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10 Evidence-Based Practice Examples

evidence-based practice examples and definition, explained below

Evidence-based practice is, as the name suggests, the idea that occupational practices should be based on scientific evidence.

Evidence-based practices were first introduced in medicine. Since then, they have become common in nursing (Ellis, 2016), education (Pring & Thomas, 2004), management, psychology (Hersen & Sturmey, 2012), architecture, urban planning, public policy (Loversidge & Zurmehly, 2019), law, philanthropy, and other fields. 

A simple example of evidence-based practice is when a therapist chooses to pivot to a new therapy strategy with a patient after receiving compelling new evidence in the academic literature that demonstrates its effectiveness.

Definition of Evidence-Based Practice

Evidence-based practice requires a systematic approach to the translation of research findings into practice.

Supporters of evidence-based practice claim that it can to bridge the gap between research and practical application (Reynolds, 2000, p. 19).

Evidence-based practices distinguish between research that has immediate practical significance and research that doesn’t.

In the case of medicine, this:

“….helps doctors to ignore the vast quantities of clinical research which are not of direct relevance to practice” (Reynolds, 2000, p. 19).

Evidence-based medicine, which is where evidence-based practice originated, consists of five explicit steps (Reynolds, 2000, pp. 22-23):

  • A Specific Question: First, the clinician, faced with a  patient or group of patients, constructs a specific question concerning their care. This could relate to the diagnosis of the problem, the most effective treatments and their possible side-effects, or the best method of delivering services to meet patients’ needs.
  • Finding the Best Evidence: The second stage consists of finding, as efficiently as possible, the best evidence to answer the clinical question.
  • Evaluating the Validirty and Usefulness: Third, the clinician evaluates the evidence for its validity and usefulness.
  • Applying the Practice: Fourth, the results are applied to the specific patient or group of patients.
  • Evaluating the Practice: Finally, the outcome of the intervention is evaluated. 

Evidence-based practices in other fields tend to follow a similar process that is modified to fit the context.

Evidence-Based Practice Examples

1. hand hygeine (healthcare).

Hand washing in hospitals emerged rather late in human history – around the 1840s according to the History Channel . This was based on some rather gruesome evidence.

Doctors began to notice that mothers’ deaths during childbirth were far higher in the doctors’ wards (about 98.4 deaths per 1000 births) compared to midwives’ wards (36.2 per 1000 births).

One Hungarian doctor, Ignaz Semmelweis, started conducting some tests to see why women were dying at such high rates in doctors’ wards. At first, he thought the priests’ bells were scaring women as priests would walk through doctors’ wards only. But rerouting the priests did nothing.

Then, he noticed that the doctors did a range of tasks during their day the midwives didn’t – including handling cadavers. He hypothesized that the doctors might be bringing matter from the cadavers into the wards on their hands. So, he made them wash their hands.

The result was fantastic – deaths during childbirth plummeted in the doctors’ wards.

Interestingly, it took Semmelweis a long time to convince other European doctors to follow his evidence-based practice, but eventually, his arguments won everyone over.

2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Psychotherapy)

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychological treatment grounded in empirical research.

It aims to help people re-frame their thoughts by identifying when a thought might be leading them astray. Amd teaches them to reframe their thoughts into ones that are more productive.

This therapy has been demonstrated to be effective for a range of disorders, including depression, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders.

Therapists and councillors have been compelled to bring CBT into their practice, and often replace medicinal treatments with CBT, due to substantial evidence that it is as effective as, or more effective than, psychiatric medications.

This intervention, then, is an example of how a therapeutic treatment is used because evidence suggests it’s highly effective.

3. Play-Based Learning (Education)

There was a period of time where play in the classroom was considered unacceptable – children should learn through repetition and rote learning!

But learning theorists in the early- to mid-20th Century, including Maria Montessori, Rudolph Steiner, and Mildred Parten, presented new evidence that play-based learning supports children’s cognitive development .

Following this evidence, a range of school curricula around the world have proactively encouraged play as a means for stimulating learning and development in the classroom.

4. Hot Spots Policing (Criminal Justice)

Hot spots policing focuses on small geographic areas or places, usually in urban settings, where crime is concentrated.

The majority of criminal events occur in these relatively few places, often termed ‘hot spots.’

Criminologists have found ample evidence that focussing resources on these hot spots can help to reduce crime rates, improve public safety, and more efficiently distribute police resources.

As a meta-analysis by Braga, Papachristos and Hureau (2014) concludes:

“The results of our research suggests that hot spots policing generates small but noteworthy crime reductions, and these crime control benefits diffuse into areas immediately surrounding targeted crime hot spots.”

Strategies used during hot spot policing include increasing police patrols, and problem-oriented policing strategies. Nevertheless, strategies need to be carefully catered in order to ensure prejudice, profiling, and discrimination do not occur.

5. Motivational Interviewing (Social Work)

Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a counseling approach designed to create safe spaces for clients to share their thoughts, have them heard with empathy, and lastly, to motivate clients to achieve change in their lives.

The eventual goal is to instil intrinsic motivation within the client, which can lead to long-term changes in behavior.

The concept has gained prominence in social work practice because a substantial corpus of evidence has emerged underpinning its effectiveness.

For example, two meta-analyses have found MI to effect change for clients:

“MI produced statistically significant, durable results” (Lundahl et al., 2010)
“Psychologists and physicians obtained an effect in approximately 80% of the studies, while other healthcare providers obtained an effect in 46% of the studies. When using motivational interviewing in brief encounters of 15 minutes, 64% of the studies showed an effect.” (Rubak et al., 2005)

6. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (Psychology)

DBT is a cognitive-behavioral treatment developed by Marsha Linehan for individuals with borderline personality disorder who engage in self-harming behaviors.

DBT combines principles of behavioral psychology, which are used to promote change, with mindfulness and acceptance strategies from eastern meditation traditions.

The efficacy of DBT has been shown in numerous randomized controlled trials for a variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive outcomes.

7. Formative Assessment (Education)

Formative assessment is an educational approach that involves testing students’ learning and development part-way through a unit of work.

It generally involves giving students pop quizzes or in-class assessments, followed by feedback on their work that they can use to identify weaknesses to work on prior to a final test.

It’s also extensively used to adjust teaching strategies mid-stream to better suit students’ needs.

Meta-analyses consistently find that it can help support student learning and outcomes:

“…meta-analysis research found consistent positive effects of formative assessment on student learning” (Lee et al., 2020, p. 125)

This ongoing, interactive assessment allows teachers to identify and address gaps in students’ understanding, helping students to learn more effectively. Evidence indicates that formative assessment can significantly enhance student learning.

8. Action Research (Various Fields)

Action research embraces the principles of evidence-based practice by empowering practitioners to gather their own evidence in their own contexts.

It is a method of research that involves practitioners conducting studies of their own practice, often in collaboration with their clients, patients, and students.

The action researcher conducts analysis of their own practice then uses the feedback gathered during their research process to make adjustments to their practice. Following this, more action research studies will take place, with scholars continuing to update and improve their work over time with the support of evidence collected during their research.

One big benefit of an action research approach is that the data is collected in their own settings, making the findings of the case studies extremely relevant to their practice.

9. Effective Altruism (Philanthropy)

Effective Altruism is a philosophy and social movement that advocates for making the world a better place in the most effective way possible.

It is unique in the fact that it researches the most effective companies to donate to, based on factors like bang-for-your-buck, how much money is wasted on administration and marketing, and so on. The idea is to ensure your philanthropic donations do the most good in the world.

Often, it finds that people should donate to highly efficient charities who work on causes such as global poverty in the developing world, where one dollar can go a long way in saving and improving lives.

10. Use of Checklists in Surgery (Healthcare)

Checklists are used in medicine, particularly in surgical procedures, to reduce errors and improve patient safety.

The WHO’s Surgical Safety Checklist is a prominent example. It includes a series of checks to be done before induction of anesthesia, before the incision of the skin, and before the patient leaves the operating room.

The introduction of this checklist in healthcare has resulted in significant reductions in both morbidity and mortality (Kramer & Drews, 2016), leading to its widespread adoption.

Evidence-based practice has underpinned significant improvements in outcomes across multiple professions, from healthcare to social work, to education. By basing your work on evidence rather than anecdote or assumptions, we can have higher standards in our professions and better serve our communities. However, this comes with burdens, such as the need for ongoing professional development and consistent action research to assess whether outcomes of interventions match our expectations.

Braga, A. A., Papachristos, A. V., & Hureau, D. M. (2014). The effects of hot spots policing on crime: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Justice quarterly , 31 (4), 633-663.

Ellis, P. (2016). Evidence-based Practice in Nursing . SAGE Publications.

Geddes, J. (2000). Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health. In Trinder, L., & Reynolds, S. (2000). Evidence-Based Practice: A Critical Appraisal . Blackwell.

Guyatt, G., Cairns, J., Churchill, D., Cook, D., Haynes, B., Hirsh, J., Irvine, J., Levine, M., Levine, M., Nishikawa, J., Sackett, D., Brill-Edwards, P., Gerstein, H., Gibson, J., Jaeschke, R., Kerigan, A., Neville, A., Panju, A., Detsky, A., … Tugwell, P. (1992). Evidence-Based Medicine: A New Approach to Teaching the Practice of Medicine. JAMA , 268 (17), 2420–2425. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03490170092032

Lee, H., Chung, H. Q., Zhang, Y., Abedi, J., & Warschauer, M. (2020). The effectiveness and features of formative assessment in US K-12 education: A systematic review. Applied Measurement in Education , 33 (2), 124-140.

Hersen, M., & Sturmey, P. (2012). Handbook of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Psychology, Adult Disorders . John Wiley & Sons.

Hjørland, B. (2011). Evidence-based practice: An analysis based on the philosophy of science. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology , 62 (7), 1301–1310. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.21523

Ioannidis, J. P. A., Fanelli, D., Dunne, D. D., & Goodman, S. N. (2015). Meta-research: Evaluation and Improvement of Research Methods and Practices. PLoS Biology , 13 (10), e1002264. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002264

Kramer, H. S., & Drews, F. A. (2017). Checking the lists: A systematic review of electronic checklist use in health care. Journal of biomedical informatics , 71 , S6-S12.

Loversidge, J. M., & Zurmehly, J. (2019). Evidence-Informed Health Policy . Sigma Theta Tau.

Lundahl, B. W., Kunz, C., Brownell, C., Tollefson, D., & Burke, B. L. (2010). A meta-analysis of motivational interviewing: Twenty-five years of empirical studies. Research on social work practice , 20 (2), 137-160.

MacAskill, W. (2017). Effective Altruism: Introduction. Essays in Philosophy , 18 (1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.7710/1526-0569.1580

MacAskill, W., & Pummer, T. (2020). Effective Altruism. In International Encyclopedia of Ethics (pp. 1–9). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444367072.wbiee883

Parry, G. (1992). Improving psychotherapy services: Applications of research, audit and evaluation. British Journal of Clinical Psychology , 31 , 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1992.tb00964.x

Pring, R., & Thomas, G. (2004). Evidence-based Practice in Education . McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Reynolds, S. (2000). The Anatomy of Evidence-Based Practice: Principles and Methods. In Trinder, L., & Reynolds, S. (2000). Evidence-Based Practice: A Critical Appraisal . Blackwell.

Rosenberg, W., & Donald, A. (1995). Evidence based medicine: An approach to clinical problem-solving. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) , 310 (6987), 1122–1126. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.310.6987.1122

Rubak, S., Sandbæk, A., Lauritzen, T., & Christensen, B. (2005). Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British journal of general practice , 55 (513), 305-312.

Sackett, D. L., Rosenberg, W. M. C., Gray, J. A. M., Haynes, R. B., & Richardson, W. S. (1996). Evidence based medicine: What it is and what it isn’t. BMJ , 312 (7023), 71–72. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7023.71

Smolen, P., Zhang, Y., & Byrne, J. H. (2016). The right time to learn: Mechanisms and optimization of spaced learning. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience , 17 (2), 77–88. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2015.18

Sutherland, W. (2003). Evidence-based Conservation. Conservation in Practice , 4 (3), 39–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4629.2003.tb00068.x

Tabibian, B., Upadhyay, U., De, A., Zarezade, A., Schölkopf, B., & Gomez-Rodriguez, M. (2019). Enhancing human learning via spaced repetition optimization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 116 (10), 3988–3993. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1815156116

Tolin, D. F. (2010). Is cognitive–behavioral therapy more effective than other therapies?: A meta-analytic review. Clinical psychology review , 30 (6), 710-720.

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Tio Gabunia is an academic writer and architect based in Tbilisi. He has studied architecture, design, and urban planning at the Georgian Technical University and the University of Lisbon. He has worked in these fields in Georgia, Portugal, and France. Most of Tio’s writings concern philosophy. Other writings include architecture, sociology, urban planning, and economics.

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How to Write an Evidence-Based Practice Paper in Nursing

How to Write Evidence-Based Papers in Nursing

Some call it an EBP paper while some evidence-based research paper, and it comes in many other forms as well, including EBP case reports, EBP capstone projects, EBP coursework, or EBP thesis. Regardless of the name, without explicit knowledge on how to write an evidence-based practice paper, you cannot wrap your mind around it. Evidence-based papers are written by students so that they can develop confidence, research interests, critical thinking, creativity, and decision-making skills that are applicable in real-world clinical settings.

Any nursing school student must write an evidence-based practice paper. In most cases, EBP papers can come in the form of change management papers where quality improvement processes are recommended. To avoid making blunders when writing, it is vital to grasp the entire writing process.

Unlike other nursing papers and essays, evidence-based practice papers require in-depth reasoning, research, and reading. We acknowledge that writing a great evidence-based paper that is gradable takes sweat and is very challenging.

We have compiled this guideline for writing an evidence-based nursing paper to ease the burden on your side. If you quite can't find it easy even after reading this article, we have experienced nursing paper writers who can always help you.

We are the best nursing paper writing service; we do this to help you take care of your wellbeing, achieve freedom, and extend your time caring for others in your clinical. Let us dig right into it, won't we?

What is Evidence-Based Practice?

Evidence-Based Practice in the field of nursing focuses on the premise that medical practice should focus on adapted and developed principles through a cycle of evidence, research, and analysis of theory. Evidence-based practice intends to address the changes in practice based on the nursing and non-nursing theories developed through proper research.

In nursing, the implementation of EBP comes in the form of a systematic review, where research is reviewed based on a particular guideline to determine its suitability for being used as a gold standard in practice.

The systematic review helps in sense-making from the mammoth of information available for effective change management, implementation, and institutionalization. 

The EBP process involves six significant steps:

  • Assessment of the need for change : This entails the formulation of a research question or hypothesis based on the gaps in current practice.
  • Location of the best evidence : Depending on the levels of nursing resources or evidence, the next step entails assessing the credibility, reliability, and relevance of the evidence or peer-reviewed articles.
  • Synthesis of evidence : This step involves the comparison and contrast of available sources of evidence to establish similarities and differences to determine the best course of approach.
  • Designing change : through the results of the synthesis of the available evidence, the next step is to create an effective change based on the evidence collected. It also involves drafting the change implementation plan within the clinical setting.
  • Implementing and Evaluating Change : After the design comes to the process of initiating the change through change advocates such as nurse leaders and nurses themselves, it is the phase where the new process is established into practice. Various change management theories can be followed to ensure the fruition of the change management plan.
  • Integration and Sustaining Change : Once the new evidence has been used to implement change, it is adopted through policy or guidelines within the clinical settings. It also entails the process of continuous improvement to achieve the best.

Steps of Writing an EBP Research Paper in Nursing

Once you have been assigned to write an evidence-based paper, you need to follow the steps below to write the best essay.

1. Choose a Topic for your Paper

There are many methods you can use when choosing an EBP topic. You can get ideas from your coursework, peer-reviewed sources, class assignments, and past evidence-based projects done. Thanks to the Internet, there are various evidence-based practice topic ideas. However, choose a topic that resonates well with your passion and interest in nursing practice. For instance, if you are looking forward to improving patient flow in the ED using technology, be sure that you are cognizant of such technology as EHR or HIT. Begin by exploring the assignment and make some notes; you should then settle for a tentative topic.

2. Consult with your Professor/Instructor

Nursing education, just like nursing practice, calls for collaboration and getting feedback. Therefore, once you have selected a creative, evidence-based practice topic , you must make an appointment with either the writing center or the professor/instructor for confirmation. In some instances, your professor/instructor will request for an evidence-based practice proposal. In the EBP proposal, you must state the nursing issue you intend to solve, the change management process, and the rationale for the change. If it is convincing enough, you will get a go-ahead. Otherwise, you will need to revise the EBP nursing proposal.

Tip: SELECT a good health indicator (disease, health conditions, working/living conditions) , DESCRIBE the population or sub-population of the target, find EVIDENCE of around 7-10 peer-reviewed sources that support your proposal, and DESCRIBE the intended outcomes and rationale of the change proposed in the clinical setting.

Some of the health indicators you can use for your EBP paper include socio-economic status; gender, education, environment, employment, genetic endowment, culture, child development, healthcare services, access, quality, cost of care, social support, coping skills, etc.

The EBP papers can include a change model, population health model, nursing theory, and nursing interventions and each must be justified using credible evidence.

3. Gathering Supporting Evidence - Research

The backbone of an evidence-based paper is evidence. Therefore, you need to extensively research both online and print sources to get facts to support your EBP paper thesis statement. Once you have developed the problem statement and outlined the thesis statement, you should critically evaluate the sources to determine those that support the thesis.

In some instances, the instructor might request you to write an annotated bibliography or critically analyze each of the articles or the main article that supports your evidence-based practice paper. A common approach is through using an evidence evaluation table. When selecting the sources, remember that there are both primary and secondary sources.

You can get primary and secondary sources from databases such as PubMed, EBSCO, UpToDate, TRIP Database, OVID, The Cochrane Collaboration, and CINAHL.  Besides, you can depend on .gov, .org, and .edu websites to get information. Professional and government organizations, as well as NGOs, can be a starting point of research. They are an excellent resource for statistics, epidemiology data, and further information. Excellent research means that the research question, hypothesis, and thesis statement will be supported and answered.

Related: How to write a great thesis statement for any paper.

