assignment on internet

Because differences are our greatest strength

Online assignments: Best practices for teachers to use with students

assignment on internet

By Kristen L. Hodnett, MSEd

With school buildings closed due to the coronavirus pandemic , many teachers are looking for ways to turn their teaching into digital learning lessons. Live videoconferencing may not be possible for many students because of such factors as lack of access to computers and limits on cell phone data plans. But one thing we can do as educators is be mindful of learning barriers so more students can access the online assignments we’re creating. 

As an educator of online classes at Hunter College, I’ve spent several years designing online learning experiences for future teachers, using the principles of Universal Design for Learning . A primary focus when designing online learning is to make content more accessible for all learners.

As educators, we’re always striving to maximize learning opportunities. To make your online assignments easier for all students to access, follow these tips. 

1. Be consistent in how you post your content and share information.

  • Does your school have a learning management system? If so, use that to post your document.
  • Other easy-to-use distribution platforms: Email (school platform preferred), Google Classroom (school account needed), and Edmodo (free).
  • Consider posting or sharing a Google Doc so you can update it as needed.
  • Be consistent — use the same approach each time you post or share information.

2. Create a regular timeline for providing information and activities.

  • Will you post/share information the same time each day? Or, for older students, maybe every other day or once a week? 
  • Whatever you decide, it should remain unchanged to build comfort and routine.

 3. Use a consistent layout for sharing tasks and activities. 

  • Put learning objectives at the top or bottom. 
  • Number the actions, like a checklist.
  • Keep your structure the same each time you share, with content, reading, actions, etc., each in the same place.
  • Use colors and fonts to make it clear where your directions end and where the reading material begins. 
  • Follow the Goldilocks rule of graphic design. You want enough color and font variation to make the information interesting. But too many competing visuals can overwhelm or distract students. Aim for “just right.”
  • If using icons, search for accessible icons that have embedded descriptions. These make icons accessible to students with low vision and other users of screen readers. 
  • Be consistent about which color, font, and icon you use for different tasks. For example, use purple for highlighting topics and key actions, red for guiding students to use accessibility features, and blue for encouraging families to reach out for teacher support. (See examples of these kinds of online module structures . )

4. Offer multiple means of representation.

  • Just like in a classroom, all students will not learn the same way online. 
  • Plan for this by offering options to access content. Find ways to incorporate images, video, and audio in addition to reading.
  • Example: Add narration to a PowerPoint presentation or to Google Slides using tools like Screencast-O-Matic , Jing , or VoiceThread (limited free use).

 5. Remember to use multiple means of action and expression.

  • Offer different ways for students to show what they know, other than formal writing. Video or audio can be great options.
  • Consider how discussions can take place online, using tools such as Google Docs, Backchannel , or Flipgrid .

6. Introduce new tools in low-stakes ways. 

  • “Low stakes” means a grade is not attached and the content should be light. 
  • Example: Before having students use video on a graded task, have them practice recording a video by using it to introduce themselves to the class.

7. Provide a structured drop-in option for help, questions, and support. 

  • Knowing you’re there can ease your students’ anxiety. Consider chatting via text or video for these interactions. 
  • Decide if you want to offer a sign-up option or hold scheduled “office hour” times each day/week. For younger children, more contact with you may be comforting.

Before you dive into online learning, take a breath and remember that our students are typically far more comfortable with using technology than we are. Don’t worry about being perfect. Always allow for trials, exploration, and mistakes. What your students need most right now is to know that you’re there for them and that you’ll get through this difficult time together.

About the author

Kristen L. Hodnett, MSEd is a clinical professor in the department of special education at Hunter College in New York City.

Explore related topics

Discover what’s possible when you’re understood..

We’ll email you our most helpful stories and resources.

Wunder The first community app for parents and caregivers of children who learn and think differently.

Available on Android and iOS

Copyright © 2014- 2023 Understood For All Inc.

Assignment on Internet

Internet is a growing field and it has been so since its advent. It is still in its growth phase and has great potential, which attracts students from all over the world. These students are required to do assignments on internet and related subjects, which may get difficult. Researchomatic therefore provides these students with a wide library of internet assignments for convenient research.

Request for Quote (Rfq)

  • Click to Read More

Prediction Markets

Internet research, internet research 8, internet research 4, internet research 3, research strategies, assignment 3 - performance review takes a page from facebook, generate free bibliography in all citation styles.

Researchomatic helps you cite your academic research in multiple formats, such as APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago & Many more. Try it for Free!

  • Aeronautics

assignment on internet

Essay On Internet for Students and Children


500+ Words Essay On Internet

We live in the age of the internet. Also, it has become an important part of our life that we can’t live without it. Besides, the internet is an invention of high-end science and modern technology . Apart from that, we are connected to internet 24×7. Also, we can send big and small messages and information faster than ever. In this essay on the Internet, we are going to discuss various things related to the internet.

Essay On Internet

Reach of Internet

It is very difficult to estimate the area that the internet cover. Also, every second million people remain connected to it with any problem or issue. Apart from that, just like all the things the internet also has some good and bad effect on the life of people. So the first thing which we have to do is learn about the good and bad effect of the internet.

Good effects of the internet mean all those things that the internet make possible. Also, these things make our life easier and safer.

Bad effects of the internet mean all those things that we can no longer do because of the internet. Also, these things cause trouble for oneself and others too.

You can access in any corner of the world. Also, it is very easy to use and manage. In today’s world, we cannot imagine our life without it.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Uses Of Internet

From the time it first came into existence until now the internet has completed a long journey. Also, during this journey, the internet has adopted many things and became more user-friendly and interactive. Besides, every big and small things are available on internet and article or material that you require can be obtainable from internet.

assignment on internet

Tim Berners-Lee can be called one of the main father of internet as he invented/discovered the WWW (World Wide Web) which is used on every website. Also, there are millions of pages and website on the internet that it will take you years to go through all of them.

The Internet can be used to do different things like you can learn, teach, research, write, share, receive, e-mail , explore, and surf the internet.

Read Essay on Technology here

Convenience Due To Internet

Because of internet, our lives have become more convenient as compared to the times when we don’t have internet. Earlier, we have to stand in queues to send mails (letters), for withdrawing or depositing money, to book tickets, etc. but after the dawn of the internet, all these things become quite easy. Also, we do not have to waste our precious time standing in queues.

Also, the internet has contributed a lot to the environment as much of the offices (government and private), school and colleges have become digital that saves countless paper.

Although, there is no doubt that the internet had made our life easier and convenient but we can’t leave the fact that it has caused many bigger problems in the past. And with the speed, we are becoming addict to it a day in will come when it will become our basic necessity.

{ “@context”: “”, “@type”: “FAQPage”, “mainEntity”: [ { “@type”: “Question”, “name”: “What are the limitation of internet?”, “acceptedAnswer”: { “@type”: “Answer”, “text”: “Although internet can help you with anything but there are certain limitation to it. First of it does not have a physical appearance. Secondly, it does not have emotions and thirdly, it can’t send you to a place where you can’t go (physically).” } }, { “@type”: “Question”, “name”: “What is the ideal age for using internet?”, “acceptedAnswer”: { “@type”: “Answer”, “text”: “Nowadays everybody from small kids to adult is internet addicts. So it is difficult to decide an ideal age for using internet. However, according to researches using internet from an early age can cause problems in the child so internet usage of small children should be controlled or banned.” } } ] }


  • Travelling Essay
  • Picnic Essay
  • Our Country Essay
  • My Parents Essay
  • Essay on Favourite Personality
  • Essay on Memorable Day of My Life
  • Essay on Knowledge is Power
  • Essay on Gurpurab
  • Essay on My Favourite Season
  • Essay on Types of Sports

Which class are you in?


Download the App

Google Play

Search form

A for and against essay about the internet.

Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills.


Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises.


An essay

Check your writing: grouping - ideas

Check your writing: gap fill - useful phrases, worksheets and downloads.

What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people?

assignment on internet

Sign up to our newsletter for LearnEnglish Teens

We will process your data to send you our newsletter and updates based on your consent. You can unsubscribe at any time by clicking the "unsubscribe" link at the bottom of every email. Read our privacy policy for more information.

The Internet

Lesson overview.

In this lesson, students will pretend to flow through the Internet, all the while learning about Internet connections, URLs, IP Addresses, and the DNS.

Teaching Summary

Getting started - 25 minutes.

1) Review 2) Vocabulary 3) Getting the Message

Activity: The Internet - 15 minutes

4) the internet, wrap-up - 10 minutes.

5) Flash Chat - What did we learn? 6) Vocab Shmocab

Assessment - 5 minutes

7) the internet assessment, lesson objectives, students will:.

  • Learn about the complexity of sending messages over the Internet
  • Translate URLs into IP Addresses
  • Practice creative problem solving

Teaching Guide

Materials, resources and prep, for the student.

  • Paper for writing messages to send
  • Paper for creating a sign to "label" each "server"
  • Pens & Pencils
  • IP Address and Delivery Type Cards Found Here

For the Teacher

  • Lesson Video
  • This Teacher Lesson Guide
  • Print enough IP Address Cards and Delivery Type Cards for each group to draw
  • Print one Internet Assessment for each student
  • Access to the Internet (such as ) or 6+ pre-determined URL/IP address combinations

Getting Started (20 min)

This is a great time to review the last lesson that you went through with your class. We suggest you alternate between asking questions of the whole class and having students talk about their answers in small groups.

Here are some questions that you can ask in review:

What did we do last time?

What do you wish we had had a chance to do?

Did you think of any questions after the lesson that you want to ask?

What was your favorite part of the last lesson?

Finishing the review by asking about the students' favorite things helps to leave a positive impression of the previous exercise, increasing excitement for the activity that you are about to introduce.

2) Vocabulary

This lesson has several new and important words:

assignment on internet

IP Address - Say it with me: I-P Add-ress A number assigned to any item that is connected to the Internet

DNS (Domain Name Service) - Say it with me: D-N-S The service that translates URLs to IP addresses

URL (Universal Resource Locator) - Say it with me: U-R-L An easy-to-remember address for calling a web page (like )

Internet - Say it with me: In-ter-net A group of computers and servers that are connected to each other

Servers - Say it with me: Ser-vers Computers that exist only to provide things to others

Fiber Optic Cable - Say it with me: Fye-ber Op-tic Cay-bl A connection that uses light to transmit information

Wi-Fi - Say it with me: Wye-Fye A wireless method of sending information using radio waves

DSL/Cable - Say it with me: D-S-L / Cay-bl A method of sending information using telephone or television cables

Packets - Say it with me: Pack-ets Small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from larger chunks of information

A quick preview is all you need here. These words will all be explained as part of the lesson, so it would be far less confusing to do a brief intro to the words as a "see if you can spot these during the day" type of heads-up.

3) Getting the Message

  • Ask "What is the Internet?"
  • Is the Internet a public place or a private place? (Truthfully, many people think it can be both, but it should be viewed as a public space no matter what settings you think you've mastered.)
  • How does information get from place to place?
  • What do I do as a user?
  • What do you think happens inside the Internet?

There are some great YouTube videos on this subject that can make this lesson a little easier to understand. You can show them to the class in advance, or just watch them yourself. Here is one of the most clear and entertaining versions. (We recommend stopping the video at 2:59, if possible.)

Sending a message over the Internet is a lot like sending a message through the mail...if every letter we sent required thousands of envelopes!

Every message we send through the Internet gets chopped up and each piece is wrapped in its own version of an envelope. We call those "packets." Packets are specially formed chunks of information that are able to easily flow through any of the Internet's channels.

Sometimes, a few of those packets will get lost, because the Internet is a crazy place. In that case, the packets need to be resent, and the whole message has to get put on hold until they arrive.

Where do you think those packets are headed?

  • A server is a special computer that is supposed to be always on and ready to send and receive information.
  • Every website has a server.
  • Even email goes through servers.

Servers don't have names like you and I do. They're actually addressed using numbers. These numbers are called IP addresses, and they look a little strange.

For example: One of's IP addresses used to be

  • (Please be sure to check this out in advance. Most IP addresses change from time to time and they are then reused for other sites.)

There are many ways to reach the Internet from your house, school, or place of business.

  • You can connect directly using a cable (that might be DSL, Cable, or Fiber Optic)
  • Or you can connect using radio waves over the air through Wi-Fi

Direct connections are most reliable, but they can be inconvenient.

  • (You have to be attached to a cable!)

Wi-Fi connections are super convenient, but the aren't always reliable.

  • (Radio waves bounce all over the place and can get lost.)

So, if you're used to sending information to URLs (like ) and the servers actually have IP addresses for names (like how does the Internet change from one to the other? That's what the DNS is for. The DNS (Domain Name Server) has tables that allow the system to go back and forth between URLs and IP addresses. If the Domain Name Servers ever stopped working, it would shut down the Internet as we know it!

If you're thinking that this is a lot of text and it would be extremely boring to try to lecture this to a class full of elementary school kids, you're absolutely right!

If you're unable to show a YouTube video in class to help explain it all, I highly recommend drawing pictures to explain each idea above, or choosing students as volunteers to act out what you describe while you're explaining. They're not expected to get every detail and definition at this point, only to gain exposure.

With that said, let's try to understand what the DNS does by making a little DNS table ourselves.

Pull out a piece of paper and draw a grid similar to that in the Internet activity:

assignment on internet

First, we need to fill in this table.

  • Survey the class for their favorite websites and write the URLs in the left column
  • Use a site like to find the IP addresses for those sites and write them in the corresponding rows of the right column.

Now let's take this DNS Table and pretend to send messages through the Internet!

Activities: (20 min)


1) Create your own DNS table, similar to what is shown above. 2) Have the class help you fill in the blank spots in the table. Pick your favorite URLs and find their IP addresses using a site like . 3) Divide into groups of 3 to 5. 4) Assign each group an IP address from the table, and each person in the group a position: The Message Writer The Internet The Server (carries the IP address) The Return Internet (optional) The Message Receiver (optional) 5) Each group will draw an IP Address Card and a Delivery Card to find out where their message is going and what their method of message delivery (Wi-Fi, Cable/DSL, or Fiber Optic Cable) will be. 6) The Message Writer will craft a note to send to the server. 7) The Internet will rip the message up into 4 small pieces called packets, then deliver each packet one at a time to the Server with the IP address that was drawn from the IP Address Card stack. 8) The Server will make sure that the message arrives in order, then will send each packet off one at a time with the Return Internet (can be the same person or different person than the original Internet). 9) The Return Internet will deliver each piece back to the Message Receiver (can be the same person or different person than the Message Writer) and put it back together. 10) The Message Receiver will wait for all of the pieces to arrive, then read the message to be sure it arrived correctly!
1) The Internet must rip the message into exactly four packets. 2) If the Internet drops a packet, they have to pick it up and go back to the start to deliver it again. 3) The server has to wait for all of the message pieces to arrive before it can begin to send the message along.
1) Wi-Fi: Convenient, but spotty. Wi-Fi doesn’t require cables, but since the signal bounces all over the place, packets can get lost pretty easily. Simulation: Internet must carry each packet on their shoulder (no hands). 2) Cable/DSL: Fairly good at delivering messages, but you must be connected to a wire. Simulation: Internet must carry each packet on the back of one hand and must keep the other hand touching a wall, desk, chair or the floor at all times. 3) Fiber Optic Cable: The best at delivering messages, but you must be connected to a wire. Simulation: Internet can carry packets in hand, but must keep the other hand touching a wall, desk, chair or the floor at all times.

To play this game, you can have your groups cluster anywhere, but for the first time it can be less confusing to have groups play in a line.

  • Line up the servers on one end of the room (holding their IP addresses). The Return Internet players can be over there as well (if you have that many people in each group).
  • Have the everyone else line up across from their server at the other side of the room.
  • The Message Senders will likely be sending their messages to a server other than their own, so the Internet players will likely cross over from group to group. It may look something like the diagram below:

assignment on internet

If it feels like there are too many rules to explain outright, feel free to post them on the board and just explain the game as you go. You can play multiple rounds until the class really understands.

Wrap-up (5 min)

5) flash chat: what did we learn.

  • Why might it take your message a long time to get somewhere?

Flash Chat questions are intended to spark big-picture thinking about how the lesson relates to the greater world and the students' greater future. Use your knowledge of your classroom to decide if you want to discuss these as a class, in groups, or with an elbow partner.

6) Vocab Shmocab

  • Which one of these definitions did we learn a word for today?
"A piece of code that you can call over and over again" "Computers that exist only to provide information to others" "The bottom leg of a triangle" ...and what is the word that we learned?

What was your favorite new word?

Is there a word that we learned today whose meaning you remember, but don't remember the word?

Is there a word that we learned where you remember the word, but not what it means?

