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Introduction to Environmental Hygiene
Environmental hygiene is maintaining a clean environment by cleaning equipment between use, disinfecting surfaces, and sterilizing medical equipment according to best practice to remove and destroy potential infectious microorganisms. Healthcare environments can harbour infectious microorganisms that have the potential to spread throughout the healthcare setting and infect susceptible individuals. Keeping the healthcare environment clean, including the client’s room, common areas, and workstations will break the chain of transmission and help decrease the risk of infection.
Following Public Health Ontario (2018) Best Practices for Environmental Cleaning for Prevention and Control of Infection in All Health Care Settings (3rd ed.) guidelines is essential to control the risk of transmission and maintain a safe hygienic environment. Best practice examples include cleaning and disinfecting the environment and equipment between client care (e.g., stethoscope, blood pressure cuff), designating equipment to additional-precaution isolation rooms, disposing of contaminated and soiled linen appropriately, changing linens often, placing sharps in designated containers, and terminal cleaning of rooms. Cleaning and disinfecting products in the healthcare setting must be approved by the infection prevention and control (IPAC) team and occupational health; and should be used according to manufacturer’s recommendations (Provincial Infectious Diseases Advisory Committee [PIDAC], 2018).
Cleaning and Disinfecting Environmental Surfaces
Healthcare settings have multiple people continuously coming in and out of the environment. Each of these individuals can potentially introduce new microorganisms into the environment. They may bring in infectious microorganisms, or visit infectious clients, or touch contaminated surfaces. The continuous movement of people within the healthcare setting, and their continuous interactions with the environment, increases the risk of transmission of infectious agents.
One way to decrease the transmission of infectious agents is effective cleaning and disinfecting of the healthcare environments (e.g., table surfaces, client’s personal items, medical equipment). Routine cleaning and disinfecting practices can help to reduce the transmission of microorganisms and decrease the risk of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). It is essential for healthcare providers to understand the various risks of transmission, the required cleaning, disinfection, or sterilization needed according to the setting, and the cleaning products to use according to agency policies.
Before cleaning any surface, you need to determine what type of cleaning agent and disinfectant is compatible with the equipment. Familiarize yourself with your institutional policies and check manufacturer instructions (e.g., dilution rates, contact time, frequency, compatibility, safety considerations) if unsure. Identify and label any damaged equipment, and report it to the proper department (e.g., environmental services manager, occupational health department). All equipment should come with the manufacturer’s instructions for assembling/disassembling and cleaning (e.g., mechanical lifts, hospital beds, wheelchairs). Cleaning agents and disinfectants required for medical equipment or surfaces should be readily available and approved for use at the healthcare setting according to the infection prevention and control guidelines.
Cleaning refers to the physical removal and reduction of foreign (e.g., dust, soil, grease, oils) and organic (e.g., blood, body secretion, microorganisms) materials from a surface through the use of mechanical action, water, and detergents (PIDAC, 2018). Cleaning can be a one-step (e.g., soap and water) or two-step (e.g., bleach [sodium hypochlorite] and hydrogen peroxide cleaner disinfectant wipes) process depending on the surface, type of microorganism, and amount of contamination. The physical movement of friction is key when cleaning a surface area.
Disinfecting refers to the process of deactivating and killing most microorganisms through the use of disinfectants (PIDAC, 2018). There is no one disinfectant solution that will work for every microorganism and in every setting. Products that contain disinfectants must include a drug identification number or DIN, which is regulated by Health Canada (PIDAC, 2018). Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, bleach, iodophors, phenolics, and quaternary ammonium.
Cleaning techniques to avoid cross-contamination include:
- Remove visible soil before disinfecting an area.
- Clean dirty to dirtiest.
- Spray the cleaner or disinfectant solution on a clean cloth rather than directly on the surface.
- Change the side of the cloth or wipe before wiping a different surface of the item you are cleaning.
- Wipes or clothes need to stay wet when cleaning. Change wipes or spray more cleaning disinfectant on the cloth when it begins to dry.
Certain microorganisms require special cleaning protocols. For example, C. difficile , VRE, and MRSA can live on surfaces for extended periods of time and need to be eliminated to avoid transmission of the infectious agent. When these microorganisms are not eliminated from surfaces there is an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection transmissions.
Points of Consideration: Cleaning Agents and Disinfectants
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Clinical Procedures for Safer Patient Care — Thompson Rivers University Edition by Renée Anderson, Glynda Rees Doyle, and Jodie Anita McCutcheon is used under a CC BY 4.0 Licence . This book is an adaptation of Clinical Procedures of Safer Patient Care by Glynda Rees Doyle and Jodie Anita McCutcheon, which is under a CC BY 4.0 Licence . A full list of changes and additions made by Renée Anderson can be found in the About the Book section.
Introduction to Infection Prevention and Control Practices for the Interprofessional Learner Copyright © by Michelle Hughes; Audrey Kenmir; Oona St-Amant; Caitlin Cosgrove; and Grace Sharpe is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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Sanitation & Hygiene
Sanitation and hygiene are critical to health, survival, and development. Many countries face challenges in providing adequate sanitation for their entire populations, leaving people at risk for diseases related to water, sanitation, and hygiene. Throughout the world, an estimated 1.7 billion people lack basic sanitation (about 21% of the world’s population). 1 , 2 Basic sanitation is defined as having access to facilities for the safe disposal of human waste (feces and urine), as well as having the ability to maintain hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection, industrial/hazardous waste management, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Around 2.3 billion people (about 29%) lack access to basic hygiene, which includes access to a handwashing station with soap and water at home.
The world did not achieve the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target to halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to basic sanitation by 2015. Now, the United Nations’ Sustainable Development goal (SDG) is for everyone to have “adequate and equitable” sanitation and basic hygiene for all by 2030. 3
This site provides information about sanitation and hygiene in a global context. Topics include:
- Toilets & Latrines
- Sewer Systems & Wastewater Management
- Potential Sanitation Solutions During an Emergency Response
- Guidance for Reducing Health Risks to Workers Handling Human Waste or Sewage
- Hygiene in Low- and Middle- Income Countries
- World Health Organization and UNICEF. Progress on Household Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene 2000-2020: Five Years Into the SDGs [PDF – 164 pages] . 2021.
- U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. and World Population Clock . 2017. UN.
- Sustainable Development Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all . 2017.
- Drinking Water
- Healthy Swimming
- Global WASH
- Other Uses of Water
- WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks
- Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene
Exit Notification / Disclaimer Policy
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
- Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
- CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website.
Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Home Science Maintain Basic Knowledge for family life Higher secondary school College
Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation
The preparation and service of food requires handling of materials which are extremely vulnerable to becoming the media of contamination thereby leading to the spread of infection and disease. To assess the hygiene and sanitation requirement of an establishment, the following aspects need to be considered.
