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  • Prof. Francesco Giavazzi


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  • Macroeconomics
  • Political Economy
  • Public Economics

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Principles of macroeconomics, assignments.


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Note that the Data Project Assignment is split into two parts and spans both module 6 and module 7. The Module 16 assignment presents two options, one that emphasizes topics from macroeconomics, and the other that emphasizes concepts from microeconomics.

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2 Assignment

Based on your study of consumer behavior, draw an indifference curve budget line diagram to illustrate the position for the consumer as given in the equation above. Fully explain the theory and relationships depicted in the diagram. Include explanations of…

Alexandru Florea Economic Development and Growth Assignment

Indicators of economic development: Labor productivity Weighted Machine tool industry in total industry Weighted Machine tool exports in total exports Weighted Brain drain in total export Weighted Employment in services Economic growth is represented by the evolution of specific economic…

Environmental Protection Than on Economic Development Assignment

Nowadays, whether government should focus Its budget more on environmental protection than on economic development has triggered a heated debate. Some people think that the government should concentrate more on economy. Because they believe that the only way to make…

What Drives Political and Economic Development Assignment

What Drives Political and Economic Development In Ancient Civilizations? Compared to present-day civilizations, clvlllzatlons of the past depended much more on Its physical surroundings. Because transporting goods required lots of time and manpower, it was expensive. Thus, the characteristics of…

Social and Economic Development Towards Sustainability Assignment

One example for this situation Is Tendon, which Is now to be the most unsafe place in the city of Manila, although it is a good location for the main culture of this locale, which is trade and business; it…

Rostow’s theory of the stages of economic development Assignment

In the sass’s countries were suffering from the aftermath of World War Two. They became independent thus there became a need for new development policies. After the success of the ‘US Marshall plan,’ countries began to see the need for…

Role of Entrepreneurship in Economic Development Assignment

Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurship is the attempt to create value through recognition of business opportunity, the management of risk taking appropriate to the opportunity and through the communicative and management skills to mobile human financial and material resources necessary to bring a…

Economic Development for Developing Countries Assignment

However, a massive population shift is also under way as hundreds of lions of people are moving from rural to urban areas, fueling rapid arbitration, with its own attendant problems. Lower Levels of Industrialization and Manufactured Exports Industrialization Is associated…

Discuss the impact of globalisation on China, with reference to economic development and environmental consequences Assignment

Discuss the impact of globalisation on China, with reference to economic development and environmental consequences Globalisation, is the process of increasing integration among different countries, resulting in the establishment of a single world market. Globalisation has been accelerated in the…

Evaluate solutions to the trade-off between equity and efficiency in China???????s economic development Assignment

Evaluate solutions to the trade-off between equity and efficiency in China’s economic development BY 6507317 Evaluate solutions to the trade-off between equity and efficiency in China’s economic development Although China has achieved rapid and remarkable economic growth in the last…

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Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]

Are you not passionate about economics, but still need to write a paper? We feel you. Economics is the type of subject that sometimes provokes the anxiety of students. Being overwhelmed with its complexity, students get discouraged and give up.

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We know how to turn a tedious essay writing process into fantastic entertainment. All you need to do is to find a catchy and relatable idea for your paper. Select something that you are interested in and enjoy your work.

Our team created a list of fascinating economic topics for your essays. Don’t hesitate to use them. Look through our ideas and select the most appropriate one. Our insightful tips will help you to receive grade A for your economic paper!

  • 🔑 Economic Terms
  • ✒️ Fundamental Topics
  • 🔍 Microeconomic
  • 🌎 Macroeconomic
  • 🤝 International
  • 🌳 Environmental
  • ⌛ Developmental
  • 🤲 Econometrics
  • 📝 Essay Topics
  • 📜 Term Paper Topics
  • 📚 Thesis Topics
  • 📈 Topics for Project
  • 💡 Tips on Writing

🔑 Key Economic Terms Definition

For a more effective search for economics paper topics, let’s dive into fundamental concepts of this subject. The essential information you should know about economics is its central questions.

Economics is supposed to explore the following issues:

  • What to produce?
  • How to produce?
  • For whom to produce?

These are the three fundamentals the economics focuses on.

Moreover, economics is divided into microeconomics and macroeconomics. The understanding of their differences is crucial for a good comprehension of the subject.

Microeconomics and macroeconomics are the core of economics.

Microeconomics focuses mainly on entrepreneurs’ behavior. Analyzing the situation within one business it helps to make decisions regarding their companies. In contrast, macroeconomics studies the economic state in the countries. It determines the economic approaches to rule the counties and sets the fiscal policy.

Overall, macroeconomics analyzes global topics in the economy, while microeconomics focuses on a narrower field.

👏 Essential Economic Topics

Are you desperately searching for economical essay ideas? Then you are on the right page! The following section includes primary interesting economic topics. So, don’t waste your time! Look through our essential ideas and chose the most appropriate for you.

✒️ Fundamental Economic Topics

  • Multinational firms impacts on economic growth.
  • How do economists measure the quality of life in a country?
  • Nominal versus real gross domestic product.
  • Limitations of GDP as a measure of economic welfare.
  • Economic systems and market structures.
  • Economic, social, and global environments for organizations.
  • Evolution of capitalism: concept, origin, and development.

The introduction of a waged worker was the final stage in the buyer uppers transition.

  • Fundamental concepts of economics: real and nominal variables.
  • Impacts of multinational corporations (MNC) involvement in developing countries.
  • Economic policies employed by governments.
  • New technology trends used in banks.
  • Cournot competition as an economic model.
  • Role of advertising in monopolistic competition and oligopoly advertising.
  • Economic crises in economic growth through economic history.
  • Competition in economics. Describe the concept of perfect competition. What the similarities and differences between oligopoly and monopoly? What are some difficulties in monopolistic competition? Support your ideas by providing strong arguments and appropriate examples.
  • John Locke’s and Karl Marx’s economic ideas . Compare and contrast the fundamental concepts of both theories. What economic problems do both scientists explore in their studies? Analyze how modern economists use Locke’s and Marx’s ideas as prerequisites to their researches?
  • Services in banks: strategies and plans . Analyze the services that are provided in banks in your country. Do they satisfy clients’ needs? Is there any way to test banks? Suggest some possible improvements to the banking system in your country.
  • The significance of formalizing economy . Give your own opinion regarding this issue. Are you for or against applying policies and predetermined rules to govern the economy? Support your position by providing clear arguments.
  • The economic explanation of political dishonesty. Explain how politics affects the economy of a country. How may some economic issues within a country lead to political deception? Should the economy depend on politics or not? State your position clearly and provide strong arguments.
  • Microeconomics should be before macroeconomics in the syllabus . Explain why microeconomics is a vital prerequisite for macroeconomics. Which fundamental concepts of one field are applied in another?

🔍 Microeconomic Topics

  • Microeconomic theory: correlation between variables.
  • Opportunity cost in microeconomics .
  • Monopolistic competition as a market structure .
  • Demand, supply, and their interaction on markets .
  • Competition and monopoly as the most crucial market structures in microeconomics.
  • Price elasticity of demand role in microeconomics.
  • Concept of market equilibrium in business.

When the supply and demand curves intersect, the market is in equilibrium.

  • Microeconomics principles in the flying automobiles industry
  • Income effect and substitution effect in microeconomics.
  • Economic factors on the stock market.
  • Elasticity and its importance for business.
  • Cost changes and the implementation of control mechanisms.
  • Market value concept from an economic perspective.
  • Operation of an efficient market and causes of market inefficiencies. Briefly describe a profitable market. What are some possible reasons for lowering the market efficiency level? Suggest how to maintain market efficiency.
  • Internationalization of small and medium enterprises . How internationalization affects the performance and operation of small and medium companies? Does it have a positive or negative effect? Comment on how the internalization influences macro- and macroeconomic concepts.
  • Price discrimination concept in microeconomics . Why do firms engage in price discrimination? Explain how and why these variables influence the price level. What are the underlying economic theories supporting price discrimination? Suggest how changes in the environment may affect pricing discrimination.
  • How a good’s price is determined? Using the supply and demand model, explain how the sellers determine the price of a good.
  • Supply and demand concepts. Describe the following microeconomics notions. How can supply and demand concepts be used to achieve the market equilibrium?
  • Consumer choice . Conduct a normative analysis and examine the factors that impact consumer choice. Discuss the correlation of the income effect, availability of substitutes, tastes, and preferences with the consumer choice. Provide appropriate examples to support your arguments.
  • Application of microeconomic concepts in personal life. For this assignment, think about the ways the microeconomics knowledge can be used in everyday life. Why is it helpful to know the basics of microeconomics to make wise decisions?

🌎 Macroeconomic Topics

  • Macroeconomics theory and fundamentals .
  • Role of supply-side policies in balanced economic growth .
  • Sequestration and its impacts on an economy as the key aspects of macroeconomics.
  • Monetary policy and its impact on economic stabilization .
  • The rising cost of gas and its effect on the world economy .
  • Supply policies’ role in economic growth .
  • Demand and supply correlation in the market .

Demand is based on needs and wants.

  • The significance of Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” concept in modern economics .
  • Macroeconomic environment: self-correction of the economy .
  • Men’s and women’s unemployment disparity .
  • Financial economics for infrastructure and fiscal policy.
  • Fundamentals of macroeconomics activities influence.
  • Fiscal policy: limitations and negative consequences .
  • The federal reserve and the inflation problem.
  • What went wrong? Present an initial inquiry into the causes of the 2008 financial crisis
  • Globalization: good for people, bad for humanity. Discuss the positive and negative aspects of globalization. Provide persuasive examples to support your ideas. Leave your readers with multiple-choice, whether it is worth preventing globalization or not?
  • Fluctuations in inflation rates and unemployment rates. Are you afraid of inflation and unemployment topics in your syllabus? No reasons to worry! Check out the example and become a professional in these fields.
  • Macroeconomics: Determination of GDP . Introduce the elements of GDP. How does the DGP of influence the life level of a country? Suggest possible ways to increase GDP.
  • Business Cycles . Discuss the features and causes of the business cycle. Comment on the recession and its occurrence. Wrap up your essay with a well-developed conclusion. Push the readers on further investigation of business cycles in macroeconomics.
  • Aggregate demand and aggregate supply curves . Examine the shape of the curves. Explain why the aggregate demand curve slopes downward. What is the reason for the upward sloping of the aggregate supply curve? Writing an essay on this topic is helpful. If you figure out the answers, you will succeed in your exam!

👀 More Interesting Economic Topics

Did you scroll through our essay ideas, but still don’t know what to write about? Then, the following section is for you! Here you can find more economic topics for your paper. For your convenience, our team divided our ideas into several categories.

So, don’t stress out if you still don’t have a topic. We have much more to offer you!

🤝 International Economics

  • Business challenges in the international market .
  • Governments and intervention in the allocation of resources in the market .
  • The problems of the modern global economy.
  • Economic Inequality as a Result of Globalisation
  • Sustainability and trends of the global trade imbalance.
  • Globalization effects on the business, economy, and health .
  • Ethical and integrity dilemma within employees in the global economy.
  • Multinational firms impacts on economic growth .
  • The concept of global trade imbalance as a policy issue.
  • International economics in the context of globalization.