Assessment (5 min)

  • Hand out the assessment worksheet and allow students to complete the activity independently after the instructions have been well explained.
  • This should feel familiar, thanks to the previous activities.

Connections and Background Information

Iste standards (formerly nets).

  • 5.a - Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.
  • 5.b - Exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity.
  • 6.a - Understand and use technology systems.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards

  • CI.L1:3-01. Practice responsible digital citizenship (legal and ethical behaviors) in the use of technology systems and software.
  • CPP.L2-06. Demonstrate good practices in personal information security: using passwords, encryption, secure transactions.
  • CD.L1:6-04. Identify that information is coming to the computer from many sources over a network.
  • CD.L2-06. Describe the major components and functions of computer systems and networks.

Common Core Language Arts

  • SL.3.1 - Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  • SL.3.3 - Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.
  • L.3.6 - Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships.
  • SL.4.1 - Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  • L.4.6 - Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being and that are basic to a particular topic.
  • SL.5.1 - Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
  • L.5.6 - Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships

assignment on internet

  • Writing Home
  • Writing Advice Home

Research Using the Internet

  • Fair-Use Policy

More and more students are turning to the Internet when doing research for their assignments, and more and more instructors are requiring such research when setting topics. However, research on the Net is very different from traditional library research, and the differences can cause problems. The Net is a tremendous resource, but it must be used carefully and critically.

The printed resources you find in the Library have almost always been thoroughly evaluated by experts before they are published. This process of “peer review” is the difference between, for example, an article in Time magazine and one in a journal such as the University of Toronto Quarterly. Furthermore, when books and other materials come into the University library system, they are painstakingly and systematically catalogued and cross-referenced using procedures followed by research libraries the world over. This process is the basis for the way materials are organized in the Library, and it makes possible the various search functions of the Web catalogue.

On the Internet, on the other hand, “anything goes.” Anyone can put anything they want on a Web site, there is no review or screening process, and there are no agreed-upon standard ways of identifying subjects and creating cross-references. This is both the glory and the weakness of the Net – it’s either freedom or chaos, depending on your point of view, and it means that you have to pay close attention when doing research on-line. There are a great many solid academic resources available on the Net, including hundreds of on-line journals and sites set up by universities and scholarly or scientific organizations. The University of Toronto Library’s Electronic Resources page is one such academic source. Using material from those sources is no problem; it’s just like going to the Library, only on-line. It’s all the other stuff on the Net that you have to be cautious about.

Here are a few basic guidelines to remember:

  • Don’t rely exclusively on Net resources. Sometimes your assignment will be to do research only on the Net, but usually your instructors will expect you to make use of both Internet and Library resources. Cross-checking information from the Net against information from the Library is a good way to make sure that the Net material is reliable and authoritative.
  • Narrow your research topic before logging on. The Internet allows access to so much information that you can easily be overwhelmed. Before you start your search, think about what you’re looking for, and if possible formulate some very specific questions to direct and limit your search.
  • Know your subject directories and search engines. There are several high quality peer-reviewed subject directories containing links selected by subject experts. INFOMINE and Academic Info are good examples. These are excellent places to start your academic research on the Internet. Google , Bing , Yahoo and other search engines differ considerably in how they work, how much of the Net they search, and the kind of results you can expect to get from them. Spending some time learning what each search engine will do and how best to use it can help you avoid a lot of frustration and wasted time later. Because each one will find different things for you, it’s a good idea to always use more than one search engine. For specialized search engines and directories you might also like to try Beaucoup which includes 2,500 + search engines and directories or the Search Engine Colossus International Directory of Search Engines that includes search engines from 230+ countries around the world.
  • Keep a detailed record of sites you visit and the sites you use. Doing research on the Net inevitably means visiting some sites that are useful and many that are not. Keeping track is necessary so that you can revisit the useful ones later, and also put the required references in your paper. Don’t just rely on your browser’s History function, because it retains the Web addresses or URLs of all the sites you visit, good or bad, and if you’re using a computer at the University the memory in the History file will be erased at the end of your session. It’s better to write down or bookmark the sites you’ve found useful, so that you’ll have a permanent record.
  • Double-check all URLs that you put in your paper. It’s easy to make mistakes with complicated Internet addresses, and typos will make your references useless. To be safe, type them into the Location box of your browser and check that they take you to the correct site.

The following points are guidelines for evaluating specific resources you find on the Net. If you ask these questions when looking at a Web site, you can avoid many errors and problems.

  • Who is the author?
  • Is the author’s name given?
  • Are her qualifications specified?
  • Is there a link to information about her and her position?
  • Is there a way to contact her (an address or a “Mailto” link)?
  • Have you heard of her elsewhere (in class, or cited in your course text or in Library material)?
  • Has the author written elsewhere on this topic?
  • Who is the sponsor of the Web site?
  • Is the author affiliated with a reputable institution or organization?
  • Does the information reflect the views of the organization, or only of the author? If the sponsoring institution or organization is not clearly identified on the site, check the URL. It may contain the name of a university (U of T Mississauga’s includes utoronto) or the extension .edu, which is used by many educational institutions. Government sites are identified by the extension .gov. URLs containing .org are trickier, and require research: these are sites sponsored by non-profit organizations, some of which are reliable sources and some of which are very biased. Sites with the .com extension should also be used with caution, because they have commercial or corporate sponsors who probably want to sell you something. The extension ~NAME often means a personal Web page with no institutional backing; use such sites only if you have checked on the author’s credibility in print sources.
  • What audience is the Web site designed for? You want information at the college or research level. Don’t use sites intended for elementary students or sites that are too technical for your needs.
  • Is the Web site current?
  • Is the site dated?
  • Is the date of the most recent update given? Generally speaking, Internet resources should be up-to-date; after all, getting the most current information is the main reason for using the Net for research in the first place.
  • Are all the links up-to-date and working? Broken links may mean the site is out-of-date; they’re certainly a sign that it’s not well-maintained.
  • Is the material on the Web site reliable and accurate?
  • Is the information factual, not opinion?
  • Can you verify the information in print sources?
  • Is the source of the information clearly stated, whether original research material or secondary material borrowed from elsewhere?
  • How valid is the research that is the source?
  • Does the material as presented have substance and depth?
  • Where arguments are given, are they based on strong evidence and good logic?
  • Is the author’s point of view impartial and objective?
  • Is the author’s language free of emotion and bias?
  • Is the site free of errors in spelling or grammar and other signs of carelessness in its presentation of the material?
  • Are additional electronic and print sources provided to complement or support the material on the Web site?

If you can answer all these questions positively when looking at a particular site, then you can be pretty sure it’s a good one; if it doesn’t measure up one way or another, it’s probably a site to avoid. The key to the whole process is to think critically about what you find on the Net; if you want to use it, you are responsible for ensuring that it is reliable and accurate.

This page is used with permission of the UTM Library.

Search form

Academic strategies peer mentors.

  • About Faculty Development and Support
  • Programs and Funding Opportunities
  • Consultations, Observations, and Services
  • Strategic Resources & Digital Publications
  • Canvas @ Yale Support
  • Learning Environments @ Yale
  • Teaching Workshops
  • Teaching Consultations and Classroom Observations
  • Teaching Programs
  • Spring Teaching Forum
  • Written and Oral Communication Workshops and Panels
  • Writing Resources & Tutorials
  • About the Graduate Writing Laboratory
  • Writing and Public Speaking Consultations
  • Writing Workshops and Panels
  • Writing Peer-Review Groups
  • Writing Retreats and All Writes
  • Online Writing Resources for Graduate Students
  • About Teaching Development for Graduate and Professional School Students
  • Teaching Programs and Grants
  • Teaching Forums
  • Resources for Graduate Student Teachers
  • About Undergraduate Writing and Tutoring
  • Academic Strategies Program
  • The Writing Center
  • STEM Tutoring & Programs
  • Humanities & Social Sciences
  • Center for Language Study
  • Online Course Catalog
  • Antiracist Pedagogy
  • NECQL 2019: NorthEast Consortium for Quantitative Literacy XXII Meeting
  • STEMinar Series
  • Teaching in Context: Troubling Times
  • Helmsley Postdoctoral Teaching Scholars
  • Pedagogical Partners
  • Instructional Materials
  • Evaluation & Research
  • STEM Education Job Opportunities
  • Online Education Legal Statements

You are here

Citing internet sources, internet sources - general information, special demands of internet sources.

  • Copying Text without Plagiarizing

How to Cite Internet Sources

Print sources posted online, online versions of print periodicals, databases (like lexis-nexis), online journals, organization websites, topic websites, private websites, online video (like youtube), forums, listservs, chats, & bulletin boards, email & instant messages, i nternet vs. print sources.

Some professors will discourage you from using sources you find or access over the Internet. Although such restrictions may be excessive, there are reasons to be wary. It’s much easier to publish information on the Internet than to publish a book or periodical in print. Since it’s easier, Web posters are not always as careful to make sure that the information is accurate. For one thing, print publishing is more expensive, so many print publishers are careful not to make mistakes or to cut corners, in case what they publish turns out to be unreliable—and therefore useless. The seeming anonymity of the Internet also encourages some people to write things quickly, without checking to be sure of their facts or their conclusions. Most of us have had the experience of sending by email something we wrote quickly—perhaps when rushed or angry. Often these are things we wouldn’t print, sign, and mail, because those extra steps give us time to consider our words more carefully, and also because we recognize a higher expectation that things in print should be trustworthy.

N o Author, No Authority

In the context of writing in college, material from much of the Internet is less reliable than print sources because it’s hard to tell who wrote or posted it. As discussed in the section  Why Cite? , the essence of academic scholarship is a conversation among authors. On many websites, it’s difficult to determine the author of the material. If the site creator’s name is listed, it’s still sometimes hard to tell whether the information has been reprinted from some other source. If you reach a website through a search engine, you may have to find the site’s homepage or search around in the “contact” information in order to identify the author or the organization that sponsors the site. Even if you find the author’s name, Internet sources make it harder to tell what status that person has in his or her field. Is the author an expert, a fan, or just a crackpot? After finding a website that seems useful and tracking down the author’s name, you may need additional research (perhaps using Google) to learn whether the author has any claim to credibility.

But of course, countless reliable sources can be accessed on the web, and even unreliable sources have some uses in research writing. (See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more about unreliable sources.) These days, many students and scholars use Web sources extensively in research and teaching. But they take extra care to assess and report the provenance of these sources.

Types of Websites

In this guide’s discussion of Internet sources, we draw distinctions between various kinds of websites: those sponsored by  organizations , those devoted to a  single topic , and  private websites  that are maintained by a single person—often a devoted fan of the topic under discussion. To some degree, these categories distinguish more and less reliable sources of information. But the distinctions are neither clear nor entirely stable. Some organizations, while established leaders in their fields, have very few resources available to maintain and update their websites. Some private individuals, although hosting websites as a hobby, are experts in their fields and consider accuracy on their sites to be the highest priority. It’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use material from the Internet. If you give a sense of what kind of Web source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence.

Basics of Citing Websites

When listing Internet sources in your References or Works Cited, the most important thing to remember is that your goal is to make it easy for a reader to consult your sources. (This same goal is paramount when listing print sources.) For most sites, that means you should include the  full  URL for the page you cite in your paper (the web address that begins “http”). But websites change, and the address you used won’t always be active when your reader tries to view a source. For that reason, it’s important to include both the date you accessed the site and also a full account of the person, group, or organization that sponsors the site. Knowing more about the author helps readers to assess the source and also, sometimes, to find the source when the website has been moved or revised.

The general form of a citation from an Internet source is:

Author’s name. Title of Document. Title of Website. Sponsor of Website. Date of Document. Date of Access. URL.

As you will see in the discussion of specific categories, however, some of these items may be hard to determine.

Avoiding Plagiarism

The ease of using electronic sources of any kind can make it harder to keep track of where the source ends and your original contribution begins—and you must always keep that distinction clear. See  How to Copy and Paste but Not Plagiarize  for advice about how to use electronic sources wisely.

Respecting Privacy

Most of this guide focuses on helping you subordinate sources to your own ideas. In general, we highlight your need to respect authors’  intellectual  or  property  rights, explaining how to give people credit for their ideas while distinguishing your own original contributions. But the ease of using electronic sources also raises dangers about what might be called  privacy  rights, leading you to make public words that the original author intended only as private communication. When someone speaks in public, participates in an interview, or publishes a piece of writing, he or she implicitly agrees that other people may refer to this material in research. But some electronic sources blur the line between public and private communication. (Private communications also have a different force of authority than deliberately published material; see  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information.)

If in doubt about whether a given text should be considered public or private, we urge you to check with the original author before quoting it in your own work. Although the following categories overlap, they may help you decide when more care is warranted to avoid an invasion of privacy. (1) Web versions of sources that also appear in print are generally safe to quote, since most print publishers take care to secure rights before publication. (2) Publicly accessible websites are generally safe to quote. You may occasionally find a website reposting information that’s clearly from category 3, in which case you may wish to contact the original author before using the material. But if you can access the information through regular surfing, without passwords, it’s probably safe to use. (3) Communications sent via email or accessed by membership in a specific group are generally considered private, and you should exercise care in quoting from them in your papers.

Even in this last category, there’s not a hard and fast rule you can follow. If your university sends an announcement to all students via email, you may reasonably consider this public information. If your best friend reveals something damaging or embarrassing in an email sent only to you, it’s clearly private. But what if a professor writes to you about something related to the course? Or if you receive a message that’s sent only to the members of a small club? What about the discussion forums that many courses set up for students to exchange ideas about the readings? These cases are all ambiguous. Unless there’s been an explicit agreement that the material is public, we encourage you to check before using such messages in your work.

Copying Text Without Plagiarizing

One convenience of using electronic sources is the ability—once you’ve selected the passages you wish to quote—to copy and paste quotations instead of having the retype them into your paper. Even before you begin drafting a paper, copying and pasting sections from your sources seems an easy way to take notes, so that you can look the material over later without surfing back to the website. This very convenience, however, also leads writers into danger. In the midst of researching and taking notes, it’s just too easy to paste quotations into your file with the intention to go back later and note down the source. When you return to your draft, it can be hard to distinguish your own writing from the passages you’ve copied.

As discussed in  Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism , the worst consequence of failing to acknowledge sources is to yourself: if you paste in someone’s words as your own, you will miss the opportunity to add your commentary, and therefore miss an opportunity to grow as a thinker and writer. Most of this guide focuses on such intellectual reasons for working properly with sources, rather than emphasizing the penalties of plagiarism. But because the copy and paste technique is so common, it’s especially important to warn you about its potential for abuse. Every year students come before the Yale Executive Committee having committed plagiarism through pasting material from the Internet into their papers and then forgetting to go back and identify the sources. Even when the oversight seems unintentional, these students are guilty of plagiarism, and must face penalties.

But you can avoid this danger with one very simple precaution:

Every time you highlight material from a website to use in your paper, save the material to a new file. Copy the URL (the full web address that begins with “http”) at the top of the new file, and give the file a name that briefly identifies the website.

Taking this extra step will allow you to review your sources when you’ve made more progress with your paper. So if you were thinking of using a piece of this web page in your paper, you’d copy the relevant portion into a Word file, add the URL, and perhaps call the file “Writing at Yale Copy/Paste Advice.” You’ll still be able to avoid retyping by copying and pasting from the new file you’ve made. But you will have created a record of your excerpts to help you distinguish your sources from your own work. For your own convenience, you may also want to add other citation information below the URL—such as author and date of access—before moving on to examine the next website. See  Special Demands of Internet Sources  for more information about how to cite websites. See also  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for advice about how to use Internet sources effectively.

Note: Even when you properly identify Internet sources, the very pasting that feels like a time-saver can lead you to use block quotations that are longer and less precise than necessary. Many writers, especially beginning academic writers, are better served by retyping quotations, because this extra step leads them to edit quotations and to paraphrase. You could still cut and paste to help you keep track of interesting passages before deciding which ones to quote in your paper (remembering, as suggested above, to create a new file for each website you work with).

MLA: Aristotle.  Nicomachean Ethics . 350 B.C.E. Trans. W. C. Ross.  The Internet Classics Archives . Ed. Daniel C. Stevenson. 1994. Web. 20 May 2015. [author.] [ title .] [original publication date.] [ website name .] [website author.] [update date.] [medium.] [date of access.]

APA: Aristotle. (1994).  Nicomachean ethics . (W. C. Ross, Trans.). In D. C. Stevenson (Ed.),  The internet classics archives . (Original work published 350 B.C.E.). Retrieved from is external) [author, by last name.] [(posting date).] [ title. ] [website author, (“Ed.”),] [ website name .] [(original publication date).] [ Retrieved   from  URL]

Note: in APA style, no access date is necessary for information that will not be changed or updated, like an electronic book or a journal or newspaper article.