Deciding on the Best Resources for EBP Papers

There are primary and secondary data sources when it comes to scientific writing. Instead of collecting and analyzing real data as students do for qualitative and quantitative or mixed methods thesis, dissertation, and research papers, an EBP paper is purely based on the published findings from primary research. It is imperative, therefore, that a nursing student only uses credible, valid, and reliable sources. Here are three criteria to select a good source for your EBP paper:

  • A research journal article is only reliable if published in a reliable database/journal and is peer-reviewed. It depends on the level of the evidence as well. Will the same test yield similar results if replicated?
  • A valid research study has followed the strict research protocols, is up to date, and is relevant to the chosen EBP paper topic selected. Does the study measure what it says it intends to measure?
  • Credible research that can be incorporated into an EBP paper must have verifiable findings, published in a reputable journal, and is scholarly. Is the research study from a reputable journal?
  • Is the research report, article, or journal primary research such as qualitative research, quantitative research, randomized controlled trial, controlled case studies, or quasi-experimental study?

It is only natural that you can dislike the entire process of writing an EBP paper, not because you don't know how to, but probably because of the strict and laborious process. If this is the case, our nursing writing service is all you need for your peace of mind. We have experienced nursing assignment help experts who can craft the best papers for you. Stop, think about it, and let us know if you need some help.

Related reading: How to title an article in an academic paper.

Outline of an Evidence-Based Practice Paper

A good evidence-based paper in nursing must have several parts, each of which are completed with precision, care, and wit. If you have researched online for evidence-based practice paper examples , you will agree with us that the format or structure is more or less as broken down below. It is the same structure you will see on an evidence-based practice paper template that you will likely receive from class.  Here is a critical breakdown of what to include in your nursing evidence-based practice paper:

1. Title of the EBP Paper

A good title will either attract and keep or turn off your audience, instructor/professor. Therefore, having an excellent title for your evidence-based practice case study, report, write-up, or research paper is paramount. The title aims to set the scope of the EBP paper and provide a hint about the hypothesis or thesis statement. It is, therefore, imperative that it is concise, clear, and fine-tuned. If you decide to write the title as a question, you could paraphrase the PICOT statement, for example. Otherwise, it can also take forms such as statements or facts opposing the status quo. Whichever direction you choose to align to, the aim remains constant to give more insight to the reader from the onset.

2. Thesis Statement

While the PICOT statement can already tell what your entire EBP paper is all about, you need to develop a great thesis statement. A thesis statement, usually the last sentence or two, is like a blueprint of the entire paper. It is the foundation upon which the whole paper is built. Take note that a thesis is not a hypothesis, which is an idea that you either want to prove or refute based on a set of available evidence. An evidence-based practice paper with a thesis ultimately earns the best grade without leaving the reader to look for it the entire paper.

The thesis statement must be specific, manageable, and enjoyable. A sample EBP thesis statement can be: According to new developments in genomics and biotechnology, stem cells have reportedly been used in breast cancer treatment with higher chances of remission in the patients. Novel approaches to pain management dictate that a nurse must obtain three kinds of knowledge to respond effectively to patients' pain: knowledge of self, knowledge of standards of care, and knowledge of pain.

A thesis can also be an implied argument, which makes it descriptive. However, not so many professors like such. This paper discusses

3. Introduction

The introduction of evidence-based practice must reflect certain elements. First, you must present a background to the research question or nursing issue. It would help if you also painted a clear picture of the problem through a thorough and brief problem statement and at the same time, provide the rationale. You can organize your intro into a PICO:

Patient/Problem : What problems does the patient group have? What needs to be solved?

Intervention : What intervention is being considered or evaluated? Cite appropriate literature.

Comparison : What other interventions are possible? Cite appropriate literature.

Outcome : What is the intended outcome of the research question?

The thesis statement we have discussed above then comes in as either a sentence or two in the last part of the introduction. The research problem should help generate the research question or hypothesis for the entire EBP paper.

4. Methodology

As indicated before, an EBP research paper does not focus on research; instead, it focuses on a body of knowledge or evidence. For that matter, when writing an EBP paper, you only collect data from literature produced on your chosen topic. A confusing bit when researching evidence to use is deciding on what level of evidence to use. There are systematic reviews, literature reviews, white papers, opinion papers, practice papers, peer-reviewed journals, critically appraised topics, RCTs, Case-controlled studies, or cohort studies, you name it. You must decide which level of evidence is appropriate. It trickles down to the scholarly source's validity, reliability, and credibility. Your methodology should include:

  • The databases you searched, the search terms, the total articles yielded per search, the inclusion and selection criteria, the exclusion criteria.
  • You should indicate the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the articles and the number of articles you finally end up with.

You can further choose to use knowledge as evidence based on authority, a priori, theory, and tenacity, as advised by Fawcett and Garity in their book Evaluating research for evidence-based nursing practice.

5. EBP Literature Review

In the literature review section, you aim to explore the associations of the evidence chosen given your topic. It aims at either finding the gap in those studies or using the knowledge to build on the topic. For instance, if you are to come up with a new management approach for pressure ulcers in palliative care, choose credible evidence on the topic. Find the effectiveness of your proposed approach in other environments, what works well, and what precautions should be taken. It is more of comparing and contrasting the sources. You also ought to be critical as it is the only way you can develop the best EBP paper. It is here that you report your findings from the literature. You can do it in the form of a table outlining the aspects of each study including demographics, samples, methodology, and level of evidence, results, and limitations.

6. Discussion

Like any other professional research setting, the discussion section often discusses the changed practice, implementation approach, and evaluation strategies. This can be your approach as well in your EBP paper. However, go further to explore how the findings led to a given change in practice, the efficiency after that, and suggest the best strategy for implementing the change in your chosen organization. Make comparisons if necessary.

7. Conclusion

In your conclusion, you should wind up the paper, summarize the EBP paper, and leave the readers satisfied. Your revamped thesis statement can feature in the conclusion. Make your conclusion count.

Finally, your EBP paper must have references, works cited, or a bibliography section. You realize that most EBP papers are written in either APA formatting or Harvard formatting .

Furthermore, it would be best if you wrote your abstract section last, which is about 150-250 words. It aims to offer a highlight of the entire evidence-based paper.

Here is a graphic/visual representation of the entire EBP writing process for students.

How to write an evidence based paper

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You can get a sample EBP research paper to benchmark on as you complete your nursing evidence-based research paper. Apart from the EBP research paper examples online, we offer you the chance to have a custom sample that matches your instructions. 

In this article, we have answered the question: what is EBP? What is an EBP research paper? and how to write an APA evidence-based research paper in nursing.

If you are far ahead in your nursing level, our article on nursing capstone ideas can also be an excellent place to sojourn and drink from the fountain of wisdom. The students who have sourced examples of evidence-based practice assignments from us have ended up mastering concepts. Do not just wait, be part of the excelling team!

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172 Evidence Based Practice Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

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  • Evidenced-Based Practice: Autism Management in Children Autism largely is connected to communication abilities of a child, a situation that later results into the child experiencing disability problems in effectively encoding and decoding communicative messages.
  • Evidence-Based Practices and Students with ASD The researcher’s findings are the recommendations on how to choose the effective program for students with autism spectrum disorders and the list of the possible relevant programs and evidence-based practices.
  • Qualitative Research Studies in Evidence-Based Practice There is a need for increased use of the measures in clinical settings since physicians and nurses have experience in their effectiveness.
  • Barriers of Evidence-based Practices Some of the factors that Parahoo identified included inability of authority to change the existing practices, inadequate understandability of the research reports and less time to integrate new ideas in the nursing practices.
  • Promoting Evidence-Based Practice in the Workplace It is paramount to engage other leaders in promoting EBP throughout the organization so as to stimulate the creation of various facilitation strategies for EBP use.
  • Palliative Care: Evidence-Based Practice This problem is rather relevant for the existing health care environment because it is pivotal to identify the best way to deal with pains in palliative cancer patients and facilitate their living through the proposed […]
  • Hand Hygiene as an Evidence-Based Practice The structure of the paper includes a critical analysis of the identified everyday practice, interpretation of the types of knowledge informing the issue, and recommendations for future practice.
  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy as Evidence-Based Practice The process of treatment varies from one individual to another, and the age bracket of the patient determines it. Therefore, the health care personnel must find a way to bring the patient to the understanding […]