This refers to the total environment in which food is prepared and consumed.
The place should be scrutinised for the amount of air pollution or whether it is free from the potential of infestation by insects, rats, flies, etc.. The water lines and sewage disposal lines should not run too close to each other because in the event of a leak, the water supply can get contaminated.
The cleanability of floors, walls, ceilings or any other surfaces is the basis for maintaining a structure free from the hazards of infection. The materials selected therefore should be non absorbent, non - corrosive and easy to keep clean. The kitchen should be subjected to regular pest control treatment.
Facilities for proper sewage disposal and the construction of adequate plumbing for kitchen is of consequence in sanitation. All sewage lines must be directed into the public sewage system. Faulty plumbing can prove a hazard if it leads to frequent blockages of drains that results in backflows.
3. Equipment, Furniture and Fittings
These should be designed so that they do not harbour dust or dirt, which is the source of microorganisms. Any equipment, which are chipped or damaged, should be discarded. In addition, knowledge of the use of proper detergents is essential to avoid leaving chemical residues on surfaces that may contaminate food.
Ventilation plays a very important role in clearing the hot air and bringing down temperature as well as the carbon-di-oxide content. All kitchens must be provided with exhaust fans and extraction hoods to provide proper ventilation.
All areas should be well lighted to make dirt, grease and infestation easily detectable.
6. Water Supply
The water supply should be treated to ensure that it is fit for drinking, cooking of food and washing of utensils.
All natural water supplies contain mineral salts and organic materials in addition to dissolved gases from the air. Microbial activity also influences the colour, odour and taste of the water. Water for food preparation purposes may be considered hygienic when it is sufficiently pure to have only very small quantities of substances dissolved in it which do not prove injurious to health.
Impurities in water may be present as fine suspensions or dissolved form of salts of metals like lead, iron, zinc or others like carbonates, chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium which tend to cause hardness of water. The other impurities may include particles of sand, pathogenic micro organisms, eggs of parasitic worms and excessive amount of chemicals used as preservatives which generally leads to diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid, dysentry, weakness and loss of appetite.
7. Waste Disposal
Kitchen waste which consists of peelings, spillage, empty cans, etc. must never be allowed to remain anywhere near the kitchen because they can attract insects, which can become agents of contamination to wholesome food. Improper disposal can pollute water and through it, contaminate equipment and food.
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LECTURE NOTES For Environmental Health Students Occupational Health, Safety, and Hygiene
BACKGROUND: Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. METHODS: We investigated four
Annals of Occupational Hygiene
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Hygiene and Environmental Health Module: 1. Introduction to the Principles and Concepts of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Study session 1 introduction to the principles and concepts of hygiene and environmental health, introduction.
This first study session in the Module serves to introduce you to the important concepts and key terms that are used in environmental health and hygiene. Starting with a brief description of the historical importance of hygiene and sanitation, we will explain the scope of environmental health and describe the links between hygiene, sanitation and human health. We will describe the steps in environmental health planning and give you an overview of your role in the management of hygiene and environmental health at community level. This session will help you better understand subsequent sessions in this Module.
Learning Outcomes for Study Session 1
When you have studied this session, you should be able to:
1.1 Define and use correctly each of the key words printed in bold . (SAQ 1.1)
1.2 Briefly describe the history of hygiene and environmental health and its development in Ethiopia. (SAQ 1.2)
1.3 Describe the significance of environmental health at community level. (SAQs 1.1 and 1.3)
1.4 List the environmental risk factors involved in the transmission of communicable diseases. (SAQ 1.4)
1.5 Describe the interactions between development and environment that affect human health. (SAQ 1.5)
1.6 Explain the basic components and purpose of environmental health planning. (SAQ 1.6)
1.1 Historical perspectives on hygiene and environmental health
Hygiene and sanitation have a long history at various levels of human civilisation. We can roughly divide the historical events into two periods: the ancient and the modern.
1.1.1 Prehistoric and ancient civilisation
Religious laws, such as Moses’ Law, writings in the Old and New Testaments and laws in the Koran, played major roles in the lives of ancient peoples. These laws mainly concentrated on the provision of personal hygiene. Dead bodies and contaminated surfaces were known to be unclean or unhygienic to touch. The importance of burying human faeces was also strongly indicated. The importance of body cleanliness before praying was a motive for maintaining the integrity of hygiene with a religious practice.
The importance of hygiene and sanitation flourished at the times of Greek, Roman and Egyptian civilisation. The use of private and public baths and latrines, cleaning of the body, shaving the head for protection from lice infestation, and the construction of water pipelines and sewage ditches were widely observed. The transmission of schistosomiasis (bilharzia) was linked to bathing and swimming in the Nile River. In these civilisations, the focus was on personal hygiene (hygiene) and human waste management (sanitation).
1.1.2 Modern times
A number of discoveries in the 19th century were important events for the understanding of communicable diseases. For example, the link between contaminated water and cholera was discovered by John Snow in 1854; the importance of hygienic handwashing before attending delivery of a baby was noted by Dr. Semmelweis in 1845; and the discovery that microorganisms (very small organisms only visible under a microscope) cause disease was made by Louis Pasteur around this time.
The period following the industrial revolution in Europe in the 19th century showed that improvements in sanitation, water supply and housing significantly reduced the occurrence of communicable diseases. The term ‘environmental health’ is used to describe human health in relation to environmental factors such as these. Environmental health can be defined as the control of all the factors in a person’s physical environment that have, or can have, a damaging effect on their physical, mental or social wellbeing. The issue of environmental health is now a global matter under the guidance of the United Nations (UN) through the World Health Organization.
Although hygiene and infection are vital factors in environmental health, it is also good to be aware of emerging issues such as global warming and the links between medical conditions such as cardio-vascular disease and our environment and lifestyles. Our environment is everything that surrounds us. It includes all the external influences and conditions that can affect our health, life and growth. These influences are constantly changing and the effects on our health may not be easily foreseen.
1.1.3 Hygiene and environmental health development in Ethiopia
Historical information about hygiene practice among the Ethiopian population is sparse. We will note only the organisational aspects, as follows.
- a. A formal health service was organised in the Ministry of the Interior in 1908. Hygiene and sanitation in public health was a single service.
- b. The Ministry of the Interior had a Proclamation and Legal Notices to exercise sanitation (urine handling, refuse and excreta management, street sweeping) in 1942–1943.
- c. The Ministry of Public Health was created in 1947. It organised Municipal and Provincial Public Health services to run both curative and public health. Hygiene and sanitation were the focus of these organisations.
- d. Late in the 1970s, safe water supply and sanitation became components of primary healthcare.
- e. In the 1990s, the new Constitution in 1995 and a new Health Policy in 1993 were designed to reflect the social and health needs of the Ethiopian population. Hygiene, sanitation and environmental matters are stated aims.
