irrigation is a type of irrigation which that saves water and fertilizer by dripping water slowly to the roots of various crops, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. This saves more water than the traditional watering method.
  • Rainwater harvesting:  Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition of rainwater for reuse on-site, rather than allowing it to run off. Here, rainwater is stored for further use.
  • Water-wise habits:  There are various wise habits to conserve water. Like during washing clothes we can utilize wise techniques to save water. Fixing leaky taps. Keeping the tap closed while brushing, taking a quick shower instead of long baths are a few examples of saving water.

Browse more Topics under Water A Precious Resource

  • Depletion of Water Table
  • Groundwater as an Important Source of Water
  • Water Availability and Its Forms

Questions For You

Q1. Water harvesting is done by ____________ processes.

  • Groundwater
  • Option a and option b
  • None of the above

Sol. The correct answer is the option ‘c’. Water harvesting means storing rain where it falls or storing the runoff in your own village or town. And taking measures to keep that water clean by not allowing polluting activities to take place in our locality.

  • Bawri was the traditional way of collecting water.
  • With time the bawris fell into disuse and garbage started piling in these reservoirs.
  • Because of the acute water shortage, people in these areas have had to rethink. The bawris are being revived
  • All of the above.

The correct answer is the option ”d”. All of the following is true. Bawri was the traditional way of collecting water.  with time the bawris fell into disuse and garbage started piling in these reservoirs. Because of the acute water shortage, people in these areas have had to rethink. The bawris are being revived.


Water: A Precious Resource

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by Nur Fatin Awanis

Free Related PDFs

Lavanya Bhaskar


Paola Gonzalez Ramirez

Water activity in Foods Wiley

Water Activity in Foods

Mohamed Mathlouthi

2001, Food Control

Water content, water activity, water structure and the stability of foodstuffs

Shelly Schmidt

Water Activity in Foods

Appendix E: Water Activity Values of Select Food Ingredients and Products

hayat hassen

Determination of water content, whatever the accuracy of the analytical method, is not suciently informative in relation to the stability of the investigated food product. Water activity a w † brings a supplement of information as it accounts for the availability of water for degradation reactions. The understanding of why certain products are more stable than others at the same a w needs an elucidation of water structure. Of particular importance are the interactions (hydrophilic, hydrophobic) between water and the components of the foodstu€ and the e€ect of the soluble molecules of the food on the hydrogen bonding in solvent water. Studying water in foods should start with an anlytical determination of water content for commercial and legal reasons which are evident. This has to be completed with the measurement of the thermodynamic activity of water in the food. Such a parameter a w † should hold an important place in the identi®cation of the food product, especially as regards its shelf life. A further step in unveiling the behaviour of water in foods consists in determining water molecules in the molecules in the studied food matrix. The tripartite (analytical, thermodynamical and structural) approach to water in foods will be examined based on examples of sugars and sugar rich products.

Water content, water activity, water structure and the stability of foodstu€s

2005, Chemical Society Reviews

Activity of water in aqueous systems; A frequently neglected property

Pilar Buera

1994, Journal of Food Science

Water Activity, Glass Transition and Microbial Stability in Concentrated/Semimoist Food Systems

silvia resnik

2007, International Journal of Food Science & Technology

Application of Ross' equation for prediction of water activity in intermediate moisture food systems containing a non-solute solid

1995, Journal of Food Engineering

A critical review of some non-equilibrium situations and glass transitions on water activity values of foods in the microbiological growth range

Richard Stenner

2017, Food chemistry

Water activity has historically been and continues to be recognised as a key concept in the area of food science. Despite its ubiquitous utilisation, it still appears as though there is confusion concerning its molecular basis, even within simple, single component solutions. Here, by close examination of the well-known Norrish equation and subsequent application of a rigorous statistical theory, we are able to shed light on such an origin. Our findings highlight the importance of solute-solute interactions thus questioning traditional, empirically based "free water" and "water structure" hypotheses. Conversely, they support the theory of "solute hydration and clustering" which advocates the interplay of solute-solute and solute-water interactions but crucially, they do so in a manner which is free of any estimations and approximations.