  • Post-Traumatic Stress and Evidence-Based Practice The application of this strategy to work with clients includes concentration on the ideas received due to the traumatic events of the past for the purpose of reevaluation of behavior patterns they dictate.
  • Ethics in Evidence-Based Practice Implementation From the ethical perspective, a practitioner should commit to the organizational policy; however, the principle of following evidence-based practice also suggests that the intervention should be provided to meet the needs of targets.
  • Evidence-Based Practice for Recovery and Socialization As for the healthcare sector, its development remains the main priority as it maintains the state of the nations health and tries to improve the quality of peoples life.
  • Sepsis in Elderly: Evidense-Based Practice What types of infection may lead to sepsis, and which of them is the most dangerous? What are the most common symptoms of sepsis?
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Primary Care Unit Every practitioner in my unit is always encouraged to use EBP in order to deliver high-quality and timely medical services to the targeted patients.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in the Intensive Care Unit The purpose of this paper is to identify challenges that are associated with the implementation of an evidence-based approach in a clinical environment and describe strategies that can be used for implementing this approach.
  • Evidence-Based Human Resource Management Practices In the first one, the researchers wanted to assess the extent to which HRM managers use evidence-based approaches when making decisions in the workplace. In the second study, the aim was to establish the forms […]
  • Nursing Theory: Evidence-Based Practice The nursing model that can be used as a framework to promote the management of the identified issue is patient-centered care.
  • Evidence Based Practice’ Impact on Nursing The selected article offers meaningful insights that can empower nursing educationists and practitioners to embrace the power of evidence-based practice. This article describes the meaning of EBP and how it can be implemented in nursing […]
  • Preoperative Screening as an Evidence-Based Practice The target population is the orthopedic surgical population; thus, only studies that have tested the efficacy of the MRSA screening protocol will be included in this review. Nonetheless, two nurses will be used in the […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing One of the challenges of patient-centered care is the disruption of balance in addressing the needs of patients with different needs.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Bronx: Evidence-Based Practice A program that promotes health through dietary change should address the socioeconomic specificities of communities in the Bronx by offering educational classes that provide affordable alternatives to unhealthy but cheap foods.
  • Using Health Information Technology as a Source of Evidence Based Practice For instance, nursing benefits from the use of the given approach as it provides specialists with an opportunity to investigate a particular problem using relevant data from other sources and creating the most efficient intervention […]
  • Hospice Nursing and Evidence-Based Practice The use of evidence-based practice in hospice nursing is often complicated by the nature of care, as nurses rely on their personal experience and interactions with their coworkers.
  • Evidence-Based Practice and Research in Nursing In a journal club, nurses are introduced to the concept of EBP the first step in the model of Cullen and Adams.
  • Fall Prevention: Evidence-Based Practice Changes The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the economic, legal, and political factors that may contribute to the implementation of evidence-based or sustainable practice changes.
  • Obstacles to Evidence-Based Practice Implementation One of the most effective ways to ensure high quality of care and procedure standardization in health care is the implementation of evidence-based practice.
  • Nursing Informatics and Evidence-Based Practice Evidence-based practice has become central to nursing practice and is actively promoted in both nursing education and real-world procedures to ensure that the latest and most accurate scientific data, clinical expertise, and methods of healthcare […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Professional Nursing In addition to that, focusing on cost-effective techniques will help address the financial aspect of care and make the implementation of a project less difficult.
  • Evidence-Based Practice: Effectiveness of Change Because enhancing patient outcomes is the main objective of any evidence-based nursing endeavor, it is imperative to measure the effects of introduced changes to be able to determine whether the new intervention or strategy is […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice and Integration Models EBM in nursing is the concept of making a decision based on the importance of practical knowledge and taking into account the interests of the patients to provide an individualized approach.
  • Sustaining Evidence-Based Practice Change While short-term results of EBP change implementation may be promising, the pace may change after the initial six months. First, the lack of knowledge and experience can directly influence the outcomes.
  • Ways of Knowing: Evidence-Based Practice To become a good and qualified nurse means to deal with several tasks, and one of them is to be sure of the quality of offered information.
  • The Importance of Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing The core of this interaction is to learn and understand the circumstances of the situation and to direct the course of action to achieve the desired outcome of healing and recuperation on the part of […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice: Models and Theory Then, there is a general assessment of the obtained data and summing up the intermediate results, and redirection of the patient to the appointed specialist.
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Mental Well-Being: Evidenced-Based Practice The main aim of the study was to assess the effects of traumatic experiences during childhood on the overall psychological health of an individual in his or her adulthood.
  • Leadership Roles in Promoting Evidence-Based Practice In the case of clinical practice, leaders, as the main link, decide on the need to create a new culture of perception of medical work in the organization.
  • Evidence-Based Multicultural Practice in Medicine Both EBP and CC share the common goal of utilizing key skills in ensuring optimal development of a client, but the former uses the latest research evidence, and the latter is based on cultural differences.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Informatics In this article, Rigby et al.want to demonstrate and promote the benefits for the application of the scientific process in the design and implementation of health IT.
  • Knowledge and Beliefs Concerning Evidence-Based Practice Finally it could also be a challenge of inability to appraise the evidence based practice.”The researchers must have also lost the morale to keep up carrying on the research because of the same result! A […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice: Health and Welfare The basis of the discussion here will be to provide evidence basis for the most effective health promotion activity that is specifically related to physical activities and the need of a healthy and active community.
  • Research Integration in Evidence-Based Practice Each source introduces a separate attitude to the problem of acute otitis media in children; the diversity of suggestions should help to define what kind of treatment is more appropriate in this case and how […]
  • Evidence-Based Clinical Nursing Practice A physical examination of the patient reveals no signs of illness, obesity, no signs of acute distress and she is wearing appropriate dress and is hygienically fine. The eyelids are normal and the conjunctiva is […]
  • Evidence-Based Nursing Practice Conceptual Frameworks Founded on the Lowa model evidence-based practice, a critical thinker should seek to determine organizations priority, the groundwork of the research, and the appropriateness for the acceptance of the modification in practice.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare I used the PICOT format to get research questions and thus identified patient problems, intervention processes, alternative intervention options, potential consequences, and the period for implementing interventions. By doing so, the database identified the population […]
  • Diabetes Management and Evidence-Based Practice Diabetes is a state of glucose intolerance that requires the management of blood glucose. Good glycemic control ensures that the level of glucose in a diabetic patient is maintained at levels similar to that of […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice: Chronic Neck Pain and Manipulative Therapy The PICO elements are: Population = patients with chronic neck pain Intervention = spinal manipulative therapy Comparison = home exercise program Outcome = pain relief *This table reports the history of an actual search of […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice Changes in a Clinical Setting To ensure closer interaction between the patients and healthcare providers, the human resource departments are required to institute measures that will streamline the progress of the EBP plan.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare This approach ensures the understanding of the concept while applying the tested principles to provide a high quality of healthcare and increase the effectiveness of the treatment and patient satisfaction.
  • Evidence-Based Practice and Applied Nursing Specifically, the researchers found that in three of the four hospitals that took part in the study, the infection rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia fell by between 38 and 61 percent following the educational intervention program.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: The Influenza Vaccine The project is aimed at finding out whether the influenza vaccine helps in the reduction of morbidity and mortality due to the influenza infections among the vulnerable groups particularly the elderly.
  • Evidence-Based Practice and Quadruple Aim Hence, according to the researchers, the first scholarly attempts resulted in the development of the Triple Aim, which encompassed the notions of the individual patient experience in healthcare, the tendency to improve the overall population […]
  • Creating a Culture of Evidence-Based Practice However, if it is included in the job description, and if time is allocated for nurses to engage in research, they will be more motivated to participate in the promotion of evidence-based practice.
  • The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice: Implementing Change Project The expected outcome is eliminating the risk of falls, reducing the number of falls, and preventing the falls-related injuries.
  • Fundamentals of Evidence-Based Practice in Health Care Evidence-based practice takes advantage of new knowledge developments and keeps the medical field up to date with the latest technological advances.
  • Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge in Social Media The rationale for the selected dissemination method is the increasing Internet penetration of global communities and healthcare providers’ preference for synthesized facts and findings that could inform point-of-care decision-making.
  • The History of Evidence-Based Practice Another important skill required for the nursing practice is the ability to apply theoretical knowledge to practice in order to secure the best result.
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Medication Management Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal type of disorder that is observed among women of reproductive age.
  • Evidence-Based Practice for Increasing Life Expectance of Mentally Ill People Certain circumstances accompanying the mental disorders contribute to the decreased life expectancy of the ill. Therefore, individuals with mental disorders are more likely to commit suicide, suffer adverse effects of medications, and experience complicated interactions […]
  • Men in Nursing: Evidence-Based Practice Proposal The traditional methods of addressing nurse understaffing are designed using retention and hiring practices supported by empirical evidence.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Treating Hypertension On the other hand, in most cases, the patient does not have any medical qualifications to participate in the medical decision-making, which increases the risk of assigning the wrong healthcare method.
  • Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections: Evidence-Based Practice The recommendation to minimize unnecessary catheterization is supported by evidence from clinical trials and case control studies without randomization.
  • Evidence-Based Practices Overview It is vital to consider the role of culture in EBP, especially for persons who have severe and persistent mental illnesses, as it might influence the treatment outcomes.
  • Evidence-Based Practice and RN Case Management The job description of registered case manager nurses is explicitly correlated with the soft skill of finding a unique approach to the patient in order to secure long-term and efficient treatment.
  • Suicide Rates: Evidence-Based Practice Position Statement The PICO or clinical question formulated in regards to the identified healthcare issue is the following: in the population of adolescents aged between 10 and 19 presenting to emergency departments or their NPs, what is […]
  • Evidenced-Based Practice and Managerial Leadership: A Systematic Review With the development of the significance of leadership and strategy implementation, how leadership strategy affects research use in healthcare systems is getting increased consideration.
  • The Relationship Between Qualitative Analysis and Evidence-Based Practice Research Consequently, in this study, the qualitative analysis helped establish that social workers’ occupational practice in foster care should broadly incorporate caregivers to be effective, proving the relationship between qualitative analysis and EBP beneficial.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing Intervention However, the article’s findings are limited due to the use of a broad scope of the study, leading to issues of generalizability in VAP contexts The article by Gupta et al.detailed some of the best […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Preventing Patient Falls The solution to this problem seems to be subservient to each separate employee of the hospital, rather, it requires a plan and an in-depth understanding of the problem.
  • Evidence-Based Practice as Complex Process One of the primary objectives is to inspire young students to become in an infirmary and re-employ older infirmarians to offer patients expert care. The significant benefit of the EBP is that it enables nurses […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice and the Quadruple Aim The recent introduction of the Quadruple Aim approach emphasizes the importance of the healthcare system and healthcare workers. The goal of Quadruple Aim is to acknowledge the effort the healthcare system puts into the other […]
  • Implementation of the Evidence-Based Practice Recent research suggests that continuous education and training have a positive impact on preparing staff for the possibility of CLABSI occurrence and equipping them with knowledge and skills necessary for prevention and management.
  • Role of Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing Moreover, it is vital to examine levels of evidence to ensure the understanding of what sources of information are validated, relevant and can be used to implement EBP.
  • Independent and Dependent Variables in Evidence-Based Practice Projects However, when the experiment ends and the outcome analysis must be made, the numerical data is indispensable due to the further analysis needs.
  • Evidence-Based Practice Difficulties in Nursing The study examining nurses’ turnover intentions and the influence of ethical climate appeared in a peer-reviewed Nursing Ethics journal in 2020 and was conducted by the specialists in nursing management, Aditya Simha and Jatin Pandey.
  • Vatsalya Adult Daycare: Evidence-Based Practice of Social Work The category of migrants’ access to social and health services, which are provided in a complex in day care centers, is assessed based on the analysis of several indicators, starting with what happens to a […]
  • Implementing Evidence-Based Practice Education in Social Work That is why it is rational to suggest that sufficient data support the effectiveness of this evidence-based program, which advocates for selecting it for the Levy family. It is possible to expect that the proposed […]
  • The Ottawa Hospital: Recommending an Evidence-Based Practice Change The Ottawa Hospital is one of the most admired in Canada. There is a necessity to improve the system and encourage patients to use it.
  • Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Evidenced-Based Practice Change The first is the overall HAPU prevalence in patients, measured as a percentage to evaluate the effect of the proposed intervention, as used by Fremmelevholm and Soegaard.
  • Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing One way to secure such care is to refer to the latest scholarly findings to modify the approaches to care provision in the workplace.
  • Evidence-Based Practice Training Among Nurses Essentially, the project seeks to meet five major objectives that tackle both the nurses’ and patients’ well-being in the hospital setting: The first objective of the project is to explore how nurses’ level of EBP […]
  • Evidence-Based Research in Nursing Practice The collective database of the synthesized studies as suggested by the authors of the study, can be utilized by nurses to be empowered through evidence-based materials in the formulation of changes in universal health coverage.
  • Strategies for Teaching Evidence-Based Practice Simultaneously, it expands the understanding of EBP, and in combination with the research of May-Elin et al, it is possible to deliver an emphasis on training for the development of skills for nursing students.
  • Why Should Nursing Include Evidence-Based Practice? EBP should therefore be utilized by nurses in their daily routine as it will lead to enhanced professional accountability, improved patient outcomes, and improved utilization of resources.
  • The Role of Data in Evidence-Based Practice Program assessment enhances the management process by enabling the effective projection of risks and opportunities to ensure that the decisions benefit the organization.
  • Evidence-Based Practice and Safety Culture Standards It is up to the management to ensure that a safety culture is established by implementing strict measures to prevent it or fully informing the nurses about the potential ramifications of excessive workload.
  • Evidence-Based Practice and Healthcare Issues These issues are related to the costs of healthcare, namely the expensive services and the development of diseases due to the inaccessibility for people.
  • The Purpose of Evidence-Based Practice The purpose of evidence-based practice is to enable innovation with the purpose of serving patients better, improving clinical outcomes, and optimizing healthcare. One of the biggest weaknesses of EBP is the lack of evidence in […]
  • “Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs…” by Singleton The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the curriculum on the beliefs and implementation of EBP in medical students.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Medicine As a field that directly deals with human wellness, its professionals are both personally and occupationally invested in promoting the best outcomes for their subjects; with the development in medical research and the constant introduction […]
  • Choice of Evidence-Based Practice Model For example, the study conducted by Gorsuch et al.explored the influence of the ARCC model in EBP in 13 essential and 11 additional competencies for advanced nursing practice.
  • Evidence-Based Practice Improvement Initiative A team of professionals should analyze the issue and create a framework that can help minimize the risks that patients can be exposed to at the hospital.
  • The Evidence-Based Practice Assessment According to Elwy et al, while the methods may be the same for different types of assessment, the timing and purpose of using the obtained data are different. Therefore, the EBP project needs both formative […]
  • Evaluating of Evidence-Based Practice Research According to Bianchi et al, EBP is “the use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients”. In addition, it will provide information on where to find and how to […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice for Pressure Ulcer Prevention In this paper, the implementation of pressure ulcer checklists will be discussed using relevant evidence as well as applying the theoretical framework of the Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice.
  • The Role of Nursing Practitioner in Evidence-Based Practice One of these parts is the NP, and the purpose of the work is to analyze its functions as a multidisciplinary team member and its role in evidence-based practice.
  • Internal and External Evidences in Evidence-Based Practice Firstly, in clinical practice, experimental study, which is widely represented as a randomized controlled trial, demonstrates the highest quality of information and should prevail above other evidence levels in case of data misalignment.
  • The Role of Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare PICO is an acronym for the components of a medical research issue, each using their own category: Patient – the patient includes the demographic involved in the research e.g.sex, race.
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare: Concept Therefore, it is crucial to understand how valid the evidence is used in practice to be confident of the decisions made.
  • Evidence-Based Practice Evaluation Personally, I believe that I have a clear understanding of primary EBP principles since the current course has taught me how to collect and use evidence-based data.
  • Evidence-Based Practices: Implications for Nursing Professional Development Discussing evidence-based practices was helpful from the perspective of the future appliance of some of the learned concepts in professional development as a nurse. The course contributed to the understanding of how scientific research in […]
  • Evidence-Based Practice: Fidelity, Adaptation, and Fit The primary aim of measuring fidelity of an intervention is to document an internal validity of a study and provide evidence that the result obtained from a treatment related to the intervention. As a result, […]
  • Addressing Infection Control Issues in Evidence-Based Practice The first step in addressing this issue demands an organization to define the problem’s severity and impact on the hospital’s functioning. In general, my organization needs to find appropriate solutions to the infection control issue […]
  • Evidence‐Based Practice Implementation in Acute Care The ability to use these policies intelligently and apply the necessary provisions to individual practice is a significant factor in providing skilled care to the population.
  • The Benefits of the Evidence-Based Practice in Breastfeeding
  • Attitudes Towards and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice
  • Importance of the Evidence-Based Practice in the Occupational Therapy
  • The Relations Between Autism and Evidence-Based Practice
  • Advanced Research Methods: The Case of Evidence-Based Practice
  • Best Evidence-Based Practice of Prevention and Management
  • Challenges and Opportunities for Evidence-Based Practice
  • The Relationships Between Childhood and Evidence-Based Practice
  • Clinical Decision-Making Using Evidence-Based Practice
  • Describing the Importance Of Evidence-Based Practice
  • Data Evidence-Based Practice on Adolescent Teeth
  • Connection Between Nursing Theory and Evidence-Based Practice
  • The Application of Evidence-Based Practice in Healthcare Setting
  • How Evidence-Based Practice Is Applied in the Practice Setting
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment
  • The Relationship Between Evidence-Based Practice and Chiropractic Practice
  • Relations Between Evidence-Based Practice and Clinical Decision Making
  • Evidence-Based Practice and Empirically Supported Treatment in Future Practice
  • Analysis of Evidence-Based Practice and Health Care Policy Decision
  • Evidence-Based Practice and Its Impact on Health and Wellness
  • Overview of Evidence-Based Practice and Psychological Treatments
  • Administrative Challenges on the Example of Evidence-Based Practice
  • Analyzing Evidence-Based Practice in Juvenile Justice Systems
  • The Link Between Bias, Racism, and Evidence-Based Practice
  • Integrating Evidence-Based Practice Into Clinical Settings
  • Evidence-Based Practice in Social Services Professions
  • The Relations Between Leadership Decisions and Evidence-Based Practice
  • Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Evidence-Based Practice
  • The Relationships Between Medical Research and Evidence-Based Practice
  • The Link Between Evidence Hierarchy and Evidence-Based Practice
  • Correlation of Nursing Ethics and Evidence-Based Practice
  • Evidence-Based Practice Implementation in Infection Control
  • Relationship Between Evidence-Based Practice and Informatics
  • The Key Concepts of Evidence-Based Practice
  • Relationship Between the Research Process and Evidence-Based Practice
  • The Correlations Between Risk Assessment and Evidence-Based Practice
  • Applying Evidence-Based Practice Interventions for PTSD
  • Depiction of the Barriers to Evidence-Based Practices
  • Using Evidence-Based Practice to Resolve a Nursing Issue
  • Youth Care Workers’ Perspectives on and Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice
  • How Did Evidence-Based Practice Transform Nursing?
  • What Are the Barriers to the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice in Underdeveloped Countries?
  • How Many Evidence-Based Practices Are There in Autism?
  • Why Do Nurses Use Evidence-Based Practice?
  • What Is the Purpose and Focus of Evidence-Based Practice?
  • How Does Evidence-Based Practice Improve Patient Care?
  • What Are the Components of Evidence-Based Practice in Early Childhood?
  • Should Clinicians Use Evidence-Based Practice?
  • What Are the Positive Effects of Evidence-Based Practice?
  • How Does Statistical Data Influence Evidence-Based Practice?
  • Why Is Evidence-Based Practice Important in Nursing?
  • What Is the Role of Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Decision-Making?
  • How Do Nurses Use Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing?
  • What Are the Factors Influencing the Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice?
  • How Does Evidence-Based Practice Benefit Nurses and Patients?
  • What Is the Main Purpose of Using Evidence-Based Best Practices?
  • Are Evidence-Based Practices Important in Autism?
  • Which Is the Most Important Element of Evidence-Based Practice?
  • What Are the Most Reliable Evidence-Based Practice Sources?
  • How Can Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice Be Overcome?
  • Why Are Validity and Reliability Important in Evidence-Based Practice?
  • What Are the Problems With Evidence-Based Practice?
  • How to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Evidence-Based Practice?
  • What Evidence-Based Practice Provides Strongest Evidence for Interventions?
  • What Are the Cultural Issues in Evidence-Based Practice?
  • How Is Qualitative Research Used in Evidence-Based Practice?
  • What Is the Impact of Evidence-Based Practice on Patient Care?
  • Does Evidence-Based Practice Improve Healthcare Quality?
  • Why Is Nursing Theory Important in Evidence-Based Practice?
  • What Is Critical Thinking in Evidence-Based Practice?
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  • The four main types of essay | Quick guide with examples

The Four Main Types of Essay | Quick Guide with Examples

Published on September 4, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

An essay is a focused piece of writing designed to inform or persuade. There are many different types of essay, but they are often defined in four categories: argumentative, expository, narrative, and descriptive essays.

Argumentative and expository essays are focused on conveying information and making clear points, while narrative and descriptive essays are about exercising creativity and writing in an interesting way. At university level, argumentative essays are the most common type. 

In high school and college, you will also often have to write textual analysis essays, which test your skills in close reading and interpretation.

Table of contents

Argumentative essays, expository essays, narrative essays, descriptive essays, textual analysis essays, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about types of essays.

An argumentative essay presents an extended, evidence-based argument. It requires a strong thesis statement —a clearly defined stance on your topic. Your aim is to convince the reader of your thesis using evidence (such as quotations ) and analysis.

Argumentative essays test your ability to research and present your own position on a topic. This is the most common type of essay at college level—most papers you write will involve some kind of argumentation.

The essay is divided into an introduction, body, and conclusion:

  • The introduction provides your topic and thesis statement
  • The body presents your evidence and arguments
  • The conclusion summarizes your argument and emphasizes its importance

The example below is a paragraph from the body of an argumentative essay about the effects of the internet on education. Mouse over it to learn more.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

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An expository essay provides a clear, focused explanation of a topic. It doesn’t require an original argument, just a balanced and well-organized view of the topic.

Expository essays test your familiarity with a topic and your ability to organize and convey information. They are commonly assigned at high school or in exam questions at college level.

The introduction of an expository essay states your topic and provides some general background, the body presents the details, and the conclusion summarizes the information presented.

A typical body paragraph from an expository essay about the invention of the printing press is shown below. Mouse over it to learn more.

The invention of the printing press in 1440 changed this situation dramatically. Johannes Gutenberg, who had worked as a goldsmith, used his knowledge of metals in the design of the press. He made his type from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony, whose durability allowed for the reliable production of high-quality books. This new technology allowed texts to be reproduced and disseminated on a much larger scale than was previously possible. The Gutenberg Bible appeared in the 1450s, and a large number of printing presses sprang up across the continent in the following decades. Gutenberg’s invention rapidly transformed cultural production in Europe; among other things, it would lead to the Protestant Reformation.

A narrative essay is one that tells a story. This is usually a story about a personal experience you had, but it may also be an imaginative exploration of something you have not experienced.

Narrative essays test your ability to build up a narrative in an engaging, well-structured way. They are much more personal and creative than other kinds of academic writing . Writing a personal statement for an application requires the same skills as a narrative essay.

A narrative essay isn’t strictly divided into introduction, body, and conclusion, but it should still begin by setting up the narrative and finish by expressing the point of the story—what you learned from your experience, or why it made an impression on you.

Mouse over the example below, a short narrative essay responding to the prompt “Write about an experience where you learned something about yourself,” to explore its structure.

Since elementary school, I have always favored subjects like science and math over the humanities. My instinct was always to think of these subjects as more solid and serious than classes like English. If there was no right answer, I thought, why bother? But recently I had an experience that taught me my academic interests are more flexible than I had thought: I took my first philosophy class.

Before I entered the classroom, I was skeptical. I waited outside with the other students and wondered what exactly philosophy would involve—I really had no idea. I imagined something pretty abstract: long, stilted conversations pondering the meaning of life. But what I got was something quite different.

A young man in jeans, Mr. Jones—“but you can call me Rob”—was far from the white-haired, buttoned-up old man I had half-expected. And rather than pulling us into pedantic arguments about obscure philosophical points, Rob engaged us on our level. To talk free will, we looked at our own choices. To talk ethics, we looked at dilemmas we had faced ourselves. By the end of class, I’d discovered that questions with no right answer can turn out to be the most interesting ones.

The experience has taught me to look at things a little more “philosophically”—and not just because it was a philosophy class! I learned that if I let go of my preconceptions, I can actually get a lot out of subjects I was previously dismissive of. The class taught me—in more ways than one—to look at things with an open mind.

A descriptive essay provides a detailed sensory description of something. Like narrative essays, they allow you to be more creative than most academic writing, but they are more tightly focused than narrative essays. You might describe a specific place or object, rather than telling a whole story.

Descriptive essays test your ability to use language creatively, making striking word choices to convey a memorable picture of what you’re describing.

A descriptive essay can be quite loosely structured, though it should usually begin by introducing the object of your description and end by drawing an overall picture of it. The important thing is to use careful word choices and figurative language to create an original description of your object.

Mouse over the example below, a response to the prompt “Describe a place you love to spend time in,” to learn more about descriptive essays.

On Sunday afternoons I like to spend my time in the garden behind my house. The garden is narrow but long, a corridor of green extending from the back of the house, and I sit on a lawn chair at the far end to read and relax. I am in my small peaceful paradise: the shade of the tree, the feel of the grass on my feet, the gentle activity of the fish in the pond beside me.

My cat crosses the garden nimbly and leaps onto the fence to survey it from above. From his perch he can watch over his little kingdom and keep an eye on the neighbours. He does this until the barking of next door’s dog scares him from his post and he bolts for the cat flap to govern from the safety of the kitchen.

With that, I am left alone with the fish, whose whole world is the pond by my feet. The fish explore the pond every day as if for the first time, prodding and inspecting every stone. I sometimes feel the same about sitting here in the garden; I know the place better than anyone, but whenever I return I still feel compelled to pay attention to all its details and novelties—a new bird perched in the tree, the growth of the grass, and the movement of the insects it shelters…

Sitting out in the garden, I feel serene. I feel at home. And yet I always feel there is more to discover. The bounds of my garden may be small, but there is a whole world contained within it, and it is one I will never get tired of inhabiting.

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Though every essay type tests your writing skills, some essays also test your ability to read carefully and critically. In a textual analysis essay, you don’t just present information on a topic, but closely analyze a text to explain how it achieves certain effects.

Rhetorical analysis

A rhetorical analysis looks at a persuasive text (e.g. a speech, an essay, a political cartoon) in terms of the rhetorical devices it uses, and evaluates their effectiveness.

The goal is not to state whether you agree with the author’s argument but to look at how they have constructed it.

The introduction of a rhetorical analysis presents the text, some background information, and your thesis statement; the body comprises the analysis itself; and the conclusion wraps up your analysis of the text, emphasizing its relevance to broader concerns.

The example below is from a rhetorical analysis of Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech . Mouse over it to learn more.

King’s speech is infused with prophetic language throughout. Even before the famous “dream” part of the speech, King’s language consistently strikes a prophetic tone. He refers to the Lincoln Memorial as a “hallowed spot” and speaks of rising “from the dark and desolate valley of segregation” to “make justice a reality for all of God’s children.” The assumption of this prophetic voice constitutes the text’s strongest ethical appeal; after linking himself with political figures like Lincoln and the Founding Fathers, King’s ethos adopts a distinctly religious tone, recalling Biblical prophets and preachers of change from across history. This adds significant force to his words; standing before an audience of hundreds of thousands, he states not just what the future should be, but what it will be: “The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.” This warning is almost apocalyptic in tone, though it concludes with the positive image of the “bright day of justice.” The power of King’s rhetoric thus stems not only from the pathos of his vision of a brighter future, but from the ethos of the prophetic voice he adopts in expressing this vision.

Literary analysis

A literary analysis essay presents a close reading of a work of literature—e.g. a poem or novel—to explore the choices made by the author and how they help to convey the text’s theme. It is not simply a book report or a review, but an in-depth interpretation of the text.

Literary analysis looks at things like setting, characters, themes, and figurative language. The goal is to closely analyze what the author conveys and how.