Globalization encourages each country to specialize in what it produces best using the least amount of resources.

  • The current economic crisis and lessons for economic theory .
  • International trade policies’ major controversies.
  • Globalization and foreign currency exchange.
  • Balance of trade: global markets and competition.
  • Cultural diversity in international trade.
  • Peterson institute for international economics is a center of global economic development.
  • International political economy and finance . Analyze the current economic situation in an international arena. What counties are leading ones? What countries need better economic development. Suggest some possible ways how to boost the financial status of undeveloped countries.
  • The economic development of Thailand . How do political instability and environmental issues in Thailand affect the economy? What place does the county take on the international economic arena? Suggest some possible ways of improving the economy of Thailand.
  • The international economy is seen as limiting developing countries’ interests . How does the international economy weaken the position of developing countries? Offer your solutions to deal with this problem.
  • Current developments of the business and economic environments . Comment on the progress of the modern international economy. How do the governments benefit from it? What impact does economic development have on ordinary people? Support your ideas by providing arguments and examples.

💻 Digital Economics

  • The mystery of digital currencies.
  • The effect of technological change on the distribution of income .
  • Economies of scope and modern technology .
  • Internet infrastructure and payment across borders.
  • Concept of automation of services and their effect on unemployment .
  • E-commerce and risky shopping behaviors.
  • Information security in the era of digitalization: mining data for better business intelligence .
  • Computer-based communication technology in business communication.
  • The effect of digital disruption on modern economics.

Advancements in the computer industry, strengthened economic growth.

  • The threats and risks of digital economics.
  • E-commerce platforms are the future of the world economy.
  • DIgital economics creates a perfect environment for cyber-crimes
  • How economic digitalization affect national identity countries? Due to technological progress, the phenomenon of globalization occurs. As a result, local enterprises lose their customers. Discuss this issue. Suggest some ways how to prevent the loss of cultural diversity caused by globalization.
  • The significance of digital economics in the 21st century . Explain why digitization is one of the most crucial factors of economic progress. How can investments in technological innovations increase the firms’ profit in the long run? Support your ideas with appropriate examples.
  • Digital economics in different parts of the world. Compare and contrast the progress of digital economics in the USA, China, Russia, and Germany.
  • Digital economy and unemployment issue. Due to rapid technological progress, the majority of tasks can be accomplished automatically. It resulted in firms requiring fewer employees than before the digitalization. Investigate the issue of unemployment caused by digital transformation.
  • How digital economy influences medium and small businesses? Small and medium companies are incapable of investing large sums of money into technologies. As a result, they become lost in the enterprises’ mist. Large corporations, capable of implementing digital technologies, block small businesses. Discuss the threats of dynamic digital economy progress for medium and small enterprises.
  • Digital economics requires specific workers . The spillover of modern technologies causes great economic progress. However, not every worker is capable of working with digital tools. How can companies solve the problem of digital illiteracy among employees? Give specific examples to support your thoughts.
  • The benefits of digital economics for tourism . Nowadays, tourists can plan their trips online. They can do everything: from booking a hotel room to purchasing a train ticket. These are the results of digital progress. Analyze the impact of digitalization on tourism commerce.

🌳 Environmental Economics

  • International environmental concerns in economics .
  • Sustainable development: the banking sector.
  • Agricultural, economics, and environmental considerations of biofuels.
  • Environmental and natural resource management.
  • Developing a global biodiesel industry.
  • Implementing cuts in greenhouse gas emissions .
  • Environmental controversy: population growth and soil fertility.
  • The link between sustainable development and ecological footprint.
  • The environmental sustainability concept in the hospitality industry.
  • Pollution externalities role in management economics.
  • International environmental laws impact on oil and gas production.

Valdez crisis demonstrated how oil spills can harm soil conditions and aquatic ecosystems.

  • Role of alternative energy resources in reshaping global transportation infrastructure.
  • The role of human economic activity in environmental degradation .
  • The implementation of environmentally-friendly sources of energy in the production of goods.
  • How to overcome negative externalities in environmental economics?
  • China: an example of economic progress or environmental destruction?
  • Making solar energy more affordable . Solar panels usage is a great way to protect the environment. However, the establishment of solar panels is quite expensive. How can economists make solar energy more affordable?
  • Neoclassical economics concepts and theories . Does neoclassical economics take into consideration the problems of environmental science? Comment on the ways the economists put effort into making the production of goods and services environmentally friendly.
  • Environmental sustainability vs. financial gains . Discuss the significance of environmentally friendly economic activities. Why is it essential to use natural resources wisely? Persuade the readers that in the battle of high profits and environment protection, the environment should win.
  • Earth Summit of 1992 . What should have been done differently? Why did the decisions of Earth Summit not prevent rapid environmental damage? If the summit were nowadays, it would be more focused on ecological economics. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? State your position clearly and provide strong arguments.

⌛ Development Economics

  • The role of industrialization in development economics.
  • What is the current outlook for growth and development in Africa?
  • Nigeria’s development: modernization and dependency theories .
  • Globalization in the new product development.
  • Latin America economic development.
  • Competing theories of economic development.
  • Theories of development and millennium development goals.
  • Economic prospects for the global economy impact on patterns of migration in developing countries.
  • Poverty as a peculiarity of economic development.
  • The relationship between sustainable development and economic growth.
  • Human development: democratization and economy relations.
  • Tourism role in economic development.

For many countries, tourism is seen as the main instrument for regional development.

  • The economic development of Indonesia.
  • The role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) for the developing countries.
  • Future of the World Bank . Analyze the current economic state in the world. Then, forecast the Word Bank development throughout the time. How will any transformation influence the financial vector of the countries?
  • Marxist theory of development . Is it effective? How is it implemented nowadays? Suggest possible improvements for the Marxist approach to make it more sufficient.
  • Jordan’s economy and its comparison with Qatar. Both countries are considered to be developing. However, they are on different economic levels. Compare and contrast the national economies of both countries. Analyze the catch-up effect. Discuss the standards of living, unemployment rates, economic growth rates of both countries.
  • GDP growth rate and economic future of developing countries . Select three developing countries. For instance, consider Afganistan, Iran, and Bangladesh. What are their economic growth rates? Assume the financial future of the chosen countries. How to prevent poverty here? How to make them developed countries, not developing ones?
  • The role of ethnicity in economic development. How the ethical vector affects economic activity? Is ethnic diversity good or bad for economics? What are some threats of ethnicity for economic growth? Suggest possible commerce solutions for overcoming the problem. Provide clear arguments and appropriate examples to support your ideas.

🤲 Econometrics Paper Topics

  • The multiple regression model and its relation to the consumer.
  • Statistics: chi-square test and regression analysis.
  • Independent samples t-test with SPSS.
  • P-value definition and role.
  • Relationship between population and economic growth through econometric modeling.
  • A linear regression analysis of a product.
  • Quantitative and analytical techniques for managers.
  • Predicting unemployment rates to manage inventory through advanced econometrics analysis.
  • Multiple regression and correlation.
  • The role of applied econometrics in economic science development.
  • What econometric models are applied for?
  • The application of econometric models for labor income analysis.
  • The history of econometrics as a science.

Econometrics was pioneered by Lawrence Klein, Ragnar Frisch, and Simon Kuznets

  • Empirical relationships and theory testing in economics.
  • Okun’s Law in Econometrics . Discuss the relationship between output and unemployment through econometric analysis. What Okun’s Law is applied for?
  • Regression analysis of business statistics. Analyze the ways of estimation of a correlation coefficient. Comment on the relationship between the variables. Provide the regression results.
  • Linear regression of job satisfaction . Using econometric modeling, analyze three concepts: – Association of benefits and intrinsic job satisfaction – Association of benefits and extrinsic job benefits – Association of benefits and overall job benefits Compare and contrast the results and make the corresponding conclusions.
  • Implementation of econometrics in everyday life . From first sight, econometrics seems to be too complicated. However, knowledge of this subject can be helpful in everyday life situations. Think about the field where econometrics might be useful for ordinary people. Provide appropriate examples to support your ideas.
  • The rules of data search for econometric analysis . Explain how to select and analyze data for further analysis. What are the credible sources? How to prevent possible difficulties of data examination?
  • Topics in Structural VAR Econometrics by Gianni Amisano. Provide a brief overview of the book. What key econometric issues does the book cover? Emphasize on the crucial role of the book while studying econometrics.

👨‍🏫 Great Economic Topics: Assignment

Are you excited about the diversity of interesting economic topics we can offer you? Have you chosen some ideas already?

Don’t leave our page yet! We have more topics to share with you.

The following section includes a variety of ideas divided by the type of assignment you need to complete. We did it for your convenience. A thesis topic should be more complex and developed than an essay topic, right? So, here you can find outstanding ideas for all kinds of economic assignments.

📝 Economics Essay Topics

  • Rethinking microeconomics competitiveness.
  • Innovative government’s role in economics.
  • Monetary policy management and its effects on the economy.
  • Effects of hedge funds on the global financial crisis.
  • Banks, bank firms, and financial intermediaries.
  • Managerial economic opportunity cost.
  • The link between borrowers’ risk and mortgage lending
  • Problems in banking regulation.
  • Financial markets and liquidity.
  • The contribution of the luxury fashion industry in the economic development of the world.
  • How has the role of the IMF changed since it was established in 1945?

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 189 countries.

  • The international monetary fund and the World Bank.
  • Bank of America: managerial economics and analysis.
  • Foreign direct investment benefits for Asian countries.
  • Global financial crisis problems. Analyze the issues caused by the financial crisis. Suggest some action plans to tackle the effects of the crisis. A small hint: as an example, you can use the world economic crisis of 2008. Also, consider discussing the financial crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020.
  • Tax cuts in Keynesian economics . Briefly introduce the economist John Maynard Keynes and his economics theory. Analyze his approaches to aggregate demand, multiplier effect, and fiscal policy. What was his tax cuts method? Do you consider it sufficient? State your position clearly and provide strong evidence to support your opinion.
  • Difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics. Need to write a compare and contrast essay? Use this topic. Analyze the similarities and differences between microeconomics and macroeconomics. How do they influence each other? Structure your paper correctly, so the readers can quickly get your ideas.
  • The relationship between money supply and inflation. Briefly introduce the notions of money supply and inflation. How are they connected? For better understanding, provide appropriate examples of the relationship between money supply and inflation.
  • Globalization, urban political economy, and economic restructuring. Comment on the globalization impact on world economics. Examine the positive and negative sides of globalization. How can financial restructuring improve the economic situation in the world? State your arguments clearly and support them with examples.
  • The issue of global trade imbalances in the US and China. What are trade imbalances? Comment on the world policymakers’ reaction to growing inequalities. Do global trade imbalances threaten free trade? Is it possible that global trade imbalances be sustained? Suggest some ways to reduce global imbalances.