- f. In early 2000 the Health Extension Programme was designed and integrated into the Health Sector Development Programme as a tool to enhance hygiene and sanitation in rural and urban areas.
1.2.1 hygiene and sanitation.
What do hygiene and sanitation mean to you from your brief reading of the historical perspectives?
Hygiene is related to personal cleanliness, such as personal hygiene (body, clothing). Sanitation refers to waste management, particularly management of human waste.
Hygiene generally refers to the set of practices associated with the preservation of health and healthy living. The focus is mainly on personal hygiene that looks at cleanliness of the hair, body, hands, fingers, feet and clothing, and menstrual hygiene.
Improvements in personal knowledge, skill and practice that modify an individual’s behaviour towards healthy practice are the focus of hygiene promotion. Safe hygiene practice includes a broad range of healthy behaviours, such as handwashing before eating and after cleaning a child’s bottom, and safe faeces disposal. When you carry out hygiene education and promotion the aim is to transfer knowledge and understanding of hygiene and associated health risks in order to help people change their behaviour to use better hygiene practices.
Sanitation means the prevention of human contact with wastes, for hygienic purposes. It also means promoting health through the prevention of human contact with the hazards associated with the lack of healthy food, clean water and healthful housing, the control of vectors (living organisms that transmit diseases), and a clean environment. It focuses on management of waste produced by human activities.
There are different types of sanitation relating to particular situations, such as:
- Basic sanitation : refers to the management of human faeces at the household level. It means access to a toilet or latrine.
- Onsite sanitation : the collection and treatment of waste at the place where it is deposited.
- Food sanitation : refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety. Food hygiene is similar to food sanitation.
- Housing sanitation : refers to safeguarding the home environment (the dwelling and its immediate environment).
- Environmental sanitation : the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. This category includes solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control.
- Ecological sanitation : the concept of recycling the nutrients from human and animal wastes to the environment.
1.2.2 Environmental health
Environmental health is broader than hygiene and sanitation; it encompasses hygiene, sanitation and many other aspects of the environment that are not included in this Module such as global warming, climate change, radiation, gene technology, flooding and natural disasters. It also involves studying the environmental factors that affect health.
The World Health Organization’s definition is as follows:
Environmental health addresses all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all the related factors impacting behaviours. It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health.
Key phrases in this definition are environmental factors and potentially affect health .
1.2.3 Components of environmental health
Table 1.1 describes the areas of environmental health and hygiene that will be of importance to you as a healthworker and that you will learn about in the rest of this Module.
Figure 1.1 illustrates the various aspects of hygiene and environmental health that are described in Table 1.1. Look at the separate drawings within the figure and match each of them to one of the descriptions.
Starting at top right, the drawing there illustrates solid waste disposal in a pit. Below that is a woman cooking at a stove to show food hygiene in a cooking area. The handpump illustrates water supply. Personal hygiene is represented by the person washing themselves. The next drawing shows a storage cupboard, again illustrating food hygiene. The drawing at top left is a pit latrine to represent human waste disposal. The central drawing illustrates healthful housing. (Vector control, institutional hygiene, occupational hygiene and water pollution are not shown.)
1.3 Concepts and principles in hygiene and environmental health
We will consider diarrhoea, which is a symptom of many common diseases, as a means to understand the concept of disease transmission, the role of environmental health and the framework for hygienic improvements.
1.3.1 Environmental health and disease transmission
The description of diarrhoea transmission represents a good way to understand the pathways of disease through the environment and how environmental health and hygiene can help prevent disease transmission. Figure 1.2 shows the factors that are essential for diarrhoea transmission. (This diagram is widely used to represent these important links in disease transmission. We have included two versions of it here to help you identify it if you see it again. It is used in later sessions in this Module.)
Look first at Figure 1.2 (a). On the left is a person defecating, representing the source of diarrhoea. The infectious agent or disease agent is actively discharged by a patient or carrier of the disease. On the right is the host , who is the person that could be affected by the disease. Between the two, there is the part of the environment that links the two; in other words, the pathway that the disease travels between the source and the host. Now compare Figure 1.2(a) with Figure 1.2(b); you will see they represent the same thing.
Figure 1.2(b) similarly shows the different pathways of transmission through the environment. The source of diarrhoea is the agent or carrier who discharges infected faeces to the environment. To remember the possible pathways we can use the six ‘F’s:
- Faeces: resulting from defecation.
- Fluids: through contaminated water and other contaminated liquids.
- Fingers: contaminated fingers transmit diseases.
- Flies: all sorts of animals such as flies can carry and transmit diseases.
- Fomites or fields: fomites are inanimate objects that carry the infectious agent (e.g. dishes, cups and other contaminated surfaces in contact with food or water).
- Food: infected by fluids, flies, fingers or fomites and then eaten.
A mother had diarrhoea. She was making a meal for her child but did not wash her hands before preparing the food and her child became sick with diarrhoea. Can you identify the source, pathway of disease transmission and the host?
The source is the mother who had diarrhoea; the pathway in the environment is excreta → fingers → food → mouth; and the host is the child.
If you understand the pathway of the disease, then you can design an intervention for the disease that targets the source, environment or the host. An intervention is a way of stopping the disease from being transmitted. The broken lines, in Figure 1.2, indicate the possible interventions for the prevention and control of diarrhoea. Some of these interventions are described in Table 1.2.
1.3.2 The place of environmental health in your community
Our living environment is composed of home, work and recreational centres where people spend their time. Water, air and food are our concern. The provision of environmental health services extends to all these aspects of our lives.
List the locations in your kebele where environmental health is important.
You may have thought of a list that includes the following, but the detail will depend on your own kebele :
- workplaces: health facilities, local workplaces, public offices, shops, mill house, metal and wood works
- social places: church, mosque
- homes: different types of home in your area.
It is important to know the different parts of your kebele so that you can promote better hygiene in all areas. The interaction of the environment and possible environmental hazards are indicated in Figure 1.3. These different types of hazard will be discussed in Study Session 2.
1.3.3 Environmental intervention models
According to the Federal Ministry of Health, more than 80% of communicable diseases in Ethiopia are believed to be preventable using environmental health interventions. Generally, there are two intervention models: the clinical intervention model, which looks at treating the sick person, and the public health model, including environmental health, which looks at how to stop people getting sick in the first place by providing a healthy environment. This is indicated in Figure 1.4.
If we look at these two models in a wider context, then there are additional factors that must be considered. These include having helpful local policies, appropriate community ( kebele ) level organisations, sanitation legislation, developing sanitation technology options and poverty alleviation efforts. Political will in policy development in health and environmental health, designing the hygiene and sanitation legal frameworks and long-term socio-economic developments, are aspects of the government’s responsibilities. As a Health Extension Practitioner you have an important role in the prevention of environmental hazards that affect the health of the public.