The introduction of a literary analysis essay presents the text and background, and provides your thesis statement; the body consists of close readings of the text with quotations and analysis in support of your argument; and the conclusion emphasizes what your approach tells us about the text.

Mouse over the example below, the introduction to a literary analysis essay on Frankenstein , to learn more.

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is often read as a crude cautionary tale about the dangers of scientific advancement unrestrained by ethical considerations. In this reading, protagonist Victor Frankenstein is a stable representation of the callous ambition of modern science throughout the novel. This essay, however, argues that far from providing a stable image of the character, Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on. While he initially appears to be a naive but sympathetic idealist, after the creature’s narrative Frankenstein begins to resemble—even in his own telling—the thoughtlessly cruel figure the creature represents him as. This essay begins by exploring the positive portrayal of Frankenstein in the first volume, then moves on to the creature’s perception of him, and finally discusses the third volume’s narrative shift toward viewing Frankenstein as the creature views him.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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At high school and in composition classes at university, you’ll often be told to write a specific type of essay , but you might also just be given prompts.

Look for keywords in these prompts that suggest a certain approach: The word “explain” suggests you should write an expository essay , while the word “describe” implies a descriptive essay . An argumentative essay might be prompted with the word “assess” or “argue.”

The vast majority of essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Almost all academic writing involves building up an argument, though other types of essay might be assigned in composition classes.

Essays can present arguments about all kinds of different topics. For example:

  • In a literary analysis essay, you might make an argument for a specific interpretation of a text
  • In a history essay, you might present an argument for the importance of a particular event
  • In a politics essay, you might argue for the validity of a certain political theory

An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

The key difference is that a narrative essay is designed to tell a complete story, while a descriptive essay is meant to convey an intense description of a particular place, object, or concept.

Narrative and descriptive essays both allow you to write more personally and creatively than other kinds of essays , and similar writing skills can apply to both.

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What this handout is about

This handout will provide a broad overview of gathering and using evidence. It will help you decide what counts as evidence, put evidence to work in your writing, and determine whether you have enough evidence. It will also offer links to additional resources.

Introduction

Many papers that you write in college will require you to make an argument ; this means that you must take a position on the subject you are discussing and support that position with evidence. It’s important that you use the right kind of evidence, that you use it effectively, and that you have an appropriate amount of it. If, for example, your philosophy professor didn’t like it that you used a survey of public opinion as your primary evidence in your ethics paper, you need to find out more about what philosophers count as good evidence. If your instructor has told you that you need more analysis, suggested that you’re “just listing” points or giving a “laundry list,” or asked you how certain points are related to your argument, it may mean that you can do more to fully incorporate your evidence into your argument. Comments like “for example?,” “proof?,” “go deeper,” or “expand” in the margins of your graded paper suggest that you may need more evidence. Let’s take a look at each of these issues—understanding what counts as evidence, using evidence in your argument, and deciding whether you need more evidence.

What counts as evidence?

Before you begin gathering information for possible use as evidence in your argument, you need to be sure that you understand the purpose of your assignment. If you are working on a project for a class, look carefully at the assignment prompt. It may give you clues about what sorts of evidence you will need. Does the instructor mention any particular books you should use in writing your paper or the names of any authors who have written about your topic? How long should your paper be (longer works may require more, or more varied, evidence)? What themes or topics come up in the text of the prompt? Our handout on understanding writing assignments can help you interpret your assignment. It’s also a good idea to think over what has been said about the assignment in class and to talk with your instructor if you need clarification or guidance.

What matters to instructors?

Instructors in different academic fields expect different kinds of arguments and evidence—your chemistry paper might include graphs, charts, statistics, and other quantitative data as evidence, whereas your English paper might include passages from a novel, examples of recurring symbols, or discussions of characterization in the novel. Consider what kinds of sources and evidence you have seen in course readings and lectures. You may wish to see whether the Writing Center has a handout regarding the specific academic field you’re working in—for example, literature , sociology , or history .

What are primary and secondary sources?

A note on terminology: many researchers distinguish between primary and secondary sources of evidence (in this case, “primary” means “first” or “original,” not “most important”). Primary sources include original documents, photographs, interviews, and so forth. Secondary sources present information that has already been processed or interpreted by someone else. For example, if you are writing a paper about the movie “The Matrix,” the movie itself, an interview with the director, and production photos could serve as primary sources of evidence. A movie review from a magazine or a collection of essays about the film would be secondary sources. Depending on the context, the same item could be either a primary or a secondary source: if I am writing about people’s relationships with animals, a collection of stories about animals might be a secondary source; if I am writing about how editors gather diverse stories into collections, the same book might now function as a primary source.

Where can I find evidence?

Here are some examples of sources of information and tips about how to use them in gathering evidence. Ask your instructor if you aren’t sure whether a certain source would be appropriate for your paper.

Print and electronic sources

Books, journals, websites, newspapers, magazines, and documentary films are some of the most common sources of evidence for academic writing. Our handout on evaluating print sources will help you choose your print sources wisely, and the library has a tutorial on evaluating both print sources and websites. A librarian can help you find sources that are appropriate for the type of assignment you are completing. Just visit the reference desk at Davis or the Undergraduate Library or chat with a librarian online (the library’s IM screen name is undergradref).

Observation

Sometimes you can directly observe the thing you are interested in, by watching, listening to, touching, tasting, or smelling it. For example, if you were asked to write about Mozart’s music, you could listen to it; if your topic was how businesses attract traffic, you might go and look at window displays at the mall.

An interview is a good way to collect information that you can’t find through any other type of research. An interview can provide an expert’s opinion, biographical or first-hand experiences, and suggestions for further research.

Surveys allow you to find out some of what a group of people thinks about a topic. Designing an effective survey and interpreting the data you get can be challenging, so it’s a good idea to check with your instructor before creating or administering a survey.

Experiments

Experimental data serve as the primary form of scientific evidence. For scientific experiments, you should follow the specific guidelines of the discipline you are studying. For writing in other fields, more informal experiments might be acceptable as evidence. For example, if you want to prove that food choices in a cafeteria are affected by gender norms, you might ask classmates to undermine those norms on purpose and observe how others react. What would happen if a football player were eating dinner with his teammates and he brought a small salad and diet drink to the table, all the while murmuring about his waistline and wondering how many fat grams the salad dressing contained?

Personal experience

Using your own experiences can be a powerful way to appeal to your readers. You should, however, use personal experience only when it is appropriate to your topic, your writing goals, and your audience. Personal experience should not be your only form of evidence in most papers, and some disciplines frown on using personal experience at all. For example, a story about the microscope you received as a Christmas gift when you were nine years old is probably not applicable to your biology lab report.

Using evidence in an argument

Does evidence speak for itself.

Absolutely not. After you introduce evidence into your writing, you must say why and how this evidence supports your argument. In other words, you have to explain the significance of the evidence and its function in your paper. What turns a fact or piece of information into evidence is the connection it has with a larger claim or argument: evidence is always evidence for or against something, and you have to make that link clear.

As writers, we sometimes assume that our readers already know what we are talking about; we may be wary of elaborating too much because we think the point is obvious. But readers can’t read our minds: although they may be familiar with many of the ideas we are discussing, they don’t know what we are trying to do with those ideas unless we indicate it through explanations, organization, transitions, and so forth. Try to spell out the connections that you were making in your mind when you chose your evidence, decided where to place it in your paper, and drew conclusions based on it. Remember, you can always cut prose from your paper later if you decide that you are stating the obvious.

Here are some questions you can ask yourself about a particular bit of evidence:

  • OK, I’ve just stated this point, but so what? Why is it interesting? Why should anyone care?
  • What does this information imply?
  • What are the consequences of thinking this way or looking at a problem this way?
  • I’ve just described what something is like or how I see it, but why is it like that?
  • I’ve just said that something happens—so how does it happen? How does it come to be the way it is?
  • Why is this information important? Why does it matter?
  • How is this idea related to my thesis? What connections exist between them? Does it support my thesis? If so, how does it do that?
  • Can I give an example to illustrate this point?

Answering these questions may help you explain how your evidence is related to your overall argument.

How can I incorporate evidence into my paper?

There are many ways to present your evidence. Often, your evidence will be included as text in the body of your paper, as a quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Sometimes you might include graphs, charts, or tables; excerpts from an interview; or photographs or illustrations with accompanying captions.

When you quote, you are reproducing another writer’s words exactly as they appear on the page. Here are some tips to help you decide when to use quotations:

  • Quote if you can’t say it any better and the author’s words are particularly brilliant, witty, edgy, distinctive, a good illustration of a point you’re making, or otherwise interesting.
  • Quote if you are using a particularly authoritative source and you need the author’s expertise to back up your point.
  • Quote if you are analyzing diction, tone, or a writer’s use of a specific word or phrase.
  • Quote if you are taking a position that relies on the reader’s understanding exactly what another writer says about the topic.

Be sure to introduce each quotation you use, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations for more details on when to quote and how to format quotations.

Like all pieces of evidence, a quotation can’t speak for itself. If you end a paragraph with a quotation, that may be a sign that you have neglected to discuss the importance of the quotation in terms of your argument. It’s important to avoid “plop quotations,” that is, quotations that are just dropped into your paper without any introduction, discussion, or follow-up.

Paraphrasing

When you paraphrase, you take a specific section of a text and put it into your own words. Putting it into your own words doesn’t mean just changing or rearranging a few of the author’s words: to paraphrase well and avoid plagiarism, try setting your source aside and restating the sentence or paragraph you have just read, as though you were describing it to another person. Paraphrasing is different than summary because a paraphrase focuses on a particular, fairly short bit of text (like a phrase, sentence, or paragraph). You’ll need to indicate when you are paraphrasing someone else’s text by citing your source correctly, just as you would with a quotation.

When might you want to paraphrase?

  • Paraphrase when you want to introduce a writer’s position, but his or her original words aren’t special enough to quote.
  • Paraphrase when you are supporting a particular point and need to draw on a certain place in a text that supports your point—for example, when one paragraph in a source is especially relevant.
  • Paraphrase when you want to present a writer’s view on a topic that differs from your position or that of another writer; you can then refute writer’s specific points in your own words after you paraphrase.
  • Paraphrase when you want to comment on a particular example that another writer uses.
  • Paraphrase when you need to present information that’s unlikely to be questioned.

When you summarize, you are offering an overview of an entire text, or at least a lengthy section of a text. Summary is useful when you are providing background information, grounding your own argument, or mentioning a source as a counter-argument. A summary is less nuanced than paraphrased material. It can be the most effective way to incorporate a large number of sources when you don’t have a lot of space. When you are summarizing someone else’s argument or ideas, be sure this is clear to the reader and cite your source appropriately.

Statistics, data, charts, graphs, photographs, illustrations

Sometimes the best evidence for your argument is a hard fact or visual representation of a fact. This type of evidence can be a solid backbone for your argument, but you still need to create context for your reader and draw the connections you want him or her to make. Remember that statistics, data, charts, graph, photographs, and illustrations are all open to interpretation. Guide the reader through the interpretation process. Again, always, cite the origin of your evidence if you didn’t produce the material you are using yourself.

Do I need more evidence?

Let’s say that you’ve identified some appropriate sources, found some evidence, explained to the reader how it fits into your overall argument, incorporated it into your draft effectively, and cited your sources. How do you tell whether you’ve got enough evidence and whether it’s working well in the service of a strong argument or analysis? Here are some techniques you can use to review your draft and assess your use of evidence.

Make a reverse outline

A reverse outline is a great technique for helping you see how each paragraph contributes to proving your thesis. When you make a reverse outline, you record the main ideas in each paragraph in a shorter (outline-like) form so that you can see at a glance what is in your paper. The reverse outline is helpful in at least three ways. First, it lets you see where you have dealt with too many topics in one paragraph (in general, you should have one main idea per paragraph). Second, the reverse outline can help you see where you need more evidence to prove your point or more analysis of that evidence. Third, the reverse outline can help you write your topic sentences: once you have decided what you want each paragraph to be about, you can write topic sentences that explain the topics of the paragraphs and state the relationship of each topic to the overall thesis of the paper.

For tips on making a reverse outline, see our handout on organization .

Color code your paper

You will need three highlighters or colored pencils for this exercise. Use one color to highlight general assertions. These will typically be the topic sentences in your paper. Next, use another color to highlight the specific evidence you provide for each assertion (including quotations, paraphrased or summarized material, statistics, examples, and your own ideas). Lastly, use another color to highlight analysis of your evidence. Which assertions are key to your overall argument? Which ones are especially contestable? How much evidence do you have for each assertion? How much analysis? In general, you should have at least as much analysis as you do evidence, or your paper runs the risk of being more summary than argument. The more controversial an assertion is, the more evidence you may need to provide in order to persuade your reader.

Play devil’s advocate, act like a child, or doubt everything

This technique may be easiest to use with a partner. Ask your friend to take on one of the roles above, then read your paper aloud to him/her. After each section, pause and let your friend interrogate you. If your friend is playing devil’s advocate, he or she will always take the opposing viewpoint and force you to keep defending yourself. If your friend is acting like a child, he or she will question every sentence, even seemingly self-explanatory ones. If your friend is a doubter, he or she won’t believe anything you say. Justifying your position verbally or explaining yourself will force you to strengthen the evidence in your paper. If you already have enough evidence but haven’t connected it clearly enough to your main argument, explaining to your friend how the evidence is relevant or what it proves may help you to do so.

Common questions and additional resources

  • I have a general topic in mind; how can I develop it so I’ll know what evidence I need? And how can I get ideas for more evidence? See our handout on brainstorming .
  • Who can help me find evidence on my topic? Check out UNC Libraries .
  • I’m writing for a specific purpose; how can I tell what kind of evidence my audience wants? See our handouts on audience , writing for specific disciplines , and particular writing assignments .
  • How should I read materials to gather evidence? See our handout on reading to write .
  • How can I make a good argument? Check out our handouts on argument and thesis statements .
  • How do I tell if my paragraphs and my paper are well-organized? Review our handouts on paragraph development , transitions , and reorganizing drafts .
  • How do I quote my sources and incorporate those quotes into my text? Our handouts on quotations and avoiding plagiarism offer useful tips.
  • How do I cite my evidence? See the UNC Libraries citation tutorial .
  • I think that I’m giving evidence, but my instructor says I’m using too much summary. How can I tell? Check out our handout on using summary wisely.
  • I want to use personal experience as evidence, but can I say “I”? We have a handout on when to use “I.”

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Lunsford, Andrea A., and John J. Ruszkiewicz. 2016. Everything’s an Argument , 7th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Miller, Richard E., and Kurt Spellmeyer. 2016. The New Humanities Reader , 5th ed. Boston: Cengage.

University of Maryland. 2019. “Research Using Primary Sources.” Research Guides. Last updated October 28, 2019. https://lib.guides.umd.edu/researchusingprimarysources .

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Effective Guide to Evidence-Based Essay Structure

Table of Contents

Students have to encounter an evidence-based essay at some point in college or university. Therefore, it’s important that you understand the evidence-based essay structure . The goal of such an essay is to take a position on the topic and support your argument’s validity with evidence.

Evidence-based writings are based on research and established facts, not suppositions or widely held beliefs. In this article, we’ll learn more about the importance and structure of writing an evidence-based essay.

What Is an Evidence-Based Essay?

An evidence-based essay aims to present your opinion on the topic and persuade your readers to accept your assertion. When writing a persuasive, analytical, or argumentative essay, you must use evidence to support your points.

“Evidence” can take many forms based on the genre, subject, and assignment. But quotations, statistics, and real-life examples are commonly considered evidences in academic papers. Every piece of evidence must be convincing and relevant to both the argument in your paragraph and your overarching thesis statement.

Why Is an Evidence-Based Essay Important?

An effective evidence-based essay is well-structured, well-organized, informative, and supported by credible sources . Writing an evidence-based essay improves students’ analytical skills while making them critical thinkers which helps them succeed in different aspects of their lives. A good evidence-based essay has a thesis that is based on empirical evidence and links it back to a solid conclusion.

Key Points for Evidence-Based Essay:

  • You must take your position on the subject while writing an evidence-based essay. It means expressing your viewpoint or belief and persuading your audience to agree with your claim.
  • You defend your stance and persuade readers of the validity of your argument by using different types of evidence. It could be research-based, industry-based, or experiential evidence to prove that your argument is well-founded.
  • You must pick your evidence carefully if you want your essay to be effective. It’s crucial to use appropriate evidence that is logical and adequately supports your claim. The best evidence is the one that is accurate, reliable, and taken from a credible source.
  • The reader must be guided by the use of evidence as you move logically from point A to point B and beyond. As readers go through your essay, they must gain a feeling of the “flow” of your ideas as you analyze the research. It must make readers trace the intellectual development from your initial stance to your evidence-based conclusion.

person holding on red pen while writing on book

Understand the Evidence-Based Essay Structure

Every essay follows a certain format and structure . Some of the key sections are common in almost all essays. An evidence-based essay is usually structured in the following way:

Introduction

The introduction is the first paragraph of your essay writing, which introduces the topic or problem along with some background information. In this section, you explain the importance and significance of the issue based on prevalence, severity, impacts, costs, and more.

Thesis or Goal

Introduce the topic of your essay by briefly summarizing what you will be discussing. Then state the thesis or goal ahead of time and why it is important that you and your reader argue for it.

The thesis of your essay is the main claim you’ll be trying to prove with your collected data or evidence. Clearly state the question to be addressed in the essay in a searchable format.

You must state the methods employed to achieve the evidence for the argument. Clearly describe the search approach used to gather the evidence and also include the criteria used to add or omit the evidence. Make sure to explain the underlying idea of the evidence you’re trying to get across to the audience.

Make sure to clearly uncover the results you achieved based on the different methods used to achieve the evidence. Explain to your audience the result you reached and how your evidence supports your claim. To make your essay coherent and logical, link the results to the overall idea of the essay.

Restate the thesis of your essay. Summarize your overall argument and the key evidence used to back up your claim. Then state the significance of your results to encourage readers to agree with your viewpoint. Finally, end the essay with a convincing concluding thought.

Wrapping Up

When writing an evidence-based essay, be sure to identify your thesis at the beginning of the essay and structure your essay around it. An evidence-based essay uses facts, quotations, and real-life examples to support the argument of the essay.

