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Biophilic Architecture Research Paper

Profile image of Khushbu Saxena

Recent studies indicate that there is a positive influence of nature and nature integrated built environments on human health and wellness in various physical, physiological and social domains. The need oF the eco friendly building design came out from the view that the need of the human comfort is destroying the supporting system of our lives. Through this paper , i want to present the recent strategies that lower the energy consumption of building. The paper also underlines the full overall concept of biopphilia and its principle .Tthe overiew of its green components and design attributes and background approach to biophilia on nature .

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Increasing evidence shows that creating and maintaining relationships with nature is important for human wellbeing. Humanity has become a mostly urbanised species where people typically spend most of their time indoors. It is important then that strategies for deliberately bringing aspects of nature into urban spaces are explored. Design that responds to an understanding of people’s innate connection to the living world can be termed biophilic design. This research defines a unique biophilic urbanism framework for analysing and mapping biophilic urban elements. Thirty characteristics of biophilic cities were identified and then used to map Wellington, New Zealand. Observations arising from the research include: 1/while access to wild nature might be an important characteristic of a biophilic city, planned design interventions are also significant; and 2/when identified biophilic elements form part of a larger interconnected spatial experience through time, positive effects may be enhanced. This can enable identification of strategic locations for biophilic interventions in the wider urban fabric to facilitate more effective urban nature experiences. This suggests that biophilic urbanism must encompass a wide range of human sensory information, and should be designed from a four-dimensional (i.e. including time) perspective.

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As the world progresses towards a greener and healthier environment, with the design of cities and buildings responding to human requirements and having less impact on the natural world, biophilic design is used as a tool by architects to connect people inside buildings with the nature outside them through relevant design patterns and parameters. These patterns have a wide range of applications in both internal and external environments, bringing physiological, cognitive and psychological benefits. This study aims to examine the availability of these patterns in Bilkent School in Erbil city, which was selected as a case study. A quantitative approach based on a survey questionnaire was used to achieve the objectives. The results show that 13 out of 14 biophilic design patterns were available in the building. Eight patterns achieved availability of more than 75%, while five other patterns ranged between 50 and 75%. Three main categories of biophilic patterns, namely "Nature in Space", "Natural Analogues" and "Nature of Space", achieved 75%, 68.33% and 61.25%, respectively. Therefore, the school can be considered as a biophilic design building. Based on the findings, modifications or arrangements can be made in other local schools by applying these patterns. Moreover, this particular building can be used as a model to evaluate biophilic design criteria in other types of building. Finally, the study serves as a useful survey which may assist in designing future pilot studies in Erbil city.

Phillip Roös

In 1984 E.O. Wilson (1984) introduced and popularized the Biophilia hypothesis defining biophilia as " the urge to affiliate with other forms of life " (Kellert & Wilson 1995: 416). Wilson's biophilia hypothesis suggests that there is an instinctive bond between human beings and other living systems. More recently, in the USA, Browning et al. (2014) have proposed '14 Patterns of Biophilic Design' within a framework for linking the human biological sciences and nature to built environment design offering a series of tools for enriching design opportunities, and avenues for design applications as a way to effectively enhance the health and well-being of individuals and society. While biophilia is the theory, biophilic design as advocated by Kellert et al. (2008) and Beatley (2010) internationally offers a sustainable design strategy that seeks to reconnect people with the 'natural environment'. Overall, from what little research has been undertaken internationally in the last 10 years, there is a solid understanding as to the applied application of this theory, its principles and processes to built environment design and no research about to how to retrofit the existing urban fabric using this approach. This paper reviews the application of biophilic design in Australia, including the scope of design, health and wellbeing literature, the '14 Patterns of Biophilic Design' and performative measures now unfolding, brings forward a new Biophilic Design Pattern, and considers the value the approach offers to built environment practice as well as to human and non-human occupants.