1.3.4 Environmental risk factors
You have learned in previous Modules that infectious agents play a part in the transmission of disease. Infectious agents are pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and parasites. To cause a disease, they must be introduced into our bodies in sufficient quantities. The environmental conditions and practices that facilitate the carrying of such infectious agents into our bodies are termed environmental risk factors . A good example is drinking water, which can be contaminated by human faecal matter that contains these infectious agents. When this water is consumed, we are likely to get diarrhoeal diseases.
There are other ways that infectious agents can get into our bodies; for example, the air we breathe can be contaminated by droplets that come out of a patient’s lungs when they breathe or cough. TB and pneumonia are droplet-related infections that are transmitted in this way. There are also diseases and conditions that are not caused by pathogenic organisms, but are caused by other environmental risk factors, which may be due to chemicals or physical hazards such as noise. Major environmental risks and examples of the diseases and conditions that are related to these risks are indicated in Table 1.3. Further descriptions of these diseases can be found in the Communicable Diseases and Non-Communicable Diseases, Emergency Care and Mental Health Modules.
1.4 Human interaction with the environment
1.4.1 urbanisation and industrialisation.
Urbanisation and industrialisation bring rural people into urban centres that may not be ready to handle the additional sanitary needs. Ethiopia is at the stage of rapid development with priorities in agriculture and industry. Currently small-scale industries that bridge agriculture and industrialisation are booming. Large-scale industries, such as textiles, food and cement, are growing. The need to improve and expand social infrastructures such as water supply, waste management and health services is obvious in order to handle the needs of the growing urban centres. As a healthworker you need to understand that these developments have environmental health risks due to overcrowding, inappropriate waste management and a shortage of safe drinking water.
1.4.2 Development as a means of interaction
Assume for a minute that a textile factory is planned to operate in your woreda . Now, think what benefits and disadvantages may arise from the introduction of this factory.
Any development requires an interaction with the environment. The obvious advantages are in terms of providing cloth, creating job opportunities and contributing to the growth of the national economy. The disadvantage is when the factory produces environmental risks. The factory uses energy, raw materials and human labour for its process of producing cloth. It generates pollutants in the form of solid waste, liquid waste, air polluting substances and noise. Such wastes can pollute the air we breathe, our food, water and soil. The poor management of these wastes results in human exposure that may subsequently affect human health as well as the environment.
Figure 1.5 shows diagrammatically the relationship between development and the environment.
In this diagram, the two arrows lying between ‘human activities’ and ‘ambient environment’ indicate the relationship between them, i.e. that development requires resources from the environment (forward arrow) and, as a result, waste could be generated as a by-product (backward arrow). In fact, there are three possible types of interaction: humans can affect the environment, the environment can affect humans, and humans and the environment can co-exist (where they sustain each other). The red arrows in Figure 1.5 indicate the negative effect if the generated waste is not properly handled. This affects the environment in the form of pollution of air, water, etc., and can have a negative influence on development.
Matters of development and health have been on the agenda in UN international conferences and meetings. The issue of sustainable development is a key message for the friendly coexistence between development and the environment. The World Commission on Environment and Development defined sustainable development as:
- development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Referring to Figure 1.5, think of different examples of the three types of interaction between human activities and the environment.
You may think of different examples; here are some that we thought of:
- a. Humans affecting the environment: deforestation, polluting surface water, loss of wildlife.
- b. The environment affecting humans: soil erosion, flooding.
- c. Friendly coexistence (sustainable development): operating a factory so that it provides goods and jobs that are needed now, without polluting the environment so that our children will have safe water in the future.
1.5 The role of environmental health in public health
Environmental health is a part of public health where the primary goal is preventing disease and promoting people’s health. Environmental health is associated with recognising, assessing, understanding and controlling the impacts of people on their environment and the impacts of the environment on the public. The role of the environmental healthworker, therefore, includes the following functions of public health:
- a. Improving human health and protecting it from environmental hazards.
- b. Developing liaison between the community and the local authority, and between the local and higher levels of administration.
- c. Acting independently to provide advice on environmental health matters;designing and developing plans of action for environmental health.
- d. Initiating and implementing health/hygiene, sanitation and environmental programmes to promote understanding of environmental health principles.
- e. Enforcing environmental legislation.
- f. Monitoring and evaluating environmental health activities, programmes and projects.
You, as a healthworker, are very much involved in all of the above except (e) and (f), which are mainly carried out by the w o reda environmental healthworker. However, the kebele administrator may ask you to help with the enforcement of environmental legislation, if deemed apprioriate.
1.6 Environmental health planning
Environmental health planning refers to a systematic process by which goals are established, facts are gathered and analysed, alternative proposals and programmes are considered and compared, resources are measured, priorities are established, and strategies and activities are designed to meet the established goals or objectives within a specified period of time. You, as part of kebele cabinet, will be requested to prepare an environmental health plan. The approach to planning is similar to that described in the Health Management, Ethics and Research Module. However, the primary focus is what makes it different. The following planning steps are suggested.
1 Identifying the needs and gaps
This is essentially an inventory (or list) of problems related to environmental health in your local context. You can use various tools in order to identify these problems.
- Environmental health survey : This is a systematic survey using a questionnaire. The questionnaire contains basic indicators of environmental health such as latrine availability, source of drinking water, waste disposal systems, cleanliness of the community, etc. You will need to do some statistical analysis (proportions and averages) to refine basic indicators of environmental health for your local context. You must be careful when designing a survey as it requires time, expertise and resources. You can plan it in coordination with the woreda environmental healthworker.
- Rapid/quick assessment : This is the usual method that helps you gain a quick overview of the range of problems. The usual data collection tools that you can use for this are focused or group discussion, physical observation with checklists and interviewing people.
2 Priority setting
It is difficult to handle all identified problems due to resource limitations. You need to know in advance the available resources in the kebele . Resources can be mobilised from government, community, private organisations and NGOs. Do not rely too much on governmental resources as there are always limitations. Mobilising community resources is the best option that could be sustained. Priorities are then made on the basis of the depth and severity of the problem, the feasibility and the degree of community concern and willingness to be involved in the resource mobilisation.
3 Writing a planning report
This is a systematic description of the planning functions. The recommended sub-titles are:
- Title of the plan
- Introduction or background
- Strategies and activities
- Resources (i.e. budget, human resource and materials)
- Plan of action (i.e. activities by time and responsible person)
You should prepare and present an annual plan of action for improvement of hygiene and environmental health to the kebele head. The plan of action needs careful consideration of your work in the kebele . The activities in the plan should include identifying problems, inspection services (households, food establishments, public utilities such as water sources, health facilities), hygiene promotion, monitoring selected indicators, sanitation promotion, training of local partners, sanitation campaigns and commemorating sanitation and water days.
4 Implementing the plan
Once the plan has been approved by the kebele cabinet it can be implemented. Environmental health activities are put into practice on the ground at this stage.