📜 Economics Term Paper Topics

  • Factors that influence international business.
  • The modern global economic problems.
  • Poverty as the deprivation of capabilities.
  • Globalization and the economics of child labor.
  • Sharing economy: benefits and difficulties.
  • Behavioral economics and finance.
  • Trade liberalization in international trade.
  • The banking industry and interest rates .
  • Public debt in managing macroeconomics.
  • The significance of Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” concept in modern economics.
  • Microeconomics principles in the flying automobiles industry.
  • The convergence of world economies .
  • Causes and consequences of the 2008 financial crisis.

The 2008 crash was the greatest jolt to the global financial system in almost a century.

  • Federal reserve’s influence on interest rates.
  • Managerial economics and demand. Examine the theory in managerial economics. What are the types of demand? Compare and contrast them. Analyze the factors that affect the demand for goods and services.
  • Marxism perspective in production . Provide a brief overview of Max’s approach to production. Analyze the means, relations, and modes of production. Was Marx’s position regarding production effective? How could it be improved?
  • Private and public finance initiative. This topic is beneficial if you are searching for a compare and contrast essay idea. Examine the advantages and disadvantages of both finance initiatives. Moreover, consider the risks of private and public finance initiatives. Which one is more effective, in your opinion?
  • David Ricardo’s model of international free trade. Write a well-structured position paper regarding David Ricardo’s model. What are the positive and negative sides of the model? To make your essay persuasive, discuss David Ricardo’s model of international free trade with the other students. Considering all the opinions you have heard, state your position.
  • Adam Smith’s understanding of capitalism. Explore Adam Smith’s perception of the capitalistic approach. Briefly introduce the Keynes’ and Marx’s economic theories. Compare and contrast Smith’s understanding of capitalism to Keynes’ and Marx’s perceptions. Whose arguments are the most widely used in international economics nowadays?
  • Catch-up effect . Explore the catch-up growth phenomenon. How to explain the hypothesis that developing countries usually develop with faster rates than wealthy counties? To support your ideas, provide an example of developing countries that are experiencing the catch-up effect. An appropriate statistical data would be helpful for this assignment.

📚 Economics Thesis Topics

  • The difference between the surplus and the neoclassical theories of general equilibrium .
  • Post-Keynesian and Austrian criticisms of the standard neoclassical view of competition .
  • The impact of premature finance liberalization on macroeconomic and financial stability .
  • Strategic cost and managerial accounting in the UAE.
  • International wage differential and migration between Germany and Turkey .
  • The current impact of inflation and unemployment on Germany’s political and economic system.
  • Understanding of the contemporary labor market by the Marxist concept of exploitation .
  • A critical assessment of the pros and cons of selected financial derivatives .
  • Corporate governance and informational disclosure on Internet financial reporting: the Saudi Arabia evidence.
  • Role of international financial institutions in the 2008 financial crisis .
  • The different roles played by the central bank, depository institutions, and depositors determine the money supply .

Like any bank, the central bank’s balance sheet is composed of assets and liabilities.

  • Remittances role in spurring global economic growth.
  • Cultural diversity in international trade and international business management through globalization . This topic will perfectly suit and undergraduate majoring in the MBA program. Investigate the cultural diversity in international trade. Does it have a positive or negative influence on world economics? Suggest some ways on how to promote diversity and equity in international trade.
  • Interest rate disparity between RBA and major Australian banks . If you are looking for a master’s thesis idea, consider this topic. People who are interested in finances and banking will like it. Compare and contrast RBA and major Australian banks. State your position regarding the given financial institutions clearly.
  • International microeconomics trade dispute case: US-China dispute on the exportation of raw materials . Provide the historical background of the US-China dispute on the exportation of raw materials. What was the government’s’ response to the debate? What regulations should have been changed to prevent the conflict? Suggest some ways how to improve international trade to minimize the risks of disputes.
  • The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Rodrik . Your bachelor thesis may look include a book or an article analysis. Investigate the work The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy By Rodrik. State your position regarding the given book. How can the knowledge from this book be implemented in economic science?
  • Effect of a permanent increase in oil price on inflation and output. What threats growth as a result of the rising cost of oil? Discuss the effects of a rise in oil prices on inflation and output. Also, analyze the effects of the response of the Reserve Bank to the oil price increase. To make your arguments persuasive, illustrate your findings on the demand-aggregate supply model.
  • Economic growth in Kenya: past and future challenges. Conduct research on the economic development of Kenia. Using economic theories and hypotheses, predict the future of economics of Kenia. What challenges should the government and citizens be ready for? Note: any other county of your interest can replace Kenia here.
  • The domination of financial accounting on managerial accounting information. This topic is suitable for both: master’s thesis and the bachelor’s thesis. Develop the idea by providing strong arguments and appropriate examples.

📈 Economic Topics for Project

  • Direct sales approach for selling crude oil in Nigeria .
  • John Locke’s and Karl Marx’s economic ideas.
  • International financial markets and institutions .
  • Banker to the poor: micro-lending and the battle against world poverty.
  • European macroeconomic policies and risks .
  • China’s banking sector analysis .
  • Keynesian explanation of recession .
  • The analysis of buying behavior simulation.
  • The US unemployment benefits evaluation.
  • Economic analysis of the Etihad airways company.
  • Finance issues in the book The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine by Michael Lewis .
  • Economic impacts on talent management in the UK vs. China .
  • Instruments to encourage or discourage FDI and their implications for international business.

There are three forms of Foreign Direct Investment.

  • The impact of algorithmic trading on mutual funds performance.
  • Economic principles and theories of Adam Smith: a case for free markets and capitalism .
  • Keynesianism vs. Neorealism. Explore both economic theories. Create a list of the advantages and disadvantages of Keynesianism and Neorealism. From your perspective, which approach is more effective? To make your project more professional, include appropriate statistics, charts, diagrams, etc.
  • Globalization: a blessing or a curse to US middle-class workers? It is a perfect idea for the capstone project in the final year of your university studies. Investigate the issue of globalization from an economic perspective. In your opinion, does it have more benefits or drawbacks? Support each of your arguments with clear evidence or an example.
  • Developing economic stimulus packages . Imagine yourself as a leader of a guided project to create economic stimulus packages. What would you include to prevent a financial crisis in a country?
  • Sustainable development of economics. Analyze the environmental harm caused by rapid economic progress. Develop a project focused on the protection of the environment under the current production conditions. Suggest more environmentally-friendly ways to produce goods and services.
  • A company’s financial analysis . Choose any business pf your interest. It can be Apple, Dior, Samsung, Nestle, etc. Analyze the income statement of a chosen company. Does its budget operate efficiently? What financial threats (if any) does the enterprise face? Suggest possible improvements to increase the gains from sales and the gains from trade.

💡 Tips on Writing an Economic Paper

Have you finally chosen a topic for your economic essay? Are you excited to start working on your paper? Then, the following section is for you. Read it carefully and know the essential tips on writing.

First and foremost, economic papers differ from regular ones. Such written works requite research. Otherwise, there is no opportunity for you to get a high grade.

You can still express your personal opinion in an economic essay.

In case you might be wondering how to write a well-developed research paper, we know how to help you. Our team collected the most useful prompts. So read carefully and implement them in your writing process.

  • Select a compelling topic. An appropriate idea is a key to success. So, make sure yours fits the requirements of your professor. Moreover, among a wide variety of economic topics, select the one you are passionate about. Then, you will be able to make your writing process more accessible and pleasurable.
  • Find credible sources. No doubts, credible sources paly a crucial role in composing a research paper. Therefore, take time to find appropriate sources. They have to fit your topic and assignment criteria. Make sure you use academic sources for your research. Well-selected credible sources will make your paper more professional.
  • Outline your future paper. With an outline, you will be able to keep track of your ideas. Also, it ensures the quality of your paper. Defining your paper structure before writing makes it well-organized and highly-developed.
  • Review the literature. No matter what kind of paper you write: theoretical or empirical, the literature will always help you. So, don’t underestimate the power of books. Refer to them, if you need to revise a theory, some economic concepts, notions, etc.
  • Formulate a hypothesis. A well-formulated hypothesis plays an essential role in writing a research paper. It helps the readers to understand what you are focusing on. Moreover, it navigates you throughout your research process and makes it more structured.
  • Describe your results. After conducting economic analysis, describe your results. What did you find out? What results did you expect to see? Explain how your results can be used in further research.
  • Elaborate on your findings. Your findings are the central part of your research paper. So, make sure you state them clearly. Make appropriate conclusions based on your results and adequately summarize them.
  • Reference the sources you used . Finding credible sources is crucial, of course. Nevertheless, you also need to cite them properly. Making reference lists is not pure science. So, put enough effort to figure out all the details of references and in-text citations. Also, don’t mess up writing styles. The most popular ones are APA, MLA, ASA, Chicago style, etc. Thus, if you are unsure about something, double-check the formatting requirements.

Your economic paper should fit all the required criteria of your institution.

Thank you for visiting our page! Don’t hesitate to use our essay ideas and tips. And don’t forget to share the article with your friends.

🔗 References

  • High School Economics Topics: Econlib
  • Writing in Economics: Writing Studio, Thompson Writing Program, Duke University
  • All Topics, Economics: tutor2u
  • How to Write the Introduction of Your Development Economics Paper: David Evans, Center For Global Development
  • Areas of research: Economic Policy Institute
  • Organizing an Essay: Jerry Plotnick, University College Writing Centre, Writing Advice, University of Toronto
  • Economics: Economist, World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance
  • How To Write An Economics Paper: Elmer Sterken, Athens University of Economics and Business
  • Academic Essay Writing, Some Guidelines: Department of Economics, Carleton University
  • Ideas about Economics: TED Talks, Ideas Worth Spreading
  • Microeconomics vs. Macroeconomics, What’s the Difference: Investopedia
  • International Economics: Journal, Elsevier
  • What Are the Various Subfields of Economics: Mike Moffatt, ThoughtCo
  • Economics: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
  • Generate Topic Ideas Quickly and Easily: Online Research Library, Questia
  • The Basics of Essay Writing: UNSW Current Students
  • Basic Guide to Essay Writing: Kathy Livingston
  • Writing Essays: Learning Development: Plymouth University
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2023, September 4). Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples].

"Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]." IvyPanda , 4 Sept. 2023,

IvyPanda . (2023) 'Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]'. 4 September.

IvyPanda . 2023. "Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]." September 4, 2023.

1. IvyPanda . "Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]." September 4, 2023.


IvyPanda . "Economic Topics for Any Paper [with Great Tips & Examples]." September 4, 2023.

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economic assignment sample

Sample Agricultural Economics Assignment

Note: This assignment was designed for a 400-level class.

Good analytical writing is a rigorous and difficult task. It involves a process of editing and rewriting, and it is common to do a half dozen or more drafts. Because of the difficulty of analytical writing and the need for drafting, we will be completing the assignment in four stages. A draft of each of the sections described below is due when we finish the class unit related to that topic (see due dates on syllabus). I will read the drafts of each section and provide comments; these drafts will not be graded but failure to pass in a complete version of a section will result in a deduction in your final paper grade. Because of the time both you and I are investing in the project, it will constitute one-half of your semester grade.