Also note: when a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.)

Chicago: 16. Aristotle,  Nicomachean Ethics . [fn. #.] [author last name,  shortened t itle .] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

Note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style does not generally include date of access.

Also note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See  Special Demands of Internet Sources  for more information.

MLA: Scott, Janny, and David Leonhardt. “Shadowy Lines That Still Divide.”  New York  Times  15 May 2005. Web. 20 May 2015. [author.] [“article title.”] [ periodical title ] [publication date.] [medium.] [date of access.]

APA: Scott, J., & Leonhardt, D. (2005, May 15). Shadowy lines that still divide.  New York Times.  Retrieved from is external) [author.] [(publication date).] [article title.] [ periodical title. ] [ Retrieved from  URL]

Note: in APA style, no date of access is necessary for information that will not be changed or updated, like an electronic book or a journal or newspaper article.

Chicago: 17. Scott and Leonhardt, “Shadowy Lines.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

If a print journal, magazine, or newspaper maintains a version of its publication URL online, articles that you cite are listed in your Works Cited or list of References by the name of the article’s author. In MLA style, the name is followed by the title of the article—in APA, the publication date comes after the author. (If no author is identified, list by the article’s title. In that case, be sure to give at least a few key words from the title in the body of your paper, so that readers know how to find the source in your bibliography.) Next list the title of the journal, magazine, or newspaper. Give the publication date of the article next for MLA, followed by the date that you accessed the site. For APA , give the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.” When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.)

Note: If you use a database service (such as Lexis-Nexis) to access electronic sources, you must credit the database. See  Databases (like Lexis-Nexis)  for more information.

Also note: Although online versions of print sources are often more reliable than online journals or private websites, their reliability is no greater than that of their print versions. See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information.

MLA: Wallis, Claudia, et al. “The New Science of Happiness.”  Time  17 Jan. 2005: A1-A55.  Academic Search Premier . Web. 20 May 2015. [author, by last name.] [“article title.”] [ periodical title ] [publication date]: full page numbers for article.] [ database name .] [medium.] [date of access.]

APA: Wallis, C., Coady, E., Cray, D., Park, A., & Ressner, J. (2005, January 17). The new science of happiness.  Time , A1-A55. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier [author(s), by last name, initial).] [(publication date).] [article title.] [ periodical title ,] [full page numbers for article.] [ Retrieved   from  database name or URL]

Chicago: 18. Wallis et al., “The New Science.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

Also note: In the Bibliography, Chicago style adds the URL (the Web address that begins with “http”), and does not name the database service directly if that name is part of the Web address. For Chicago, as for APA„ when a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.)

Several companies maintain databases that make it easier to find articles on the topic you’re researching. Using these databases is especially helpful for connecting you to scholarly sources, which have been vetted by experts in their field before publication. The Yale library system subscribes to many such databases, allowing you to access them for free. See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information about using scholarly sources. If you use a service like this—such as Lexis-Nexis—to find an article that you then cite in your paper, you must include the database name in your Works Cited or list of References. (The principle is that you want your reader to know how to retrieve your source for further research.)

Note: You may notice that listing Internet sources often takes more time and care than listing print sources. Since the authorship and location of Web sources are harder to establish, readers need even more information in order to assess sources and to retrieve them for further study. See  Special Demands of Internet Sources  for more information.

Also note: Although online versions of print sources are often more reliable than  Online Journals  or  Private Websites , their reliability is no greater than that of their print versions. See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information.

Hitchens, Christopher. “Unfairenheit 9/11.”  Slate  21 June 2004. Web. 20 May 2015. <>.(link is external)>. [author, by last name.] [“article title.”] [ online journal title ] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]

Note: MLA style does not require the use of URLs in citations of internet sources. However, some instructors may prefer that you use URLs. In this case, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access.

APA: Hitchens, C. (2004, June 21). Unfairenheit 9/11.  Slate . Retrieved from is external) [author.] [(posting date).] [article title.] [ online journal title. ] [ Retrieved from  URL]

Chicago: 19. Hitchens, “Unfairenheit 9/11.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

An online journal is a website that publishes new material on a regular schedule (often weekly or monthly), with a journal title or other masthead, but that does not release a print publication. An online journal is not the same as the online version of a periodical that also publishes in print. (See  Online Versions of Print Periodicals .) The distinction matters, because online journals—while often more reliable than  private websites —are often considered less reliable than print sources or Internet versions of print sources. See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information.

When including an article from an online journal in your Works Cited or list of References, list it by the name of the article’s author. This information is followed in MLA style by the article’s title, by the publication date in APA style. (If no author is identified, list by the article’s title.) Next list the online journal’s name. Give the publication date of the article (for MLA), followed by the date that you accessed the site. Finally, give the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.” When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, list the DOI instead of the URL. (A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.)

MLA: Fangmann, Alexander. “Illinois Supreme Court Strikes Down Pension Cuts.” 11 May 2015.  World Socialist Web Site . Web. 20 May 2015. < is external) >. [author, by last name.] [“section or page title.”] [posting date.] [ organization name. ] [date of access.] [.]

APA: Fangmann, A. (2015, May 11). Illinois Supreme Court strikes down pension cuts. Retrieved 20 May 2015, from the World Socialist Web Site: is external) [author, by last name, initial.] [(posting date).] [page title.] [ Retrieved  date of access,] [ from  organization name:] [URL]

Chicago: 20. Fangmann, A. “Illinois Supreme Court.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

Many organizations maintain websites hosting information about the organization or about the field that they work in. Some examples include commercial companies, universities, non-profit organizations, political groups, and government agencies. The reliability of these websites varies widely, as these organizations often use their websites to promote specific causes and may therefore emphasize only the facts and ideas that support their goals. See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information.

But sometimes these organizations have the most comprehensive coverage of topics that pertain to them. For certain topics, it’s also useful to examine what the interested parties say, even if you must remember to balance it with research into other points of view. If you are conscientious about identifying who sponsors the site, your reader will be better prepared to examine the material you present. Websites hosted by university departments and programs would generally be considered reliable sources, especially in their areas of scholarly expertise. (More caution is warranted when the site discusses politics or issues of university governance. Be careful, too, to distinguish sites created by individual faculty members from those sponsored by the larger institution.)

Whenever possible, you should identify the author of the material you use from a website. Some pages you access will have separate titles or sub-titles, which can be used like the titles of an  article in a journal . This title is followed by the name of the main website, if there is one, and the name of the sponsoring organization. After this comes the full URL for the material you’re using.The final item is the date that you accessed the site.

Note: It’s sometimes hard to find the author of material on an organization website. In that case, list by the title of the site—if there is one—or by the name of the organization. If you can’t find any of this information, even after searching through the site’s links, you may be using a  private website  or  topic website , and should review the information for those sources.

MLA: “The Horcrux of Love.” The #1 Harry Potter Site . 3 Jan. 2013. Web. 20 May 2015. < is external) >. [“section or page title.”] [ website name .] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]

APA: The horcrux of love. (2013, Jan. 3). The #1 Harry Potter site . Retrieved 20 May 2015, from is external) [section or page title.] [(posting date).] [ website name .] [ Retrieved  date of access,] [ from  URL]

Chicago: 21. “The Horcrux of Love.” [fn. #.] [“shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

Websites that are  print sources posted online ,  online versions of print periodicals ,  online journals , or  organization websites  are discussed separately. By “topic websites,” we mean sites that are dedicated to a single issue, such as the life of a famous person, the main ideas of a social movement, or the details of a popular television show. This category is a little hard to define. Unlike online journals or other periodicals, topic websites are not usually revised on a regular schedule, although material may be added from time to time. And unlike organization websites, topic websites do not usually promote the products or mission of a particular institution—which means they also don’t have the organization’s reputation to back up their authority. Finally, topic websites may also overlap with private websites, which often focus on a single issue that their author is passionate about.

Still, the category is worth knowing about, because a lot of background information on general topics like “Medieval Literature” or “Film Noir” is found on websites that don’t easily fit any of the other categories. You’ll want to double-check material you find on Topic Websites, and you may need to treat them as  popular sources  rather than  scholarly sources . If you take these precautions, topic websites are sometimes useful for giving a broad overview or putting you on the track of more authoritative sources. (See  Special Demands of Internet Sources  for more information.)

When these websites appear to be wholly or primarily the work of one author, list by the author’s name, followed by the title of the article or specific page you’re using (if there is one), the website title (often the name of the topic), the date of posting (if known), the date you accessed it, and the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.”

If the site you’re using is sponsored by an organization of some kind (like a company, a university department, or a political group), it may qualify as an  organization website , and you should review the information for those sources.

MLA: Mohanraj, Mary Anne. “The Early Years: 1971-1985.”  Mary Anne Mohanraj . 20 May 2015. Web. <> . [author.] [“section or page title.”] [ website name. ] [date of access] [medium.] [.]

APA: Mohanraj, M. A. The early years: 1971-1985.  Mary Anne Mohanraj . Retrieved May 20, 2015, from [author.] [section or page title.] [ website name .] [ Retrieved  date of access,] [ from  URL]

Chicago: 22. Mohanraj, “The Early Years.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

Private websites come in many forms. Some dabble in multiple topics, about which the site’s author may not even profess any special expertise. Some announce themselves as fan sites, indicating that the author has an intense interest but no special background or credentials. Still others are quite professional in presentation, with authors who profess or demonstrate vast experience.

Just a few years ago, unreliable websites were often riddled with typographical errors or burdened with amateurish design and graphics. But it’s increasingly easy to host websites that look polished and professional, which can make it hard to judge whether the site’s sponsors take seriously the responsibility to check and update their information. For the purpose of academic research, most private websites should be considered popular sources, which can be useful as sources of opinion but should generally not be relied on for authoritative information. (See  Popular vs. Scholarly Sources  for more information.)

It’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use private websites. If you give a sense of what kind of web source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. Private websites also raise issues of privacy, as some sites that require password access may not invite republication of their material in scholarly research. See  Special Demands of Internet Sources  for more information.

When using material from a private website, list by the author (if known), then by the title of the article or specific Webpage you’re using (if known), and the date of posting (if listed). Follow this by the title of the website, if applicable. If the site is part of an identifiable online group (like “Facebook” or “tumblr”), include that title next. Next, list the date that you accessed the site and the full URL—the Web address that begins with “http.”

Some of these details may be hard to identify. In the example above, for instance, it was not possible to determine when the specific section of the website was last updated. Only the date of access is given.

MLA: Martin, George R. R. “A Few More Last Words.”  Not a Blog .  8 May 2010. Livejournal. Web. 20 May 2015. <> . [author, by last name.] [“title of entry.”] [ title of weblog .] [posting date.] [site sponsor or publisher.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]

APA: Martin, G. R. R. (2010, May 8). A few more last words [Weblog post]. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from Livejournal: [author, by last name, initial.] [(posting date).] [title of entry [format description].] [Weblog post.] [ Retrieved  date of access,] [ from  site sponsor or publisher:] [URL]

Chicago: 23. Martin, “Last Words.” [fn. #.] [author last name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

Blogs—an abbreviation of “weblogs”—are websites or areas of websites devoted to dated reflections by the site’s author. Many blogs are hosted on or presented as private websites where the author claims little special expertise or no professional affiliation relevant to the blog’s topic. In these cases, see the discussion of  Private Websites , and use the same care when evaluating the material you access.

But blogs are increasingly included as a feature of  organization websites  (, for instance, now invites authors to post blogs on their work) or as elements of  online versions of print periodicals  (the  New York Times  website hosts several blogs by reporters and editors). When using a blog that’s identified with a larger journal or organization, follow the advice listed for those general sources.

Even when hosted by a recognized organization, most blogs should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information.

The example above also lists “Livejournal” as the site’s sponsor. This information might be considered analogous to the organization that sponsors an  organization website . But in some cases, it may not be necessary to give the site sponsor. Livejournal, for instance, does not supervise posters’ comments very closely. A sponsor like “Facebook” has more rules and some restrictions to access, but is still doesn’t stand behind the material as much as an  online journal  would. When deciding whether to include the site sponsor, use your judgment: if the blog pursues a theme in common with the sponsor, list the sponsor.

Note: It’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use blogs. If you give a sense of what kind of web source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. See  Special Demands of Internet Sources  for more information.

The formats below cover the most common ways to cite video clips that were published online (on sites like YouTube and Vimeo). Video that was first published elsewhere but accessed online (on sites like Netflix and Hulu) is cited differently. See the notes that follow for more information.

MLA: TED. “Philip Zimbardo: The Psychology of Evil.” Online video clip.  YouTube . YouTube, 23 Sept. 2008. Web. 8 Aug 2015. <>  [author’s name or screen name.] [“title of video.”] [media type.] [ name of website .] [site sponsor or publisher,] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]

APA: TED. (2008, Sept. 23).  Philip Zimbardo: The psychology of evil [Video file]. Retrieved Aug. 8, 2015, from [author’s name or screen name.] [(posting date).] [ title of entry [format description].] [ Retrieved  date of access,] [ from  URL]

Note: If you know both the author’s name and his or her screen name (and they are different from one another), APA style cites the author’s name first (last name, first initial) followed by the screen name in square brackets (e.g. Booker, J [jbook].).

Chicago: 24. TED, “Philip Zimbardo.” [fn. #.] [author name or screen name, “shortened title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

Like other film and video formats, conventions for citing online video are less fixed than those for print or other kinds of online sources. The citation for a video clip that was first published online typically attributes the clip to the individual who posted it on the Internet. Video that was first published elsewhere before being posted online, is usually attributed to the individuals most responsible for making it—the director or performers. See the citation formats for Film & Video and Television, Radio Program, or Music Video for more information.   Depending on who seems most responsible for the existence of the video you’re citing, you may choose to attribute an online video to its creators rather than the individual who posted it. For example, a film that is released online or an ongoing web series, may be more accurately attributed to the director or actors than the person who uploaded it to the Internet. For citation formats that attribute video to the actors or director, see Film & Video and Television, Radio Program, or Music Video .  

MLA: Levy, Michael. “Re: your canon?” Science Fiction Research Association, 19 Apr. 2006. Web. 26 June 2006. < (link sends e-mail) >. [author, by last name.] [“title or subject line.”] [discussion group,] [posting date.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]

APA: Levy, M. (2006, April 19). Re: your canon? [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved June 26, 2006 from (link sends e-mail) . [author, by last name, initial.] [(posting date).] [title or subject line [format description].] [ Retrieved  date of access  from  address.]

Chicago: 24. Levy, “Re: your canon?” [fn. #.] [author last name, ”title or subject heading.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

There are many electronic forums that allow users with a specific interest or affiliation to discuss topics with each other. Some of these are restricted to members of a group, or of a specific course. (Many Yale courses, for instance, provide forum discussions through the Classesv2 server.) Other such discussions are open to any interested party. Although discussions limited to professionals in a field may be more authoritative, in general you should probably treat material from these forums as popular rather than scholarly sources. See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information.

Note: Many such forums expect communications to be private. Be sure to check the group’s policies on reproduction of such material. Even if an FAQ or moderator seems to make reproduction permissible, a decent respect for privacy suggests that you secure the poster’s permission before making the material public.

If you use material from an electronic forum, list by author’s name. Follow that with the most specific identifying information you can give about the particular post. Depending on the type of discussion, there may be subject headings or specific message numbers on a given post. You may or may not be able to tell the posting date.

In MLA style, include the name of the sponsoring forum. Since most of these discussions do not supervise postings, do not put the sponsor name in italics. Follow this with the date you accessed the material. Even when membership is restricted to a particular organization, most listervs should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information.

The last item in your listing—the electronic address—brings up one point on which MLA and APA styles differ starkly: in APA, if the posting cannot be retrieved, you cite it in your paper as a personal communication and do not include it in your list of References. Even in MLA style, it’s better to cite the message in the form that’s most easily accessible to your reader: many listservs archive their messages on the web, for instance, even though the original postings are delivered by email. Try to include the archive address.

Also note: As discussed in  Signaling Sources , it’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use listservs. If you give a sense of what kind of Websource you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. See  Special Demands of Internet Sources  for more information.

MLA: Donahue, Tiane. “Re: Your WPA Question.” Message to the author. 14 Dec. 2004. Email. [author, by last name.] [“title or subject line.”] [message recipient.] [message date.] [medium.]

APA: Do not include in list of References. Cite in your paper as a personal communication.

Chicago: 25. Tiane Donahue, “Re: Your WPA Question,” email message to author, December 14, 2000. [fn. #.] [author full name, “subject heading,”] [type of message,] [date of message.]

Note: Chicago style footnotes give full information for private messages, but does not list them in the Bibliography.