5 Monitoring and evaluating the planned performance
Daily, weekly or monthly monitoring will help you check the progress of the implementation, while evaluating performance at the end of the year is useful to help you see the overall progress.
6 Learning by doing
You will be able to learn lessons from the experience of the previous year’s implementation and the achievements and failures.
Summary of Study Session 1
In Study Session 1, you have learned that:
- The historical perspectives show us that hygiene and sanitation have a deep-rooted origin. The practice of hygiene and sanitation is part of our daily life.
- There are differences between hygiene, sanitation and environmental health. While hygiene focuses on individual personal hygiene/cleanliness, sanitation often refers to waste management, and environmental health has a broader meaning beyond hygiene and sanitation, referring to where we live, work and play. The focus of environmental health is on how environmental risk factors affect human health.
- Environmental health plays a major role in the prevention and control of communicable diseases caused by pathogens, such as diarrhoea, and other diseases and conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused through inhalation of air pollution.
- There are various environmental health risks that affect our health. These include water and air pollution, food contamination and the disposal of wastes into our environment.
- The interaction between humans and the environment has various forms. Urbanisation, industrialisation and development are the major forms of interaction. We should remember and try to control the disadvantages of development and not focus only on the benefits.
- Environmental health planning requires you to gain knowledge of problems in your area and to identify needs and gaps, to set priorities and find resources to solve the problems.
Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 1
Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.
SAQ 1.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 1.1 and 1.3)
Emebet is a healthworker. Her weekly environmental health activities in her kebele include inspecting ten households and checking the proper storage of drinking water, food preparation and the presence of open windows. She also visits a first cycle school. In the same week, she inspects the local mill house and advises the workers how not to get hurt by machines.
Match Emebet’s different activities with the different areas of environmental health.
Inspecting ten households and checking the proper storage of drinking water
Inspecting food preparation
Housing sanitation or healthful housing
Inspecting for the presence of open windows
Visiting a first cycle school
Inspecting the local mill house and advising the workers how not to get hurt by machines
Using the following two lists, match each numbered item with the correct letter.
a. Inspecting for the presence of open windows
b. Inspecting ten households and checking the proper storage of drinking water
c. Visiting a first cycle school
d. Inspecting food preparation
e. Inspecting the local mill house and advising the workers how not to get hurt by machines
SAQ 1.2 (tests Learning Outcome 1.2)
Outline the differences and similarities in hygiene theory and practices in ancient and modern times.
- Hygiene and sanitation law and practices existed in ancient as well as in modern times.
- Laws in different religions are important for hygiene practices in ancient and modern times.
- Ancient hygiene practices concentrated on personal hygiene and waste management (sanitation).
- Modern understanding and practices of hygiene improved as it was discovered that microorganisms cause disease.
- Improvements in housing, water supply and sanitation have improved health.
SAQ 1.3 (tests Learning Outcome 1.3)
Make a quick visit in your village or town and make a list for yourself of the hygiene and sanitation problems that you can see.
You should have made your own list of hygiene and sanitation problems that you can see in your town or village. The list might include: poor handwashing, flies on the face, many flies around the house, excreta around the house, uncovered water container, poor solid waste management, animals are sleeping together with humans, slab of latrine is poorly maintained, children not using latrine, etc.
SAQ 1.4 (tests Learning Outcome 1.4)
Diarrhoea among children under 5 is common in many rural villages. What environmental factors or practices may cause diarrhoea in young children?
You could list environmental factors such as open defecation, presence of flies, poor waste management that could support the breeding of flies, uncovered food, contaminated plates and cups, a mother not washing her hands after cleaning a child’s bottom or a child eating with dirty fingers.
SAQ 1.5 (tests Learning Outcome 1.5)
Development in your locality may bring job opportunities. List the specific kinds of development that are found in your locality and identify the types of environmental hazard they might cause.
Your answer will depend on your local situation but examples of economic developments include: mill house, dairy farm, hollow block manufacturing, woodwork or metalwork. Possible environmental hazards due to these undertakings depend on their nature but may include: liquid waste discharged to the immediate environment, presence of noise, presence of machines that cause accidents, absence of latrines, workers welding without eye protection, etc.
SAQ 1.6 (tests Learning Outcome 1.6)
Why do we need environmental health planning? What documents will you need to use or to produce when designing environmental health planning?
Environmental health planning is needed to:
- Address what must be done effectively – to identify needs and gaps in environmental health
- Utilise resources efficiently
- Set priorities for environmental health
- Implement changes wisely in a given time frame
- Make a link with the overall kebele social development.
You will need to use an environmental health questionnaire to collect survey information and you will need to produce a planning report. You may also use previous planning and performance reports and results from earlier surveys.
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Environmental Hygiene; All You Should Know
Environmental hygiene covers all the practical prevention and control measures used to improve the basic environmental conditions affecting human health. Some of these environmental conditions include:
- Clean water supply
- Human and animal waste disposal
- Protection of food from contamination
- Provision of healthy housing, all of which are concerned with the quality of the human environment.
In a layman term, we can simply say that environmental hygiene means keeping our environment clean. In this article, we will be using these terms interchangeably.
The environment compasses not only the natural surroundings – the air, the water, the plants and animals used for food – but also shelter, modes of transportation and all other products of technology, including pollutants and waste materials; all of which interact to affect health. Environmental considerations become increasingly important during these times of changing emphasis in the fields of energy, economics and technology.
Inadequate routine cleaning of the environment has been implicated in the transmission of gastrointestinal, respiratory illnesses and other disease which uses germs and viruses as vectors.
Why Environmental Hygiene Matters
Research has shown harmful pathogens such as Clostridium difficile , Staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci can survive on surfaces for months, and they are just a few of the potentially disease-producing bacteria or viruses that can be transmitted to patients.
The length of time pathogens can survive on surfaces is a matter of concern when you consider how inefficiently those surfaces are cleaned.
Take for instance;
It is an established fact that germs are everywhere e.g. on people, food, and pets. Germs can survive on environmental surfaces like floors, tables, door handles, and toys for a long period of time.
Viruses can be shed in large numbers in respiratory secretions and in faeces, they can survive on surfaces for days, or in the case of certain viruses such as norovirus (the virus responsible for winter vomiting illness), for weeks.
Hence maintaining good environmental hygiene is therefore a vital part of good infection prevention and control.
We cannot talk about environmental hygiene without mentioning some key terminologies. Here are some of the key terminologies which also are very focal in keeping our environment clean.
How to maintain good environmental hygiene
1. Cleaning: Cleaning is a mechanical process (scrubbing) using detergent and water to remove food residues, dirt, debris and grease.
Cleaning is essential in the prevention of infection. Normal cleaning methods, using household detergents and warm water is considered to be sufficient to reduce the number of germs in the environment to a safe level.