Content, Concepts and Substance

  • Population—Developing countries have undergone large changes in population. Explain the dynamic nature of this continuing change in your country or region and the forces underlying the changes. Better papers will go beyond description and analyze the situation at hand. That is, go behind the numbers to explain what is happening in your country with respect to the underlying population dynamics: structure of growth, population momentum, rural/urban migration, age structure of population, unanticipated populations shocks, etc. DUE: WEEK 4.
  • Papers will focus on the peoples and policies related to population, food, and the environment of your chosen country. As well as exploring each of these subsets, papers need to highlight the interrelations among them. These interrelations should form part of your revision focus for the final draft. Important concepts relevant to the papers will be covered in class; therefore, your research should be focused on the collection of information on your chosen country or region to substantiate your themes. Specifically, the paper needs to address the following questions.
  • Food—What is the nature of food consumption in your country or region? Is the average daily consumption below recommended levels? Is food consumption increasing with economic growth? What is the income elasticity of demand? Use Engel's law to discuss this behavior. Is production able to stay abreast with demand given these trends? What is the nature of agricultural production: traditional agriculture or green revolution technology? Is the trend in food production towards self-sufficiency? If not, can comparative advantage explain this? Does the country import or export food? Is the politico-economic regime supportive of a progressive agricultural sector? DUE: WEEK 8.
  • Environment—This is the third issue to be covered in class. It is crucial to show in your paper the environmental impact of agricultural production techniques as well as any direct impacts from population changes. This is especially true in countries that have evolved from traditional agriculture to green revolution techniques in the wake of population pressures. While there are private benefits to increased production, the use of petroleum-based inputs leads to environmental and human health related social costs which are exacerbated by poorly defined property rights. Use the concepts of technological externalities, assimilative capacity, property rights, etc. to explain the nature of this situation in your country or region. What other environmental problems are evident? Discuss the problems and methods for economically measuring environmental degradation. DUE: WEEK 12.
  • Final Draft—The final draft of the project should consider the economic situation of agriculture in your specified country or region from the three perspectives outlined above. Key to such an analysis are the interrelationships of the three perspectives. How does each factor contribute to an overall analysis of the successes and problems in agricultural policy and production of your chosen country or region? The paper may conclude with recommendations, but, at the very least, it should provide a clear summary statement about the challenges facing your country or region. DUE: WEEK15.


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Sample Assignment economics

Economics assignment sample stuck with your economics assignments get free assistance from our ph.d. experts, econ1025 prices and markets assignment sample, assignment brief.

The assessment is worth 50 marks and will be delivered as a question sheet on Canvas exactly two weeks before the submission deadline. Your submission will receive an automatic Turnitin similarity score that should not exceed 25%. You should check this score using the tool on Canvas before submitting. Exceeding this limit raises the risk of your submission being subject to an academic integrity process. As per University regulations late assignments receive a 10% penalty per day until the mark reaches zero. Marks will be given according to the rubrics on Canvas. You must attach a completed coversheet with your submission (template appended below). For the formatting requirements follow the advice given for assessment task 2 above.

Your submission should be a word-processed document not exceeding 2000 words. Any diagrams that you wish to use can be inserted into this document in any way you like, i.e. created in the word-processing software itself, or inserted as a photograph of a pencil drawing or from another software.

There is no discretionary margin above this limit. There is no minimum but you are advised to use all the words for assignment help allowed to allow for a more developed and detailed analysis.

Answer any FOUR of the following questions. Each question is worth a total of 12.5 marks. If more than four questions are answered, marks will be awarded for the first four answers only.

High-performance cars (HPCs) are automobiles with engines that generate great power relative to their weight. They boast high acceleration, speed, cornering and breaking performance. But they obviously come with a very high price tag. Some people even buy them to publicly display their wealth. The Singapore economy has grown rapidly between the 1960s and 2018 with rising incomes across the island. Examine the likely consequences of rising incomes on the Singapore HPC market and one or two related markets.

The speed limit on Singapore roads, even expressways, never exceeds 90 kmh, much less than the top speed of HPCs. But there is a road racing culture where individuals perform stunts and races on public roads, far exceeding speed limits. What, if anything should government do about the HPC market? Should such cars be banned outright? What would be the problems with such interventions?

The car industry is characterized by heavy research and development activity. This activity has a high fixed cost and can only be undertaken by large firms with significant monopoly power. Sometimes the innovations of the car industry spill over into other industries. There is also a great deal of product differentiation, with certain brands enjoying reputation and loyalty. What are the likely effects of these aspects of the industry on the market structure for HPCs? Examine this industry using the theory and models of industry structure. Should government be worried about any aspect of how an industry with this market structure will perform?

BMW is one of the world’s best known HPC manufacturers. Developing new cars is a costly, uncertain and complex process. This company would need to consider which parts of the vertical chain to outsource and which to conduct in-house. Using the theory of the optimal boundary of the firm, discuss BMW’s make-or-buy decision for developing and producing a HPC. What stages of the vertical chain should BMW consider conducting in-house, and which should be outsourced? Provide reasons for your findings.

Consider the following hypothetical case. Only BMW and a competitor, Mazda, are considering launching a new, niche HPC in the Asian market. The issue is what price to charge. Both new cars are very similar in performance and production cost. Analyze the interaction between the two firms using game theory. Present a payoff matrix to model the situation and analyze it for Nash equilibrium. What can either of these firms do to make their best, most-preferred outcome more likely?

Question 1: likely consequences of rising incomes on the Singapore HPC market

High performance cars are considered a sign of wealth as rich people often showcase their status and flaunt their economic well-being. High prices of high performance cars imply that only a limited number of people are capable of buying those products in the market. High performance cars are considered to be a luxury commodity in the market as only a few people can afford to buy these products. However, rising economy of Singapore encourages its economic stakeholders to accumulate substantial wealth over the past few decades. Rapid growth from 1960 to 2018 has helped many people to change their fortune as they became wealthy during these periods. This has generated demand for high performance cars in the Singapore market as the capabilities of people buying similar kinds of cars has over this period. As per the studies done by Kern, Dossow & von Roon (2020), people tend to buy more expensive products with a rise in their income. Similar aspects could be observed in the Singapore market as demand for high performance cars would like to increase.

High performance cars apart from being a symbol of wealth possess high acceleration, speed, cornering along with breaking performance. The income elasticity of the high performance cars is positive as rising income enhances the affordability of those for the consumers. Rising market demand would cause the dealers to supply a higher volume in the Singapore market that would raise the overall supply of high performance cars. The market for high performance cars will see a boom as consistent growth of the Singapore market has established itself with a strong economy. The rapid growth of the Singapore economy has enabled the market players to infuse a huge amount of money that encouraged them to buy high performance cars in the market. According to the study of Ji et al. (2021), rising demand for any commodity would increase the price of that product in making it more experience. However, market equilibrium for high performance cars in Singapore would shift towards the right with further increases in the price in the market.

The price increase could be explained through comparative static models that compare different economic outcomes that can be observed after changes in exogenous parameters. In this scenario, demand for high performance cars is changed in the market through changes in income. Furthermore, the demand factor influences the price metric to change which raises the price of high performance cars in this case. The overall price of HPC will rise in the Singapore market although the growth of the economy would stimulate the demand in the market. This would raise the overall import items in the Singapore economy as car manufacturing companies would raise the supply in the market. As per the view of Sadiq et al. (2021), a rise in demand in a specific market often increases the demand in the related markets. Related markets such as customised parts or car paint would observe a growth in the market as the products are complementary.

Question 2: Government intervention in the HPC market and issues developed through intervention

High performance cars possess a high speed which is much higher than the restricted speed in the Singapore economy. Speed limit curbing the speed of vehicles does not allow the riders to enjoy the top speed of high speed cars as there remains racing culture among people. Individuals performing stunts or having a race on the public road could lead to fatal damages that may cause government intervention in the HPC market. As per the studies done by Basu & Ferreira (2020), government intervention allows a market to run properly as well helps in people getting benefits from the market. Restriction on sales of high performance cars could lower the chances of accidents on the road that would sufficiently help the people of that economy. Imposition on sale of high performance cars would discourage the wealthy population of the nation. The Government of Singapore further raised the speed limit in a specific time period along with special race tracks that would allow the cars to remain within a certain area.

High performance cars could be banned by the government of Singapore that would depress the HPC market. On the other hand, the banning of high performance cars would lead to the emergence of the black market in the country. According to the study of Adler, Peer & Sinozic (2019), market imposition of government often restricts the natural market composition that influences the shady market to grow. Furthermore, people of Singapore could buy high performance cars in different national markets and that could be imported into Singapore due to imposed market restrictions. These could lead to loss of taxes and other financial losses for the Singapore government arising due to government intervention in the market. However, banning cars would never solve the problems rather it would create further complications.

The emergence of a shady market is not helpful for the growth of the economy as the government does not get any financial benefits for transactions. The government will have no clue about the number of products sold in the market. As per the view of Bucsky (2018), market governance is necessary to have estimated about any specific market and transaction happening in that market. Furthermore, the government will be unaware of the shady deals that would occur in the parallel market. The parallel market assists in the growth and development of corruption that would cause a bigger issue for the government.

Market equilibrium in the high performance cars market would disrupt through the imposition of the Singapore government. It may lead to market failure as tough restrictions by the government could dry off the entire market. According to the study of Basu & Ferreira (2020), welfare loss happens due to the imposition of market restrictions as both producers and consumers waste their resources. High tax imposition could lower the sales of high performance cars that could help the government in lowering the number of cars in the market. The Singapore government could impose a higher import duty that would provide a similar effect as well.

Question 3: Market structure for HPC industry and governments worry on market performance

The global automobile industry is not that highly competitive as it is filled with various market producers. However, the market structure in the high performance car industry is oligopolistic markets as only a handful of market players dominate the industry. Target market of the high performance car industry always remained different as compared to the automobile industry. As per the studies done by Yin & Hamilton (2018), research and development is the crucial component behind the growth of high performance cars that can be managed through few market suppliers. Producers in the market are unable to carry the heavy research and developmental activities in the market in a regular manner. These aspects have implicated a few producers in the market who are the dominant force in the market.

The market producers have different brand valuations as they have some degrees of product differentiation. A certain amount of product differentiation causes a huge advantage in the market that allows some manufacturers to have a significant market advantage. According to the study of Minh (2020), brand valuation is another component that influences the market position of different car manufacturers. Furthermore, the brand valuation of a company comes through sufficient brand reputation that is acquired through proper servicing to consumers and efficient customer satisfaction. The car manufacturing companies with greater brand reputation allow a greater competitive advantage in the market that helps them in being a dominant force in the market.