It’s probably obvious that the authority of material that comes in private communications varies greatly with the status of the source. What someone writes to you by email may be useful as a source of opinion, but can seldom be relied on as definitive information, unless you’re in correspondence with a recognized expert. And even in these cases, the informality of email makes most authors much less careful about checking facts and conclusions, rendering the information less authoritative. Most email messages should probably be treated as popular rather than scholarly sources. See  Scholarly vs. Popular Sources  for more information.

Note: Most people consider email to be private. Even if the message is sent to more than one recipient, a decent respect for privacy suggests that you secure the sender’s permission before making the material public. If you received the message as a forward, the obligation to seek permission is even more urgent, as the original author likely has no reason to expect you to use the message in your own work. See  Special Demands of Internet Sources  for more information.

If you do use material from an email, the format for listing in MLA style is fairly simple, as in the example above: Author, Subject, “Email to the author,” and Date.

In APA style, you do not include in your list of References any source that can’t be retrieved by your reader. If you use email in your paper, cite it as a personal communication in your text, and do not list it at the end. For Chicago style, private messages are given full citation in a footnote, but not included in the Bibliography.

Note: As discussed in the section on  Signaling Sources , it’s often useful to identify your source in the body of your paper (and not just in your citation or footnote); this identification is especially important when you use private messages. If you give a sense of what kind of source you’re using, the reader will be better able to understand the context of your evidence. See  Special Demands of Internet Sources  for more information.

MLA: “King Arthur.”  Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia . Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 18 May 2015. Web. 20 May 2015. < is external) >. [“page title.”] [ website name. ] [site sponsor or publisher,] [date of last revision.] [medium.] [date of access.] [.]

APA: King Arthur. (n.d.). In  Wikipedia . Retrieved July 26, 2006, from: is external) [page title.] [(“n.d.”).] [ In  website name.] [ Retrieved  date, from: URL]

Chicago: 26. “King Arthur.” [fn. #.] [“title.”] [Shortened Chicago reference; see  More Notes on Chicago Style  for more information.]

To list material from Wikipedia, you should review the advice for  organization websites . But Wikipedia merits additional attention because of its recent growth and popularity. Some professors will warn you not to use Wikipedia because they believe its information is unreliable. As a community project with no central review committee, Wikipedia certainly contains its share of incorrect information and uninformed opinion. And since it presents itself as an encyclopedia, Wikipedia can sometimes seem more trustworthy than the average website, even to writers who would be duly careful about  private websites  or  topic websites . In this sense, it should be treated as a popular rather than scholarly source. See  Popular vs. Scholarly Sources  for more information.

But the main problem with using Wikipedia as an important source in your research is not that it gets things wrong. Some of its contributors are leaders in their fields, and, besides, some print sources contain errors. The problem, instead, is that Wikipedia strives for a lower level of expertise than professors expect from Yale students. As an encyclopedia, Wikipedia is written for a common readership. But students in Yale courses are already consulting primary materials and learning from experts in the discipline. In this context, to rely on Wikipedia—even when the material is accurate—is to position your work as inexpert and immature.

If you use Wikipedia for general background, check several other sources before using the material in your essays. Some of the facts you find may be attributable to common knowledge (see  Common Knowledge  for more discussion). You may also be able to track opinions or deeper ideas back to their original sources. In many cases, your course readings will contain similar ideas in better, more quotable language. Many student writers are tempted to use Wikipedia for definitions of terms (the same way a beginning writer might quote a dictionary). But in most cases, a definition drawn or paraphrased from the primary course readings—or from other scholarly sources—will be more effective. See  Why Cite?  for more discussion of definitions and keyterms.

Of course, if you do use language or information from Wikipedia, you must cite it—to do otherwise constitutes plagiarism. The advice here is not to hide what Wikipedia contributes to your ideas, but rather to move beyond Wikipedia and write from a more knowledgeable, expert stance.


assignment on internet

Writing Handouts

Principles, strategies, and models to deepen your understanding of what good writing looks like—and how to achieve it.

assignment on internet

Reserve a Room

The Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning partners with departments and groups on-campus throughout the year to share its space. Please review the reservation form and submit a request.

Share this page

Templates for college and university assignments

Include customizable templates in your college toolbox. stay focused on your studies and leave the assignment structuring to tried and true layout templates for all kinds of papers, reports, and more..

college tools photo

Keep your college toolbox stocked with easy-to-use templates

Work smarter with higher-ed helpers from our college tools collection. Presentations are on point from start to finish when you start your project using a designer-created template; you'll be sure to catch and keep your professor's attention. Staying on track semester after semester takes work, but that work gets a little easier when you take control of your scheduling, list making, and planning by using trackers and planners that bring you joy. Learning good habits in college will serve you well into your professional life after graduation, so don't reinvent the wheel—use what is known to work!

  • Educational
  • Submit post

Education for the Future: Preparing Students for Life After Graduation

How to style your home without a professional, how to embrace simple living, what to look for when choosing between similar homes, how to detect the leakage of electricity in your home wiring, how to get cleaner air in your home, how to take your climbing skills to new heights, how to make your teeth healthier than ever, promoting emotional well-being in infusion therapy, 5 wellness practices you can do at home, revolutionizing ux research: the impact of rapid usability testing, how to download instagram content without copyright issues, how do you evaluate advertising using nodejs development       , how audio description solutions benefit visually impaired audiences, the role of blockchain in poker tournament platforms: transparency and security, students and class projects using the internet.


WiFi is needed in schools because it provides access to the Internet, which is indispensable as the biggest contributor to the advancement of education. The Internet is essentially like a global educator with a limitless teaching capacity because it is able to spread any information around the world. It provides valuable learning resources and study tools that students would otherwise not have access to.

The Internet makes it possible to exchange new knowledge and share innovative ideas with others, creating endless possibilities for furthering education. For example, teachers can use the Internet to discover creative teaching methods that students will better respond to.

Scientific evidence shows that WiFi produces radiation exposure. Long-term radiation exposure has been known to cause serious health problems, such as cancer. Many studies have assured people that the exposure levels caused by WiFi are too low to pose an actual threat.

Despite this, many parents want to terminate WiFi in schools and use wired Internet instead. Parents are quick to follow their first instinct to protect their children from any possible danger, but it causes them to forget all the benefits that WiFi provides. For example, it motivates students to learn, according to 74% of teachers in a 2013 national survey.

Most schools choose to provide devices that connect to the Internet wirelessly, such as tablets and laptops. Since WiFi has become increasingly popular, virtually all new devices have made the permanent switch to become wireless and no longer include a network port that makes it possible to connect to wired Internet. Because it is very rare for today’s wireless devices to have a physical network connection, eliminating WiFi in schools would render all modern devices useless.

WiFi is more convenient because it allows for mobility, unlike wired connections, which restrict Internet access to only one place. It’s possible to make wired devices more mobile by using longer wires but it makes the connection weaker. WiFi not only avoids the tangled mess of wires on the floor, but more importantly it eliminates a dangerous fire hazard that cannot be tolerated in schools.

The installation fee to set up wired Internet costs more because it is a complicated process to set up all the required ports and cables. 

Schools would have to purchase a whole new set of equipment just to be able to connect one more device to their wired Internet. Whereas with WiFi, you can connect as many devices as you want to the Internet at no additional cost. Students would be more productive if schools provided WiFi instead of wired Internet.

The mobility feature allows students to take home their wireless device provided by the school. This gives students the means to access the Internet at home which helps them to do their homework and also encourages self-initiated learning. It gives them the chance to continue working on school assignments at home.

Even if each student had their own wired computer, they would make less progress because they would only be able to work on assignments during school hours. They wouldn’t have the option of finishing a school project at home because they can’t take a device with them if it is permanently connected to the school by wires.

Even if schools had enough money to provide each student with a wired device, it still could not be guaranteed that every student would have access to the Internet at all times, like they would if they had WiFi. This is because a wired device can only connect in places with a cable and port.

Most rooms are built with a limited number of cables, so classrooms wouldn’t have enough to accommodate each student’s computer, unless the room was specially designed as a computer lab. This means that students would have access to the Internet only when they are in a computer lab, which would probably be a limited amount of time because the whole school would have to share it, since it’s practically impossible for schools to turn every classroom into a computer lab.

WiFi may be the only option out of necessity for schools that cannot afford to change their Internet, but this does not mean that an education using WiFi is in any way inadequate or inferior to wired Internet.

In fact, WiFi makes a quality education possible even if the school does not have the funds to spend on special learning opportunities. For schools that cannot afford to send its students on field trips, educational institutions have organized Web Seminars that students can virtually attend using the Internet.

Those opposed to WiFi advocate that wired Internet is a safer alternative. Students need wireless Internet in order to use newer technology. Without it, they would be forced to use out-of-date computers that still require wires in order to function.

Students shouldn’t become accustomed to using older devices, which will most likely be extinct one day, because it will severely limit their knowledge of technology. It will make them resistant to using any new technologies developed in the future because they won’t know how to use them.

AI and Adaptive Learning are also shaping the future classrooms.  With the facilitation of  Artificial Intelligence in Education  (AIEd) systems,  learning today is smarter, leaner, online and global.

Instead, they should become comfortable with using new devices so that they are prepared them for a future job in an economy increasingly revolving around technology.

Many want to eradicate WiFi in schools in order to eliminate the potential threat, but that is not the way to fix the problem. Instead of ignoring the problem, we should face it head on by providing students with the newest wireless devices and easy access to WiFi in schools.

Students can practice using wireless software in order to fully understand how the system functions. With practice, they can become familiar enough with the mechanics of WiFi so that they can experiment with it to invent an improved form of wireless Internet that doesn’t emit radiation.

  • What is the Importance of Internet in education at schools
  • Small Data is Big!
  • 9 Defective Home Building Spots and How to Improve Them
  • SMSC SERVER: Get Into The Wireless World
  • Learn More about Different Brands Of Wireless Doorbells


Why employing a java development firm remain significant, how to start your own ott platform in this year, ai applications in diversified industries worldwide, the future of enterprise ui: top trends for this year and beyond, mobile app development process – 7 stages of app development, types of insurance everyone should have.

sites like are also great with a huge database for homework help and textbook solutions

LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Latest Blogs

Why your windows need some attention during renovations, what to do when you’re in over your head on a fixer-upper, why everyone should have a guest bedroom in their home, things you will need before adopting a rescue cat.

InPeaks is dedicated to bringing out the best content from guest bloggers on topics like education, wellness, and technology. You will get insight into achieving success, peace, and happiness by having new opportunities in life.

  • Free E-books
  • Contributors
  • InPeaks Story
  • Privacy Policy

Subscribe to newsletter!

ENJOYING OUR CONTENT? Subscribe and receive a monthly email notification packed with latest stories to inspire you!

Copyright © 2016 - 2023 InPeaks. All rights Reserved.

Privacy Overview

  • Marketing Assignment Help
  • Law Assignment Help
  • Finance Assignment Help
  • Assignment Help

MakeMyAssignments Blog

Using Internet for Assignments

  • April 18, 2023
  • Academic Help

The internet has revolutionized the way we live, work, and learn. One of the greatest benefits of the internet is its ability to provide access to a vast amount of information, which can be extremely helpful when it comes to solving assignments . In this blog, we’ll take a closer look at some of the benefits of using the internet for solving assignments.

  • Access to a wealth of information

The internet provides access to an almost endless amount of information on just about any topic you can imagine. This makes it an invaluable resource for students who are looking to solve assignments. With the click of a button, students can find relevant articles, papers, and books on their subject, which can help them gain a deeper understanding of the topic and find solutions to their assignments.

MakeMyAssignments has a team of expert writers who have access to a vast amount of information on various subjects. These writers are well-versed in research and can quickly and easily find relevant information to use in students’ assignments. This means that students who use MakeMyAssignments can be assured that their assignments will be well-researched and include up-to-date information.

  • Speed and convenience

Gone are the days when students had to spend hours in the library searching for books and articles. The internet has made it possible for students to access information quickly and conveniently. With just a few clicks, students can find the information they need to solve their assignments, no matter where they are.

MakeMyAssignments is designed to be convenient for students. Students can easily place an order for their assignments on the platform, and the writers will get to work on the assignment immediately. This means that students can have their assignments completed quickly and without any hassle.

assignment on internet

  • Collaboration

The internet has also made it easier for students to collaborate on assignments. With online forums, social media groups, and other platforms, students can connect with others who are working on the same assignments, share ideas, and get feedback. This not only helps students solve assignments more efficiently but also fosters a sense of community and support.

MakeMyAssignments offers a platform for students to collaborate with the writers who are working on their assignments. Students can communicate with the writers, ask questions, and provide feedback on their assignments. This ensures that the final assignment meets the student’s requirements and is of high quality.

  • Interactive learning

The internet provides access to a wealth of interactive learning resources, such as videos, simulations, and quizzes. These resources can help students gain a deeper understanding of their subject and apply what they’ve learned to their assignments. Interactive learning also makes the learning process more engaging and enjoyable, which can lead to better learning outcomes.

MakeMyAssignments offers interactive learning resources to students. The platform has a library of resources that students can use to learn about different subjects. These resources include videos, quizzes, and simulations. Students can use these resources to gain a deeper understanding of their subject and apply what they have learned to their assignments.

  • Time management

Finally, the internet can help students manage their time more effectively. With the ability to access information quickly and collaborate with others, students can solve assignments more efficiently, leaving them with more time to focus on other important tasks. This can be especially helpful for students who have busy schedules or multiple assignments to complete.

MakeMyAssignments can help students manage their time more effectively. By using the platform, students can focus on other important tasks while the writers work on their assignments. This means that students can use their time more efficiently and complete their other tasks without worrying about their assignments.

In conclusion, the internet is an invaluable resource for students looking to solve assignments . From access to a wealth of information to collaboration and interactive learning, the benefits of using the internet for solving assignments are numerous. As technology continues to advance, we can only expect these benefits to increase, making the internet an even more valuable tool for students. MakeMyAssignments is a platform that can help students with their assignments in several ways. By offering access to a wealth of information, speed and convenience, collaboration, interactive learning, and time management, MakeMyAssignments can help students complete their assignments more efficiently and effectively.

assignment on internet

Writing an Informative Essay for Academics

Informative essay, as the name itself suggests, is the one that informs the readers about…

assignment on internet

Things every Productive student need to avoid

For every successful person, there’s certain rules and guidelines that they need to abide to…

assignment on internet

Technology Re-shaping the Academic arena

During these hard times, the pandemic has literally worsened the condition of society and its…

  • previous post: Always Stay Positive
  • next post: The Importance of Proper Citation and Referencing in Academic Writing

Importance of Internet in Assignment Enhancement

importance of internet in assignment

In the advancement of technology, the importance of internet is a vital component in the growth of information technology. The internet has now risen to prominence as a useful tool. The Internet plays a major importance to help students perform information searches related to their assignments and studies. The Internet has made it possible to live in a world without borders. People get to access a greater variety of information, including the most up-to-date information, more quickly and efficiently.  Even assignment help services recommend the use of the internet for in-depth search of information for assignments. Internet search is the best way to gather information and easier too.

How has the internet enhanced education?

Because of the widespread usage of the internet, the contemporary teaching process has evolved. The internet helps to connect teachers with learners and get information in a jiffy.

The extensive presence of the internet has increased access to education in developing nations. It has also reached remote areas. In fact, it can be argued that the internet has eliminated all barriers to educational opportunities.

In today’s educational environment, it’s difficult to overstate the significance of the internet. The following observations may be used to characterize the contribution to the growth of education made by the internet:

Advancement in learning:

Teachers have made effective use of the internet to improve the quality of their lectures. They make use of the internet to provide students with additional resources, study tools, and instructional games. As a result, the overall education quality improves significantly. Many schools now utilize a blended approach in which students complete some of their coursework online. It relieves the students of the burden of traveling to a traditional campus. Due to the availability of research resources online, students may easily finish their assignments and exams with little difficulty. This eliminates the need to visit conventional libraries to do research. A student who has a thorough understanding of the internet may quickly find useful material while searching. Because of the accessibility of websites and online encyclopedias, students can study a variety of subjects in greater depth.


The internet has made it possible for instructors and students to communicate in real-time. Teachers may now provide after-class assistance to students via the use of live chats and video conferences.

Accessibility of information:

Some institutions, such as Harvard, Stanford, and Yale, have made free online courses available to the public.

Bridging the education gap :

Availability to academics via the internet is eroding the bridge between the wealthy and the less fortunate. Every day, more and more books are being digitized and made accessible online.  In other words, there is more knowledge available online than there is on the racks of libraries’ limited books. Learners, researchers, and intellectuals are increasingly reliant on academic websites for information gathering. Thus, with an internet connection, any required information may be accessed with less effort and with more ease.