The goal is to persuade the reader to accept your assertion . This article discusses the importance of an evidence-based essay and how you should structure it effectively.

Effective Guide to Evidence-Based Essay Structure

Abir Ghenaiet

Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.

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Evidence Based Practice Essays (Examples)

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Evidence-Based Practice

Evidence-Based Practice There is a lot of talk about evidence-based practice in the medical community, and it may seem as though it is being overstated. However, that is definitely not the case. Evidence-based practice is very important in order to make sure healthcare outcomes are the best they can be. Any problematic outcomes can be improved through the use of scholarly inquiry and analysis. Being able to analyze issues properly and in a scholarly manner provides food for thought and also provides an opportunity for the most realistic and logical decision for patient care. This is not to say that logic is the only way to determine something, but that particular steps have to be taken in the vast majority of circumstances to ensure the patient is getting the best care. Nurses must not simply make a choice as to what kind of care to provide to a patient. The decision…

Evidence-ased Practice: Systems Theory and Diffusion of Innovation Theories to Healthcare Delivery and Nursing Practice The ability to acquire accurate and timely information enhances nursing practice and patient outcomes. Search engines and healthcare nursing databases operate in different ways, and it is necessary for healthcare professionals to understand how to access and efficiently use both public and professional resources. ecause today the public has greater access to electronic health information, healthcare professionals must be aware of the information their patients are accessing and be proficient at identifying credible sources. It is important for healthcare professionals to know how to use professional databases. Nursing practice needs to be based on evidence and access to healthcare databases assist nurses in identifying best practices. The use of theories from other disciplines also expands the breadth and depth of knowledge available to guide healthcare delivery and nursing practice. relating systems and diffusion of innovation theories…

Bibliography

Laszlo, A. And Krippner, S. (1998) Systems Theories: Their Origins, Foundations, and Development. Published in: J.S. Jordan (Ed.), Systems Theories and A Priori Aspects of Perception. Amsterdam: Elsevier

Science, 1998. Chapter 3, pp. 47-74.Retrieved from: http://archive.syntonyquest.org/elcTree/resourcesPDFs/SystemsTheory.pdf

These authors examine systems theories in terms of its origin and foundation. Examined is natural systems, reduction to dynamics, emergent properties and synergy, and the systems approach.

Martin, RL (2011) The Impact of System & Diffusion Theories in Evidence-Based Practice. Retrieved from:  http://www.scribd.com/doc/57300149/A-Discussion-on-Evidence-Based-Practice

Evidence-Based Practice Task a: Nursing esearch Journal in APA-Format Chaney, D. & Glacken, M. (2004). Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing esearch Findings in the Irish Practice Setting. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 731-740. The five areas of research, background information, literature review, methodology discussion, data analysis, and conclusion in the journal article. Areas of esearch eport Issues Addressed The researchers used information from previous studies like Treacy & Hyde, 2003 to create background for the research. The background indicates that nurses increasingly recognize the role of research in daily practice. However, there is evidence that there is a lack of actual application of research results in practice. The researchers identify the researches background as the lack of empirical investigations of the barriers to the implementation of research findings in nursing practice. eview of literature The researchers carry out a review of literature to support the topic and find evidence of the barriers to research in nursing application.…

Allison, R., Flowerdew, K., & Elsmlie, A. (2012). Promoting a discussion about adherence to psychiatric medication. Mental Health Practice, 16(3), 18-22.

Browne, G. & Quinn, C. (2009). Sexuality of People Living with a Mental Illness: A Collaborative Challenge for Mental Health Nurses. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 18, 195-203.

Buck, K.D. & Lysaker, P.H. (2010). Clinical Supervision for the Treatment of Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Pertinent Issues when Assisting Graduate Nursing Students. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 46(3), 234-244.

Chaney, D. & Glacken, M. (2004). Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing Research Findings in the Irish Practice Setting. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 731-740.

Evidence-Based Practice Hauck, Winsett and Kuric (2013) published "Leadership facilitation strategies to establish evidence-based practice in an acute care hospital" in the Journal of Advanced Nursing. The focus of this article is the role that leadership plays in the implementation of evidence-based practice. They note that there are three ways in which leadership can support the implementation of evidence-based practices. They can implement evidence-based practices in the strategic plan. They can support and mentor people within the organization, and lastly they can provide the resources for the education of the workforce. The authors found that when these interventions were implemented, "total group scores for beliefs and organizational readiness improved significantly" (Hauck, Winsett, Kuric, 2013, p.664). Summary of Key Points The authors noted that nurses outperformed other role types in this area. Thus, one of the key elements of nursing implementation is that the nursing leadership in the organization needs to prioritize the use…

Hauck, S., Winsett, R., & Kuric, J. (2013). Leadership facilitation strategies to establish evidence-based practice in an acute care hospital. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Vol. 69 (3) 664-674.

Evidence-Based Practice Is an Approach That Has

Evidence-based practice is an approach that has been applied to clinical practice and nursing. Evidence-based practice started initially in medicine and went to fields like education, psychology, nursing and dentistry. It should be noted that the research is based on studies that were carried out and these studies go on to fit the scenario that is currently being dealt with. Treatments that are supported empirically are the ones that are proven to be efficacious in a controlled research within a population. If a person knows that they are being treated after following a study with successful results, they will feel much better receiving the treatment as well (Chambless & Hollon, 1998) In simple words, decisions are made after looking at the best possible evidence that there is. It should be noted that the characteristics, needs, and preferences of the people in the study should match those of the case at hand. Organizations…

Addis, M. And Krasnow, A. (2000). A national survey of practicing psychologists' attitudes toward psychotherapy treatment manuals..Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68 (2), p. 331.

Chambless, D. And Hollon, S. (2013). Review Defining empirically supported therapies..J Consult Clin Psychol., 66 (1), pp. 7-18.

Dozois, D. (2013). Psychological treatments: Putting evidence into practice and practice into evidence..Canadian Psychology/Psychologiecanadienne, 54 (1), p. 1.

Meyer, B. And Dale, K. (2010). The impact of group cognitive complexity on group satisfaction: A person-environment fit perspective. Institute of Behavioural and Applied Management.

Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Practice

Janvnbakht, Hejazi, & Ghasemi (2009) have clearly identified the purpose of their study. hey have also stated the importance and relevance of the research topic to the current evidence-based practice. An already diagnosed illness of anxiety and depression is included in the study and evaluation of the history of other psychiatric illness confirmed before the study. he use of participants with an already diagnosed illness facilitates the study of the effectiveness of the yoga intervention in alleviating disorders and symptoms associated with anxiety and depression. here is an adequate description of the sample of the participants, response rate, and sample attrition. Critical Appraisal of the Research Article (cont'd) However, it fails to provide a detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria used in the study alongside the actions taken to maintain blinding. For example, the study fails to include strategies adopted to maintain blinding such as training the therapist not to discuss with the…

They incorporate their own data with that of other authors who have conducted similar researches found in the MEDLINE database.

For instance, they use the studies conducted by Milchalsen, Gupta, and Taherkhani to support their evidence of the effectiveness of the intervention.

Despite the contradiction of the results obtained by Pearson, Field & Jordan (2007), in their study,

Evidence-Based Practice EBP Is the Term That

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the term that refers to the need for nursing to be based on research that has been conducted in the most thorough scientific manner, consistently tested, rigorously proved, and only then published by peer-refereed academic journals. Evidence-based nursing is popular in nursing since it joins science with practice and bases nursing on a more critical scientific basis. It puts the nurse, so to speak, in the driver's seat and allows her -- in fact encourages her -- to question her transmitted teachings, to critically review authoritative sources of her field, and to herself conduct studies would she so wish. This is important in various ways: firstly it makes nursing a more of an intellectual study for students who may need and wish for that intellectual component. Secondly, it frees nurses form the traditional, often submissive and uncritical obeisance to doctors. Nurses are encouraged to critically question their teachings…

Cluett, ER Evidence-based practice  http://www.elsevierhealth.co.uk/media/us/samplechapters/9780443101946/9780443101946.pdf 

Sackett DL, Rosenberg WMC, Gray JAM et al. (1996) Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. British Medical Journal. 312;169 -- 171

Sackett DL, Straus SE, Richardson WS et al. (2000) Evidence-based medicine. How to practice and teach EBM, 2nd edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh

Scott, M., & McSherry, R. (2009). Evidence-based nursing: clarifying the concepts for nurses in practice, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18,1085-1095

Evidence-Based Practice Hendrich Fall Risk

A study conducted by Leep Hunderfund et al. tested the effectiveness of a follow-up assessment and risk factor specific intervention measures in reducing falls in an inpatient setting (2011). The study suggested that the Hendrich isk Fall Model works as an effective primary screening tool and, when used in combination with further physician assessment, reduces the number of patient falls dramatically. Ang, Mordiffi and Wong corroborated these results in a study that demonstrated a reduction in fall rates in response to the implementation of specific intervention measures (2011). The intervention was targeted at risk factors identified by the Hendrich Fall isk Model and showed how the risk assessment tool could be used effectively with more specific measures to increase specificity. The evidence found relating to the research question is intermediate in strength. While some comparative studies used the assessment tools on the same population to evaluate predictive value, others used…

Ang, E., Mordiffi, S.Z., & Wong, H.B. (2011). Evaluating the use of a targeted multiple intervention strategy in reducing patient falls in an acute care hospital: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67, 9, 1984-1992.

Hendrich, A.L., Bender, P.S., & Nyhuis, A. (2003). Validation of the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model: A Large Concurrent CASE/Control Study of Hospitalized Patients. Applied Nursing Research, 16(1), 9-21.

Hitcho, E.B., Krauss, M.J., Birge, S., Clairborne Dunagan, W., Fischer, I., Johnson, S., Nast, P.A., Constantinou, E., & Fraser, V.J. (2004). Characteristics and circumstances of falls in a hospital setting: a prospective analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19, 7, 732-9.

Leep Hunderfund, A.N., Sweeney, C.M., Mandrekar, J.N., Johnson, L.M., & Britton, J.W. (2011). Effect of a Multidisciplinary Fall Risk Assessment on Falls Among Neurology Inpatients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 86, 1, 19-24.

Evidence-Based Practice Resource Filtered Unfiltered Clinical Practice

Evidence-Based Practice esource Filtered Unfiltered Clinical Practice Guidelines (1) Authors combined several studies for efficacy Block, S.L. (2) Older data (over 10 years) and used only one research study. Kelley, et.al. (3) Credible and systematic; great review of literature McCracken (4) Older data (over 10 years) and used only one research study. No scholarly or academic research, materials is hearsay and anecdotal. esource Primary esearch Evidence Evidence-Guideline Evidence Summary Clinical Practice Guidelines (1) Inclusion of Primary esearch Includes Guidelines for Best Practices Summarization of a number of sources, generalized but academic. Block, S.L. (2) X Includes Primary esearch X Scholarly, peer reviewed and focused on a single research topic within an academic publication. Kelley, et.al. (3) X Summarization of a number of sources, generalized but academic. McCracken (4) X Includes Primary esearch X Includes Best Practice Guidelines of AOM X Summation of esearch Interviews (5) X Possible as a component of a larger study, but only if the experimental design is validated using the scientific method. X Without the addition of research methods, etc. is not valid evidence (Sources of Evidence-Based Literature, 2006). Discussion- Each source under review has some degree of relevancy…

Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. (2004). Pediatrics. 113 (5): 1451-65.

Sources of Evidence-Based Literature. (2006). NYU School of Medicine. Ehrman Medical

Library. Retrieved from:  http://library.med.nyu.edu/library/instruction  / handouts/pdf/ebmsources.pdf

Minors, Privacy Rights of HIPAA. (2010). University of Miami -- Miller School of Medicine. Retrieved from:  http://privacy.med.miami.edu  / glossary/xd_minors.htm

Evidence-Based Practice Project

Evidence-Based Practice Section G: Evaluation Section G -- Evaluation Methodology and data collection rationale. The role of leadership styles and training in nursing situations has been described in the literature and there is a substantive body of work suggesting that leadership can significantly affect the praxis of nurses and the outcomes of patients (Looke, 2001). Training that occurs over time is believed to enhance adoption of desirable behaviors in the workplace environment, and to strengthen the implementation of transformational leadership (Bowles & Bowles, 2000). Because individuals develop leadership skills over time, it is rational to survey nurses who receive training in transformational leadership at intervals during and after training to assess their levels of transfer of training to practice. The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) will be used to conduct face-to-face interviews of nurses receiving training in transformational learning. Use of the LPI will broaden and deepen the data collected about the subjects…

Validity. Quantitative data will be triangulated against the qualitative data collected through surveys and interviews of subjects. A baseline survey will establish levels of knowledge about the implementation of transformational training, about evidence-based practice, and about change in organizations. This first survey will strengthen the validity of subsequent surveys and interviews by establishing definitions and meaning of terminology used in subsequent surveys and interviews. The transformational leadership training itself will further solidify subjects' conceptual understanding, thereby contributing to content validity.

Interaction of testing and treatment poses the greatest threat to construct validity in this study because of the inherent need to test formative learning and the use of surveys and interviews which can function in much the same way as a test by signaling valued or awarded behaviors to subjects. Pilot testing of survey questions will contribute to construct validity.

Threats to internal validity in this study include social interaction, mortality, maturation, and testing (Carmines & Zeller, 1974). Social interactions can be a threat to internal validity if nurses who do not receive training behave differently because of

Evidence-Based Practice & Transformational Leadership Change Model

Evidence-Based Practice & Transformational Leadership Change Model Transformational leadership may be defined as an innovation as it is not in wide or general practice across the medical and healthcare fields. An innovation must, by definition be characterized by benefits that are accrued only through adoption of the innovation into practice or general use. Transformational leadership has been shown to have benefits for patients and patient care, as well as for those practice transformational leadership in their work, and the colleagues that are directly impacted by these transformational leaders. Because of the benefits that accrue to those who practice transformational leadership, it is anticipated that the attrition of nurses may be ameliorated by a diffusion of transformational leadership into the practice. Diffusion of innovation theory. A variety of change models have been employed to describe the introduction and adoption of innovations in professional practice. The diffusion of innovation theory, a change model developed by…

Evidence-Based Practice Faith MS Van

he study involved giving adolescents a questionnaire to determine if they perceived their weight and appearance with accuracy; most females overestimated their weight and most males underestimated their weights. However, this was just 35% of the participants. he bulk of the participants (65%) were able to assess their body weight accurately. On the other hand, the results of the study indicate the need for interventions to help develop health body images and healthy assessments of body weight. his study was conducted in a thorough and comprehensive manner as the details of the study reflect. he researchers were wise to engage a large sample, so as to create a comprehensive amount of feedback and findings and to be able to look for trends with accuracy. he findings of this actual study point to the need for parents and authority figures to be better connected to the body image ideals of their…

Toruner, E.K., & Savaser, S. (2010). A controlled evaluation of a school-based obesity prevention in Turkish school children. Journal of School Nursing, 26(6), 473-82.

Tsai, P.Y., Boonpleng, W., McElmurry, B.J., Park, C.G., & McCreary, L. (2009). Lessons learned in using take 10! with hispanic children. The Journal of School Nursing, 25(2), 163-172.

Yost, J., Krainovich-Miller, B., Budin, W., & Norman, R. (2010). Assessing weight perception accuracy to promote weight loss among U.S. female adolescents: A secondary analysis. BMC Public Health, 10, 465.

Evidence-Based Practice in the Past

In fact the inabilty of the sociall work profession to adequaelty and discretely define EBP, specifically the main goal of this work, may in part be to blame for scholalry blunders, such as the use of evidence-based practice in a title of a work that is highly qualitative, anecdotal or even based on a single or small set of case studies. Just as Weed lists the various levels of evidence, The American Psychological Association (APA) went a step further by establishing a task force to judge good evidence for a range of psychological disorders. According to osen and Proctor (2003), as taken from the APA, the most basic criterion used by this task force is that well established and empirically validated data requires a design that involves two or more rigorous studies that support the proposed intervention. History of EBP Newly gained interest in EBP makes it appear as a fairly new…

Bhattacharyya, Suman, B., Dr. (2008). Evidence-Based Medicine and Outcomes

Analysis- An Evaluation. The Indian Association of Medical Informatics.

Retrieved on April, 28, 2009 from  http://www.iami.org.in/journal1/ebmedicine.asp 

Bellamy, J., Bledsoe, S., Mullen, E., Lin F., Manuel, J., (2008). Agency-University partnership for evidence-based practice in social work. Journal of Social Work Education, Fall 2008, 44 (3).

Evidence-Based Practice and Applied Nursing

It is however also important to consider the importance of internal individual factors such as the self-confidence levels of nurses. According to Hockenberry, Wilson and Barrera (2006), for example, note that nurses could feel considerably intimidated by the demands of EBP in nursing practice. Their limited knowledge of the research process thus serves as a barrier to its effective implementation. Furthermore, the authors also raise the management problem, with nurses feeling a lack of power within their environment even if they do believe that they are able to handle the requirements of effective evidence-based practice. This brings the issue of research back to the leadership issue. In addition, nurses often experience a lack of autonomy, authority, and a basic lack of adequate resources to offer excellent patient care. The authors however suggest that overcoming the barriers to effective EBP could lead to increased job satisfaction for nurses. In this way, improved…

Drury, Peta. (1998). Barriers to evidence-based nursing care: listen to the clinicians! Retrieved from:  http://www.ciap.health.nsw.gov.au/hospolic/stvincents/stvin98/a9.html 

Hockenberry, Marilyn, Wilson, David, & Barrera Patrick. (2006, Oct.). Implementing Evidence-Based Nursing Practice in a Paediatric Hospital. Medscape Today. Retrieved from:  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543728 

Malloch, Kathy & Porter O'Grady, Timothy (2009). Introduction to evidence-based practice in nursing and health care. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Meny, Bernadette Mazurek (2002, March-April). Strategies for overcoming barriers in implementing evidence-based practice. Paediatric Nursing. Retrieved from FindArticles.com.