Water activity in liquid food systems: A molecular scale interpretation


2011, The Review of scientific instruments

A calorimetric method to determine water activity covering the full range of the water activity scale is presented. A dry stream of nitrogen gas is passed either over the solution whose activity should be determined or left dry before it is saturated by bubbling through water in an isothermal calorimeter. The unknown activity is in principle determined by comparing the thermal power of vaporization related to the gas stream with unknown activity to that with zero activity. Except for three minor corrections (for pressure drop, non-perfect humidification, and evaporative cooling) the unknown water activity is calculated solely based on the water activity end-points zero and unity. Thus, there is no need for calibration with references with known water activities. The method has been evaluated at 30 °C by measuring the water activity of seven aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging from 0.1 mol kg(-1) to 3 mol kg(-1) and seven saturated aqueous salt solutions (LiCl, MgCl(2), NaBr, N...

A calorimetric method to determine water activity

Vidulani Shanika

2015, Determination of moisture content

Moisture content is one of the most commonly measured properties of food materials. It is important to food scientists for a number of different reasons: • Legal and Labeling Requirements. There are legal limits to the maximum or minimum amount of water that must be present in certain types of food. • Economic. The cost of many foods depends on the amount of water they contain - water is an inexpensive ingredient, and manufacturers often try to incorporate as much as possible in a food, without exceeding some maximum legal requirement. • Microbial Stability. The propensity of microorganisms to grow in foods depends on their water content. For this reason many foods are dried below some critical moisture content. • Food Quality. The texture, taste, appearance and stability of foods depends on the amount of water they contain. • Food Processing Operations. A knowledge of the moisture content is often necessary to predict the behavior of foods during processing, e.g. mixing, drying, flow through a pipe or packaging. It is therefore important for food scientists to be able to reliably measure moisture contents. A number of analytical techniques have been developed for this purpose, which vary in their accuracy, cost, speed, sensitivity, specificity, ease of operation, etc. The choice of an analytical procedure for a particular application depends on the nature of the food being analyzed and the reason the information is needed 1.1 Moisture in food material Foods are heterogeneous materials that contain different proportions of chemically bound, physically bound, capillary, trapped or bulk water. In addition, foods may contain water that is present in different physical states: gas, liquid or solid. The fact that water molecules can exist in a number of different molecular environments, with different physicochemical properties, can be problematic for the food analyst trying to accurately determine the moisture content of foods. Many analytical procedures developed to measure moisture content are more sensitive to water in certain types of molecular environment than to water in other types of molecular environment.

Moisture content is one of the most commonly measured properties of food materials

2006, Journal of Food Science

The water activity (aw) of eight salt solutions was determined at three temperatures (25, 30, 45°C) using a pressure transducer-vapor pressure manometer. The aws of the salts showed a decrease with increasing temperature, which was explained with the help of a thermodynamic equation. This is opposite to the increase in aw with increase in temperature for foods. Moisture sorption data for fish flour and cornmeal were obtained at 25–65°C. The Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer model was evaluated and shown to be comparable to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller model for prediction of the monolayer. Product was equilibrated at different aws at 25°C then subsequently shifted to 30°C and 45°C in a sealed chamber. The resultant a, change, measured on the Kaymont-Rotronics, was predictable from the isotherm at each temperature using the Clausius Clapeyron relationship.

Effect of Temperature on the Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Water Activity Shift of Two Dehydrated Foods

guillermo favetto

2007, International Journal of Food Science & Technology

Simplified method for the prediction of water activity in binary aqueous solutions

J. Antonio Torres

Journal of Food Protection

The growth rate and lag phase of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Salmonella typhlmurium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus were studied in liquid media as a function of temperature, water activity (aw) and solute type. The lag phase lengthened and the growth rate decreased when the temperature was lowered or the aw reduced, and these variations depended on the aw-controlling solute. In general, the magnitude order of the solute effect on the growth rate parameters was glycerol < NaCl < sucrose. This effect can be related to the ability of the solutes to permeate the cell and can be explained by the osmoregulatory mechanism. The specific growth rate was not as sensitive to the aw-controlling solute as the lag phase. A linear extrapolation method was a reliable and convenient method to estimate the minimum aw for microbial growth.