Can the internet have a negative impact on students?

The usage of the Internet is beneficial to everyone, but it is particularly beneficial to students. For this reason, a student must use internet technology to its full potential, without misusing it. However, misuse of knowledge, without a thorough comprehension, can hurt assist the student’s career.

As a result, there are many disadvantages. While using the Internet to acquire information, the possibility of being confused is a concern.

The importance of the internet for assignments :

Assignments are given to students in order to determine how well they comprehend the topics being taught. Students must apply the ideas they have learned, identify their usage, and make a conclusion based on their findings. It is more akin to drafting a thesis. It is also possible to write a dissertation. Students rely heavily on the internet to generate homework to a great extent.

How difficult do you find it to finish an assignment?

Assignments may be on a wide range of subjects, based on a variety of different topics and disciplines of study. The learner has to consult a number of different publications in order to properly cite and comprehend the subject matter.

As a result, completing writing tasks is not an easy job. One can expect to put in a significant amount of time to complete the task.

For example, consider the scenario in which kids are copying material from the internet without thinking. Plagiarism occurs as a result of this. Inadequate understanding of plagiarism is one of the elements that contribute to the practice of plagiarism.

Students who had inadvertently plagiarized material were not acquainted with the appropriate citation and reference of text or phrases. Many studies have observed that students utilize these tools to retrieve knowledge in their current state. This will lead to them plagiarizing in order to give a response to the queries.

What causes plagiarism? Is it the fault of the internet?

There are a number of reasons why students misuse the internet while working on an assignment. They are as follows:

Preserving a good balance between work and school:

The majority of students find it challenging to maintain a healthy work-life balance while still attending school. When they start working, their schedules grow more hectic. The research, on the other hand, gets tougher as time progresses and more information becomes available. Even more of the time that is left is spent on household responsibilities. As a consequence, the demands of my personal life make it difficult for me to complete the project. In fact, students that fall into this category often never have adequate time to work on assignments.

Education at a higher level:

Some students pursue their studies in the United Kingdom, the United States, or Canada. Learners in these countries may find it difficult to keep up with the level of education.

Increased workload:

Students must work in order to pay their bills and rent, which leads to a significant increase in their overall workload. Working and studying at the same time is not an easy combination to manage. As a consequence, before getting their objectives, they tired. When it comes to studying, this particular set of pupils finds it almost difficult to find any time. Their ability to see themselves finishing a task is non-existent for them.

Guidelines and formatting:

Some students will be able to finish the assignment following the guidelines and formatting requirements. Students manage to complete the job despite the fact that they have little knowledge. Another group of people who have the necessary skills to finish the project may take on the responsibility. In both cases, the students are totally unaware of the exact structure and alignment to get the best possible grade. Even if they are able to complete the project, it may be missing in the right flow of ideas. Also, correct structure with citations, among other things goes missing. They may not be able to finish an assignment in line with the criteria, to put it another way.

Understanding the nature of assignment help services

Assignment writing services provide assistance to students who need assistance in completing their projects. They realize that students are preoccupied with home duties, job obligations, and academic obligations. These tasks alone take up a significant amount of time, leaving little time for completing an assignment. They are well aware that the students would be able to complete the task despite having a demanding timetable. However, they may not be in the required format or structure. It will be impossible to maintain the appropriate flow. Furthermore, the key elements needed to communicate the idea and explain it would be absent. So assignment writing businesses provide a wide range of services, tailored to meet the specific needs of students.

As a result, there is always the alternative of contacting assignment help providers throughout these periods.


The Internet has created accessibility to learning resources easy. It has played a greater role in transforming the poor and developed nations as their population is getting educated. However, easy accessibility has lead to plagiarism in the assignment. Taking the help of assignment help is one of the best solutions to overcome to issue of plagiarism. They also create an assignment with correct structure and citations.

Continue reading:

Create Plagiarism Free Assignment

Tips to Write Impactful Essay

' src=

About cupangxxx

Leave a reply cancel reply.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Transfer and Postings

Assignment On Internet

Assignment On Internet: A Comprehensive Guide to Navigating the Online World

Assignment On Internet: The internet has become an indispensable part of our lives. It has revolutionized the way we live, work, communicate and access information. The Internet is a vast network of interconnected computers that allows us to connect with people all over the world, access information from various sources, and perform tasks that were once unimaginable. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide to navigating the online world.

In this blog, we include About Assignment On Internet, in 100, 200, 250, and 300 words. Also cover About Assignment On Internet for classes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and up to the 12th class. You can read more Essays in 10 lines, and Essay Writing about sports, events, occasions, festivals, etc… About Assignment On Internet is available in different languages.

Table of Contents

Understanding The Internet

What is the internet.

The Internet is a global network of interconnected computers that use standard protocols to communicate with each other. It is a vast collection of information resources, including web pages, images, videos, and other types of digital media. The Internet is decentralized, which means that there is no central authority controlling it. Instead, it is made up of interconnected networks of computers and devices that communicate with each other using standard protocols.

The Internet works by using a series of interconnected computer networks that allow data to be transmitted and received. Each network is made up of servers, routers, and other networking devices that allow data to be transmitted and received. The data is transmitted in the form of packets, which are small pieces of information that are sent between the devices.

Types Of Internet Connections

There are several types of Internet connections, including wired and wireless connections. Wired connections include DSL, fiber-optic, and Ethernet, while wireless connections include Wi-Fi and mobile data. Wired connections offer faster speeds and are more reliable than wireless connections, but they require physical cables to be installed.

Wireless connections, on the other hand, are more convenient and do not require physical cables to be installed. However, they are often slower and less reliable than wired connections, particularly in areas with poor signal strength.

Browsers And Search Engines

Browsers are software applications that allow us to access and view web pages on the Internet. Some popular browsers include Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Safari. Browsers use the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to communicate with web servers and retrieve web pages.

Search engines are software applications that allow us to search for information on the Internet. They use algorithms to scan the web and index web pages based on keywords and other factors. Popular search engines include Google, Bing, and Yahoo.

Browsers And Search Engines

Internet Security

Internet security is a critical issue that everyone should be aware of. The Internet is home to various online threats, including viruses, malware, and phishing scams. These threats can steal personal information, compromise our online accounts, and even take control of our devices.

To protect ourselves from online threats, we can use various security measures such as antivirus software, firewalls, and safe browsing habits. Antivirus software can detect and remove viruses and other types of malware, while firewalls can block unauthorized access to our devices. Safe browsing habits, such as avoiding suspicious websites and emails, can also help to protect our online security.

Online Communication

The Internet has revolutionized the way we communicate with each other. Email is one of the most popular forms of online communication, and it allows us to send and receive messages to and from people all over the world. Popular email providers include Gmail, Yahoo Mail, and Outlook.

Instant messaging and video conferencing are other popular forms of online communication. Skype, Zoom, and WhatsApp are some of the most popular applications that allow us to chat and make video calls with people all over the world. Social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, also allow us to connect and communicate with people all over the world.

Online Shopping And Banking

Online shopping and banking are two key aspects of the digital economy. Online shopping has transformed the way people purchase goods and services, offering convenience, competitive prices, and a wide range of products. Meanwhile, online banking has made it possible for consumers to manage their finances from anywhere with an internet connection, offering enhanced security measures and access to a range of financial services. Both online shopping and banking offer benefits and risks, and it is important for individuals to stay informed and take steps to protect themselves in the digital age.

Online Privacy And Digital Footprint

Online privacy refers to the ability to control the information that is shared about oneself over the internet. This includes personal information such as name, address, and financial information. It is important to be aware of online privacy risks, such as data breaches and hacking attempts, and to take steps to protect personal information.

A digital footprint refers to the trail of information that is left behind when someone uses the internet. This includes social media activity, online searches, and other online interactions. It is important to be aware of one’s digital footprint and to take steps to manage it, as it can affect personal and professional opportunities in the future.

Future Of The Internet

The future of the internet is constantly evolving and expanding. With the increasing use of artificial intelligence, the internet is expected to become more personalized and intuitive. The development of 5G technology will lead to faster and more reliable internet connections, enabling new technologies such as virtual and augmented reality. The internet of things (IoT) will continue to grow, with more devices becoming connected and exchanging data. However, with this growth comes new challenges in terms of online security and privacy. It is important for individuals and organizations to stay informed and proactive in addressing these challenges as the internet continues to shape the future of our world.

Future Of The Internet

However, as the internet continues to evolve and expand, new challenges and risks have emerged. Issues such as online privacy, cyber security, and online misinformation have become increasingly important in today’s digital age.

It is crucial that individuals, organizations, and governments work together to address these challenges and promote responsible use of the internet. By doing so, we can ensure that the internet remains a powerful tool for positive change and innovation in the years to come.

Read More: The Use Of Internet Service In Modern India 250 Words

FAQ’s On About Assignment On Internet

Question 1. What are the 5 main uses of internet?

Answer: The internet has many uses, but five main uses are communication, research and information, entertainment, e-commerce, and online education. The internet has made it possible to communicate with people all over the world through email, messaging apps, and social media platforms.

It has also made it easier to access information on any topic through search engines and online databases. Entertainment options such as streaming music, movies, and TV shows have become more accessible through the internet. E-commerce has transformed the way people shop, while online education has made learning more accessible and flexible.

Question 2. How are the types of internet?

Answer: There are several types of internet, including the World Wide Web, email, social media, file sharing, and online gaming. The World Wide Web is the most widely used type of internet, allowing users to access websites and information through browsers.

Email allows users to send and receive messages and files electronically. Social media platforms enable users to connect and share information with others. File sharing platforms allow users to share files and documents, while online gaming allows players to connect and compete with each other in virtual worlds.

Question 3. What are uses of internet?

Answer: The internet has many uses, including communication, information sharing, entertainment, e-commerce, education, and research. It allows people to communicate with others all over the world, access a vast array of information on any topic, and stay entertained through streaming services and online gaming. E-commerce has transformed the way people shop, while online education has made learning more accessible and flexible. Researchers and academics can also use the internet to collaborate and share knowledge across borders.

Question 4. What are the main features of internet?

Answer: The main features of the internet include its vast and interconnected network of computers, its ability to transmit data and information rapidly across long distances, its use of standard protocols and programming languages, and its support for a wide range of communication and media formats.

The internet is designed to be flexible, scalable, and adaptable, and it supports a range of applications and services, from email and messaging to video streaming and cloud computing. It is also an open and decentralized platform, allowing anyone to contribute content and share ideas with a global audience.

Question 5. What is internet and its advantages?

Answer: The internet is a global network of computers and servers that allows users to access and share information, communicate with others, and conduct online transactions. Its advantages include its ability to connect people and businesses across the globe, its vast array of information and resources, its convenience and accessibility, and its potential for innovation and collaboration. The internet has transformed the way we live and work, and it continues to shape our world in countless ways.

Share this:

Leave a comment cancel reply.

You must be logged in to post a comment.

Locus Assignments

Assignment on Internet and E-Business

Assignment on Internet and E-Business


Electronic business is gaining high momentum and popularity in these days. It has given the option to the customers to enable business transactions efficiently and conveniently. This Assignment on Internet and E-Business enables us to understand the scope of e business and understanding how does the e-business system functions.  It is also aimed to enable the understanding of the use of models of electronic businesses.

Task 1: Understanding the scope of e-business

1. e-business solution for ids..

  • Scenario - IDS operates in an old fashioned way of the bricks and mortar style of business. They lack the advanced online presence and e business model to gain added efficiency and better handle the suppliers and the customers.
  • Electronic business  is the online operation of activities to sell a product or a service. It can be a business of any form which includes the interaction of the buyer and the seller electronically and not by physical and direct contact. E-business includes the business transaction using a computer mediated platform. Electronic communications technologies and applications are used in the e-business model to create value for the end customers.

The e business can enhance the following process at IDS-

  • Add value to the production process – e-business will enhance the procurement, payment processing at IDS. Linking with suppliers and controlling the production processes would be efficient at IDS with e business operations.
  • Increasing customer focus – e-business increases the marketing and the efforts of promotion. Customer support. Purchase orders and payment processes of IDS will be adding value to the end customers. It will help in increasing the efficiency of the management process within the organisation (Lorette, 2014)

2. Explain the benefits and barriers to businesses considering an online presence

Benefits of e businesses

  • E business will lead to cost effective marketing for IDS,  as online marketing techniques and e-newsletters are cost effective strategies than compared to physical marketing. It will provide the advantage of flexible business hours to IDS as the time constraint of location based marketing is eliminated in the e-commerce (Lorette, 2014)
  • Geographic boundaries are reduced as online business can reach out to customers around the globe. The overhead costs are reduced – the cost of operating a business in a physical location is reduced while operating online. Phone, rent and other utility bills are lower in e-business. Many e businesses do not even require a dedicated office space, lowering the costs further more. It is easier, and faster to connect to the customers by e business (Hinton & Barnes, 2008)

Barriers to online businesses

The success of an online business depends on the threshold of the parties to the online business, according to Metcalfe’s Law the value of the online business is directly proportional to the square of the number of online users. Major barriers are;

E – Business is directly proportional to the Personal Computer Penetration . So owning PC’s and having internet connections is a factor that limits the online business.

Infrastructure – if infrastructure is improper it acts as a barrier to the e-commerce there is a requirement of internet connection, access to internet facilities, including the software and the hardware’s required act as barriers. Political, Economic and Business Barriers – people still prefer cash payment over credit, the security of e-commerce payment act as barrier for encouraging people. Government e-commerce regulations also sometimes restrict e-commerce. Marketing barriers –ethical constraints, language barriers, etc. will act as a marketing barrier for IDS.  (Pahladsingh, 2010)

Technical Issues and security concerns for e-business

E-business is prone to barriers of security threats and technical issues some of them are;

  • Security threats of viruses and malwares – computer can be prone to attack of malicious softwares that can be viruses, worms and any other form of malware that can cause disturbances in the normal functioning of the computer. These viruses can lead to the loss of money and time for the e-Business.
  • Software bugs security threat – these are errors in the coding of the computer program that creates disruption in the behaviour of the computer program or the site. This can crash the site of the internet business and also results in access to data that is not needed.
  • Active malicius threats – these are outside parties attacking the internet business .And includes hacking and phishing for stealing data.
  • Physical theft of data – stealing of the hardware of the internet business can also affect the business as the hard drive and any other such data source contains crucial data.  (Pahladsingh, 2010) .

3. Identify the security and legislative issues facing to IDS e-Business model and describe preventive measures you would suggest

The security and legislative issues will inhibit the online business of IDS if not tackled properly

Verification of the identity of the seller is difficult in e-businesses for IDS. There is a risk of the online message sent being tampered and hacked (that might contain important personal details and bank details) taking the evidence of the date and the time and place of making an online contract is another issue. Dealing with laws of electronic signatures -The Electronic Communications Act of 2000 replaced digital signatures with electronic signatures

Parties to e-commerce need to comply with the UK Electronic Communications Act t hat states that at the time of a dispute, electronic signature will be considered as legal evidence (, 2013). So IDS is prone to the threat of all of these security issues.

Dealing with the security issues

As e-commerce is highly prone to security attacks, virus threats, hacking IDS need to devise plans to deal with these security issues.

  • Encryption can be used to underpin information and keep them secured. An encryption algorithm can be used to ensure safe and secure transaction. Encryption would lead to the protection of the message content as well as can be helpful in providing the integrity of the communication
  • Digital Signatures can be used to get the confirmation of the identity of the sender in the online transaction process
  • Certification Authorities are third parties that work independently and issue certificates digitally after verification (, 2013)

Firewall is used to stop and prevent the access to and from a network that is private in an unauthorised manner. It is used for both hardware and softwares or for both in an combined manner. These will prevent the access to the network without authorisation.

Common techniques of adding firewalls

  • Packet Filter – In this technique each packet that leaves or enters a network is looked at and is based on rules that are defined.
  • Application gateway – in this firewall system specific applications are granted security mechanisms these may be FTP, Telnetservers.
  • Proxy server – in this system all the messages that leaves and enters the network are intercepted, effectively hiding the original address of the network (, 2013) .

Other control methods are all security incidents must be duly reported. There should be the adoption of a policy of continuity management of the business.

4. Explain the internet technologies and their importance in making an e-business successful

There are different technologies used in making an e-business successful, some of them are listed below;

Mobile computing technologies and applications are gaining market momentum. The wireless e-commerce is made possible by mobile telephones and computer devices that are hand held such as tablets and laptops, smart phone applications are making e-commerce possible anywhere and everywhere.

Java, Extensible Mark-up Language (XML), Java 2 Platform, Presentation layers are other technologies extensively used by e-businesses such as Amazon to gain market success.