Loyalty of the customers plays a crucial role in these aspects as car manufacturers with a higher brand reputation have a greater loyal customer base. As per the view of Horn et al. (2019), the customer retention rate of manufacturing companies depends on the loyal customer base that provides sufficient confidence to the companies in case launching new products in the market. Product differentiation allows car producers to develop different types of products in the market. High performance car industry possesses few manufacturers who have focused on the heavy research and development of their production system in a heavy manner. The car manufacturing companies possess a high fixed cost that provides a certain level of market entry barrier as very few producers are capable of sustaining the cost. This market entry barrier encourages the existing producers in the market to carry on the production activities as profitability remains higher.

The government must not worry about the existing market structure in the high performance car industry as few dominant producers are very competitive among themselves. However, the Singapore government must ensure that any single firm does not contain significant monopoly power in the market. According to the study of Horn et al. (2019), monopoly power could further disrupt the market as only one firm is capable of supplying products in the market which would result in loss of welfare in the market. Consumers could be exploited through the emergence of monopoly in the high performance car industry as a sole producer would satisfy the supply of the entire market. The government must ensure the car manufacturers do not form a cartel that would represent a monopoly manufacturing company itself.

Question 5: Market interaction between BMW and Mazda using Game theory

BMW and Mazda are two companies operating in the high performance car industry in the Asian market. Cars of both of the companies having similar features and providing the same performance lead to a case of no product differentiation in this scenario. Production cost of both the cars being the same implies the cost for these two vehicles will be identical. In this scenario, the application of game theory would be most useful helping to identify the market equilibrium. As per the studies done by Sun & Sun (2018), the payoff matrix model provides a visual representation of the best possible outcomes of strategic decisions for two different players.

The playoff model matrix for BMW and Mazda has been provided below,

economic assignment sample

Table 1: payoff Matrix Model for BMW and Mazda (Source: MS Word)

From the above matrix model it can be observed that the pricing of BMW and Mazda cars could be of two different levels which are 100000$, and 200000$. Furthermore, within the matrix, the market share for each of the cars has been provided based on the level of price for each of the high performance car manufacturing companies. It can be observed from the above table that the prices of both of the cars would lead to equal market share in the luxury car industry. Furthermore, one of the cars having different prices would lead to complete market acquisition for one car manufacturing company. Both of the cars having same production cost and identical products would lead to identical product pricing in the market. Cars having different prices in the market would lead to greater market accumulation by the other company. The company with a higher pricing policy would lose a heavy market share as consumers will shift to that other brand with lower cost (Ajay et al. 2019). In this scenario, BMW will consider market pricing of 100000 USD as the company is beneficial irrespective of policy adoption of Mazda. BMW will accumulate 50 percent and 100 percent of the market while adopting the price of 100000$ which is higher as compared to the other pricing strategy of the company. Similarly, from the playoff matrix, it can be observed that Mazda having products pricing 100000 USD could lead to higher market acquisition as compared to other pricing strategies. According to the study of Koryagin (2018), Nash equilibrium from a payoff matrix model leads to conjugal outcomes that satisfy both of the players. Mazda can acquire a higher market share in the high performance industry irrespective of the pricing strategy of BMW with a market price of 100000 USD. Hence, both the car manufacturer company BMW and Mazda will adopt a price of 100000$ and the Nash equilibrium is (50, 50) in this case.

Adler, M. W., Peer, S., & Sinozic, T. (2019). Autonomous, connected, electric shared vehicles (ACES) and public finance: An explorative analysis. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 2, 100038.

Ajay, M., Kannan, S., Narayan, P. P., & Kumar, R. D. S. (2019). A Glance Through History of Automobile Industry and Current Market Study of Some of the Legendry Models in India. In Advances in Manufacturing Technology (pp. 433-441). Springer, Singapore.

Basu, R., & Ferreira, J. (2020). Understanding household vehicle ownership in Singapore through a comparison of econometric and machine learning models. Transportation Research Procedia, 48, 1674-1693.

Bucsky, P. (2018). Autonomous vehicles and freight traffic: towards better efficiency of road, rail or urban logistics? Urban Development Issues, 58(1), 41-52.

Horn, M., MacLeod, J., Liu, M., Webb, J., & Motta, N. (2019). Supercapacitors: A new source of power for electric cars?. Economic Analysis and Policy, 61, 93-103.

Ji, X., Zhang, Y., Mirza, N., Umar, M., & Rizvi, S. K. A. (2021). The impact of carbon neutrality on the investment performance: evidence from the equity mutual funds in BRICS. Journal of Environmental Management, 297, 113228.

Kern, T., Dossow, P., & von Roon, S. (2020). Integrating Bidirectional Chargeable Electric Vehicles into the Electricity Markets. Energies, 13(21), 5812.

Koryagin, M. (2018). Urban planning: A game theory application for the travel demand management. periodica polytechnic transportation engineering, 46(4), 171-178.

Minh, N. K. (2020, April). Features and prospects of the electric vehicle in the Vietnamese automobile market. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 819, No. 1, p. 012007). IOP Publishing.

Sadiq, M., Hsu, C. C., Zhang, Y., & Chien, F. (2021). COVID-19 fear and volatility index movements: empirical insights from ASEAN stock markets. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-18.

Sun, S., & Sun, N. (2018). Management Game Theory (pp. XI-129). Singapore: Springer.

Yin, J. Z., & Hamilton, M. H. (2018). The conundrum of US-china trade relations through game theory modelling. Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 20(8), 133-150.


BUECO5903 Assignment Sample


This assignment contains four questions. You are required to answer all four questions for assignment help .

This is an individual piece of assessment. Make sure your submission is an original

Submission - this means it must be the creation of the person submitting it.

You are required to explain your reasoning and use diagrams where appropriate.

Assessment weight: This assessment task constitutes 15 percent of the total assessment for this course.

Due date: Your instructor will advise you of the submission date of this assessment task.

Assignment to be submitted electronically in the drop box in your Moodle shell.

a) Give the definition of GDP and explain what items are not included in its calculation? b) How is GDP calculated using the expenditure approach? c) How is GDP calculated using the income approach? d) Explain the problem of "double-counting" and how it can be avoided in calculating GDP

Assume that an economy is initially operating at the natural rate of output (full employment output). Use the AD-AS model to illustrate graphically the effects on price and output of an increase in government spending and a decrease in the cash rate. Explain your assumptions with respect to the range of aggregate supply of your analysis.

Explain in detail the process of Monetary Policy transmission of an increase in the cash interest rate. Use relevant graphs to describe how a Central Bank’s action on the interest cash rate ripple through the economy and lead to the target policy goal. (Three connected diagrams should be used: (1) money supply and demand (2) investment demand schedule (3) AS/AD diagram. Interest rates is the variable that connects the first and second diagram).

Using the World Bank’s World Development Indicators database,, a) Complete the following table.

*or latest available year

b) Produce a plot for each variable (GDP, gdp growth, inflation) comparing the four countries.

c) What can be inferred with respect to economic growth and price control in each of these economies?

A - In macroeconomics, GDP or Gross Domestic Product represents total value of entire economic activities that take place in a country in a specific period of time, for example, one year (Dynan and Sheiner 2018). In measuring GDP, total market prices of all final goods and services, which are produced in a specific geographic location in a particular year, are considered.

In measuring GDP, some items are not considered. These are:

i. Goods and services, manufactured in other countries and imported ii. Goods and services produced in previous year iii. Goods and services, which are resold iv. Goods and services that are sold in illegal process v. Transfer payments vi. Intermediate goods that are used as input in producing another good

B - GDP can be measured with the help of expenditure method. This method considers expenditures of all groups, which conduct economic activities in a year. In other words, this method considers all the expenditures that are made on final goods and services (Magdalena and Suhatman 2020). In this measure, four components are considered and these are private consumption (C), government spending (G), investment (I) and net exports (NX) (total exports- total imports). Hence, the formula of GDP using expenditure method is written as:

GDP = C+I + G +NX

C. In measuring GDP of a country, the income approach can be applied. This approach considers income of all production factors, which are, labour, capital, land and entrepreneur. Those factors contribute in the production of final goods and services of the country in a year. Consequently, labour, capital, land and entrepreneur receive their income in the form of wage, interest, rent and profit, respectively (Aitken 2019). Income approach depends on the accounting reality where all expenditure made on economic activities within the country equates with total income of all factors that produce final goods and services.

D. One can face the problem of double-counting at the time of measuring GDP of a country in a particular year. Double-counting implies the process of adding a product value for two times in the GDP measurement (Fforde 2021). To avoiding this problem of multiple counting, the value of final goods and services are not considered. Instead, the value-added method is considered in which value added in each stage of production is taken.

In the vertical range of the Aggregate supply curve, an economy can produces output at its full employment level. At this stage, the movement of aggregate demand can change the price level only while output level remains unchanged. As the government spending increases, it leads the aggregate demand curve to move upward (Lisi 2021). Moreover, a decrease in the cash rate leads the borrowers to borrow money for investment and consumer expenditure purpose. As a result, the aggregate demand curve can shift upward. The situation is shown below:

economic assignment sample

The Monetary Policy Transmission is a process of changing cash rate. The process influences both the economic activity and inflation in the economy. As cash rate rises, expenditure in the private sector declines and it further influences total productivity of the firms to decline. This in turn cause economic activity and total employment to decrease (Chatziantoniou, Gabauer and Stenfors 2021). The following diagram shows the activity of the Central bank on the interest cash rate ripple. Here, the interest rate is taken as variable in the first two diagrams. The first diagram represents money supply and money demand curves, the second diagram represents investment demand schedule and the third diagram represents aggregate demand and supply curves.

economic assignment sample

In figure 3, GDP per capita of Australia, China, India and US are compared for the years 2006, 2009, 2014 and 2020. In 2006, the GDP per capita of US was the highest followed by Australia. However, GDP per capita of China and India remained very low comparatively. The situation remained same in 2009. From figure, it is seen that GDP per capita of Australia and China increased in this year compared to that in 2006. In 2014, Australia’s GDP per capita increased considerably and it surpassed US. Moreover, China’s GDP per capita also increased in this year. In 2020, GDP per capita of the US, China and India increased while that of Australia declined.

economic assignment sample

As per figure 4, GDP growth rate of China remained the highest in 2006 followed by Indian, US and Australia. In 2009, GDP growth rate of each country declined while that of US became negative. In 2014, US’s GDP growth rate was improved and became positive. In 2020, the GDP growth rate of Australia was nil while that of India and US were negative.

Inflation rate of India remained the highest in 2006, 2009, 2014 and 2020 compared to other countries. On the other side, Inflation rate of US and China became negative in 2009 which means these countries faced deflation.

From the comparisons, it is understood that India needs to control its price for controlling inflation. China has gained significant economic growth over the years while Australia has also successfully maintained its economic growth.  


Aitken, A., 2019. Measuring welfare beyond GDP. National Institute economic review, 249, pp.R3-R16.

Chatziantoniou, I., Gabauer, D. and Stenfors, A., 2021. Interest rate swaps and the transmission mechanism of monetary policy: A quantile connectedness approach. Economics Letters, 204, p.109891.