Water Activity Relationships for Selected Mesophiles and Psychrotrophs at Refrigeration Temperature

Alberto Sereno

2001, Journal of Food Engineering

Prediction of water activity of osmotic solutions

Oluwatosin Samuel


understanding the importance of water activity in Food

journal about water

Moisture and water content are among the most important parameters measured in food. The content of moisture is inversely related to the dry matter of a food item – hence there are direct economic effects on consumers and processors. More importantly, the moisture content in food also influences its stability and quality. Needless to say that moisture is a topic of many regulations and legislation.

The Ultimate Moisture & Water Guide Proven Methods & Procedures Food Analysis Moisture Analyzer Karl Fischer Titration Analytical Balances Determination of Moisture and Water Content in Food 2 METTLER TOLEDO Moisture Guide

2001, International Journal of Food Science and Technology

Water activity at 35 oC in 'sugar ' + water and 'sugar ' + sodium chloride + water systems

Adriana Pérez

2010, Food and Bioprocess Technology

Norrish’s equation, \(a_{{\text{w}}} = X_{{\text{w}}} \exp {\left( { - KX^{2}_{{\text{s}}} } \right)}\) , where a w is water activity, X w and X s are molar fractions of water and solute, respectively, and K is the correlating constant, has been widely used to predict a w of aqueous nonelectrolyte solutions in connection with development of intermediate moisture foods, i.e., food having a w ≥ 0.85. Present work evaluated the ability of Norrish’s equation to model the water activity of solutions of sugars, polyols, and some polyethylene glycols, in a wide range of concentration, i.e., from low to highly concentrated solutions. For sugar and polyols, a relatively small modification of the “most accepted” literature parameters K allowed the fitting of the data for the wide range of solute concentrations corresponding to a range of a w from 0.99 to about 0.3 for same solutes. However, a modified Norrish’s model needs to be used to model the behavior of polyethylene glycols 400 and 600 up to water activities as low as 0.5.

Evaluation of Norrish’s Equation for Correlating the Water Activity of Highly Concentrated Solutions of Sugars, Polyols, and Polyethylene Glycols

Rogerio Netto

Water in food production and processing: quantity and quality concerns

Amena Hussein

The Effect of Residual Water on the Survival of Dried Bacteria During Storage

Joseph Frank

2013, International Journal of Food Microbiology

Modeling the influence of temperature, water activity and water mobility on the persistence of Salmonella in low-moisture foods

Antonio Derossi

2006, European Food Research and Technology

A study on empirical models for a w value prediction, directly correlated to humectant substances concentration, was carried out in model systems and vegetables food. The test, performed for different a w values predicted on aqueous solution, aqueous extract and vegetables creams of mushroom (Cv. Champignon), showed a high accuracy of proposed model. In fact the values of correlation coefficient (r), were always greater than 0.985, and the maximum pure error was 0.014.

Prediction of water activity in vegetables creams: Note 1

Harry Beckers

2013, Journal of Food Protection

Foods and food ingredients with low water activity (aw) have been implicated with increased frequency in recent years as vehicles for pathogens that have caused outbreaks of illnesses. Some of these foodborne pathogens can survive for several months, even years, in low-aw foods and in dry food processing and preparation environments. Foodborne pathogens in low-aw foods often exhibit an increased tolerance to heat and other treatments that are lethal to cells in high-aw environments. It is virtually impossible to eliminate these pathogens in many dry foods or dry food ingredients without impairing organoleptic quality. Control measures should therefore focus on preventing contamination, which is often a much greater challenge than designing efficient control measures for high-aw foods. The most efficient approaches to prevent contamination are based on hygienic design, zoning, and implementation of efficient cleaning and sanitation procedures in the food processing environment. Metho...