Amazon uses SCA or Service Component Architecture to integrate efficient service delivery. This is a combination of programming language and also frameworks used along with the programming language.  It uses Web services, Messaging systems and Remote Procedure Call as access methods (TIMOFTE, Carmen, 2010).

SDO or Service Data Objects are used to be able to handle data of the business for Amazon. As the data is both in the formats of relational databases and XML, SOA is used efficiently to manage and handle data in both the formats (TIMOFTE, Carmen, 2010).

Local area network technologies such as IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.1 lbs are standards that are widely being used with laptops and personal computers making e commerce possible

Telecommunications technology such as 2G and 3G digital technology services are enabling the access to high speed internet to people and making an e business gain success

Universal Mobile Telecommunications are third generation technology leads the user to get connected to the internet at all times and there is no need to log in to use e businesses. This has resulted in speedy and efficient e businesses

E-commerce secure payment gateways have heavily contributed to the success of the e-businesses, consumers also have benefitted by this technology as there is no need to stand in queues to make payment and time efficient and secure transactions can be made at feasible locations (Tarasewich, Nickerson, & Warkentin, 2011)

Social Networking is a platform that has led to the high popularity of e commerce by efficient marketing of the e commerce businesses

Business to business share points and intranet communication systems

Use of internet to make

The Importance of these technologies in making the e-business successful

All these technologies and applications have enabled efficient internal communication and contributing to the popularity of the e business systems. These technologies have added efficiency in marketing and the time and money spend to be able in a physical shopping location has been replaced by comparing prices, vendors and best options online. E Businesses are providing a host of shopping options to its customers. These technologies have enabled secure payment options and option of exchange policy too, if the product is unsatisfactory.

Illustrate the different e-business models that can be best suited for Don’s Lumber Company

A. Describe how this process could be improved with e-Business solution

Don’s Lumber company is a Hardware retail company that lacks the integration of e-business model leading the company’s suppliers to rely on a  manual price sheet list and telephonic calls to get the quote and recent price information.  So it is needed that the Don Lumber Company and their suppliers should implement e- Business models to get information in real time accurately and conveniently. This would lead the company to share the pricing and  other relevant information accurately and there would be no need to maintain manual documentation. Electronic data handling would minimise errors and lead to storing data for a longer time (Steven, 2011).

The benefits of having an  e-Business model for Don Lumber’s Company

An online business model would lead to minimising errors in the  quotation for the firm and pricing information can be availed at any time from any location and there would be no requirement of the constraints such as physical presence, telephonic conversation, etc. It will lead to inventory planning for the company and even customers can contact the company through the e-business model  (Marc, 2011).  The model would enable the company to offer personalised service to the customers that would be of a superior quality. Having an online presence would also add to the growth and the recognition of the Don Lumber’s company. As e Business would enable the business to use technology to gain competitive advantage.

ecommerce model for Don’s Lumber company would lead to the increase in business functioning by better coordination with the stakeholders. Don’s Lumber company can have a cost effective marketing by using the eBusiness model. It will be possible to use marketing tactics without spending a lot of money all offers and discounts of the company can be displayed in the e-business platform of Don’s  Lumber.

Flexible working arrangements -  Don’s Lumber company is currently working with time barriers. The e –Business model would eliminate this .

The transaction costs would also be lowered by the use of the e-Business model. This includes the costs of operating a business in a physical location  (LORETTE, Kristie, 2014).

B. Analyse each model in terms of its capacity to generate revenue

Don’s Lumber Company can use many e-business models which combined together would create effectiveness in the supply chain management of the company. Merchant e-commerce model. The e business models would lead to the creation of an online store for the company in which the suppliers, vendors and customers can check relevant details. They can get price quotes, inquire about inventories. A third party secure payment gateway would lead to the generation of sales revenues.

  • Storefront model   - this model enables the combination of the process of transaction, security, online payment, storage of information, this model simply enables the business to take part in e-commerce process. Don’s Lumber company to adopt this model needs to integrate an online catalogue of their products, the website will enable the company to take orders, payment gateway would also be secure, merchandise could be arranged for delivery to the customers and customer data can also be maintained. This model would enable  the Don’s Lumber company to interact with the buyers directly and generate revenue directly.
  • Shopping cart technology – this is very commonly used. Don’s Lumber company can integrate the shopping cart model to enable customers to accumulate the items in the shopping cart and make the purchase of the accumulated items. Product catalogue would be available to support the shopping cart in the form of a database. The merchant server will enable data storage and management. Don’s Lumber database would include the details of all the hardware’s sold and available. It will also store the information of the customer such as their addresses, contact number’s, payment information. Don’s Lumber can use the database to save the relevant information of the suppliers too.
  • Portal Model – This model has wide utility in providing the shoppers the option to find and search everything that they want in one place. This model provides news, weather forecast ability to search the internet. Online shopping activities of the Don’s Lumber Company can be added to the portal. Online sites like,, are linked to shopping sites selling many products. Don’s Lumber can link itself to such a site too. As portal linking provides added advantages as the portal collects information about the user regarding the item that they are looking for and enables the users to have independent browsing of the storefronts. Example Yahoo! Allows the users to search many sites and they have the advantage of making the payment while being logged in to the yahoo account.
  • Dynamic Pricing Model – This model is used by companies like Priceline and Imandi in which customers can list the prices for their goods such as auto-mobile, consumer products . A mouse click can enable the user to find the lowest price offered, etc. This would enable bulk buying of inventories from Don’s Lumber company getting the added advantage to the customers to get lower prices.
  • Advertising e-commerce business model – this model works by revenue generate by renting a space on the business website for advertisement and promotion. An Example of the business using this model are social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter.
  • Affiliate e-commerce model – By adopting this model Don’s Lumber Company can enable revenue generation by the redirection of its customers to other websites. In this model the owner of the business would not have to take part in the process of selling, but the business just has to take part in portal development which can direct the buyers and lead to the generation of revenue

Brokerage e-commerce model or Consumer- to-Consumer model –

This model is used to involve transaction and business operations between two consumers eBay uses this type of business model. By using this business model Don’s Lumber company can advertise their products online and sell the products stating the price quotation. For making this model work it is needed that both the parties to the model such as the buyer and the seller must be registered with the site that is auctioning so Don’s Lumber company and their suppliers needs to register with the auction website. This model works on the principle of serving as a platform for bringing the buyers and the sellers together (ESERVGLOBAL, 2014) .

  • Merchant e-commerce Model – This model is used by Amazon and gives it the advantage to the customers to check the availability of the products and place orders. The revenue generation for the sales is done by a third party secure payment gateway (G., James, 2002).
  • Web catalogue revenue model - Amazon customers have the option access the shopping catalogue electronically and access Amazon’s shopping cart throughout the world adding to the revenue of the firm.
  • Information e-commerce business model – this model can be used by Don’s Lumber company as it will enable the business to serve the customers with specific and detailed information that they seek. In this model a subscription fee is charged by the business for the information. (John and Marc, 2010).

From the above models suggested the Don’s Lumber company can adopt a model that can be a combination of two or more models according to the personal requirements of the organisation. The model’s suitability for Don’s Lumber company has to be judged on certain parameters such as the ease of getting supplies from suppliers, vendor management, feedbacks from the customers and the suppliers. Don’s Lumber company should adopt a low cost model initially. I would recommend Mixed Revenue Model for operation with the suppliers and the transaction model suitable for Don’s lumber Company. This evaluation and selection is done on the basis of the suitability and the capacity to generate revenue for Don’s Lumber Company.

1. Identify issues concerning website usability

The website being user friendly affects the visitors a lot as they consider the ease of use as a key that affects their purchase decision. In e-business the website usability affects the purchasing decision  lot as customers do not return to a website that is not easy to use. Certain issues need to be considered regarding the usability of the website they are;

  • The Layout of the page - the website content and the content that is displayed needs to be chosen carefully. People while selecting the online business retailer scroll down the content to scan its relevance and usability and do not consider the content of any value if it does not give the required results easily (Rob, 2012).
  • HTML - the HTML programming language used for coding and encoding should be simple to use, providing flexibility to the end users and adding features to increase the usability (Steve and Stephen, 2012).

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language it consist of the Markup Language that is used for the creation of Web pages. HTML tags describe the documents of HTML. Each tag is unique and specifies a different content of the document.

HTML Markup – These are elements such as tags and character based data, references for characters and entities.

The versions of HTML so far are HTML, HTML 2.0, HTML 3.2, HTML 4.01, XHTML and HTML 5.

We will look at the features of HTML 5.

  • Video elements - With the latest version of HTML it is possible for the designers to design web pages without the use of plug-ins such as Flash. YouTube is using the HTML 5 to display videos.
  • Application cache – it is possible to store web applications just like emails efficiently using the HTML 5. Google is using HTML for this reason.
  • The image canvassing –this lets the manipulation of the graphics and the photos and has eliminated the use of technologies like jQuery saving time and adding efficiency.
  • Geolocation - this enables identification of the location of the user by the help OF Global Positioning System and IP address tracking, GSM/CDMA Ids etc. This feature of the HTML 5 can be used by e-businesses such as Amazon to track the location sand other details of the user and show relevant marketing to them.
  • Web workers- this gives the web application the utility to execute tasks and operations that are complex in nature, without hampering the web page performance in real time. So it eliminates the inconvenience of the end users when websites are restructured (S., Sahil, 2010).
  • Colour choice – colour scheme is an important factor that has to be kept in mind. And should not be confusing to people and kept in mind the colour blind individuals.
  • The website download speed – A website that takes long enough to get downloaded is an instant turn off and people refrain from using such a website as long download time leads to loss of customer interest.

This Assignment on Internet and E-Business has clearly highlighted the advantage of having an online presence for a business. With the advance in technology there is varied business models that a business can choose to operate online, according to their own specification and requirements. With the numerous advantage of e-Business there are also disadvantages that the business has to deal carefully such as security and legislative issues. The website plays a vital role in the marketing and the recognition of business as it the first interface in the case of online businesses with their customers. So the website designing should be considered carefully, integrating easy to use and user friendly functionalities.

Works Cited

Allan A. and Christopher L. (2011) Internet Business Models and Strategies, McGraw Hill-Irwin, 2011 Amy J. K. (2010). Community Building on the Web: Secret Strategies for Successful Online Communities, Peach pit Press, 2010 Beynon-Davies P. (2014). E-Business Palgrave, Basingstoke. ISBN 1-4039-1348-X CHAFFEY, Dave. 2014. case study . [online]. [Accessed 9 December 2014]. Available from World Wide Web: <> David S. P. and Terry P. (2010) Clicks and Mortar: Passion Driven Growth in an Internet Driven World, ESERVGLOBAL. 2014. e-Commerce Models . [online]. [Accessed 11 December 2014]. Available from World Wide Web: <> G., James. 2002. What Just Happened: A Chronicle from the Information Frontier . Pantheon. Gerstner, L. (2012). Who says Elephants Can't Dance? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround pg 172 ISBN 0-06-052379-4 HINTON, Matthew and ‎David BARNES. 2008. The benefits of e-business performance measurement systems . Burlington, USA: CIMA Publishing. John H. and Marc S. (2010) Net Worth: Shaping Markets When Customers Make the Rules Harvard Business School Pr; (2010) ISBN: 0875848893 LORETTE, Kristie. 2014. The Advantages of E-Business . [online]. [Accessed 8 December 2014]. Available from World Wide Web: <> Marc H. (Ed.) (2011) Peer to Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, O'Reilly & Associates; ISBN: 059600110X OUT-LAW.COM. 2013. Security Aspoects of e-business . [online]. [Accessed 8 December 2014]. Available from World Wide Web: <> PAHLADSINGH, Shanti. 2006. eMarket Services makes it easier for you to use electronic marketplaces for international business . eMarket Services EVD.

Locus  Assignment Help UK is leading assignment writing service provider with expert assistance for helping students.

Delivery in day(s): 5

  • Number of views: 573
  • Unit: Unit 29 The Internet and E-Business

Share this Solution


Other Assignments

Computing Skills Assignment Help

Computing Skills Assignment Help

Organisational Behaviour Assignment Help

Organisational Behaviour Assignment Help

Delivery in day(s): 3

Business Law Assignment

Business Law Assignment

Delivery in day(s): 4

International Management Assignment Help

International Management Assignment Help

Business Law Assignment Help

Business Law Assignment Help

Related solutions.

Unit 29 Internet and E-Business Assignment Help

Unit 29 Internet and E-Business Assignment Help

Unit 29 Internet and E-Business Distinction Copy

Unit 29 Internet and E-Business Distinction Copy

Internet and E-Business Merit Copy

Internet and E-Business Merit Copy

Assignment on Internet and E-Business

Unit 29 Internet and E-Business Assignment Sample

Unit 29 The Internet and E-Business Assignment

Unit 29 The Internet and E-Business Assignment

  • Unit 1 Business and Business Environment
  • Unit 1 Business Skills for e-Commerce
  • Unit 1 Communicating in HSC Organisations
  • Unit 1 The Contemporary Hospitality Industry
  • Unit 1 The Travel and Tourism Sector

Other Solutions

Unit 6 Business Decision Making Assignment Help

Unit 6 Business Decision Making Assignment Help

Business Strategy Assignment Solutions

Business Strategy Assignment Solutions

Managing Business Activities to Achieve Results Assignment Help

Managing Business Activities to Achieve Results Assignment Help

External Business Environment Assignment Help

External Business Environment Assignment Help

Contemporary Issues in Travel and Tourism Assignment Help

Contemporary Issues in Travel and Tourism Assignment Help

Business Environment Assignment - British Airways

Business Environment Assignment - British Airways

CT101 Digital Storytelling

CUNY York College – Digital Storytelling

CT101 Digital Storytelling

Assignment #1- on the internet this week

Hi all, my name is Meagan and my favorite feature of the internet is our ability to share information with each other. You can learn almost anything on the internet from a comprehensible teacher who most likely isn’t even a teacher- anyone can share their knowledge without credentials and have many platforms to do so.

This week on the internet, the queen’s library website has made me happy because they have resources on their website to help you learn a wide variety of languages and even dialects of specific languages. It is free and accessible to all of those with a library card.

Most of my time spent on the internet is dedicated towards language learning (and just learning in general) and the plethora of resources and knowledge available to me always leaves me awestruck.

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International

This entry is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

1 thought on “Assignment #1- on the internet this week”

Excellent! Nice job and congrats on your first post! Now that we have produced a result, how can we improve upon this? What else might you add to this post to develop it further? Hmmm, let us brainstorm 🙂

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


  • Terms of Service
  • Creative Commons (CC) license unless otherwise noted

Twitter logo

Assignment on Internet Governance

This assignment focus on Internet Governance. The growing awareness of the social, economic and political impact in the Internet on society has taken the question of World wide web Governance into sharper concentration. Web governance could be the advancement along with program by simply Government authorities. This assignment reinforces the concept of inclusiveness of Governments, the private sector and civil society in the mechanisms of Internet governance.


The growing awareness of the social, economic, and political impact of the Internet on society has brought the question of Internet Governance into sharper focus. The process of addressing legal issues and the social consequences of technological developments invariably lags behind technological innovation. This applies to the Internet, too. In the case of the Internet, governance is needed, among other things, to prevent or, at least minimize the risk of the fragmentation of the Internet; maintain compatibility and interoperability; safeguard the rights and define the responsibilities of the various players; protect end users from misuses and abuse; encourage further development.

We are currently in the early phase of international negotiations on Internet Governance, which is characterized by the need to establish and agree on a basic framework and to select appropriate instruments for the discussion of the many arising issues. Who are the actors likely to influence the Internet’s future development? What will their policies be with regard to connectivity, commerce, content, funding, security, and other issues central to our emerging Information Society? These are some of the key questions that need to be addressed within the framework of Internet Governance.

Internet Governance is not a simple subject. Although it deals with a major symbol of the DIGITAL world, it cannot be handled with a digital – binary logic of true/false and good/bad. Instead, the subject’s many subtleties and shades of meaning and perception require an ANALOG approach, covering a continuum of options and compromises. Therefore, this report will not attempt to provide definitive statements on Internet Governance issues. Rather, its aim is to propose a practical framework for the analysis, discussion of the key problems in this field.

One of the fascinating aspects of the Internet during its development and early growth was its unique governance. The Internet started as a government project. In the late 1960s, the US government sponsored the development of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPANet), a resilient communication facility designed to survive a nuclear attack.

By the 1980s, a wider international community was using the facilities of this network, which by this time was referred to as the Internet. In 1986, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) was established. The IETF managed the further development of the Internet through a cooperative, consensus-based, decision-making process, involving a wide variety of individuals. There was no central government, no central planning, and no grand design.