How to Clean
- Cleaning is best achieved using a general purpose detergent and warm water, clean cloths, mops and the mechanical action of wiping/scrubbing. The area should then be rinsed and dried.
- Thorough cleaning with detergents should remove all contaminants including dust, dirt, faeces, blood, pus, urine, other body fluids and large numbers of germs.
Cleaning also involve sweeping, tidying up the environment and proper waste disposal.
2. Disinfection: This is a process that uses chemicals (disinfectants e.g. household bleach) or heat (e.g. dishwashers) to reduce the number of bacteria on environmental surfaces to a safe level. Disinfectants are chemicals that will reduce the number of germs to a level at which they are not harmful.
The routine use of chemical disinfectants for environmental hygiene is not recommended as thorough regular cleaning with detergent and warm water is sufficient for most situations.
A disinfectant is recommended however, in circumstances where there is a higher risk of cross-infection (e.g. During outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness) or if there has been a spillage of blood, faeces or vomit.
Disinfectants are potentially hazardous and must be used with caution and according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Surfaces and items must be cleaned before a disinfectant is applied as most disinfectants are inactivated by dirt.
3. Clean air: The last thing I will love to consider in this article is clean air.
What is clean air?
Clean air is air that has no harmful levels of pollutants (dirt, dust, airborne microbes, and chemicals) in it which is essential to good health and a basic human need.
Since our environment includes the air we breath, it is important that we ensure that we breath clean air.
Though there are air filters which promises us clean air, are best option is to reduce activities which can pollute the air in our environment.
Other measures to keep our environment clean include:
- Proper disposal of human and animal waste disposal
In conclusion, to maintain a good environmental hygiene, we have to do these three major things:
- Clean our environment regularly
- Disinfect the environment where necessary
- Sustain clean air in the environment
See Related Information
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Food Should Be Stored At Least Which Distance From The Floor?
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Environmental Hygiene Notes Pdf Free For GNM 1st Year- 2023
Environmental Hygiene Notes pdf Completely for Free For 1st-year Students. These Environmental hygiene Notes pdf is made according to the INC Syllabus. So, you can take full advantage of these notes in your upcoming exams. Also, these Environmental Hygiene 1st Year pdf Notes will help you understand complex topics of environmental hygiene in easy languages.
This note is very important from the fresher point of view, freshers are not known what is the syllabus of environmentals hygiene and how many chapters in gnm 1st year, for that reason also provided gnm 1st-year syllabus pdf . After carefully reading this gnm environmental 1st-year syllabus students will understand all topics in the 1st-year syllabus then they need PDF notes for study.
But don’t worry we have already provided the hygiene notes pdf download links in the below sections you don’t need to check other websites for downloading these hygiene notes.
Design this course to help the students to gain basic concepts and knowledge and the importance of Environmentals hygiene. Also, Know about the Syllabus of Environmental hygiene Nursing GNM 1st Year
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Table of Contents
Topic-Wise Download Environmental Hygiene Notes Pdf For GNM Nursing First-Year Students
Environmentals hygiene is an important subject in the GNM nursing 1st Year syllabus. Here we mentioned all the topics that help students in their preparation & also provide separate topics notes below.
Introduction to hygiene
From this chapter, students achieve the basic knowledge of hygiene products, definitions, components of environments, and concepts of healthy environments.
Environmental Factors Contributing to Health
Water- Characteristics and the sources of safe and wholesome water, Use of water, The Rain-water harvesting, Natural Water pollution, Waterborne disease, Water Purification- large scale and small scale, Acquired impurities Water pollution.
Air- Composition of the air, The air population and its effect on health, Controls of air population, Airborne disease, Uses of safety Measurement.
Waste- Refuse –sewage, excreta, and the garbage, Health hazards; Waste management- Collection of the waste, transportation & disposal of the waste.
Housing-Types, Location, the Characteristics of good housing, Basic amenities, Town Planning.
Ventilation– Standard & type of the ventilation
Lighting- Good lighting requirements, the natural and artificial lighting, & Uses of solar energy.
Noise- Sources of Noise, Community of Noise level, Noise controls measure, Effect of the noise pollution
Community Organizations to the Promote Environmental Health
Some of the students are searching all environmental hygiene GNM 1st year Notes Pdf, but they can’t easily get all the Environmental hygiene Nursing Pdf together for that reason; Mynursingtips provides all GNM Nursing 1st year notes Pdf for better learning.
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What is environmentals hygiene?
Practical prevention and control measures are used to improve the basic environmental conditions that affect human health, an example, human and animal waste disposal, provision of healthy housing, protection of food from contamination, and clean water supply, all these are concerned with the quality of the human environment.
What is the five environmentals hygiene?
Clean air, sanitation, climate, adequate water, and hygiene, safe use of chemicals, sound agricultural practices, healthy and safe workplaces, protection from radiation, health-supportive cities & built environments, and preserved nature are all prerequisites for good health.
What is the role of environmental sanitation and health?
Environmental sanitation envisages the promotion of the health of the community by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease.
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118 Hygiene Essay Topic Ideas & Examples
🏆 best hygiene topic ideas & essay examples, 💡 interesting topics to write about hygiene, 📌 simple & easy hygiene essay titles, 👍 good essay topics on hygiene, ❓ research questions about hygiene, 💯 free hygiene essay topic generator.
- Dental Hygienist: Reasons for Choosing This Career As a dental hygienist, one is also expected to take and develop X-rays before a dentist analyzes the structure of teeth for other treatment procedures.
- Food Preparation: Workplace Hygiene Thus if the chicken is not properly cooked or stored the bacteria in it can survive and cause food poisoning. Thus the chickens were contaminated by the germs or bacteria that were in the hands […]
- Food and Environmental Hygiene Department He also claims that the attendance book was left unattended and thus he filled in information in the absence of the receptionist attendant.Mr.
- The Main Guidelines and Industrial Hygiene Concerns In response to the case of New Orleans Hospital which has been affected by the Katrina disaster, the concept of industrial hygiene should be adopted in the recovery process. In execution of the rescue process, […]
- Evaluate Human Resource Issues in Hong Kong Food and Environmental Hygiene Department Apart from training it is necessary to make personnel aware of their impact of the organization’s development. In conclusion, it is possible to state that Hong Kong Food and Environmental Hygiene Department has certain problems […]
- Hand Hygiene in the Healthcare Environment Importance of the problem Hand hygiene among nurses and other healthcare providers in a hospital center is important to the mitigation of infections. Nurses need to be guided to an awareness of the importance of […]
- Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene The qualitative exposure assessment considers the safety materials, the physical and chemical properties of the materials, and paves way for the quantitative exposure assessment.