Low–Water Activity Foods: Increased Concern as Vehicles of Foodborne Pathogens

H. Iglesias

An equation for correlating equilibrium moisture content in foods

María Clara Zamora

2006, Food Control

On the nature of the relationship between water activity and % moisture in honey

Alonzo Gabriel

2008, Food Chemistry

Estimation of water activity from pH and Brix values of some food products

Shyam Sablani

2007, Journal of Food Engineering

Evaluating water activity and glass transition concepts for food stability

Balaji Subbiah

2020, Food Chemistry

A review, analysis and extension of water activity data of sugars and model honey solutions

Emilia Fisicaro

1990, Journal of Food Engineering

Water activity and pseudo-activity coefficient of sorbed water

1984, Journal of Food Science

Unsaturated Solutions of Sodium Chloride as Reference Sources of Water Activity at Various Temperatures

1974, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering

Water activity data representation of aqueous solutions at 25°C

2005, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies

Correlation of microbial response in model food systems with physico-chemical and “mobility” descriptors of the media

Patrick Gervais

1990, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Water activity: a fundamental parameter of aroma production by microorganisms

Paul Paquin

1991, Journal of Dairy Science

Water-Holding Capacity of Proteins with Special Regard to Milk Proteins and Methodological Aspects—A Review

Teresa R.S. Brandão

2016, Procedia Food Science

Predictions of Microbial Thermal Inactivation in Solid Foods: Isothermal and Non-isothermal Conditions

2006, Journal of Food Engineering

The correlation between water activity and% moisture in honey: Fundamental aspects and application to Argentine honeys

ahamed rhazith

0 Determination of Moisture

esmeralda mascareño

Moisture and Total Solids Analysis

Magomed Muradov


Water activity (aw) describes the amount of free water available in a matrix for growth of microbiological pathogens and spoilage flora. It is used to predict the safety of food products, and has particular importance for dry-cured meat manufacturers. Results from tests on dry-cured pork (n = 83) demonstrate a high degree of correlation (R2 = 0.909) with current industry standard equipment. System accuracy at the 95% confidence interval (0.0125) is comparable with existing equipment available to industry. However, the added advantage of the microwave sensor to enable rapid and non-destructive measurement means that it could be used for day-to-day monitoring and optimization of products within the dry-cured meat value chain. This would reduce per-product operating costs and waste, in addition to facilitating recipe development (e.g., reduced salt).

Rapid Non-Destructive Prediction of Water Activity in Dry-Cured Meat

M. Meinders , Ruud Van Der Sman

2013, Food Chemistry

Moisture diffusivity in food materials

1993, Journal of Food Processing and Preservation


Lilia Ahrne

2004, Journal of Food Engineering

Application of the Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer model to correlate water activity and moisture content during osmotic dehydration of apples

1983, Journal of Food Science

The objective of this study was to determine the suitability, precision and accuracy of the Vaisala Humicap electric hygrometer for aw measurements in the range 0.752-0.974 (at 25°C). Results of the statistical evaluation indicated that this hygrometer, when calibrated and operated as described here, provides a convenient and fast means of aw measurement having adequate accuracy and precision for most food applications.

Statistical Evaluation of Water Activity Measurements Obtained with the Vaisala Humicap Humidity Meter

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Activities for Teaching A Long Walk to Water

I love teaching Linda Sue Park’s A Long Walk to Water because it’s such an accessible, engaging, and powerful text that provides the opportunity to practice so many essential ELA skills. This is one of the main reasons that it serves as our first whole-class novel unit in my 7th grade reading classroom. 

Because the text itself is easier to read, I use the novel as an opportunity to dig into advanced literary analysis skills that we will practice the rest of the school year. It’s also the perfect novel to pair with powerful essential questions and practice important speaking and listening skills through a variety of discussions. 

But the best part of our novel study ? It’s the lessons Salva and Nya teach us along the way. It’s the fact that my students walk away from this book as better humans. This book is powerful. 

But that also means it’s intimidating! How do you do a book like this justice? How do you make sure students walk away with both engagement and empathy, comprehension and connections, proficiency and perspectives? It’s challenging, but doable! For my fellow ELA teachers who want it all – mastery AND meaning – here are 10 of my favorite activities for teaching A Long Walk to Water.