Evidence-Based Practice Motor Learning the Purpose of

Evidence-Based Practice Motor Learning The purpose of this paper is to discuss current theories, concepts and research involving Motor Learning. The research provides evidence-based information discussing how humans utilize motor-learning throughout the lifespan. The discussion includes stages of motor learning, practice contexts, feedback and use of imagery in motor learning. Also provided is information concerning how people learn who have disabilities resulting from at least two different conditions, Parkinson's which affects motor learning and stroke. Motor Learning Acquisition According to Li, Sullivan, Kantak, & Winstein (2007), the capability of acquiring motor learning requires "both cognitive and motor processes" meaning mental processes including the ability to make decisions and plan, and interpret, as well as motor processes including the ability to move muscles and perform mechanical tasks. When an individual can use neurological functions to compute tasks and plan, then these can translate into a motor function. The first step in motor learning is development…

References:

Dickstein, R. & Deutsch, J.E. (2007 July). Motor imagery in physical therapy practice.

Physical Therapy, Vol. 87(7): 942.

Hubbard, I.J., Parsons, M.W., Neilson, C., & Carey, L.M. (2009 June). Task-specific training: Evidence for and translation to clinical practice. Occupational Therapy

International. 16(3-4):175-89. Wiley InterScience.

Evidence-Based Practice and Case Analysis

Such measures (such as testing prior to licensure examination) according to the authors might provide benchmarking allowing "early remediation to improve pass rates" and would help promote the success of licensing among nursing students. document all components of the research process including identifying their sample size, collecting aggregate data from tests administered previously, using questionnaires mailed to schools participating in the exam in the past and defining students and probability scores for purposes of the study. The researchers attempt to answer the question whether the HESI Exist Exam and trade will accurately predict student's success on two licensure exams, the NCLEX-N and the NCLEX-PN. To do this the authors propose replicating a study in the past that used a larger sample size and comparing their data to previous studies. The researchers find that their data supports earlier findings suggesting the E2 a predictive measure of student success in the long-term. The specific…

Adams, F. & Cook, M. (1998-Dec). "Implementing evidence-based practice for urinary catheterization." Br J. Nurs, 7(22): 1393-4.

"Evidence-Based Nursing Practice." (2003). UTA/TDPRS. 12, October 2005:

Newman, M., Britt, R.B. & Lauchner, K.A. (2005 -- May, June). "Predictive accuracy of the HESI exit exam -- A follow up study." CIN: Computers, Informatics, and Nursnig & Nurse Educator.

Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing

Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing Evifence-based Practice In Nursing Purpose of the appraisal The article chosen is Hauck, Winsett, and Kuric (2013) Leadership facilitation strategies to establish evidence-based practice in an acute care hospital, because it addresses a vital aspect of nursing practice. Evidence-based practice is critical for nursing in order to ensure that preventable complications are avoided. Improving patient care is one of the burdens that is placed upon hospitals, and this would only be achievable if they implement evidence-based practice. This is a research article focusing on the effects of leadership towards establishing evidence-based practice strategies within a hospital. The researchers intended to analyze the beliefs of nurses on the importance of using evidence-based practice to improve patient care (Hauck et al., 2013). The researchers also investigated the readiness of the organizational in using evidence in the daily nursing practice. The research article focuses on an area that has been neglected by…

Hauck, S., Winsett, R.P., & Kuric, J. (2013). Leadership facilitation strategies to establish evidence-based practice in an acute care hospital. Journal of advanced nursing, 69(3), 664-674. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06053.x

Evidence-Based Practice Protocol Domestic Violence

. Even when the child in a home whee DV occus is not physically hamed, most of the time, these childen know about the violence. As a esult, they may expeience emotional and behavio poblems (The Domestic Violence…, N.d.). A victim of DV needs to be eminded: She is not alone. She is not at fault. Help is available. In The physician's guide to domestic violence, P.R. Salbe and E. Taliafeo (N.d.). about stess that DV evolves fom the aim fo powe and contol. They define domestic violence as "a patten of contolling behavios aimed at gaining powe in ode to contol an intimate patne. It is not just about hitting o punching. It is a patten of assaultive and coecive behavio, including psychological, sexual and physical abuse" (Salbe & . Taliafeo). The syndome of dominance and contol the pepetato initiates leads to the victim's inceasing entapment, also known as the "batteing syndome." Domestic violence,…

Shakil, Amer MD. (N.d.). Hurt, insult, threaten and scream brief domestic violence screeningtool. Retrieved May 5, 2009 from http://www.uic.edu/orgs/uiccfp/hitspage.htm

Substance abuse and mental health service administration. (2006). Florida Mental

Health National Outcome Measures (NOMS): CMHS Uniform reporting System. Retrieved July 10, 2008 from http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/SMA06-4195/Chapter15.asp

Substance abuse and mental health service administration. (2005). United States Mental

Evidence-Based Practice Guideline Relating Watson's

Relating Watson's heory to Hypertension 2 Especially meaningful to the active practitioner is the metaphysical, phenomenological, existential, and spiritual slant of Watson's holistic method. he intuitive dimension is stressed throughout the caring process. As the nurse's relationship with the patient grows, develops, and deepens, the nurse adjusts his or her approach to the patient's developing needs, interests, and values. Watson's ten clinical caritas can be used in formulating the proper approach. It can be combined with creative caring techniques adapted to the patient's unique personality or condition in achieving his or her recovery (Enzman-Hagerdorn, 2004). Dealing with the Problem of Hypertension he predominance of hypertension in today's society, and in many of the patients one meets, signaled an imperative to this writer: how would the integration of Watson's theory into the healing process of such individuals impact their blood pressure? According to Watson's theory, the "caring moments" shared by the nurse and patient…

The predominance of hypertension in today's society, and in many of the patients one meets, signaled an imperative to this writer: how would the integration of Watson's theory into the healing process of such individuals impact their blood pressure? According to Watson's theory, the "caring moments" shared by the nurse and patient transform both since their interactions are laced with unconditional acceptance, positive regard, and mutual respect. A positive atmosphere is created wherein healing can occur on many levels at once. The nurse's attitude and competence is, of course, key here (Vanguard Health Systems, 2011).

An inroad to that competence is achieved through in-depth study of the problem at hand. What exactly is Hypertension? What causes it? Can it be cured? According to a Mayo Clinic Report, hypertension is the result of high blood pressure, a common condition in which the force of blood against the artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease. It is a common condition in many people. (mayoclinic.com, 2011),

Ebm Evidence-based practice is a fairly recent paradigm in medicine that places emphasis on applying new skills for healthcare workers such as nurses and physicians that include performing efficient literature searches and applying formal rules of evidence in examining the clinical literature in order to find the best answer to a problem (Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group, 1992). These skills are in addition to traditional clinical skills and understanding patients' emotional needs. The evidence-based practice represented a shift from old processes used by health care workers such as intuition, unsystematic clinical experience, and pathophysiologic rationale in applying diagnoses or treatments to consumers of healthcare services (Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group, 1992). This particular paradigm shifts in medicine developed due to the increasing use of randomized controlled trials (CTs) in medicine which were rare up until 1960s and 1970s. CTs became standard practice for the development of treatments such as medications (Hoffmann, Bennett, & Del…

Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. (1992). Evidence-based medicine: A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA, 268 (17), 2420-2425.

Hoffmann, T., Bennett, S., & Del Mar, C. (2010). Evidence-based practice across the health professions. New York: Elsevier.

Evidence Hierarchy and Evidence Based Practice

Evidence hierarchy exists as a means of evaluating the strength of the evidence that has been provided in a study. The highest order of evidence, for example, is a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (CTs) that have clear results. The lowest are case reports, which would be viewed as anecdotal in nature. One of the distinguishing features of the hierarchy of evidence is that the best studies are those that can be extrapolated to a larger population, while the weakest are ones that generally cannot be extrapolated. This hierarchy was developed to support the growing call for evidence-based practice in health care (Evans, 2003). My project seeks to compare wait times in outpatient centers compared to traditional emergency room settings. For this study to rank high on the hierarchy of evidence, there would need to be more than just a comparison of wait time statistics -- an independent variable would need to…

Borgerson, K. (2009) Valuing evidence: Bias and the evidence hierarchy of evidence-based medicine. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. Vol. 52 (2) 218-233.

Evans, D. (2003). Hierarchy of evidence: A framework for ranking evidence evaluating healthcare interventions. Journal of Clinical Nursing. Vol. 12 (1) 77-84.

Prevention of Pressure Ulcers Evidence-Based Practice for Intervention Project Question: Can quarter hour turning and positioning minimize pressure ulcers within the elderly population who are bed bound residing in hospitals or nursing homes? The elderly often deal with various potential problems throughout their life, from pain and chronic disease, to harsh medication and treatment. Often elderly patients are forced to live in nursing homes and stay in hospitals to avoid accidental death and help them with eating and cleaning themselves. While living in hospitals and elderly homes, sometimes the elderly are bed bound. One common dilemma these bed bound elderly patients suffer from are pressure ulcers. esearch indicates turning someone every two to four hours will lessen rate of pressure ulcer occurrences. The latest articles demonstrate not only the efficacy of turning but also provide supplemental supportive actions like mattress substitution and longest time interval for turning that will still result in a…

Ayello, E.A. (2011). Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk. Retrieved from The Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing website:  http://consultgerirn.org/uploads/File/trythis/try_this_5.pdf 

Bergstrom, N., Horn, S., Rapp, M., Stern, A., Barrett, R., & Watkiss, M. (2013). Turning for Ulcer ReductioN: A Multisite Randomized Clinical Trial in Nursing Homes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61(10), 1705-1713. doi:10.1111/jgs.12440

Defloor, T., Bacquer, D.D., & Grypdonck, M.H. (2005). The effect of various combinations of turning and pressure reducing devices on the incidence of pressure ulcers. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42(1), 37-46. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.05.013

Gill, S.S., & Rochon, P.A. (2006). Preventing Pressure Ulcers: A Systematic Review. JAMA, 296(8), 974-984.

Evidence Based Practice A New Perception

A New Perception of Evidence-Based PracticeAbstractThree possible outcomes are expected whenever a clinical practice is conducted: correct results, representation of a random variation, or results influenced by systematic errors. Numerous factors can influence these errors; for instance, random errors might be due to play of chance, while systematic biases might be due to inadequate research or analysis (Al-Jundi, 2017). The study has depicted that biased results contribute up to 60% of the actual effect of the healthcare intervention, which could mislead healthcare decision-making. Therefore, critical appraisal is the process of being keen while examining the research evidence to determine the degree of its trustworthiness and its relevance to that particular context. Thus it is used to determine whether the clinical research evidence is free from biases and relevant to the patient.PurposeEvidence-based practice (EBP) integrates personal clinical expertise through the knowledge they had gained from the best available evidence from systematic…

Al-Jundi, A. (2017). Critical Appraisal of Clinical Research. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH.  https://doi.org/10.7860/jcdr/2017/26047.9942 

Keib, C., Cailor, S., Kiersma, M., & Chen, A. (2017). Changes in nursing students\\\\\\' perceptions of research and evidence-based practice after completing a research course. Nurse Education Today, 54, 37-43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2017.04.007 

Evidence Based Practice Nursing

Week 1 This week’s material helped me to understand in a clear way how we should think about nursing. Getting to know the history of nursing allowed me to put nursing theory into historical context. The personal worldview of nursing that I really like is that of Leininger (2008) and the transcultural approach to nursing. Week 2 The components of theory and how theories have developing nursing all depend on evidence-based research. Using theories and applying them in practice supports evidence-based practice, which leads to higher quality of care for patients. Testing theories is important for ensuring that the evidence is supportive of the practice. Week 3 Middle range theories allow nurses to integrate a sociological perspective in with empirical evidence, so that nurses can see how, for example, an empathetic approach to patients or a transcultural approach might yield tangible positive results. Various middle range theories, such as transcultural nursing and end of life…

Creating and Sustaining a Cultural Environment for Evidence Based Practice in a Healthcare Setting

Creating and Sustaining a Culture and Environment for Evidence-Based PracticePart 1Using critically appraised and scientifically proven data, nurses can utilize evidence-based practice (EBP) to give high-quality health care to a specific population. In the current case of keeping women NPO during labor, EBP provides the best approach to address the conflict between the professional recommendations and the available scientific evidence (Tucker et al., 2021). An EBP institutional culture must be developed within the labor and delivery floor in the urban hospital to facilitate effective change in practice.In the current case, the EBP process has advanced to a research report that does not support keeping women NPO during labor. The next phase of the process, thus, is the incorporation of the research results to practice, thus EBP. The first step in this phase is to choose a decision-making framework (Chiwaula et al., 2021). Implementation science has shifted to a more systematic…

Wang, M., Zhang, Y. P., & Guo, M. (2021). Development of a Cadre of Evidence?Based Practice Mentors for Nurses: What Works?. Worldviews on Evidence?Based Nursing, 18(1), 8-14.

Melnyk, B. M., Tan, A., Hsieh, A. P., & Gallagher?Ford, L. (2021). Evidence?Based Practice Culture and Mentorship Predict EBP Implementation, Nurse Job Satisfaction, and Intent to Stay: Support for the ARCC© Model. Worldviews on Evidence?Based Nursing, 18(4), 272-281.

Chiwaula, C. H., Kanjakaya, P., Chipeta, D., Chikatipwa, A., Kalimbuka, T., Zyambo, L., ... & Jere, D. L. (2021). Introducing evidence-based practice in nursing care delivery, utilizing the Iowa model in intensive care unit at Kamuzu Central Hospital, Malawi. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 14, 100272.

Solution Description Evidence Based Practice Proposal

Evidence-Based Practice ProposalSection D: Solution DescriptionProposed SolutionIn seeking to prevent/reduce the risk of nosocomial infections in acute care oncology, it has been proposed that the practice of hand rubbing with a waterless, alcohol-based solution be implemented at XXXXX. It is important to note that various studies conducted in the past support this particular course of action in as far as the minimization of hospital-acquired infections is concerned. In one such study, Girou, Loyeau, Legrand, Oppein, and Brun-Buissson (2002) found out that in comparison to hand washing using a standard antiseptic soap, hand rubbing with a waterless, alcohol-based solution was indeed more effective. In the words of the authors, during routine patient care, hand rubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than hand washing with antiseptic soap (Girou, Loyeau, Legrand, Oppein, and Brun-Buissson, 2002, p. 362). This is a finding collaborated by Widmer (2000)…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC (2020). Clean Hands Count for Safe Healthcare. Retrieved from  https://www.cdc.gov/patientsafety/features/clean-hands-count.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Ffeatures%2Fhandhygiene%2Findex.html 

Girou, E., Loyeau, S., Legrand, P., Oppein, F. & Brun-Buissson, C. (2002). Efficacy of Hand Rubbing with Alcohol-Based Solution versus Standard Hand Washing with Antiseptic Soap: Randomized Clinical Trial. BMJ, 325(7360), 362.

Keller, J., Wolfensberger, A., Clack, L., Kuster, S.P., Dunic, M., Eis, D., Flammer, Y., Keller, D.I. & Sax, H. (2018). Do Wearable Alcohol-Based Hand-Rub Dispensers Increase Hand Hygiene Compliance? A Mixed-Methods Study. Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control, 7(143), 43-49.

Models of Evidence Based Practice in Nursing

Evidence-based practice is not incompatible with patient-centric care. Although evidence-based practice is concrete, there are different models and frameworks in use. One of the most important models for evidence-based practice is the ACE Star Model of Knowledge Transformation. The ACE Star Model of Knowledge Transformation incorporates research and evidence into the practice environment without sacrificing patient preferences. Other models of evidence-based practice can be loosely grouped into three main categories: Research Utilization, and Knowledge Transformation Processes; Strategic/ Organizational Change Theory to Promote Uptake and Adoption of New Knowledge; and Knowledge Exchange and Synthesis for Application and Inquiry (Stevens, 2013, p. 3). Each of these models presents different angles or perspectives on how to use and implement evidence-based practice in the healthcare environment. Critical to a successful integration of evidence-based practice is accessibility of information. As Stevens (2013) points out, healthcare workers operating under strict time and resources constraints cannot pore over…

Stevens, K.R. (2013). The impact of evidence-based practice in nursing and the next big ideas. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 18(2), DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol18No02Man04

Demonstrating Evidence Based Practice

The Role of Nursing Research in Demonstrating Evidence-Based Practice It helps for hospitals to embed in their culture evidence-based practice. This is particularly important as it demonstrates that in addition to conducting an evaluation of published studies, nurses also make use of such research studies in both operational and clinical undertakings/procedures. It is important to note that although some could think of nursing research and evidence-based practice as overlapping, both are manifestly distinct. While “nursing research is theory based and systematically designed to answer, test an intervention, or solve a problem,” evidenced based practice is seen to be “a lifelong problem-solving approach to how health care is delivered that integrates the best evidence from high-quality studies with a clinician’s expertise and a patient’s preferences and values” (Baker, 2017). When the health care decisions regarding a specific patient take into consideration the preferences of the said patient, the clinical expertise of those…

Practicum Experience and Nursing

Practicum ExperienceThe reliance on evidence-based practice in the advanced nursing practice is critical towards improving awareness in the advanced practice setting and improving the administration of care holistically. The reliance on a practicum experience creates a mentorship platform from mentors with more experience and colleagues to expand awareness and understand the implications comprehensively (Schuler et al., 2021). Such mentorship programs directly impact the careers of nurses in advanced practice from recruitment, retention, and job satisfaction. The practicum experience established the base for developing a mentorship program, organizational collaboration, and community project team to assist in developing the mentoring program.The practicum experience had to be created in a formal framework to ensure the objectives, expectations, guiding principles, and activities of the mentoring encounter are achieved exhaustively. The structure of the practicum experience had a mechanism for planning, initiating, cultivating, monitoring, concluding, and documenting the findings, the relationship to meet the individual…

Arnesson, K., & Albinsson, G. (2017). Mentorship – a pedagogical method for integration of theory and practice in higher education. Nordic Journal Of Studies In Educational Policy, 3(3), 202-217.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20020317.2017.1379346 

Brooke, J., & Mallion, J. (2016). Implementation of evidence-based practice by nurses working in community settings and their strategies to mentor student nurses to develop evidence-based practice: A qualitative study. International Journal Of Nursing Practice, 22(4), 339-347.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijn.12470 

Byars-Winston, A., Womack, V., Butz, A., McGee, R., Quinn, S., & Utzerath, E. et al. (2018). Pilot study of an intervention to increase cultural awareness in research mentoring: Implications for diversifying the scientific workforce. Journal Of Clinical And Translational Science, 2(2), 86-94.  https://doi.org/10.1017/cts.2018.25 

Schuler, E., Mott, S., Forbes, P., Schmid, A., Atkinson, C., & DeGrazia, M. (2021). Evaluation of an evidence-based practice mentorship program in a pediatric quaternary care setting. Journal Of Research In Nursing, 26(1-2), 149-165.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987121991417

Gap in the Literature

Gap in Literature LR employment can help decrease duration of dependency on mechanical ventilators and the resultant PICU outcomes. Methodical LR review protocol among pediatric patients receiving mechanical ventilation has, of late, been recorded with the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). Limited quantities of superior-quality scientific proofs exist that inform the effectiveness and safety of ETS within pediatric settings. This is mainly because of the absence of clinical trials informing bedside practice (Bilan & Molayi, 2016). Literature on the subject indicates that suction using normal saline, or in the absence of it, alters respiratory and hemodynamic parameters. While the former has adverse effects, changes aren’t significant with the exception of elevated heart rate, which indicates minor risk. But the outcomes of other research works reveal a significant linkage. The outcomes of the current research may, perhaps, be attributed to a different research design and the absence of samples; hence, there…

Evidence Based Practice

Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is the assimilation of the best research evidence with clinical proficiency and patient values. This takes into account placing equal emphasis on the situation of the patient, his or her goals, objectives, values and aspirations, the best accessible research evidence and the clinical proficiency and expertise of the practitioner. Evidence-based practice in psychology can be defined as the incorporation and assimilation of the best accessible research with clinical knowledge and expertise in the context of patient features, culture, and preferences. In psychology, the main purpose of evidence-based practice encompasses the promotion of efficacious psychological practice, improvement of public health by making use of empirically supported principles of psychological evaluation, case formulation, therapeutic association, and intervention (Drisko, 2012). Therefore, taking this into consideration, evidence-based practice can be delineated as a wider notion that account for not only knowledge and understanding but also action in three fundamental components of patient…

American Psychological Association. (2016). Policy Statement on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/evidence-based-statement.aspx

Bauer, R. M. (2007). Evidence-based practice in psychology: Implications for research and research training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(7), 685-694.