Dynan, K. and Sheiner, L., 2018. GDP as a measure of economic well-being. Work. pap, 43.

Fforde, A., 2021. Measuring economic transformation–what to make of constant price sectoral GDP–evidence from Vietnam. real-world economics review, p.113.

Lisi, G., 2021. Can the AD-AS Model Explain the Presence and Persistence of the Underground Economy? Evidence from Italy. Economies, 9(4), p.170.

Magdalena, S. and Suhatman, R., 2020. The Effect of Government Expenditures, Domestic Invesment, Foreign Invesment to the Economic Growth of Primary Sector in Central Kalimantan. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal (BIRCI-Journal), 3(3), pp.1692-1703.

Worldbank 2022. World Development Indicators | DataBank. Available at: (Accessed: 22 January 2022).

ECO500 Economics for Business Assignment Sample

The problem/scenario.

Suppose that a new strain of Covid 19, known as Kappa, has been detected in Australia. Kappa is known to be twice as infectious than the existing variants of Covid 19. Kappa has been found also to be immune to the existing Covid 19 vaccines such as Pfizer and Astrazeneca.

KC Pharma, a local startup company, has produced a unique nasal spray vaccine called KC1 that has been found to be 98 per cent effective against Kappa in clinical trials. Based on this information the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) of Australia, Australia’s regulatory body, has approved the use of KC1 in Australia in the short run to combat Kappa. Based on the above scenario, provide a project report on market structures, market model(s), economic strategy(ies) and profitability scenarios. In your assignment writing, you shall include the following issues clearly and sufficiently with diagrams and illustrations where necessary for assignment help :

1. Identify the basic market structure and explain the type of market in which KC Pharma will be operating

2. Based on your answer to question 1 above, show a theoretical market model explaining the equilibrium position (profit/loss situation) of KC Pharma in the short run.

3. Suppose you are the economic adviser to KC Pharma. Suggest a selling strategy to KC Pharma whereby it can further maximise its profit. Make sure you clearly illustrate the selling strategy to KC Pharma.

4. Critics of TGA argue that KC Pharma is charging a very high price for KC1 and is also unable to keep up with demand. They argue that more firms should contest the market to create efficiency in the market. TGA is convinced by the Critics’ arguments and allows a “large” number of firms to supply vaccines to combat Kappa. Assess and evaluate in which market structure(s) and the type of market(s) KC Pharma will be operating. In your demonstration, you must explain KC Pharma’s equilibrium position after the entry of large number of rivals in the market.

5. Analyse and evaluate economic profitability of KC Pharma in the long run.

KC Pharma will operate in an oligopoly market, which is a form of imperfect market condition. In this market structure, few firms compete with each other and produce differentiated products. As per the given scenario, KC Pharma has produced a unique nasal spray vaccine, KC1. However, the company have close competitors like Pfizer and AstraZeneca which produce COVID-19 vaccines that are also safe for people. These companies have captured a large share of the market. This is because new firms cannot enter into the market easily due to legal restrictions the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) of Australia, large amount of capital investment and low economies of scale.

The oligopoly market is characterised by entry barriers and existence of limited firms. The main feature of the market is interaction as well as interdependency among existing firms. In other words, the action of one firm can influence the action of other firms in the market. Therefore, the oligopoly market often experiences strong competition between firms as each firm has the capability of making decisions on quantities, prices, and advertisement in order to maximise profits (Azar and Vives 2021). As the market is concentrated extremely with few companies, some firms can dominate the industry while other small firms can also perform their business. Likewise, Pfizer and AstraZeneca dominate the vaccine market while a start-up company like KC Pharma can also produce and sell its products. The start-up company can maximise its profit when its marginal revenue (MR) and marginal cost (MC) equate with each other. This situation creates an equilibrium condition where the firm produces equilibrium amount of vaccine at an equilibrium price. The start-up company, here, will experience a kinked-demand curve due to the competition of other oligopolistic firms. In Kinked demand curve model, two theories are seen, which are:

A. If a firm declines its price below the prevailing level then other rival firms will follow him

B. If the firm rises the price above the prevailing level then other rival firms will not follow him

The profit-making equilibrium condition of KC Pharma is presented in the figure below:

economic assignment sample

Figure 1: Short-run Profit maximisation condition of KC Pharma

The short-run profit maximisation condition of KC Pharma is shown with the help of kinked demand curve theory (Salehi and Makiyan 2021). As per the theory, each firm in the oligopoly market sells differentiated products and each of them experiences two market demand curves for its product. Thus, KC Pharma also faces two different demand curves where at high prices, the firm has comparatively elastic demand curve and at low price the firm has relatively inelastic demand curve. Corresponding to two demand curves, the firm has two marginal revenue curves accordingly. These two demand curves intersect at point k. Here, the MR and MC curves intersect at point E. Therefore, equilibrium quantity of KC Pharma is Q* and equilibrium price is P*. As per the assumption, if KC Pharma increases its price above P* then other vaccine producing firms will not follow the increase in price and hence the company will experience the more elastic market demand curve. If the company will decrease price below P* then it is assumed that other competing firms will follow the price. The main reason of these assumptions is that when KC Pharma will increase its price, it will face a substantial decrease in sales as consumers can purchase similar products from other companies. On the other side, if KC Pharma will reduce its price, other firms will follow it due to the fear of customer loss.

To increase profit further, KC Pharma can make collusion with other companies. In collusive oligopoly, firms make agreement between each other to make an undifferentiated oligopolistic industry. Here, all vaccine producing firms come together and agree to set prices as well as outputs for maximising total industry profits which is known as cartel (Schlechtinger et al. 2021). Thus, the company along with its competitors can set price in a collective way by the leadership of one firm instead of taking prices from the market. In this situation, profit margin becomes higher compared to that in a competitive market. Sometimes, governments do not support collusion and price-fixing. However, in case of vaccination, the industry can get the permission of fixing price by making a cartel.

The kinked-demand theory has several limitations for which the industry can move to make a cartel for making higher profits. Firstly, the kinked model does not state the condition by following which a firm can find its kinked point in the market demand curve. Secondly, the theory does not consider the chances of collusion and setting a fixed price and output. Lastly, the kinked-demand model shows that price increase by one firm will not be followed by other firms. Hence, considering these obstacles, it can be said that a cartel is better for KC Pharma to make higher profits.

Now it is essential to discuss the selling strategy that KC Pharma will follow for maximising its profit. The company needs to make a formal agreement with other vaccine producing companies in order to control supply and to manipulate price. Therefore, collusion will form a group of independent business that will perform as a single seller at the fixed price for the vaccines they produce without any competition. In this context, it is essential to mention that a cartel gets less facility compared to that of a monopoly where only a single seller only owns certain products in the market. The cartel of vaccine producing companies will help to set a fixed price for vaccines in a legal way. After forming cartel, each company will select their combined output where their marginal revenue becomes equal with marginal cost. The fixed price of cartel, therefore, will be determined by market demand curve where the cartel selects its output level. By forming a cartel, the vaccine producing firms can charge higher prices together for certain quantity of vaccines like a monopolist. The figure below reflects the situation:

economic assignment sample

The above figure represents a cartel where each firm together set price P2 and produces Q2 quantity of output. At this output level, MR and MC become equal with other. Hence, each firm can earn supernormal profit by the area P1BA2. Therefore, by making a cartel, KC Pharma can successfully earn profit. However, the company needs to follow some points that can breakdown a cartel. Sometimes, it is seen that other firms have cheating tendency on their quotas for getting higher benefits from higher output and price. Hence, the firm needs to make cartel with small number of firms so that it can easily observe behaviour of others. Moreover, penalties will be charged for each firm who will break quotas.

As per the given situation, KC Pharma will operate in a monopolistically competitive market. This market structure lies between a monopoly market and a perfectly competitive market. In this type of market, large number of firms produces and sells almost similar type of products in the market to a large number of customers. In this market, each firm will produce products that are close substitutes and hence they can differentiate their products by applying different market strategies. Thus, firms can act as a monopolist as each of them has different brand name, price level and product quality. Like a monopoly market, firms can charge higher prices for selling lower quantity of output than a perfectly competitive market. Therefore, each firm acts like a price maker in this imperfect competition where change in price will not cause any price war that can be seen in the oligopoly market. A monopolistic competitive firm achieves higher profit only in the short-run when its marginal revenue and marginal cost become equal. Moreover, the firm can also incur loss in or gain normal profit during this time. The figure below represents a condition, where the firm gains supernormal profit in the short-run:

TGA allows a large number of firms to supply vaccines for combating Kappa, which is produced by KP Pharma. Therefore, the number of vaccine sellers will increase in the market. However, one type of vaccine cannot substitute another type of vaccine completely as they can be differentiated by their company name, branding, price level and quality. Therefore, each vaccine producing firm will act like a monopolist and can set vaccine price individually in the market for maximising profit (Bertoletti and Etro 2022). Though firms can act like a price maker, they cannot charge higher prices due to strong competition in the market. By charging higher price, a firm can loss its customers and this in turn can reduce profit-making condition of the firm. The diagram above showcases equilibrium position of KC Phrama here the demand curve is slightly elastic. This indicates that if the firm increases price of its vaccine then its demand for product can be declined.

economic assignment sample

In figure 4, it is seen that the short-run equilibrium can be obtained at point E where marginal cost (MC) curve and marginal cost (MC) curve intersects. Hence, the corresponding equilibrium output and price level become Q* and P*. In short-run, the average cost (AC) curve is lower than average revenue (AR) curve. Average revenue curve which is also the demand curve of KC Pharma is elastic but not perfectly elastic as it has negative slope. Hence, the firm gains economic profit by the area CBAP*. In short-run, the monopolistic competitive firm can also face loss if its average cost becomes higher than average revenue. However, it is essential to mention that a monopolistically competitive firm does not become allocatively efficient as the price does not equal to marginal cost. Moreover, production efficiency also cannot be seen in the market as firms can set higher price than their marginal costs, which means, P > MC. Therefore, the market cannot achieve efficiency level instead of facing competition.

In long-run, the monopolistically competitive market has free entry and exit and this implies that the existing firm can make only normal profit in the long-run. In other words, when the market gains supernormal profit in the short-run, other firms will enter into the market. This will increase the number of firms and hence their profit making opportunity will decline until it will earn normal profit only. The following figure showcases equilibrium position of KC Pharma when it will operate in the monopolistically competitive market.

economic assignment sample

Figure 4: Monopolistically Competitive Market in the long run

As per figure 4, it is seen that the long-run equilibrium can be obtained at point E where long-run marginal cost (LMC) curve and marginal cost curve intersects. Hence, the corresponding equilibrium output and price level become Q* and P*. In long-run, the firm will operate somewhere to the left of the average cost (LAC) curve’s minimum point. Average revenue curve which is also the demand curve of KC Pharma is elastic but not perfectly elastic as it has negative slope. The left side of LAC curve becomes tangent with the AR curve and hence the firm only gets normal profit.

economic assignment sample

ECO600 Economics and Finance for Business Assignment Sample


1. Answer ALL four (4) sections. They contain short-answer questions. There are NO multiple-choice questions.

2. Keep your answers WITHIN 500 words per section.

Weighting 40%

Word Count Maximum 2,000 words

Section 1: Ethical enterprises in the modern economic system: the circular economy (10 marks; length: max. 500 words) Background

You are hired as the sustainability manager of Manly Golf Club. It is in Sydney, not too far away from ICMS’s main campus. Learn about the golf club, its facilities, and the services it provides here, in this website.