Globally new metro rail projects are changing the face of our cities and bringing more commuters to the core of the bustling urban environments and city centre business districts, as well as interconnecting regional cities and associated key nodes. The need for improved public transport and railway stations is a result of a current unprecedented growth in urbanization, where it is estimated that more than 66% of the world’s population will live in cities by 2050. Cities and their governance entities invest in more sustainable public transport systems to aid the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, aid economic efficiencies in goods and people movements in and out and across and within the cities, provide better forms of transport, as well as in assisting in creating better sustainable and healthy urban environments aligned to policy and Earth Summit international agreement obligations This paper explores the opportunities that new and existing railway stations and their associated infrastructure can provide in creating better sustainable and healthy urban environments, through the lens of Biophilic Design. Kellert and Wilson (1993) defined biophilic design as the deliberate attempt to translate and apply an understanding of the human affinity to connect with natural systems and processes, known as Biophilia, into the design of our built environments. In this instance, this paper explores the application of biophilia to railway stations. Re-imagining the experience of taking the train in a stressful city environment, to the possibilities of nature-inspired commuting journeys where enriched wellbeing can be experienced by spaces (for example) that embrace living green walls with enhanced natural day-lit entrances to station buildings, forecourts embraced with water features, shrubs and trees, the authors aim to realise this vision by applying the principles of biophilic design to a case study project. The paper concludes with recommendations on biophilia inspired railway station designs that can assist in the advancing of the larger vision and agenda of ecologically sustainable and smart cities.

This dissertation aims to identify the opportunities and constraints for the implementation of biophilic design patterns and assess its need/importance in UK landscape architecture. This dissertation has utilized various sources, including peer reviewed academic journal articles, recent publications, online sources and personal communications with leading experts in the field of biophilic design, including William Browning, Catie Ryan, Timothy Beatley, Gayle Souter-Brown, Stephen Kellert, Val Kirby and Nick Grayson. The methodology of this dissertation has included a literature review, professional work experience with Terrapin Bright Green (a company specialising in biophilic design in the built environment), interviews with professional UK landscape architects and biophilic design experts, two online surveys of UK based landscape architects and an educational workshop on biophilic design for UK based landscape architects. The main findings of this dissertation have been: a knowledge deficit exists among UK landscape architects on biophilic design; no direct references to biophilic design exist in either local or national planning policy and; clients do not envision biophilic design as being important or necessary in their developments. It is the recommendation of this dissertation to: incorporate biophilic design into landscape architecture university curricula; establish biophilic design CPD events; produce individual guidance documents for each project type on biophilic design; incentivise developers to incorporate biophilic design in their projects to increase acceptance and awareness; incorporate biophilic design into local and national planning policy and; found a national, multi disciplinary professional body for biophilic design in the UK, to oversee and help implement these recommendations.

IOSR Journals

Biophilic design is a recent trend in the building industry but its application is antique,buildings like the falling water house have become famous because of its biophilicelements and expressions. Humans are part of nature and its inherent need to connect with nature is embedded in our DNA and our physical, psychological and social wellbeing is depended on this continuos connection. In a world where there is technological improvements and innovations these needs can be met by integrating elements of nature into the built environment asbiophilic design have become a tool in achieving this innate connection. Connecting man with nature can be effectively created directly, indirectly or symbolically using the identified biophilic patterns and parameters. This is areview article which explains the concept of biophiliaandseeks to identify the biophilic design patterns that were employed in the design of the Falling Water House by Frank Lloyd Wright, 1936-1939. Data used for this research paper were sourced from secondary data; books, articles, photographs and architectural magazines to get detailed knowledge about the building of interest. The researchhave identified13 patterns of biophilic design in the falling water house and have expressed in details how it has been used with each of the spaces having a minimum of four(4) identified patterns, the result have also showed that 68% is the nature of the space pattern while natural analogues pattern and nature of the space patterns had 16% respectively.Biophilic designs should be seen as a tradition for contemporary architects to design built spaces, the habitat we create for ourselves should be able to meet our physical, social and psychological needs having less impact on our health and the environment thus, creating a sustainable built environment.

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Back to the future: The next 50 years, 51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association 2017, pp. 1–10. ©2017, M.A. Schnabel (eds.), The Architectural Science Association and Victoria University of Wellington.

Despite clear benefits of maintaining human relationships with nature, people increasingly live in urban settings and spend high proportions of time indoors. Both of these trends are increasing globally. This means it is vital to ensure that future cities are designed, created and managed to enable meaningful human / nature connections. Cities that are examples of urban environments where human / nature relationships are innately encouraged and are part of residents' daily experiences have been termed 'biophilic cities'. Wellington, New Zealand is one of a select few cities internationally that has been identified as a biophilic city. In order to test the validity of that claim, this research set out to use GIS mapping to determine specific areas, sites and buildings that could be identified as being biophilic within Wellington. In order to do this, a unique biophilic cities framework was devised where 30 unique characteristics of biophilic cities were identified and used to map Wellington. Results from this mapping research are examined. Key findings include that when several identified aspects of biophilic design are nearby in urban settings, experiencing these through time while moving through a city enhances the positive effects of these elements.


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