At this point, life was relatively simple. However, in 1994 the US National Science Foundation decided to involve the private sector by sub-contracting the management of the Domain Name System (DNS) to Network Solutions Inc (NSI). This was not well received by the Internet community, and a “DNS War” started. This “DNS War” brought other players into the picture: the business sector, international organizations, and nation states.

It ended in 1998 with the establishment of a new organization, the Internet Company for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).Since 1998 and the establishment of ICANN, debate on Internet Governance has been characterized by the more intensive involvement of national governments, mainly through the UN framework.

First of all, in our report we have tried to provide some definitions, and offer an analytical scheme by which to conceptualize the topic at hand. Internet governance, it suggests, can be understood through a metaphor of “layers” – a division of issues and actors into three broad categories, each of which corresponds to a different facet of the network.

Then we have addressed some of the specific issues at stake in Internet governance. In order to provide a certain amount of order to the crowded field of issues and actors, the discussion is organized by the previously mentioned layers. After the introduction of issues we have tried to discuss the issues of particular relevance to the internet governance.

It attempts to show how governance decisions can have social and economic ramifications, and it suggests some steps that can be taken to enhance developing country participation in Internet governance. Moreover we have discussed about the potential impact of internet governance. Finally, in conclusion we have tried to recommend some best practices and consideration of Internet governance.

Topic Definition:

While there is a common understanding of the Internet, there is not yet a shared view of Internet governance, hence the mandate from the WSIS for the WGIG to develop a working definition of Internet governance. During the 10 years in which the Internet evolved from a research and academic facility into “a global facility available to the public”, very different points of view emerged about the scope and mechanisms of Internet governance.

The WGIG first considered five criteria, namely that the working definition should be adequate, generalizable, descriptive, concise and process-oriented. Second, the WGIG analyzed a wide range of public-sector, private-sector and multi-stakeholder governance mechanisms that currently exist with respect to different Internet issues and functions. Finally, the WGIG assessed a number of alternative definitions proposed by various parties in the course of the WSIS process and related international discussions.

Taking into account the criteria, analysis and proposals mentioned above, as well as the larger debate among stakeholders involved in WSIS, WGIG and the broader Internet community, the WGIG provides the following working definition:

Internet governance is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.

This working definition reinforces the concept of inclusiveness of Governments, the private sector and civil society in the mechanisms of Internet governance. This working definition also acknowledges that with respect to specific issues of Internet governance each group will have different interests, roles and participation, which in some cases will overlap.

It should be made clear, however, that Internet governance includes more than Internet names and addresses, issues dealt with by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN): it also includes other significant public policy issues, such as critical Internet resources, the security and safety of the Internet, and developmental aspects and issues pertaining to the use of the Internet.

At the Global Forum on Internet Governance, held at the United Nations in New York on 24-25 March 2004, several speakers told various versions of the story of the blind men and the elephant. The moral of the poem makes it clear that a discussion of the meaning of “Internet Governance” is not merely linguistic pedantry. Different perceptions of the meaning of this term trigger different policy approaches and expectations. Telecommunication specialists see Internet Governance through the prism of the development of the technical infrastructure. Computer It was six men of Indostan To learning much inclined, Who went to see the Elephant

(Though all of them were blind), And so these men of Indostan Disputed loud and long, Each in his own opinion Exceeding stiff and strong, Though each was partly in the right, And all were in the wrong! Excerpt from the poem “The Blide Men and the

Elephant” written by American poet John Godfrey Saxe (1816-1887).

Internet Governance specialists focus on the development of various standards and applications, such as XML or Java. Communication specialists stress the facilitation of communication. Human rights activists view Internet Governance from the perspective of the freedom of expression, privacy, and other basic human rights. Lawyers concentrate on jurisdiction and dispute resolution. Politicians worldwide usually focus on media and issues that play well with their electorates, such as techno-optimism (more computers = more education) and threats (Internet security, protection of children). Diplomats are mainly concerned with the process and protection of national interests. The list of potentially conflicting professional perspectives on Internet Governance goes on.

Each of the terms “Internet” and “governance” is the subject of controversial interpretation. Some authors argue that the first part, “Internet,” does not cover all of the existing aspects of global ICT developments. Two other terms: “Information Society” and “Information and Communications Technology” are usually put forward as more comprehensive. They include areas that are beyond the Internet domain, such as mobile telephony.

The argument for the use of the term “Internet,” however, is enhanced by the rapid transition of global communication towards the use of TCP/IP as the main communications technical standard. The already ubiquitous Internet continues to expand at a rapid rate, not only in terms of the number of users but also in terms of the services that it offers, notably Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), which may displace conventional telephony.

The second part of the term, “governance,” has been the cause of controversy in recent debates, especially during WSIS. Misunderstanding primarily stems from the use of the term governance as a synonym for government. When the term “Internet Governance” was introduced in the WSIS processes, many, especially developing, countries linked it to the concept of government. One of the consequences of such an approach was the belief that Internet Governance issues should be addressed at the inter-governmental level with the limited participation of other, mainly non-state, actors.

What were the main reasons for this terminological confusion? Is it obvious that “governance” does not mean “government”? Not necessarily. The term “good governance” has been used by the World Bank to promote the reform of states by introducing more transparency, reducing corruption, and increasing the efficiency of administration. In this context, the term“governance” was directly related to core government functions.

Issues/ Considerations:

The WGIG devoted much of its attention to the identification of public policy issues that are potentially relevant to Internet governance, as called for in paragraph 13 (b) of the Plan of Action. It agreed to take a broad approach and not exclude any potentially relevant issue. Based on this fact-finding work, the WGIG established four key public policy areas:

(a) Issues relating to infrastructure and the management of critical Internet resources, including administration of the domain name system and Internet protocol addresses (IP addresses), administration of the root server system, technical standards, peering and interconnection, telecommunications infrastructure, including innovative and convergent technologies, as well as multilingualization. These issues are matters of direct relevance to Internet governance and fall within the ambit of existing organizations with responsibility for these matters;

(b) Issues relating to the use of the Internet, including spam, network security and cyber-crime. While these issues are directly related to Internet governance, the nature of global cooperation required is not well defined;

(c) Issues that are relevant to the Internet but have an impact much wider than the Internet and for which existing organizations are responsible, such as intellectual property rights (IPRs) or international trade. The WGIG started examining the extent to which these matters are being handled consistent with the Declaration of Principles;

(d) Issues relating to the developmental aspects of Internet governance, in particular capacity-building in developing countries.

After examining in depth the issues pertaining to these four clusters, the WGIG identified and included in the Background Report the public policy issues that are relevant to Internet governance. The issues of highest priority, including related issues and problems, are set out below for the attention of the WSIS.

Some of the important issues in internet governance :

(a) Standards:

Standards are among the most important issues addressed by Internet governance at any layer. As noted, the Internet is only able to function seamlessly over different networks, operating systems, browsers and devices because it sits on bedrock of commonly agreed-upon technical standards.

(b ) Management of the Domain Name System:

The coordination and management of the DNS is another key area requiring governance at the logical layer. In recent years, the DNS has been the focus of some of the most heated (and most interesting) debates over governance, largely due to the central role played by ICANN.21

(c) IP Allocation and Numbering

As mentioned, IP addresses are composed of sets of four numbers (ranging from 0 to 255) separated by periods – this is just a representation of a 32-bit number that expresses an IP address in IPv4. In fact, every device on the network requires a number and numbering decisions for IP addresses as well as for other devices is critical to the smooth functioning of the Internet.

(d) Internet Pollution:

A minor nuisance just a few years ago, Internet pollution has risen to epidemic proportions. By some estimates, 10 out of every 13 emails sent today is spam.24 Such messages clog often scarce bandwidth, diminish productivity, and impose an economic toll. According to one study, spam results in an annual Euro 10-billion loss just through lost bandwidth.

(e) Cyber crime:

Cybercrime is intimately linked to the issue of online pollution. Indeed, many forms of pollution (e.g., phishing, pharming or unsolicited emails) can be considered examples of criminal activity. Cyber-crime also encompasses a number of other actions, notably financial fraud, online pornography, hacking, and security attacks such as the injection of viruses, worms and Trojan Horses, the conduct of denial of service attacks, and a variety of other damaging practices.

(f) Intellectual Property Rights:

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) has risen to the top of the Internet governance agenda recently. This is, in large part, because the Internet has made it far easier to impinge on copyright (and, to a lesser extent, other IPR) protections. From the simplest cut-and-paste operation to the more complex process of burning a CD, the ease of duplicating and disseminating information has led some to protest that the Internet is undercutting the incentive to innovate in our society.

(g) Freedom of expression:

Restrictions on freedom of expression. Measures taken in relation to the Internet on grounds of security or to fight crime can lead to violations of the provisions for freedom of expression as contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the WSIS Declaration of Principles.

(h) Data protection and privacy rights:

Lack of existence or inconsistent application of privacy and data-protection rights. There is a lack of national legislation and enforceable global standards for privacy and data-protection rights over the Internet; as a result, users have few if any means to enforce their privacy and personal data-protection rights, even when recognized by legislation. An example of this is the apparent lack of personal data protection in some of the WHOIS databases.

(i) Consumer rights:

There is a lack of global standards for consumer rights over the Internet, for example in the international purchase of goods through e-commerce; as such, users have few if any means to enforce their rights, even when these rights are recognized by legislation. In the case of digital goods and online services, there are problems for the practical and full application of traditional consumer rights.

Approaches and patters of internet governance:

Internet Governance as a whole as well as specific Internet Governance issues have been a part of policy discussions and academic exchanges for some time. A number of approaches and patterns have gradually emerged, representing points where differences in negotiation positions as well as in professional and national cultures can be identified. Identifying common approaches and patterns may reduce the complexity of negotiations and help to create a common system of references.

Narrow vs. Broad Approach

“Narrow vs. broad” Internet Governance has been one of the main issues so far, reflecting the different approaches and interests in the Internet Governance process. The “narrow” approach focusses on the Internet infrastructure (Domain Name System, IP numbers, and root servers) and on ICANN’s position as the key actor in this field. According to the “broad” approach, Internet Governance negotiations should go beyond infrastructural issues and address other legal, economic, developmental, and socio-cultural issues. Distinguishing between these two approaches is particularly important in the early agenda-setting phase of Internet negotiations.

The broad approach is implicitly supported by the WSIS Declaration, which gave the WGIG the mandate “to identify the public policy issues that are relevant to Internet Governance.” This approach is generally supported by the policy and academic discussion following the WSIS Summit in Geneva.

The current debate has moved from the either/or stage towards identifying priorities and an appropriate balance between the “narrow” approach (ICANN-related issues) and the “broad” approach (other Internet Governance aspects).

Technical vs. Policy Aspects

A significant challenge of the Internet Governance process will be the integration of technical and policy aspects, as it is difficult to draw a clear distinction between them. Technical solutions are not neutral. Ultimately, each technical solution/option promotes certain interests, empowers certain groups, and, to a certain extent, impacts social, political, and economic life.

In some cases, an initial policy goal for a technical solution changed. For example, the Internet architecture of end-to-end networking and packet switching was designed with the policy goal to create a robust network that could survive a nuclear attack. The same architecture later became the basis for the development of creativity and freedom of expression on the Internet.

Other technical solutions, such as electronic means for the protection of copyright, are intentionally created in order to replace or enforce certain policies (in this case stricter copyright protection). In the case of the Internet, for a long time both technical and policy aspects were governed by just one social group – the early Internet community. With the growth of the Internet and the emergence of new stakeholders in the 1990s, mainly the business sector and governments, that unity of technology and policy was broken. The reform of Internet Governance, including the creation of ICANN, was an attempt to re-establish the lost balance. This issue remains open, and most likely, will be one of the potentially controversial topics at WSIS/WGIG.

“Old-Real” vs “New-Cyber” Approach

There are two approaches to almost every Internet Governance issue. The “old-real” approach – or “new wine in old bottles” – argues that the Internet does not introduce anything new to the field of governance. The Internet is just another new device, from the governance perspective, no different to its predecessors: the telegraph, the telephone, or radio.

For example, in legal discussions, this approach argues that existing laws can be applied to the Internet with only minor adjustments. As long as it involves communication between people, the Internet is no different from the telephone or the telegraph, and it can be regulated like other telecommunication devices. In the economic field, this approach argues that there is no difference between regular and “e” commerce. Consequently there is no need for special legal treatment of “e-commerce.” The “real” approach is also against e-tax moratoriums. The “new-cyber” approach – or “new wine in new bottles” – argues that the Internet is a fundamentally different device from all previous ones.

Thus, it requires fundamentally different governance. This approach was particularly popular in the early days of the Internet. There were even hopes that the innovative early method of governing the Internet – “rough consensus and running code” – might become the model for regulating other areas of human activities. The main premise of the “cyber” approach is that the Internet de-linked our social and political reality from the world of sovereign states. Cyberspace is different from real space and it requires a different form of governance.

The influence of this approach was noticeable in the process of the creation of ICANN, which, for example, minimised the influence of “real” world governments. The “cyber” approach was softened by ICANN’s reform in 2002, which strengthened the role of governments and brought ICANN closer to political reality.

In the legal field, the “cyber” school of thought argues that existing laws on jurisdiction, cybercrime, and contracts cannot be applied to the Internet and that new laws must be created. Given the continuous interplay between these two approaches, the “old-real” versus “new-cyber” dilemma is likely to continue and strongly influence Internet Governance negotiations.

Decentralised vs. Centralised Structure of Internet Governance

Internet Governance is a multi-faceted phenomenon involving a wide range of government mechanisms and forums, including international organizations, national governments, as well as professional and private bodies. According to the decentralized view, the current governance structure reflects the very nature of the Internet: a network of networks. Such a complex setup cannot be put under a single governance umbrella, such as an international organization. Another argument is that the lack of centralized governance is one of the major factors allowing for fast Inter- net growth. This view is mainly supported by the Internet’s technical community and developed countries.

The centralized approach, on the other hand, is partly based on the practical difficulty of countries with limited human and financial resources to follow Internet. Governance discussions in a highly decentralized and multi-institutional setting. Such countries find it difficult to attend meetings in the main diplomatic centers (Geneva, New York), let alone to follow the activities of other institutions, such as ICANN, W3C, and IETF. These, mainly developing, countries argue for a “one-stop shop,” preferably within the framework of an international organization.

Recommendation Related To Internet Governance Mechanizm:

The WGIG addressed the adequacy of current Internet governance arrangements in relation to the principles outlined in the final WSIS documents and came to the conclusion that some adjustments needed to be made to bring these arrangements more in line with the WSIS criteria of transparency, accountability, multilateralism and the need to address all public policy issues related to Internet governance in a coordinated manner. It grouped these issues in four clusters: a forum, global public policy and oversight, institutional coordination, and regional, sub regional and national coordination.

The WGIG recommends the creation of a new space for dialogue for all stakeholders on an equal footing on all Internets governance-related issues. With regard to the roles and responsibilities of Governments, the WGIG decided to put forward different options for the deliberations within the WSIS context.

The WGIG also concluded that there would be merit in improving institutional coordination, as well as coordination among all stakeholders at the regional, sub regional and national levels.

The four proposals are set out below:

  • Forum function

The WGIG identified a vacuum within the context of existing structures, since there is no global multi-stakeholder forum to address Internet-related public policy issues. It came to the conclusion that there would be merit in creating such a space for dialogue among all stakeholders. This space could address these issues, as well as emerging issues, that are cross-cutting and multidimensional and that either affect more than one institution, are not dealt with by any institution or are not addressed in a coordinated manner.

The WGIG also noted that one of its overarching priorities was to contribute to ensuring the effective and meaningful participation of all stakeholders from developing countries in Internet governance arrangements. Existing institutions that address some of these Internet-related public policy issues, such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), are not generally global in their membership and therefore developing countries lack a forum for discussing Internet-related public policy issues.

Other global institutions are narrower in focus or do not allow for multi-stakeholder participation. It noted that the existing mechanisms do not sufficiently take into account geographic balance and linguistic diversity. Their fragmented nature and structure also make it difficult for developing countries to have their voices heard.

  • Global public policy and oversight

The WGIG recognized that any organizational form for the governance function/oversight function should adhere to the following principles:

  • No single Government should have a pre-eminent role in relation to international Internet governance.
  • The organizational form for the governance function will be multilateral, transparent and democratic, with the full involvement of Governments, the private sector, and civil society and international organizations.
  • The organizational form for the governance function will involve all stakeholders and relevant intergovernmental and international organizations within their respective roles.
  • Institutional coordination

Pursuant to paragraph 50 of the WSIS Declaration of Principles, the WGIG recommends that the secretariats of intergovernmental organizations and other institutions dealing with Internet governance issues continue to improve the coordination of their activities and exchange information on a regular basis, both among themselves and with the forum.