To distinguish itself from rival golf clubs in the area, this club is under pressure to demonstrate its circular economy credentials. It has hired you to propose strategies that apply the circular economy principles to all aspects of its operations.

1. Propose four (4) circular economy strategies, two for each of this golf club’s two services: (i) Golfing (ii) Weddings and functions

Where possible, demonstrate how each strategy could be good/profitable for the business.

Section 2: International trade and development (10 marks; length: max. 500 words)

Papua New Guinea is a large island country north of Australia. It has a largely underdeveloped economy: it mostly exports raw materials such as timber and copper.

It does not have a large manufacturing base, relying instead on importing manufactured goods from abroad.

To learn about the country, go here. To learn about its economy, go here.

To see its low and high complexity exports, use Harvard University’s Atlas of Economic Complexity (click here):

- Enter the country’s name and click ‘start exploring’ - Find the section called ‘Export basket’ (the products it exports). - Lastly, click on ‘Export complexity’ near the bottom.

1. Select one (1) export item from this country whose complexity is low. Then, follow these three steps:

First: propose how this item’s complexity could be improved using creativity, innovation or value-adding. Provide interesting detail. Argue why your proposals might be beneficial for this country’s economy.

Second: which country or region would be good target markets for this export, and why?

Third: suggest any trade-related policy that could help this country in this project.

Section 3: Macroeconomic fundamentals (10 marks; length: max. 500 words)

Maldives is an archipelagic country made up 1,200 islands of which only around 200 are inhabited. It has a population of 540,000 people. It is located to the south of India, in the Arabian Sea.

The economy is heavily reliant on tourism, which is its largest ‘export’ industry by far, followed by seafood exports (fish, prawns etc.)

Macroeconomic situation

Since 2012, Australia’s inflation rate was around 2% and falling, before rising sharply in 2022 to almost 4% as COVID-19 restrictions were largely removed (go here, click on ‘10Y’ button to see the last 10 years’ trend).

In contrast, Maldives inflation in 2012 was almost 20%, fell to 5% in 2018, and was mostly negative (between 0% and -5%) since then. Analyse Maldives inflation rate since 2018, by going here and clicking on the ‘10Y’ button. See how it looks like, in contrast to Australia’s.

Analyse Maldives unemployment rate, here (click on the ‘50Y’ button for a long historical perspective. Analyse its balance of trade, here (click on the ‘25Y’ button).

Contrast that to Australia’s unemployment and balances of trade (see here and here, click the ‘25Y’ button). You may investigate these and other macroeconomic measures more on the Internet.

1. By contrasting Maldives and Australia’s macroeconomic measures up to today in 2022, assess which phase of the business cycle Maldives is likely to be in (see here to learn about the business cycle). Justify your answer.

2. You are the general manager of the Four Seasons hotel chain in the Maldives. Given your analysis of the business cycle above:

(i) assess whether it might be a good idea for Four Seasons to invest in expanding its hotel operations in the Maldives

(ii) assess issues involved in hiring new hospitality managers and other workers for its hotels.

Section 4: Fiscal, monetary and supply-side policy (10 marks; max. 500 words)

Country X is a developing country with a large government bureaucracy that is quite inefficient. The processing of applications to start new businesses are slow.

This country also has generous unemployment benefits: its unemployed citizens receive a generous payment that allows them to pay for rent and food such that there is little motivation for some of the unemployed to look for jobs.

The key macroeconomic measures of Country X over time– from two years ago to the present– are shown below. Examine them carefully. They are expressed in quarters (quarters means in chunks of three months):

(a) GDP growth: -2%, -1%, -2%, 14%, 5%, 3%, 2%, -1%

(b) Unemployment rate: 8%, 9%, 10%, 6%, 6%, 5%, 5%, 8%

(c) Inflation rate: 2%, 2%, 1%, 3%, 3%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5%

(d) The purchasing managers’ index, PMI, in the manufacturing sector: 47, 48, 49, 49, 45, 48, 46, 45

The current official interest rate is 4%.

Monetary policy

Given the macroeconomic information above about this country’s economy:

1. Would this country’s central bank be likely to increase or decrease its official interest rate or maintain it at the same level? Why do you say that?

Next, based on your answer above, assess how that action might affect or transmit to each of these, with sufficient detail and discussion:

(a) consumer spending (C) and business investment (I)

(b) the unemployment rate

(c) the inflation rate

(d) the currency’s exchange rate, assuming all other things being equal (will the currency’s value tend to appreciate or depreciate, and why?)

(e) the exchange rate’s effect on the country’s exports, assuming all other things being equal (could the trade balance move towards a surplus or a deficit?)

(i) Golfing

- With respect to Cao, L., 2020, the implementation of coordinating the circular value chains with the help of data which is a circular economic strategy supports the preparation of products for recycling for reusing the data. If the Manly golf club uses the data of different players and collects detailed information related to the style of playing the golf, creates an effective plan for the different golf games. The purpose of implementing this strategy helps the golf club to understand the gameplay of the players and create potential golf courses for adding challenges and providing a high level of satisfaction to the players or the customer of the golf club. Through this process, the Manly golf club increased the profitability of the business and also met the satisfaction requirements of the customers or the players.

Rethink: The principle of rethink is applicable in this strategy for creating an effective golf course for the player and also understanding the playing style of the player. It adds up value to the product and makes it a potential product for best assignment help .

economic assignment sample

Figure 1: Coordinating the circular value chains (Source:

- Overview of the Kim, 2019, this strategy of circular product design of circular economic strategy helps for the preparation of different products to recycle for reusing the killed information of the players and game field. At any rate, the Manly golf club effectively uses the potential data of the different players and also it collects detailed information related to the different levels of players then it will create a potential golf course for the players. The purpose of implementing this strategy helps the golf club to understand the gameplay of the players and create potential golf courses for adding challenges and providing a high level of satisfaction to the players or the customer of the golf club.

Reduce: The above strategy helps to increase the efficiency level of the golf club and also provides various resources to the players. Providing a higher value of a product to the players creates a high level of satisfaction rate for the customers.

economic assignment sample

Figure 2: Circular product design (Source:

(ii) Weddings and functions

- Based on the analysis of the Kimanzi, M.K. and Gamede, 2020, the strategy of collection and reserve logistics of the circular economic strategy creates a potential environment and complementary services for the customers. With the help of this strategy, the different occasions and wedding functions can be effectively operated in the hotel of the Manly golf club. It is based on the life cycle of the product and the method of reselling. This process implements appropriately in the function section of the golf club which helps to increase the value of reputation and profitability of the golf club. Repurpose The strategy is based on the method of re-selling which is the main purpose of the concept. The repurposing of the different products can be helpful for the golf club.

- With respect to Klopotan, I., Zoroja, J. and Meško, 2018, the application of the sorting and the pre-processing with the help of data which is a circular economic strategy supports the preparation of products to recycle for reusing the data. This process helps to optically use any alternative products and services during the wedding function and occasions for the creation of different products. Recover: With the help of the above strategy, the golf club can effectively reuse the data for better purposes in the upcoming course of time. It will help the business of the golf club to increase in the upcoming course time.

According to the website, the selected export item is timber from the country Papua New Guinea which is standing in the low category of the complexities. It is one of the large Islands on the Norton side of Australia. The economic level of the country is underdeveloped

- In respect to Lamperti, F., Monasterolo, I. and Roventini, 2019, improvement can be done by creating valuable exporting relationships with other countries by exporting the timber and also the products which are made out of the timber. At the time of harvesting the timber, the scrap material and waste timber materials can be used to create potential artefacts which increase the profitability of the country. The scrap or the waste timber which is going to be thrown away now creates valuable artefacts which have a higher rate than the value of timber in respect to the art. On the other hand, the country needs to create relationships with developed countries for exporting the timbers and artefacts. For instance, if the buyer country of the timbers and artefacts of the country is the USA then the underdeveloped country Papua New Guinea can sell the timbers and artefacts at a high price. This process will be highly beneficial to the country and help to increase the rate of GDP and profitability at the same time.

- Based on the analysis of the Mian, A. and Sufi, 2018, to increase the profitability and improve the business quality of the underdeveloped country Papua New Guinea, the selected country origin for effective targeting market will be the developed countries such as the US and UK. The purpose behind selling the product to the US or the UK is due to the higher rate of currency and also the quality market segment. If the buyer country of the timbers and artefacts of the country is the USA or the UK then the underdeveloped country Papua New Guinea can sell the timbers and artefacts at a high price. This process will be highly beneficial to the country and help to increase the rate of GDP and profitability at the same time. Therefore, the country will get a high level of benefits and also the potential market segment which increases the profitability of the country decently.

- Based on the overview of the Pillay, S., Rajaram, R. and Ramnanun, 2020, the multilateral trade policy will be helpful for the country Papua New Guinea to maintain an agreement of commerce between the two countries by signing the treaties for the import and export of timber and artefacts made out of the timber materials. It will help the country to maintain a decent level of trade with developed countries which increases the profitability and helps the country to grow and develop in the coming course of time.

- According to the abstraction of the Rusydiana, A., Sanrego, Y. and Rahayu, 2021, after the investigation process, it is found that the business cycle of the Maldives is going towards a recession period. The forecasting range of the unemployment rate in the Maldives is going to be increased in the upcoming course of time which refers to the business cycle of recession. On the other hand, the macroeconomics level of the country is also going to decrease in the coming course of time due to safety and health reasons. The factor of safety and health reasons impact the entire business cycle of the country because the main occupation of the country is based on tourism which is going to be restricted in the upcoming course of time. The output level of revenue and GDP of the country is going to decrease due to the increasing unemployment rate in the country. It is also observed that the inflation rate of the country has been increasing for consecutive years which also impacts the profitability and the ability to generate revenue by tourism. Therefore, it is clear that the country is going forward into a recession period in the upcoming course of time.

- According to the analysis of the Rusydiana, A.S., Sanrego, Y.D. and Pratomo, 2021, after evaluating the financial business cycle of the country, it is not the appropriate time to invest in the expansion of the operations of the hotel in the country because of the decision period in which the inflation did become higher than the normal level and also the rate of unemployment increased. If the value of unemployment rate increases it will create a flood of working employees in the hotel and after the decision period most of the working employees are going to leave the hotel which creates an operational gap in the business. It also negatively impacts the growth and development prospect of the hotel. Therefore, the four-season hotel in the Maldives does not need to increase the expansion of the operation factor of the business.