Davey, G. (2011). Applied Psychology. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Drisko, J. (2012). Evidence-Based Practice. Retrieved from:  https://sophia.smith.edu/~jdrisko/evidence_based_practice.htm

Evidence Base Practiced Reseach Evidence Base Practiced

Evidence Base Practiced eseach Evidence Base Practiced esearch Evidence-based practice is considered to be a combination of the best practice gotten from patient care data, research study, and expert opinion so as to identify dissimilar approaches of improvement in providing high quality care that reflects things such as needs, values, interest and selections of the patient. Skills and Knowledge gained in the procedure of evidence-based practice assist health care workers to bring about reforms in healthcare and raises individual responsibility of practice. Comparing evidence-based practice, getting comprehending of why things are done the way they are done and establishing actions that endorse evidence-based practice with the purpose of providing care that is better. With that said, this essay will argue why Evidenced-based practice is important to nursing practice. One reason why evidenced-based practice is important to nursing practice is for the reason that Evidence-based practice is a key approach to providing the best…

Calkins, M. (2006, July 8). Evidence-Based Nursing Education for Regulation (EBNER). Leading in Nursing Regulation. Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Kronenfeld, M. (2007). Review for librarians of evidence-based practice in nursing and the allied health professions in the United States. J Med Libr Assoc, 95(4), 1-407.

Winters, C.A. (2012). Teaching Strategies to Support Evidence-Based Practice. Academic Education, 32(3), 49-53.

Evidenced-Based Practice - Environment There Are Perhaps

Evidenced-Based Practice - Environment There are perhaps few environments and professions within which change is both as important and as difficult as it is within health care. While there are many barriers to the change process, there are at least an equal amount of drivers that indicate the necessity for change. In evidence-based practice, nursing practitioners, administration personnel, management personnel, and all involved in the health care profession need to form teams with patients and family members in order to ensure an optimal environment for change. This is not a process that will happen overnight, especially in the hospital and nursing home settings, where recognizing the need for change is often subordinate to more immediate and severe problems such as personnel and funding shortages. The readiness for change in the hospital and nursing home environment is often subordinate to practical day-to-day challenges, including severe personnel and funding shortages. These create an environment…

Current Nursing (2011). Change Theory: Kurt Lewin. Retrieved from:  http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/change_theory.html 

Dudley-Brown, S. (2012. Challenges and Barriers in Translation. Translation of Evidence Into Nursing and Health Care Practice edited by Kathleen M. White and Sharon Dudley-Brown. New York: Springer Publishing Co.

Pipe, T.B., Wellik, K.E., Buchda, V.L., Hansen, C.M., and Martyn, D.R. (2005). Implementing Evidence-Based Nursing Practice. Urologic Nursing 25(5). Retrieved from:  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/514532_5 

White, K.M. (2012). Change Theory and Models: Framework for Translation. Translation of Evidence Into Nursing and Health Care Practice edited by Kathleen M. White and Sharon Dudley-Brown. New York: Springer Publishing Co.

Evidence-Based Practice EBP in Nursing

In principle, the EBP concept relies on fundamental areas of focus within a total-process approach to delivering the highest quality healthcare services (Hardcastle, Usher, & Holmes, 2006; Williamson, 2009). In clinical medicine, that begins with the formulation of the most relevant clinical questions, and continues with the use of the skill to identify the best current evidence, appraise it systematically, and optimally applied to specific situations. Meanwhile, throughout that process, clinical healthcare practitioners simultaneously incorporate their entire knowledge base and clinical experience with their understanding of the needs, values, and expectations of patients and other stakeholders. Finally, the EBP approach to nursing and healthcare includes the ongoing empirical evaluation of clinical procedures within a continuing process whose most important purpose is to improve the future of healthcare delivery by applying the data describing previous experience (Hamric, Spross, & Hanson, 2009). eferences Hamric, A.B., Spross, J.A., and Hanson, C.M. (2009). Advanced Practice Nursing:…

Hamric, A.B., Spross, J.A., and Hanson, C.M. (2009). Advanced Practice Nursing: An

Integrative Approach. St. Louis, MO: Saunders.

Hardcastle, M., Usher, K., and Holmes, C. "Carspecken's five-stage critical qualitative research method: An application to nursing research." Qualitative Health

Research, Vol. 16, No. 1 (2006): 151 -- 161.

SYSTEMS THEOY vs. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEOY EVIDENCED-BASED PACTICE Systems theory and diffusion of innovation theory Systems theory and healthcare delivery in the U.S. According to theorist Ludwig von Bertalanffy, it is essential to view organisms -- both living and man-made -- as functional systems in a holistic sense to understand their true nature. This principle is manifested in the human body and also the organizations which provide healthcare. "A complex adaptive system is a collection of individual agents with freedom to act in ways that are not always totally predictable, and whose actions are interconnected so that one agent's actions changes the context for other agents. Examples include the immune system, a colony of termites, the financial market, and just about any collection of humans (for example, a family, a committee, or a primary healthcare team)" (Plsek & Greenhalgh 2001: 625). Complex systems, such as the healthcare delivery system, have 'fuzzy' boundaries in the…

Bryant, R. (2010). Extending the reach of nursing knowledge and innovation. Nursing and Health Policy Perspectives. International Nursing Review, 57(4), 406.

Retrieved from CINAL at doi:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2010.00864.x

Fitzgerald, L. (2002 et al.). Interlocking interactions, the diffusion of innovations in health care.

Human Relations 55(12) 1429-1449. Retrieved from Google Scholar:

Statistics in Social Work The steps of evidence-based practice include formulating an answerable question. How does knowing about statistics improve our ability to be an evidence-based practitioner at this step? How understanding statistical principles can enable you to better understand if a question is answerable or not. Are 'baselines' in descriptive function, or predictive function available for assessment. In application of statistics to social phenomena, the frequency, duration and intensity of the subject tested will contribute to analysis where more than nominal (i.e. numbered) distributions are involved. Merely 'counting' a population is not a significant activity in statistical renderings as independent variables require dependent variables in order to acquire statistical meaning. Evidence-based practice references studies that 'replicate' existing tests, toward reinterpretation of former statistical outcomes in a new study of parallel significance, with variables of the same classification. Patterns in longitudinal tests over time offer insights into stasis or transformations in variables, and potentially…

Evidence-Based Practice Use in Nursing for Making

evidence-based practice use in nursing for making decisions using evidences to provide care to patients. This assignment has highlighted five main principles of EBP. These principles should be considered while implementing EBP. Moreover, there are certain challenges and barriers in implementing EBP. This assignment focused on strategies for implementing EBP. Introduction of evidence-based practice to the workplace: Changing the accepted confirmation of an NG (nasogastric) tube Currently, I am employed at a medical and geriatric unit in a rehabilitation hospital. The unit is such that the majority of the nurses (60%) have over ten years' experience of practice. Thus the nurses on the unit are highly-trained professions who are extremely competent at their jobs. However, nurses of this level of experience are also often extremely change-resistant. Due to the level of the morale on the unit, nurses are often reluctant to alter the standard operating procedures with which they have become familiar…

Earley, T. (2005) Using pH testing to confirm nasogastric tube position. Nursing Times,

101 (38):26 -- 28. Retrieved:

 http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2013/04/02/q/b/f/050920Using-pH-testing-to-confirm-nasogastric-tube-position.pdf 

Kotter's 8-step change model. (2013). Mind Tools. Retrieved:

Evidence-Based Practice Model

EBP Evidence-based practice model EBP project issue: Obesity "The prevalence of obesity (BMI > 30) has been increasing; currently; at least 27% of the adult population is obese" (McTigue 2003: vii). Despite being one of the most pervasive health problems in modernity, there is relatively little information on obesity available in the annals of evidence-based medicine. This may be due to the fact that obesity is such a complex and multifactorial disease, without a clear etiology. Perfectly-controlled studies can be difficult to construct. Many different factors can impact a person's ability to maintain a health BMI, spanning from genetics to culture to lifestyle to social and economic factors. A 2003 evidence-based review of existing studies of obesity in adults found in MEDLINE from January 1, 1994 to July 31, 2001 only found four meeting the relevant criteria of studying persons suffering from obesity. There were no CT (randomized controlled trials, or the 'gold standard'…

McTigue, K. (2003 et al.). Screening and interventions for overweight and obesity in adults.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Systematic Evidence Review, 21.

Retrieved:  http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/prevent/pdfser/obesser.pdf 

New research findings on evidenced-based approaches to tackle childhood obesity. (2012).

Evidence-Based Practice Citation That Was of Interest

Evidence-Based Practice citation that was of interest to the author of this document is called "Closing the quality gap: A critical analysis of quality improvement strategies: volume 5 -- asthma care." It focuses on the phenomenon in which "there remains a significant gap between accepted best practices for asthma care and actual care delivered to asthma patients" (Stanford University, 2007). Specifically, the authors of this document sought to analyze a host of articles related to best practices for treating asthma for juveniles and adults to see which quality improvement strategies had the most efficacy. It analyzed a variety of articles that utilized various frameworks for research including interrupted time series trials and randomized controlled trials. The various strategies considered pertained to patient education, practitioner education, auditing and others. The primary recommendations have a direct correlation to educating the patients and their families. The evidence demonstrates that for juveniles, consulting and…

Grove, S.K., Burns, N. Gray, J.R. (2012). The Practice of Nursing Research. Elsevier -- Health Sciences Division.

Hutchinson, A.M., Johnston, L. (2004). Bridging the divide: a survey of nurses' opinions regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization in the practice setting. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 13(3), 304-315.

McCloskey, D. (2008). Nurses' perceptions of research utilization in a corporate health care system. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 40(1), 39-45.

Practice Issue Evidence-Based Practice EBP Project in

Practice Issue Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Project in courses DNP program, asked The practice issue I have chosen to explore is whether or not q2 hourly turning and positioning actually decreases the incidence of pressure ulcers in the elderly bed bound population in nursing homes. The conception that turning does help to relieve the pressure associated with these types of ulcers has been longstanding. Specifically, there is clinical evidence to indicate the fact that "Unrelieved pressure is a well-known clinical risk factor for ulcer development" (Salcido, 2004, p. 156). As such, the turning of patients at least every two hours has been carried on for quite some time in the nursing population, although there are some salient points of concern that need to be addressed with this issue. One of the major things that individuals need to be aware of who take on such a practice is the fact that the actual…

Leeds, L. (2004). Importance of turning q2. www.denvernursingstar.com. Retrieved from  http://denvernursingstar.com/specials/newsletter_view.asp?newsid=310&catid=85&active=0&mode=current&count=0 

Salcido, R. (2004). Patient turning schedules, why and how often? Advances in Skin & Wound Care: The Journal for Prevention and Healing. 17(4), 156.

Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nurses Society. (2012). Patient turning and repositioning: current methods & challenges, a WOCN perspective. www.sageproducts.com. Retrieved from  http://www.sageproducts.com/documents/pdf/education/studies_articles/sacral/WOCN%20White%20Paper_Aug2012.pdf

Evidence-Based Practice Project a Literature Review Conducted

Evidence-Based Practice Project A literature review conducted by abie and Curtis (2006) aimed at establishing the effects of washing hands in reducing respiratory infections. The literature was obtained by searching CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science library. The inclusion strategy for the review were any studies that reported having an impact of hand washing to reduce respiratory infections. All articles included in the review were published before June 2004. This was a quantitative systematic review, which made it an effective method of analyzing and evaluating the selected studies. After searching for the relevant articles, the researchers found 395 articles, but only 61 articles were selected after the researchers reviewed their abstracts (abie & Curtis, 2006). The review and selection process continued and the final review included only eight articles, which the researchers established were more relevant to their study. Having eliminated the articles that focused on children…

Loeb, M., McGeer, A., McArthur, M., Walter, S., & Simor, A.E. (1999). Risk factors for pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections in elderly residents of long-term care facilities. Archives of internal medicine, 159(17), 2058-2064.

Rabie, T., & Curtis, V. (2006). Handwashing and risk of respiratory infections: a quantitative systematic review. Tropical medicine & international health, 11(3), 258-267.

Smith, P.W., Bennett, G., Bradley, S., Drinka, P., Lautenbach, E., Marx, J., . . . Stevenson, K. (2008). SHEA/APIC Guideline: infection prevention and control in the long-term care facility. American journal of infection control, 36(7), 504.

Evidence Based Practice Approach

Polit and Beck (2008) Evidence-Based Practice is "broadly defined as the use of the best clinical evidence in making patient care decisions, and such evidence typically comes from research conducted by nurses and other health care professionals" (3). There are several facts we must note about Evidence-Based Practice here. The first fact is that it is intended to improve patient care. The evidence is supposed to improve the decisions that are made about patient care. But his evidence has to be collected and analyzed first. Because this evidence comes from research conducted by nurses, we can understand better what the role of the nurse must be in collecting evidence. I myself work as a charge nurse in an acute care setting; I hold a BSN degree and I am currently studying for my Masters degree in Nursing Practice. Would it be appropriate for me to gather evidence in order…

Polit, DF, Beck, CT. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. 8th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Williams.

Evidenced Based Practice Summary

Evidenced-Based Pactice (EBP) The objective of this study is to eview an aticle titled "Evidence-Based Pactice Habits: Tansfoming Reseach into Bedside Pactice" (Rauen, Flynn, Bidges 2009 p 46). The authos point out that nusing pactice in the United States is moe focused on the taditional-based pactice than evidence-based pactice. Many pactices in citical nusing cae ae still continuing despite that the eseaches contadicting the pactices. The study believes that insufficient administative suppot, lack of time, limited access to infomation ae the baies in the clinical-based pactice thee decades ago still exist today. While the benefits of evidence-based pactice ae well undestood, nevetheless, thee is a still a baie in tansfoming the eseach findings into pactice. To eliminate the poblems, the acceditation bodies that evaluate and mandate the EBP (evidence-based pactice) assist in moving the eseach fowad. The authos suggest that it is citical to developing a cultue of inquiy that…

references and research studies to find solutions to the patient's problems suffering from acute respiratory distress, heart failure, cardiac surgery and sepsis. There is also a need to make a research on the studies that discuss the hemodynamic parameters in backrest versus supine elevated position, prone position and lateral position. The authors argue that the evidence-based practice can assist the nursing practitioner to observe the difference between CVP (central venous pressure) and PAP (pulmonary artery pressure) in patients in supine and flat position compared with the position that is more than the spontaneous variability. Thus, the evidence-based research assists in enhancing a greater understanding of the positioning of the patient when monitoring patients" hemodynamic parameters.

Rauen, Flynn, Bridges (2009) further point out that a method nurses can employ in taking accurate measurements of patients hemodynamic parameters is to use the position specific reference in order to correct the hydrostatic pressure. The author believes that nurses can measure the output of the thermodilution cardiac when the bed is elevated by up to 20°. The authors also believe that the application of EBP requires nurses to investigate series of studies about patients in cardiac ICU (intensive care units) and patients in medical-surgical units to assist in obtaining the CVP and PAP of patients' supine, as well as patients with bed head elevation from 0° to 60°.

The EBP is the conscientious use of the available evidence to make effective decisions regarding the patient care. With integration of the clinical evidence and clinical expertise as well as using a sound methodology, nursing practitioners are able to make decisions to improve the patients' healthcare.