Activities for Teaching A Long Walk to Water


If you know me, then you know it’s no secret that I begin almost every single novel/unit with learning stations. Teaching A Long Walk to Water is no exception! Our pre-reading learning stations serve two purposes: to hook students before reading AND build essential background knowledge. During learning stations, students “get to know” Nya and Salva through key excerpts, learn about the setting and historical context, consider the impact of water on their lives, and more. These tasks prepare students for reading so that when we begin Chapter 1, everyone is engaged, confident, and curious to read more. You can check out these print/digital pre-reading learning stations HERE or in the unit bundle HERE.

A Long Walk to Water pre-reading learning stations


After reading the first few chapters, students will have natural questions about the Dinka and Nuer cultures. To answer students’ questions and strengthen their understanding of the cultural context, I created a lesson to accompany a photo gallery from The Guardian. After reading about the Dinka tribe, students “closely” read the photos and captions to learn as much as they can about Dinka culture. Then, we discuss what we think are the most important details to keep in mind as we read. You can check out this photo gallery activity in the Ch. 1-6 activity pack HERE or in the unit bundle HERE.


A Long Walk to Water is the perfect book to explore the development of point of view. After doing a simple Nya/Salva venn diagram with the first few chapters, I like to push my students’ thinking to the next level of analysis around chapters 8-9 (or whenever, really). I break students into groups and give them a chunk of the text & either Nya’s or Salva’s point of view. Then, students analyze how author Linda Sue Park develops the point of view in the specific chapters. This jigsaw work then leads into a great discussion where we can compare and contrast Nya’s and Salva’s point of view.

This work is challenging for students, but it helps to start these conversations earlier on in the novel so we gradually ramp up our level of analysis as we read. You can check out this point of view group work in the Ch. 7-12 activity pack HERE or in the unit bundle HERE.

A Long Walk to Water point of view


To scaffold the “interaction of story elements” standard, I created an activity that would help students analyze the conflict in A Long Walk to Water . Specifically, my secret goal was to help them discover the relationship between conflict and setting. Instead of telling them that, I let them figure it out on their own through “conflict pie charts,” an engaging twist on the typical, “What is the conflict?” question. For this activity, students must break down the sources of conflict into percentages/slices of a pie chart.

After completing this activity for both Nya and Salva, students are able to compare/contrast and realize that the setting is the main source of the conflict. This activity works well about halfway through the novel, because it scaffolds the more thorough analysis we’ll do with story elements later on in the text. You can check out this resource in the Ch. 7-12 activity pack HERE or in the unit bundle HE R E.


If you’ve ever dreaded the monotony that can sneak up halfway through a novel unit, then a question trail is the activity for you! A question trail is an engaging, kinesthetic activity that takes students on an interactive “trail” of questions posted around the room. Each question answer (A, B, C, D) directs students to a different question “on the trail,” so if students answer each question correctly, they complete a full circuit. It sounds a little complicated, but I promise it’s easy once you try it! For more information on how to set up your own question, click HERE for a blog post or HERE for an editable template.

I created a question trail to review Chapters 1-12 of A Long Walk to Water before our quiz. This question trail is a great way to check in with students, see who is reading, who is comprehending, and who is critically thinking. You can check out the question trail in the Ch. 7-12 activity pack HERE or in the unit bundle HERE.

A Long Walk to Water question trail


One of the most powerful takeaways from A Long Walk to Water is Salva’s astounding strength and resilience. We discuss this throughout the novel and analyze how Salva responds to the adversity around him, but it’s important for students to realize that resilience is a skill they, too, can practice. To help students see this and learn about the psychological relationship between adversity and strength, we read and discuss nonfiction about resilience. Not only does this reinforce themes of the book, but it gives students real strategies for overcoming adversity in their own lives. You can check out this resource in the Ch. 13-18 activity pack HERE or in the unit bundle HERE.