- With respect to the overview of the Vogel, H.A., 2019, if the four-season hotel appoints a new manager for operating the hospitality operation then it will be beneficial for the entire hotel. The hotel needs to understand the purpose and perspective behind hiring anywhere manager for the hospitality section. The hiding of a new hospitality section of the hotel is beneficial but on the other hand, the hiring of various workers will negatively impact the overall productivity and profitability of the hotel. Therefore, the hotel can hire a new manager for the hospital section but the hiding of new workers will create conflict in the financial activities and transactions of the hotel.

Based on the analysis of Lamperti, 2019, the central bank of the country needs to increase the current official interest rate because of the negative rate of the GDP and the inflation rate. The country to maintain years’ financial value concerning the GDP rate. Therefore, the country needs to increase the interest rate for combating the financial environment. The central bank of the country needs money in their account rather than into the account of the customer.

(a) If the central bank of the country increases the interest rate then the consumer spending will become less because the citizens of the country will deposit their money into the bank and through this, the central bank will be able to fluctuate the level of inflation in the country. On the other hand, the business investment will remain the same or slightly decrease due to the increase in the interest rate which is comparatively safer than an investment in any other business organisation. Therefore, it helps to maintain the level of inflation in the country.

(b) The rate of unemployment in the country will decrease due to the higher interest value which provides courage to the people for finding a job and depositing their salary into the bank account through which the rate of interest is higher compared to the current situation of the time.

(c) If the central bank of the country increases the interest rate then it motivates the citizens of the country to deposit their money into the bank and through this, the central bank will be able to fluctuate the level of inflation in the country. Similarly, if the rate of inflation in the country is managed then the purchasing and consumption power of the citizens of the country increases. As the purchasing and consumption power of the customer increases in the country, it will provide a sustainable and lower inflation rate for the country.

(d) As it is discussed in the above section if the rate of interest of the country increases then the value of the currency of the country will also increase. This factor is the impact of the rate of interest if the citizens of the country deposit their money into the bank accounts which helps the country to manage the value of the currency. The exchange rate of the currency will also increase due to the sound base of the company.

(e) If the value of the currency of the country increases then it also impacts the process of import and export of the country. As the value of the currency of the country increases then it will provide a positive impact on the exporting of the products and goods to the different countries. The increased rate of interest provides a circular during the time of export of the goods and services to the different countries. This process will positively impact the process of export in the country in the appropriate method.

economic assignment sample

BUECO5903 Business Economics Assignment Part A Sample

This assignment contains five questions. You are required to answer all five questions. This is an individual piece of assessment. Make sure your submission is an original submission; this means it must be the creation of the person submitting it. You are required to explain your reasoning and use diagrams where appropriate.

Due date: Your instructor will advise you of the submission date of this assessment task. Assignment to be submitted electronically in the drop box in your Moodle shell.

Using a production possibilities frontier (PPF) diagram, determine how does the PPF change in response to the events describe below. Make sure to explicitly indicate what sectors you are representing, and what sort of assumptions each event implies (i.e., a neutral effect vs a sector-biased effect). The latter follows from your assumptions on the factor intensity of the sector you are representing.

a) A relaxation of policies allowing more foreign direct investment into the country.

b) Increasing the minimum wage level.

c) A decrease in expenditure on research and development.

d) An increase in the retirement age.

e) Government policies supporting the provision of services, without affecting manufacturing.

For each of the events describe below, you are required to explain:

1. The market you are evaluating (e.g., labour market, automotive market, etc).

2. Does the event act on the demand side, supply side, or both sides of the market?

3. Does the event lead to a quantity or price change? Or does the event lead to a shift in demand, supply, or both?

Make sure to explain what sort of assumptions you are making on the elasticities of demand and supply (when plotting your demand and supply, describe whether you are assuming an elastic or inelastic demand/supply).

a) A concerted reduction in the total production level in oil markets.

b) The implementation of a minimum wage.

c) The implementation of subsidies to agricultural production in Australia

d) The implementation of a Carbon tax in the resources exploitation sector. A Carbon tax is charged according to the level of emissions of greenhouse gases in an economy.

e) The implementation of a new loan program to university students in the education sector

Compare the impact of a recession that reduces consumer income by 10 percent on the consumption of durable goods and house rentals. Suppose that the income elasticity of demand for durable goods is 1.5 and the income elasticity of demand for house rentals is 0.3. Based on your response, make a policy argument to support through government funding either businesses or house rentals.

Using a supply and demand analysis show first the labour market in equilibrium, and then show

a) the effect of a reduction in the demand for labour as a consequence of a pandemic.

b) The effect of a government subsidy to producers to restore the employment of labour.

Provide a diagram with clear axis details. Make sure to explain what sort of assumptions you are making on the elasticities of demand and supply.

Here, agricultural and service sectors are represented. Assume the economy produces good X which is capital-intensive in service sector and good Y which is labor-intensive in agricultural sector. Hence, more foreign direct investment will create sector-biased effect as the production of good X will increase keeping the production of good Y unchanged. This situation is drawn in the figure below:

economic assignment sample

Figure 1: Production Possibility Frontier: Sector-Biased Effect

Again consider good X in the agricultural and good Y in the manufacturing industry. Good X is capital intensive and Good Y is labour intensive. For Assignment Help , Increasing the minimum wage level will help the industry to get more labourers for producing good Y while the production of good X will also increase but by a smaller rate (Arnold, Arnold and Arnold 2022). Hence, the situation implies sector-biased effect.

economic assignment sample

Figure 2: Production Possibility Frontier: Sector-Biased Effect

Consider two industries, service and manufacturing industries are operating in the economy. As expenditure on research and development (R&D) declines, the service sector can increase its total production by conducting more research work. Furthermore, manufacturing sector can also increase its total production due to increasing R&D. Hence, the economy will experience a neutral effect on the PPF.

economic assignment sample

Figure 3: Production Possibility Frontier: Neutral Effect

Suppose the economy has manufacturing sector and service sector. An increase in the retirement age will help both sectors to get a large number of skilled and experienced labour force. Hence, production in both sectors will increase and a neutral effect can be seen on the PPF.

economic assignment sample

Figure 4: Production Possibility Frontier: Neutral Effect

The economy has both service sector and manufacturing sector. Government policies are implemented to support the provision of services though these do not influence manufacturing process. Hence, production in the service sector will increase keeping total production in manufacturing sector unchanged. Thus, a sector-biased effect can be seen on the PPF.

economic assignment sample

Figure 5: Production Possibility Frontier: Sector-Biased Effect

economic assignment sample

Figure 6: Change in supply in the oil market

The condition is based on the oil market. The concerted reduction in total production of oil will affect the supply side. Oil market has inelastic demand and supply. This is because, supply of oil cannot be increased suddenly and demand for oil does not change significantly with its price change. Figure 6 depicts the situation from where it is observed that equilibrium price will increase to P1 and equilibrium quantity will decrease to Q1.

economic assignment sample

Figure 7: Change in supply in the labour market

The condition is based on the labour market. The implementation of a minimum wage will affect the supply side of labour if the wage rate will impose above the market wage rate. Labour market has elastic demand and supply. This is because, demand and supply of labour can be changed significantly by a small change in its wage. The condition of implementing minimum wage is shown in Figure 7. Here Wm is the minimum wage which is higher than market wage W0. Hence, an increase in labour supply by N1N2 are can be seen in the economy.

economic assignment sample

Figure 8: Change in supply in the agricultural market

The condition is based on the agricultural market. The implementation of subsidies on Australian agricultural product will affect supply side. Agricultural market has elastic demand and supply. The implementation of subsidy will encourage farmers to produce more amount of agricultural products. Figure 8 depicts the situation where supply curve increases from S0 to S1. Thus, equilibrium price declines to P1 and equilibrium quantity increases to Q1.

economic assignment sample

Figure 9: Change in supply in the Energy market

The condition is based on the energy producing market. The implementation of a carbon tax as per the level of greenhouse gas emission will affect the supply side of energy production. Energy market has inelastic supply due to the limited resource. The condition of decreasing supply of energy resource is shown in Figure 9. Here market price of energy increase to P1 from P0 and energy supply will decline to Q1 from Q0 due to imposition of carbon tax.

economic assignment sample

Figure 10: Change in supply in the Energy market

The condition is based on the energy education market. The implementation of a new loan program will increase demand for education among university students. Education has inelastic demand as it is necessary for everyone. The condition of increasing demand for education is shown in Figure 10. Here market price of education increases to P1 from P0 and equilibrium quantity declines to Q1 from Q0.

When income elasticity of demand becomes greater than 1 then it implies that the good is luxury item. On the other hand, income elasticity of demand less than 1 implies that the good is necessary item. For durable goods, the income elasticity of demand is 1.5 and income elasticity of house rental is 0.3. Hence, as per the given condition, durable goods are luxury items and house rentals are necessary items (El Shagi, Sawyer and Tochkov 2022). Thus, government needs to implement funding policy on house rents so that people can afford it easily.

Labour demand curve has a negative slope showing an inverse relationship between real wage of workers and amount of labour. Labour supply curve is upward rising as it shows a positive relationship between real wage and amount of labour. The supply curve expresses a tradeoff between labour and leisure and hence it bends slightly at the upper portion.

economic assignment sample

Figure 11: Labour Market Equilibrium

The impact of decreasing labour demand due to pandemic is shown in figure below:

economic assignment sample

Figure 12: Decrease in Demand for labour

Due to decrease in demand for labour, the real wage will also fall to W1 from We while amount of labour in the market will also fall to N1 from Ne.

Impact of a government subsidy to producers for restoring the labour employment:

economic assignment sample

Figure 13: Increase in labour supply

Due to increase in labour, the real wage will also fall to W1 from We while amount of labour in the market will increase to N1 from Ne.

economic assignment sample

Figure 13: MC, AVC and ATC Curves  

economic assignment sample

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IMF Working Papers

Conflicts and growth: the r&d channel.


Publication Date:

May 10, 2024

Electronic Access:

Free Download . Use the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this PDF file

Disclaimer: IMF Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to encourage debate. The views expressed in IMF Working Papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management.

Violent conflicts are typically associated with a long-lasting drag on economic output, yet establishing causality based on macro-data remains as a challenge. This study attempts to build causality in the conflict-growth nexus by exploiting within-country variation across industries’ technological intensity. It identifies a channel through which conflicts can impact growth, i.e., by hindering R&D activities. The analysis is based on industry-level data from two-digit manufacturing industries for a large sample of countries over the last four decades. The results show that conflicts lead to a decline in labor productivity growth, particularly in industries with higher technological intensity. The estimated magnitude of the differential effect of conflicts on labor productivity growth in high-tech industries is large. Moreover, the additional labor productivity loss in those industries in the years of conflicts does not seem to be offset in the post-conflict period neither. The findings offer insight into the observed patterns of durable declines in income in the aftermath of conflicts, considering the role of technological progress and innovation in long-term economic growth.

Working Paper No. 2024/098



Please address any questions about this title to [email protected]


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