- The Main Industrial Hygiene Concerns The Incident Commander must also communicate precise description of the type, extent, danger, and management of the hazard. Some of the team members must also be involved in the active cleaning and elimination of all […]
- Hand Hygiene and Alcohol-Based Sanitizers The importance of hand hygiene springs from the fact that infections are normally passed from one patient to another through the hands of health care practitioners. Arguably, the idea of hand hygiene seems to be […]
- Hand Hygiene as an Evidence-Based Practice The structure of the paper includes a critical analysis of the identified everyday practice, interpretation of the types of knowledge informing the issue, and recommendations for future practice.
- Industrial Hygiene in Air Traffic Control Industrial hygiene can be described as the “science and art” dedicated to detecting, assessing, and managing those factors and stressors present in the workplace that can affect workers’ health or well-being negatively or cause them […]
- Hand Hygiene Policies Adherence: Action Plan According to Bowie and Green, hand hygiene within a hospital setting is a requirement that should not only be met by the medical staff but also the patients and visitors who come to the facility.
- Industrial Hygiene: Radiation The photons are characterized by a lack of charge, and they move in a straight line. The rate of production and the energy of gamma rays depend on the radioactive process.
- Food Poisoning and Hygiene Awareness in Saudi Arabia The primary aim of the research is to establish the extent to which hygiene awareness in Saudi Arabia helps in the prevention of disease.
- Occupational Hygiene and Safety In response to the situation, I would first try talking to the manager in order to sensitise him about the importance of the recorded comments.
- Hand Hygiene in Hospital Environments To appreciate the role of hand hygiene in eliminating the spread of infections within healthcare surroundings, it is crucial to examine various mechanisms that enhance the spread of germs.
- Hand Hygiene and Its Improvement in Healthcare Workers The versatility of some models allows them to be used for a variety of topics, For instance, the Theory of Planned Behavior introduced as a version of the Theory of Reasoned Action is an approach […]
- “The Impact of an Education Program on Hand Hygiene” by Helder et al. Moreover, they allow the measurement of variables relevant to the number of groups involved in the experiment and the sample size.
- Hand Hygiene Workflow in Pediatric Settings As shown in Figure 1, the current workflow of maintaining the hand hygiene in the pediatric care setting requires the placement of a patient in a specific location and the preparation of the tray with […]
- Marketing Challenges of the Companies Producing Personal Hygiene Products The paper is dedicated to the research of marketing peculiarities of the recent case, related to the increase of price for personal hygiene products, such as toilet paper, cat litter, and diapers.
- Filipino Problem: Friendly to Hygiene and Unfriendly to Environment Perhaps, this is one aspect that contributed to the title of the Philippines as the “Manning capital of the World”. Perhaps this is one weakness of the Filipinos against Americans since in America; people practice […]
- Review of Hygiene Hypothesis for Allergies According to Gibbs et al, the concept that non-exposure to infections in early life leads to the development of Atopic disease has come to be referred to as hygiene hypothesis.
- Fan Performance in the Occupational Hygiene Context The technological approach for the use of industrial equipment today is intended to make more efforts in power saving and useful work of the appliances.
- Hand Hygiene Essence in Healthcare Setting and the Adequate Change of Hospital Culture The information presents interest because of the research conducted in India, the information may be useful for the creation of general awareness of the hand-hygiene situation in medicine.
- Nosocomial Infections and Hand Hygiene Protocols in Acute Care Settings: An Evidence-Based Review In order to understand the significance of evidence-based parameters to decrease the incidence of NCI in the acute care setting, the author would elaborate on an important aspect of the pathophysiology of NCI.
- Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioners: Solutions to the Current Oral Health Crisis in the United States The paper will look at the problem of accessibility to oral care in the country and the possibility of the introduction of a mid-level provider as a possible solution to this problem will be addressed.
- The Status of Hand Hygiene Practices and a Cause in Disease Outbreaks As research revealed, health care-associated infections is greatly reduced when there is a marked improvement in HPP implementation This paper will discuss the importance of hand hygiene, the proper hand sanitation, institutional move to inculcate […]
- Chemical Hazards and Exposure: Occupational Hygiene Aspects The details of the limits of these regulations are explored followed by practical aspects of sampling, quality control, control measures and the interpretation of sampling results.
- Dentistry and Dental Hygiene in Saudi Arabia Specifically, the dentist featured in the study indicated that most dental problems in the kingdom are brought about by bad oral hygiene habits, the absence of oral health education, and parents’ lack of awareness on […]
- Review of Literature About Hand Hygiene The article discusses the issue of infections occurring due to central venous access devices in acute child care settings and the importance of hand-wash hygiene to reduce infections. The effectiveness of a promotion programme on […]
- The Implementation Plan for Improving Hand Hygiene Complaince The healthcare staff and leaders of respective departments will be appropriately informed of the researcher’s plan to implement HH with the intention of reducing HAIs in the healthcare setting.
- Hygiene Intervention Strategies: Implementation in the Healthcare Environment The authors noted that although healthcare providers know that hand hygiene is the cheapest and most efficient way to prevent the spread of infections, compliance with hand-washing remains “suboptimal”.
- Hand Hygiene Infection Control Given that practices of hand hygiene very, standardization of these practices is integral in extending the impact of the project in a healthcare setting.
- Applying to Dental Hygienist Program When I was in high school, I expected that a DH’s medical repertoire was limited to the field of dentistry. During my visits to the DHs, I learned that communication is an essential part of […]
- Sleep Hygiene Intervention Plan for Young Adults The main goals of this plan are to develop a list of guidelines for nurses on how they can offer a kind of educational program to their patients based on which young adults can understand […]
- Hand Hygiene Awareness in Saudi Nursing Students The participants of the study will have to answer the structured questions in the questionnaire. The results of the study depicted poor hand hygiene compliance.
- Online Hand Hygiene Survey In this case, the main primary sources of information for the survey were observing respondents’ behavior and filling in questionnaires that were distributed to them. In this case, the research was in one way inclined […]
- Food Hygiene Legislation in the UK For comprehension purposes, the applicable food laws and powers of authorized officers who conducted the inspection are presented briefly in the first section of the report.
- The Routine Food Hygiene Inspection The report will outline the conditions present in the food establishment that violate the food hygiene legislation and regulations. The main food legislations in the UK and Europe include the Food Safety Act 1990, the […]
- The Sunshine Wok: Food Hygiene Inspection At the kitchen, the food handler was not aware of the requirement to maintain high-risk food at a temperature of not above 8 C and was at 9.4oC.
- Food Hygiene Inspection of a Food Premises and the Intervention Strategies The need to conduct this inspection was necessitated by the complaints that were received from the customers about the food served at this store.
- Allergic Diseases and the Hygiene Hypothesis In 2009, a large cohort study set to investigate the effect of antibiotic exposure in early age and development of asthma found a positive association between antibiotic use in early years of life and development […]
- Cultivating Hand Hygiene Compliance Among Dental Health Workers in UAE The goal of this proposal is to appraise compliance of HH by the dental healthcare workers within 8 specialized dental clinics in UAE.