  • Regional and national coordination

The WGIG noted that international coordination needs to build on policy coordination at the national level. Global Internet governance can only be effective if there is coherence with regional, sub regional and national-level policies. The WGIG therefore recommends:

(a) That the multi-stakeholder approach be implemented as far as possible in all regions in order for the work on Internet governance to be fully supported at the regional and subregional levels;

(b) That coordination be established among all stakeholders at the national level and a multi-stakeholder national Internet governance steering committee or similar body be set up.

  • Potential Impact:

Recognizing the essential role of all stakeholders in Internet governance, this section expands on the impact of internet governance of the principal stakeholders, i.e., Governments, the private sector and civil society, as well as intergovernmental and international organizations, as outlined in the WSIS Declaration of Principles.  The

Academic and technical communities are also influenced by the internet governance.


The impact of  Internet governance on Governments include:

  • Public policymaking and coordination and implementation, as appropriate, at the national level, and policy development and coordination at the regional and international levels.
  • Creating an enabling environment for information and communication technology (ICT) development.
  • Oversight functions.
  • Development and adoption of laws, regulations and standards.
  • Treaty-making.
  • Development of best practices.
  • Fostering capacity-building in and through ICTs.
  • Promoting research and development of technologies and standards.
  • Promoting access to ICT services.
  • Combating cybercrime.
  • Fostering international and regional cooperation.
  • Promoting the development of infrastructure and ICT applications.
  • Addressing general developmental issues.
  • Promoting multilingualism and cultural diversity.
  • Dispute resolution and arbitration.

The private sector:

The impact of  Internet governance on the private sector include:

  • Industry self-regulation.
  • Development of policy proposals, guidelines and tools for policymakers and other stakeholders.
  • Research and development of technologies, standards and processes.
  • Contribution to the drafting of national law and participation in national and international policy development.
  • Fostering innovation.
  • Arbitration and dispute resolution.
  • Promoting capacity-building.

Civil society:

The impact of Internet governance on civil society include:

  • Awareness-raising and capacity-building (knowledge, training, skills sharing).
  • Promoting various public interest objectives.
  • Facilitating network-building.
  • Mobilizing citizens in democratic processes.
  • Bringing perspectives of marginalized groups, including, for example, excluded communities and grass-roots activists.
  • Engaging in policy processes.
  • Contributing expertise, skills, experience and knowledge in a range of ICT policy areas.
  • Contributing to policy processes and policies that are more bottom-up, people-centred and inclusive.
  • Research and development of technologies and standards.
  • Development and dissemination of best practices.
  • Helping to ensure that political and market forces are accountable to the needs of all members of society.
  • Encouraging social responsibility and good governance practice.
  • Advocating for the development of social projects and activities that are critical but may not be “fashionable” or profitable.
  • Contributing to shaping visions of human-centred information societies based on human rights, sustainable development, social justice and empowerment.

Furthermore, the WGIG recognized that the contribution to the Internet of the academic community is very valuable and constitutes one of its main sources of inspiration, innovation and creativity. Similarly, the technical community and its organizations are deeply involved in Internet operation, Internet standard-setting and Internet services development. Both of these groups make a permanent and valuable contribution to the stability, security, functioning and evolution of the Internet. They interact extensively with and within all stakeholder groups.

The WGIG also reviewed the respective impact of Internet governance on existing intergovernmental and international organizations and other forums and the various mechanisms for both formal and informal consultations among these institutions. It noted that there is scope to improve coordination to some extent.


The preceding discussion covers a wide variety of issues and governance possibilities. In an attempt to synthesize this broad-ranging discussion, six general principles (or Best Practices) can be identified for Internet governance:

  • Multi-stakeholder alliances: We have seen that, on a number of issues, Internet governance is most effective when it includes a diversity of actors. Spam, cybercrime, standards, and much more: all of these require participation by national governments, the private sector, civil society, and consumer or citizen groups. All steps should therefore be taken to develop mechanisms and institutions that bring together these various actors and harness their skills through multi-stakeholder alliances.
  • Foster participation: In order to be accountable and representative, Internet governance needs to be seen as the outcome of a truly participatory process. All affected stakeholders should have a voice, and special care must be taken to include traditionally under-represented groups such as women and developing countries. Importantly, these steps should be substantive and meaningful: in practical terms, this means supplementing procedural mechanisms with capacity-building, education and resource support.
  • International approach: The Internet is a global network, and its governance similarly requires a global approach. Nation-specific mechanisms are often ineffective, or even harmful to the seamlessness of the network. It is therefore essential to develop institutions, bodies, fora and treaties that deal with governance issues in an international and coordinated manner.
  • Technology neutral approach: Part of the Internet’s success stems from its openness to new means of communication: as long as a technology respects the network’s core standards and protocols, it can join the network. Internet governance must take a similarly technology neutral approach, encouraging the process of convergence, and ensuring that no particular technology is given regulatory precedence over another. This is particularly important for developing countries, where wireless and IP technologies hold great promise for bridging the digital divide.
  • Maintain original architecture: All governance measures must respect the underlying architecture of the Internet, and particularly the e2e principle and the use of open standards. This underlying architecture is at the root of the network’s phenomenal spread and success, and should be considered non-negotiable in whatever discussions or outcomes result from WSIS and any other process.
  • Supplement law: Finally, and to return to our discussion at the start of this primer, it must be kept in mind that governance means more than just government and government policy. This also implies that traditional State law should be supplemented and enhanced by other, nonlegal, mechanisms. Such mechanisms can include innovations like open source, the use of self-governance and codes of conduct, and the general use of technology to supplement law. The important point is that law is but one tool in the arsenal of effective Internet governance.

In many ways, it is clear that Internet governance remains a work in progress, with its final dispensation and shape unlikely to emerge in the immediate future. While it is always difficult (and dangerous) to make predictions, some likely trends can, however, be identified. In particular, it appears likely that in the future national governments may play a greater role in Internet governance, although it should be noted that many actors remain wary of granting States too much power.

In addition, steps will most likely be taken to enhance participation, particularly by developing countries. Generally, there will be a concerted effort to enhance the Internet’s role as a tool for social and economic development – and, concomitantly, to enhance the scope of Internet governance beyond the merely technical.

These changes are likely to be evolutionary rather than revolutionary. Nearly everyone involved in the WSIS process recognizes that changes to Internet governance must be made cautiously, without disrupting the underlying architecture, and without breaking a system that, whatever its imperfections, does in fact function rather well. For this reason, discussions over governance are likely to extend well beyond the November 2005 meeting in Tunis. The current process of reappraisal and the search for alternatives represent just the beginning of a more general discussion that will, no doubt, continue for several years, if not decades.

Finally we can conclude that the global nature of the web greatly complicates effective governance. Transactions on the Internet can crisscross state and national borders without easy detection. Any legal regime that may be desired to govern web activity must deal with issues of compliance and enforcement in order to be implemented effectively. That also means there is a greater need for cooperation between various branches of government and law enforcement in and between countries.

Discuss on Significance of Communication

Corporate performance management, how international company is different from domestic company, behavioral pattern between management & labor, sample application and cover letter format for receptionist position, biography of marissa mayer, europe can quickly eliminate russian natural gas imports, computer repairs specialists, the formation of many features on europa and its explanation is good for the search for extraterrestrial life, analysis on storage calgary units, latest post, nasa has released previously unseen images of saturn’s ‘ravioli’ moon, agroecosystems, land recycling, titan submersible implosion, chandrayaan-3, for the majority of advanced malignancies, combination immunotherapy offers no additional benefits, according to a meta-analysis.

More From Forbes

Bts’s suga has been deemed ‘unfit for regular combat duty’ in the korean military.

  • Share to Facebook
  • Share to Twitter
  • Share to Linkedin

LAS VEGAS, NEVADA - APRIL 03: Suga of BTS poses during the 64th Annual GRAMMY Awards at MGM Grand ... [+] Garden Arena on April 03, 2022 in Las Vegas, Nevada. (Photo by Kevin Mazur/Getty Images for The Recording Academy)

Suga, one of the most prolific and popular members of the globally adored K-pop band BTS, has officially kicked off his mandatory military service. While he may now be a part of the army—in addition to the ARMY, which BTS fans have named themselves—it seems he won’t be serving on the front lines, should there be a real battle.

According to South Korean news agency Yonhap , Suga has been deemed “unfit for the regular combat duty.” The specific reasons behind Suga's assignment to a non-combat role have not been disclosed. The outlet suggests that he may have been assigned to a less physical role due to a surgery he underwent in 2020 to repair a torn labrum.

Instead of fighting, should there be any fighting, Soga will serve his country in another manner. The chart-topper has been chosen to serve as a social service agent in the South Korean military, though specifically what that means and what he’ll be doing during his time there wasn’t made clear.

In South Korea, all able-bodied men are required to fulfill a military obligation that lasts more than a year. They must do so by a certain age, though the nation’s government did give BTS an extension, as the band was incredibly important to the South Korean economy.

Individuals with health concerns or conditions that prevent them from participating in regular combat duty may be assigned to alternative roles within the South Korean military, such as working in municipal government offices.

Powerball Jackpot Surges To $1.2 Billion—Here’s What The Winner Will Take Home After Taxes

The 2023 forbes 400 list of richest americans facts and figures, wwe raw results: winners and grades on october 2, 2023.

Suga is the third member of BTS to enlist in the South Korean military so far, but he won’t be the last. He follows Jin, whose enlistment began in December 2022, as well as and J-Hope, who officially entered the service in April of this year. Neither of those singers were deemed unfit for combat duty.

In a heartfelt message to BTS’s loyal fanbase, Suga expressed his gratitude for their support, saying, "I was able to come this far thanks to you. And the time has come.” He also promised that while he will be focused on his military work for at least a year, he will “faithfully complete my duty and come back."

Hugh McIntyre

  • Editorial Standards
  • Reprints & Permissions


  1. Assignment on internet

    assignment on internet

  2. Online Assignment Help in 2021

    assignment on internet

  3. Assignment on internet

    assignment on internet

  4. Internet Marketing Elements Assignment

    assignment on internet

  5. Assignment on internet

    assignment on internet

  6. Internet Assignment by Sierra Smith

    assignment on internet


  1. Introduction to Internet of Things

  2. NPTEL || Introduction to Internet of Things || Assignment 9 answers


  4. Week 4 Answer


  1. Assignment on internet

    1.ASSIGNMENT ON: INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET 1) DEFINITION OF INTERNET & USES OF THE INTERNET Internet: Internet is a collection of Networks connected by internetworking devices such as router or gateway. The internet has its root in the ARPANET System of the US Department of Defense. Internet can be defined as a network of networks, which share a common mechanism for addressing computers and a ...

  2. How to Create Online Assignments for Students

    1. Be consistent in how you post your content and share information. Does your school have a learning management system? If so, use that to post your document. Other easy-to-use distribution platforms: Email (school platform preferred), Google Classroom (school account needed), and Edmodo (free).

  3. Free Internet Assignment & Assignment topics

    Assignment on Internet Internet is a growing field and it has been so since its advent. It is still in its growth phase and has great potential, which attracts students from all over the world. These students are required to do assignments on internet and related subjects, which may get difficult.

  4. Essay On Internet for Students and Children

    Get Started. We live in the age of the internet. And, it has become an important part of our life. Besides, internet is an invention of high-end science and modern technology. Apart from that, we are connected to internet 24x7. In this essay on Internet, we are going to discuss various things related to the internet.

  5. Digital Assignment Guides

    Tips For Designing a Digital Assignment. Establish and clarify your teaching and learning goals for the project and use those to formulate a grading rubric. Include objective, gradable moments in the process of planning and producing the project. Even if students are all using the same tools, the finished products may be different enough that ...

  6. A for and against essay about the internet

    Worksheets and downloads. A for and against essay about the internet - exercises 592.59 KB. A for and against essay about the internet - answers 136.91 KB. A for and against essay about the internet - essay 511.93 KB. A for and against essay about the internet - writing practice 522.94 KB.

  7. The Internet

    7) The Internet will rip the message up into 4 small pieces called packets, then deliver each packet one at a time to the Server with the IP address that was drawn from the IP Address Card stack. 8) The Server will make sure that the message arrives in order, then will send each packet off one at a time with the Return Internet (can be the same ...

  8. Computer Assignment Topic-Internet

    3.ABOUT INTERNET The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad arrayof electronic, wireless, and opticalnetworking technologies.

  9. Research Using the Internet

    Research Using the Internet. Written by W. Brock MacDonald, Academic Skills Centre, and June Seel, UTM Library. Fair-Use Policy. More and more students are turning to the Internet when doing research for their assignments, and more and more instructors are requiring such research when setting topics. However, research on the Net is very ...

  10. Citing Internet Sources

    Knowing more about the author helps readers to assess the source and also, sometimes, to find the source when the website has been moved or revised. The general form of a citation from an Internet source is: Author's name. Title of Document. Title of Website. Sponsor of Website. Date of Document. Date of Access.

  11. Templates for college and university assignments

    Templates for college and university assignments. Include customizable templates in your college toolbox. Stay focused on your studies and leave the assignment structuring to tried and true layout templates for all kinds of papers, reports, and more. Category. Color. Create from scratch. Show all.

  12. Assignment On Internet

    Assignment on Internet - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Discussion about internet from top to bottom

  13. Students and Class Projects Using the Internet

    It gives them the chance to continue working on school assignments at home. Even if each student had their own wired computer, they would make less progress because they would only be able to work on assignments during school hours.

  14. Using Internet for Assignments

    MakeMyAssignments is designed to be convenient for students. Students can easily place an order for their assignments on the platform, and the writers will get to work on the assignment immediately. This means that students can have their assignments completed quickly and without any hassle. Collaboration

  15. Importance of Internet in Assignment Enhancement

    Even assignment help services recommend the use of the internet for in-depth search of information for assignments. Internet search is the best way to gather information and easier too. How has the internet enhanced education? Because of the widespread usage of the internet, the contemporary teaching process has evolved.

  16. Assignment on Internet

    Assignment on Internet Assignment The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information distribution, and a medium for collaboration. Internet influences today's world.

  17. Create a New Assignment

    If needed, click Try the New Assignment Editor in the original Assignment Editor to enable this improved experience now. Also consider: Add Course Pack Assignments. Copy an Existing Assignment. Click Assignments > Create Assignment. Type an Assignment Name. Optional: Type Instructions to students for completing the assignment.

  18. Assignment On Internet: A Comprehensive Guide to Navigating the Online

    Assignment On Internet: A Comprehensive Guide to Navigating the Online World March 24, 2023 by Prasanna Assignment On Internet: The internet has become an indispensable part of our lives. It has revolutionized the way we live, work, communicate and access information.

  19. Assignment on Internet and E-Business

    Task 1: Understanding the scope of e-business 1. e-business solution for IDS. Scenario - IDS operates in an old fashioned way of the bricks and mortar style of business. They lack the advanced online presence and e business model to gain added efficiency and better handle the suppliers and the customers.

  20. Use of Internet

    E-mail (electronic mail) is the transmission of messages and files via computer network. E-mail was one of the original services on the Internet, enabling scientists and researches working on government-sponsored projects to communicate with colleagues at other locations.

  21. Assignment #1- on the internet this week

    This week on the internet, the queen's library website. has made me happy because they have resources on their website to help you learn a wide variety of languages and even dialects of specific languages. It is free and accessible to all of those with a library card. Most of my time spent on the internet is dedicated towards language ...

  22. Edit an Assignment

    Find the assignment you want to edit. In the search box at the top of the page, select Assignment. Type the assignment name or ID and press Enter. Click Assignments > My Assignments. Click Assignments > Folders and navigate to the folder with the assignment. Click Classes > class name.

  23. Assignment on Internet Governance

    Assignment This assignment focus on Internet Governance. The growing awareness of the social, economic and political impact in the Internet on society has taken the question of World wide web Governance into sharper concentration. Web governance could be the advancement along with program by simply Government authorities.

  24. Cnn 10

    CNN 10 is an on-demand digital news show ideal for explanation seekers on the go or in the classroom.

  25. POV Assignment On I And Alcee

    858 Words4 Pages. Comment Powered by Sung-Ho Kim Shoemaker English Pd 2 6 October 2015 POV assignment I and Alcee are the only one remaining after the party that happened in my new home. My voice was loud as the sound of lightning striking a tree when I asked Victor to stop singing during the party. Since everyone from the party was gone ...

  26. BTS's Suga Has Been Deemed 'Unfit For Regular Combat Duty ...

    The specific reasons behind Suga's assignment to a non-combat role have not been disclosed. ... The Internet Is Really Just The "Google Web," Microsoft CEO Says During Google's Antitrust Trial.