As we finish reading the book, one thing we analyze is the role of Nya’s character in the book, since she is a fictional character derived from the true stories of countless girls. This is one piece to the puzzle of hitting the standard of understanding how authors “use or alter history.” To scaffold this skill, students get into Nya’s point of view and compose postcards to Salva to thank him for the well.

It’s a simple but powerful activity that gets students thinking. Writing the postcards helps students connect to the character of Nya, imagine the ripple effect water would have on her life, and feel the impact of Salva’s accomplishments. This provides the perfect springboard for a whole-class discussion of Nya’s character, the final chapter, and Park’s choices as an author. You can check out this resource in the Ch. 13-18 activity pack HERE or in the unit bundle HERE.

A Long Walk to Water postcard activity


If you’ve ever finished reading an incredible novel with your student and then thought, “Now what?” then “speed discussion” is for you! Speed discussion is a speed-dating style discussion strategy in which students are paired up to discuss a variety of questions during quick rounds of discussion (1-2 minutes). Each round, students rotate to a different topic and peer. The magic of this activity is that it engages every single student Type here. You can check out this resource separately HERE or in the unit bundle HERE.

To learn more about various types of engaging, speed-dating style lessons, read my blog post HERE.


A Long Walk to Water is one of those books that deserves to be discussed at length! Like I mentioned earlier, it is possible to have it all: engagement and empathy, comprehension and connections, and proficiency and perspectives. And a Socratic Seminar, or student-led discussion, is the perfect culminating assessment with the power to offer it all. If you’ve never hosted a Socratic Seminar before, it’s a student-facilitated discussion, one where the students create questions, prepare notes, and lead the conversation. And if you’re already skeptical, it absolutely CAN be done with middle schoolers. Trust me! After 6 years of teaching high school, I was intimidated to try it in middle school, too, but it’s one of the most rewarding lessons I’ve ever taught! To learn more about how to facilitate a successful seminar, read my blog post HERE or head to my student-ready resource HERE.

A Long Walk to Water Socratic Seminar


If you teach A Long Walk to Water, I can’t recommend this enough! “God Grew Tired Of Us” is a documentary that follows three Sudanese “Lost Boys” as they leave refugee camps to resettle in America. The film does an excellent job showing the young men as they struggle to adjust to life in America. This perspective is one that my students seem to want more of after reading A Long Walk to Water.

To maximize this movie time, I give students film analysis questions that require them to think critically about the film, the director’s choices, and the connections to the novel. Last year, I did this at the very end of our entire unit, but this year, I am planning on showing this before our Socratic Seminar assessment, because it will give us even more to discuss. You can check out this resource HERE or in the unit bundle HERE.

I hope this helps you jump-start your lesson planning for A Long Walk to Water. Enjoy the book, and good luck teaching it! For more information on planning engaging novel units, you can read my blog post HERE .

Interested in the resources for teaching A Long Walk to Water ? Check out my jam-packed A Long Walk to Water unit bundle HERE.

A Long Walk to Water Unit Bundle

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    Water activity (aw) is defined as the ratio of the water-vapour pressure (p) to the pressure of pure water (po) at the same temperature (Equation 1). Water activity ranges from zero (water absent) to 1.0 (pure water). aw = p / po Equation 1 Water activity is a fundamental property in any aqueous solutions.

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    Water Supply Assignment Uploaded by Sajan Sajan water supply assignment for civil engineers Copyright: © All Rights Reserved Available Formats Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Flag for inappropriate content Download now of 12 ----------- - - Pur-0.. and J:i.ripuN- wcJ-~ r --- C- I

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    In Sabah, there is Water Supply Ordinance 1961 make declaration of water supply areas which it is to be necessary for the purpose of conserving or protecting any water. Yang di- Pertua Negeri may order, defining the area in question, declare any area to be a water supply area and there upon the provisions of section 4 shall to such area.

  23. Assignment On: "Water Resources Management in the ...

    The principal areas covered by regulations are water rights and allocation, standards of service, water quality and environmental protection, watershed management, soil and water conservation, prices charged by regulated utilities, ease of entry to water service industries, etc. Clear administrative rules should also be established to determine ...