- Entering the Dental Hygiene Profession In this work, I will describe the main reasons behind my interest in a dental hygienist’s career, as well as discuss my experiences, skills, and goals.
- Safety and Hand Hygiene in Clinical Settings Not following simple hand hygiene rules in clinical settings leads to a variety of problems, and one of them is a poor understanding of ethical principles.
- Hand Hygiene: Analysis of Donabedian Model However, the level of compliance to HH among the medical team and the patients is generally low. For Covid-19, once the virus enters the body, the person can continue to pass on the disease to […]
- New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene: E-Government Meanwhile, the efforts of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to ensure the availability of advanced procedures were complicated by the quality of the used online systems.
- The Importance of Hand Hygiene According to the CDC, up to 2 million admitted patients contract HAIs annually in the US. Through hand hygiene, the HAI incidence rate can be reduced.
- Codes of Ethics in Dental Hygiene Profession The organizations such as ACD, ADA, and ADHA believe in the notion of accountability and are driven by the principle of self-regulation.
- The Canine Health: Food, Vaccination, and Hygiene Manufacturers will attempt to convince a person that their product is the healthiest and most appropriate, but one should be aware of what contributes to a dog’s wellbeing.
- Preserving Food Hygiene and Safety Thirdly, assessment Apps have aided in the transition of audits from worksheets to a platform designed to implement and track food safety procedures.
- Personal Hygiene: Types and Concept Thus, failure to clean hands may subject a person to the danger of contracting a disease. According to Chen et al.(2013, it is important to ensure that the nails are clean when washing hands.
- Marketing Department : The Tool Of Mouth Hygiene Health
- Inventory Management of Hygiene Cuisine
- Motivation, Hygiene Theory And The Acquired Needs Theory
- The History and Importance of Personal Hygiene
- Poverty, Insecurity, Poor Hygiene, And Underdevelopment
- Personal Hygiene: Preventing Infections and Diseases
- The Costs and Benefits of Introducing Mandatory Hygiene Regulations
- The Nyc Health Department Of Health And Mental Hygiene
- Oral Hygiene of High School Students of Pinoma National
- Pollution: Global Warming and Personal Hygiene Products
- Principles of Supporting an Individual to Maintain Personal Hygiene
- Hygiene And The Underclass In Nineteenth Century Rio De Janeiro
- Sanitation and Hygiene in the Food and Beverage Industry
- Impacts of Mandatory Meat Hygiene Regulations on the New Zealand Meat Trade
- Motivation and Hygiene as Issues of Control
- Quality Improvement Initiative Hand Hygiene
- The Importance Of Hygiene In Perfume: Patrick Süskind’s Novel Perfume
- Importance Of Hand Hygiene On Health Care Environment
- Support Individuals to Maintain Personal Hygiene
- The Importance Of Hand Hygiene On Health Care Environment
- The Future of the Feminine Hygiene Market
- The Field Of Hygiene Regulation With Prevention Of Disease
- Homeless Shelter Oral Hygiene Teaching and Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
- The Sanitation and Hygiene of Street Food Vendors
- Special Needs of Pediatric Patients Regarding Dental Hygiene
- Smart Methods for Environmental Externalities: Urban Planning, Environmental Health and Hygiene in the Netherlands
- Racial Hygiene And The Victims Of Medical Experiments
- Relationship Between Patient Mechanical Ventilation and Oral Hygiene
- Poor Personal Hygiene In The Fast Food Industry
- How to Make an Individual Aware of the Effects of Poor Hygiene on Others
- Impact of Hand Hygiene on Maintaining Patient Safety
- Personal Protective Equipment and Good Personal Hygiene
- Improving Hand Hygiene Compliance On Nursing Practice
- The Importance Of Good Versus Poor Personal Hygiene Practices
- Teaching Young Children Effective Oral Hygiene Techniques
- Nursing Skills With Patient’s Oral Hygiene
- Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Job Satisfaction in the Malaysian Retail Sector
- The Importance of Hygiene Practices in Healthcare Facilities
- The Specific Details of Maintaining Safety and Hygiene
- Integrating Water, Environment and Sanitation Hygiene Education Into Family Life Education in Schools
- The Effects Of Oral Hygiene Products On Children Countries
- What Causes Sustainable Changes in Hygiene Behaviour?
- What Are the Problems Caused by Poor Hygiene?
- What Is the History of Personal Hygiene and Purity?
- Why Are Feminine Hygiene Taxed When They Are a Necessity?
- How Does the Profession of Dental Hygiene Impact Today’s Society?
- What Are the Long-term Infant Outcomes and the Hygiene Hypothesis?
- How To Improve Compliance With Hand Hygiene in Hospitals
- How Food Poisoning and Food Hygiene Are Conncected?
- What Is the Evidence for a Causal Link Between Hygiene and Infections?
- What Are the Clinical Methods for the Objective Evaluation of Oral Hygiene?
- What Are the Benefits of Having Good Personal Hygiene?
- What Is the Difference Between Hygiene and Cleanliness?
- How to Influence Patient Oral Hygiene Behavior Effectively?
- What Is the Role of Hand Hygiene in Healthcare-associated Infection Prevention?
- How Do You Maintain Hygiene in the Workplace?
- How Do Mentor’s Hand Hygiene Practices Influence Student’s Hand Hygiene Rates?
- What Are the Skin Reactions Related to Hand Hygiene?
- What Is the Role of Oral Bacteria and Oral Hygiene in Causing Pheumonia?
- What Are the Basic Hygiene Practices for Food Preparation and Cooking?
- What Effect Did American Eugenics Movement Have on Nazi Racial Hygiene Policies?
- What Is the Power of Vivid Experience in Hand Hygiene Compliance?
- What Are the Epidemiological and Immunological Evidences for Hygiene Hypothesis?
- What Are the Oral Hygiene Measures and the Periodontal Status of School Children?
- Is Oral Hygiene as Important as Hand Hygiene During COVID-19 Pandemic?
- At What Level Are Food Safety and Food Hygiene in Ghana?
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Pope says a revised environmental encyclical will be released Oct. 4, feast of St. Francis of Assisi
By NICOLE WINFIELD Associated Press
VATICAN CITY (AP) — Pope Francis is planning to release an update to his landmark 2015 environmental encyclical on Oct. 4. That’s the feast of his nature-loving namesake, St. Francis of Assisi. Francis recently revealed he was writing a “second part” to the document “to address current problems” and announced Wednesday he’d publish it Oct. 4. The Vatican spokesman says the update would take into account in particular recent climate crises. The 2015 encyclical “Laudato Si,” or “Praised Be,” is perhaps Francis’ most well-known and important document. In it, Francis called for a bold cultural revolution to correct what he said was a “structurally perverse” economic system in which the rich exploited the poor.
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