Evidence-Based Practice Is Every Nurse's Responsibility

Nursing Evidence-Based Practice The press for evidence-based practice in nursing and for nurses as consumers of research is driven by a number of substantive factors. The state nursing boards and The Joint Commission (TJC) insist that policies and practices have a foundation in research. The keystone of this trend is that nurses must be able to read nursing research discriminately, understand how medical research relates to practice, and must sufficiently possess high levels of new literacy so that they can evaluate the research articles they review. When nurses are competent consumers of research, they are better prepared to integrate the research into their practice. In addition to the emphasis on evidence-based practice and research consumption in nursing, strong economic forces are also directing this trend toward practicing nurses becoming consumers of research and evidence-based practitioners. Healthcare stakeholders require greater accountability with respect to effective practices, transparency, and efficiency in order to be…

Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Health Care

Methicillin-esistant Staphylococci (MSA), most common Healthcare Associated Infections The PICOT question to be discussed is: For adult patients using catheters, does the use of sterilization practices reduce the future risk of health associated infections like MSA compared with standard procedure in one week? The answer is yes. The support given to answer the question will be based on peer-reviewed journals and scientific literature. A summary of the evidence will be availed in a chart plus a conclusion that summarizes evidence used will also be given. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSA) bacteria is resistant to several antibiotics. A significant proportion of MSA infections in the community are on the skin. It results in alarming infections of the bloodstream, surgical site infections and pneumonia in health facilities. Studies have revealed that one person in every three individuals have staph in the nose - most of the time they don't show any illnesses (General Information About MSA). 2%…

References"

General Information About MRSA in the Community. (n.d.). Retrieved February 21, 2015, from  http://www.cdc.gov/mrsa/community/index.html 

Sydnor, E., & Perl, T. (2011). Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings. Clinical Microbiology Reviews,24(1), 141-173. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from  http://cmr.asm.org/content/24/1/141.full

Evidence Based Practices in the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD

Program-Evaluation -- Evidence-Based Practice: Case Study eview There is growing recognition that the used of evidence-based practices promotes improved clinical outcomes and can help guide clinicians in their respective disciplines. This paper draws on the Clinician's Guide to Evidence-Based Practices: Mental Health and the Addictions to provide a description of a salient case study and the identification of the critical elements that require the review of published research to guide professional practice. In addition, a summary of a research study by Spengler, P. M., White, M. J., Egisdottir (2009) that informs evidence-based counseling practice related to the selected case study as it would occur in a specialization area is followed by a discussion concerning relevant ethical, legal, and socio-cultural considerations that apply to the case and research article selected. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the need for evidence-based practices to guide professional practice today are…

Dodson, W. W. (2007, April). Make ADHD treatment as effective as possible. Current Psychiatry, 6(4), 82-85.

Elik, N. & Corkum, P. (2015, January 1). Overcoming the barriers to teachers' utilization of evidence-based interventions for children with ADHD. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 41(1), 40-45.

Holland, K. & Higuera, V. (2015, February 26). The history of ADHD: A timeline. Healthline. Retrieved from  http://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/history#Overview1 .

Norcross, J., Hogan, T., & Koocher, G. (2008). Clinician's guide to evidence-based practices: Mental health and the addictions. New York, NY: Oxford Press.

Analyzing Translation of Research in Evidence Based Practice

Evidence-Based Practice Translation of esearch in Evidence-Based Practice Nursing involves men and women who are willing to help the patients with their skills like health maintenance, recovery of ill or injured people and the treatment. They develop a care plan for the patient sometimes in collaboration with the physicists or therapists. This paper discusses the current nursing practice in which I am involved and needs to be changed. Identification of a Current Nursing Practice equiring Change Description of the Current Nursing Practice Children of all age groups are facing a grave problem these days: obesity. It is considered as a chronic disease when the weight-gain reaches dangerously increased level, which becomes risky for the health. The raised body mass becomes dangerous for children and some schools are now looking into this matter with concern. They are sending notices to the parents to take care of their child's diet, and within the schools, the management is…

Berkowitz, B. & Borchard, M. (2009). Advocating for the prevention of childhood obesity: A call to action for nursing. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14. Retrieved from  http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/T  ableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.html

Clark, A. (2009). The role of school nurse in tackling childhood obesity. Nursing Times, 100. Retrieved from  http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2012/12/07/p/u/c/040608the-role - of-the-school-nurse-in-tackling-childhood-obesity.pdf

Collins, P.M., Golembeski, S.M., Selgas, M., Sparger, K., Burke, N.A., & Vaughan, B.B. (2007). Clinical excellence through evidence-based practice model to guide practice change. Topics in Advanced Practice Nursing eJournal, 7. Retrieved from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/567682_2 

Jenike, L.R. (2013). A primary care intervention for overweight and obese children and adolescents (A Capstone Project). Retrieved from  http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1027&context=nursing_dnp_  capstone

Analyzing Evidenced Based Practice

Evidenced-Based Practice According to research, evidence-based practice (EBP) results to greater quality care, enhanced patient outcomes, minimized costs, and more nurse satisfaction when compared to conventional approaches to care. Evidence-based practice is simply a problem-solving approach to healthcare delivery, which incorporates the best evidence from research and patient care records with clinician skill and patient values and likings. The greatest quality of care and best patient outcomes could be gotten when provided in a caring situation and in a supportive educational culture. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a published work founded on evidence-based practice. The other part of the paper contains a summary of the important points in the article, steps in the development and execution of evidence-based practice, and the manner through which this new information could be implemented. Summary Capnography is still an essential tool in the measurement of invalidated "carbon-dioxide" (CO2). Latest "Advanced-Cardiac-Life-Support" or ACLS principles advocate…

Kodali, B., & Urman, R. (2014). Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions. J Emerg Trauma Shock, 7(4), 332-40.

Melnyk, B. M., Fineout-Overholt, E., Stillwell, S. B., & Williamson, K. M. (2010). The Seven Steps of Evidence-Based Practice. AJN, 110(1), 51-53.

Looking Into Article Summary Evidence Based Practice

Evidence-based practice has become popular in several disciplines of healthcare and continues to do so. One of the major characteristic of EP is its reliance on scientific evidence, individual choices and needs of the patient and clinical expertise. It is one of the healthcare approaches, in which the professionals make use of the hard evidence available in order to make healthcare decisions for a patient. It builds, enhances and values clinical knowledge, and expertise of pathophysiology and the mechanisms of disease. Furthermore, it also includes conscientious and complex decision-making, that is based not just on the evidence available but also on the situation, preferences and characteristics of the patient. EP recognizes the individuality in healthcare and accepts that it is constantly changing and involves several probabilities and uncertainties. It is ultimately the formation of a process that has been practiced for years by the best clinicians (McKibbon, 1998 ). Energy and…

Covell, D.G., Uman, G.C., Manning, P.R., (1985) Information needs in office practice: are they being met? Ann Intern Med; 103(4):596-99

Matson, E., (1996). Speed kills (the competition). Fast Company, (3):84-91.

McKibbon, A. (1998 ). Evidence-based practice. Bull Med Libr Assoc, 397-401.

Sackett, D.L., Richardson, W.S., Rosenberg, W., Hayes, R.B., (1997) Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach EBM. New York: Churchill Livingston.

How Statistical Data Influences Evidence-Based Practice

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is defined as the conscientious, judicious, and explicit use of current best evidence to make decisions about patient care. EBP incorporates the best available evidence in order to guide nursing care and improve patient outcomes. This will assist health practitioners to address health care questions by using an evaluative and qualitative approach. EBP is a problem-solving approach to clinical practice and involves the search for and critically appraising the most relevant evidence, one\\'s clinical experience and the preferences of the patient (Fortunato, Grainger, & Abou-El-Enein, 2018). The process involved in EBP allows the practitioner to assess research, clinical guidelines, and other information resources that are based on high-quality findings and apply the results obtained to improve their practice. Since EBP heavily relies on research and searching for available evidence to support a hypothetical question in order to solve a current problem, it is vital that one understands and…

Mobility Evidence-Based Practice Progressive Mobility Protocol This

Mobility Evidence-based Practice Progressive Mobility Protocol This paper is a project based on PICO. The clinical question that serves as the foundation for this data-based design is; for immobile critical care patients, does the use of a nurse driven progressive mobility protocol reduce ICU LOS compared to every hour of repositioning? In this paper, the adult patients admitted to an ICU represent the population (P) of interest. The nurse driven progressive mobility represents the intervention (I), the comparison (C) is the critical care patients repositioned every two hours, and the reduction in LOS represents the result. Most hospitals place critically ill patients on bed rest and reposition them every two hours in the intensive care unit. Some literature reviews provide evidence in favor of progressive mobility protocols. In addition, the paper also reviews the safety of mobilization of the critical patients and the negative effects bed rest may have on the patient's outcome…

Plis, L. (2009). The Effectiveness of A Nurse-Driven Progressive Mobility Protocol on Reducing

Length of Stay in the Adult Intensive Care Unit. Retrieved from https://www.chatham.edu/ccps/pdf/Plis.L.Final_Capstone.pdf

Melnyk, B.M. & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2005). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice.Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Goldhill, D., Imhoff, M., McLean, B., & Waldmann, C. (2007). Rotational Bed Therapy to Prevent and Treat Respiratory Complications: A Review and Meta-analysis. American Journal of Critical Care, 16(1), 50-61.

Should Clinicians Use Evidence based Practice

Evidence-Based Practices When Working With Clients Evidence-based practice is a concept that emerged in the field of medicine to help lessen mistakes or errors during treatment. This concept seeks to do so through ensuring clinical decisions are grounded on the best available research evidence. Since its emergence, the concept of evidence-based practice has become common in the medical field and is constantly used to help improve patient outcomes. The tremendous success of this concept in medicine is attributable to its integration of the best available research evidence, clinical judgment and expertise, and patient preferences and values. Given its success in the field of medicine, evidence-based practice is being imported into the field of psychology (Lilienfeld, 2014). This trend emerges from the need for clinicians to utilize the most suitable and effective mechanisms to improve their clients' outcomes. Current evidence postulates that utilizing interventions that have been shown to work with certain symptomology…

Integration Evidence-Based Practice Professional Nursing Practice the

Integration Evidence-Based Practice Professional Nursing Practice The concept of evidence-based practice -- EBP is becoming growingly significant in the sphere of nursing. (Stiffler; Cullen, 2010) Evidence-based practice is not entirely a novel concept; it is the manner in which nurses cater to the norms of care and practice efficiently. (Nysna, 2006) According to Linda Burnes Bolton, DrPH, N, FAAN, vice president and chief nursing officer in the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, evidence-based practice -- EBP in reality it is only an alternative mode of viewing the conventional theme of the nurses maintaining their sanctified reliability with society. (Wessling, 2008) David Sackett, MD, a Canadian physician, is regarded the father of evidence-based practice. According to Sackett, "evidence-based practice is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. . .[by] integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical…

Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie. (2005) "Evidence-Based Practice and School

Nursing" The Journal of School Nursing, vol. 21 no. 5, pp: 258-265.

Ciliska, Donna. (2006) "8. Evidence-based nursing: how far have we come? What's next?"

Evid-Based Nurs, vol. 9, no. 2, pp: 38-40.

Employment and Application of Evidence-Base Practice

Employing Evidence-ase Practice The influence of evidence-based practice (EP) has found reverberations in the field of medical care giving, academia and scientific endeavors. The need for evidence-based quality arises from the need to afford improved healthcare services that are faster, accurate, and more effective. The nurses have responded to the emerging guidelines set by National expert groups. They have reoriented their practices along the lines of the evidence-based practices that have now accentuated their services and will continue to add value to their industry. The redesigning activities have touched upon the facets of academic background and training as well as field practices. They also took initiative to redesign the methodology to be followed by incorporating the scientifically proven methods and updating their information with the inputs contained from their fraternity elsewhere in the country (Stevens, 2013). "Evidence-based medicine." was a term that first made use of in the 1990"s by a…

Bennett, S., & Bennett, J. (2000). The process of evidence-based practice in occupational therapy: Informing clinical decisions. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 171-180.

Bury, T.J. (1998). Evidence-based healthcare explained. In T.J. Bury & J.M.Mead (Eds), Evidence-based healthcare. A practical guide for therapists (pp. 3-25).Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.

Bennett, K.J., Sackett, D.L., Haynes, R.B., Neufeld, V.R., Tugwell, P., Roberts, R. (1987). A controlled trial of teaching critical appraisal of the clinical literature to medical students. JAMA, 257, 2451-2454.

Egan, M., Dubouloz, C.J., von Zweck, C., Vallerand, J. (1998). The client-centered evidence-based practice of occupational therapy. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 65, 136-143.

Inclusion of Evidence based Practice in Social Work

Social Workers' Application of Social Work Evidence-based practice is defined as a process through which a practitioner combines clinical experience with well-research interventions/measures. Evidence-based practice has not only emerged as an important component in the modern healthcare sector but is also increasingly vital in social work practice. The increased significance of evidence-based practice in social work is attributable to the fact that social workers are constantly seeking well-researched studies to obtain information that enhances their knowledge base. Additionally, competent social work practitioners continue to look for a wide range of theoretical knowledge to enhance their experiences and practice. Therefore, social workers rely on evidence-base practice to enhance their knowledge base and practice. Evidence-based research influences what a social worker may do in practice through providing a theoretical basis and foundation for practice. Social work practitioners draw from a wide range of evidence-based practice sources to determine what fits into a client's situation…

EBP New Models for Evidence-Based Practice a

EBP NEW MODELS FO EVIDENCE-BASED PACTICE a professional goal DNP-prepared nurses produce evidence-based models care develop evidence-based guidelines. As continue develop DNP Project Premise engage EBP Project, aim mind. Evidence-based practice As a nurse practitioner who works in a diverse range of settings spanning from hospitals to nursing homes to clinics, evidence-based practice is part of my daily routine. Virtually all of the facilities at which I work prioritize evidence-based practice given that the facilities' scarce resources means that time, energy, and money cannot be wasted on untested treatments or treatments based merely upon 'hunches.' Evidence-based practice is based upon demonstrated benefits from particular approaches to patient care in recent literature. I strive to remain current in my own knowledge of EBP, frequently reviewing nursing journals and articles online as well as the websites of professional associations so I am aware of new treatments, approaches, and evidence of what works and what does…

ACE Health Star Model. (2013). University of Texas Health Center San Antonio. Retrieved:

http://www.acestar.uthscsa.edu/acestar-model.asp

joe's case'study and evidence based practice

Working with Clients with Dual Diagnosis: The Case of Joe," (n.d.) shows how social policies can directly affect the lives of individuals, impacting their access to and awareness of care options and the availability of specific services. Moreover, social policies can influence mental health practitioners, reinforcing stereotypes and stigmas toward patients with substance abuse disorders in particular. A systematic review of the literature reveals "negative attitudes of health professionals towards patients with substance use disorders are common and contribute to suboptimal health care for these patients," (Boekel, Brouwers, van Weeghel & Garresten, 2013, p. 23). Social workers are at the forefront of substance abuse treatment, as social work professionals "regularly encounter individuals, families, and communities affected by substance use disorders," including co-occurring disorders as in Joe's case (NASW, 2013, p. 5). Therefore, in addition to their role in reducing stigma and ensuring evidence-based practice in mental health care, social workers…

Nursing Evidence-Based Practice the Article

The chief concern of the researcher should be the safety of the research participant. This is carried out by carefully considering the risk to benefit ratio, using all available information to make an appropriate assessment and continually monitoring the research as it proceeds. The scientific researcher must obtain informed consent from each research participant. This should be attained in writing although oral consents are sometimes acceptable after the participant has had the chance to carefully consider the risks and benefits and to ask any pertinent questions. Informed consent ought to be seen as an ongoing process, not a singular event or a mere formality. The researcher must list how privacy and confidentiality concerns will be approached. esearchers must be receptive to not only how information is protected from unauthorized observation, but also if and how participants are to be notified of any unexpected findings from the research that they may or may…

American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians. (2004). Clinical

Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. Retrieved March

20, 2010, from Web site:

http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;113/5/1451

Nursing Evidence-Based Practice & Applied

This is one of the most common forms of research and, for some research questions is clearly a strong design (Ethics in Critical Care Nursing Research, 2005). The research that was done in this article would be considered a non-experimental type. There were two types of observation that were conducted. The first type was that of focus groups and the second being the file audit, both of which are observational in nature. In this case this was the most appropriate type of research design to use. Since they were simply trying to see what was actually going on in this area and how that was affecting patients the only real way to tot this was by observation. From this article a nursing care issue that can be raised is that of how palliative care nurses manage family involvement with end of life issues. Are there any standard procedures that are…

nursing evidence based practice research

The Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice Evidence-based practice is a cornerstone of effective patient care (Mateo & Kirchhoff, 2009). The robustness of any existing body of evidence is only as useful as the ability of advance practice nurses to access, retrieve, and implement that knowledge in the practice environment. Therefore, nurses need systematic and comprehensive strategies for making information available to colleagues. Nurses also need their administrators to invest in the latest tools and technologies that promote evidence-based practice including networks and information systems. Policies and procedures should not only uphold the tenets of evidence-based practice but also make it easier for nurses to find and share knowledge specific to developing practice behaviors in their care environments. Methods of finding knowledge specific to developing practice behaviors include utilizing proprietary databases, interviewing experts in the field, and utilizing online digital resources. Combining these three methods of knowledge acquisition can make research more robust…

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Evidence-based practice has become popular in several disciplines of healthcare and continues to do so. One of the major characteristic of EP is its reliance on scientific evidence, individual…

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How to Introduce Evidence in an Essay

Last Updated: February 9, 2023 References

This article was co-authored by Tristen Bonacci . Tristen Bonacci is a Licensed English Teacher with more than 20 years of experience. Tristen has taught in both the United States and overseas. She specializes in teaching in a secondary education environment and sharing wisdom with others, no matter the environment. Tristen holds a BA in English Literature from The University of Colorado and an MEd from The University of Phoenix. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 216,996 times.

When well integrated into your argument, evidence helps prove that you've done your research and thought critically about your topic. But what's the best way to introduce evidence so it feels seamless and has the highest impact? There are actually quite a few effective strategies you can use, and we've rounded up the best ones for you here. Try some of the tips below to introduce evidence in your essay and make a persuasive argument.

Setting up the Evidence

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 1

  • You can use 1-2 sentences to set up the evidence, if needed, but usually more concise you are, the better.

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 2

  • For example, you may make an argument like, “Desire is a complicated, confusing emotion that causes pain to others.”
  • Or you may make an assertion like, “The treatment of addiction must consider root cause issues like mental health and poor living conditions.”

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 3

  • For example, you may write, “The novel explores the theme of adolescent love and desire.”
  • Or you may write, “Many studies show that addiction is a mental health issue.”

Putting in the Evidence

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 4

  • For example, you may use an introductory clause like, “According to Anne Carson…”, "In the following chart...," “The author states…," "The survey shows...." or “The study argues…”
  • Place a comma after the introductory clause if you are using a quote. For example, “According to Anne Carson, ‘Desire is no light thing" or "The study notes, 'levels of addiction rise as levels of poverty and homelessness also rise.'"
  • A list of introductory clauses can be found here: https://student.unsw.edu.au/introducing-quotations-and-paraphrases .

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 5

  • For example, you may write, “In the novel, Carson is never shy about how her characters express desire for each other: ‘When they made love/ Geryon liked to touch in slow succession each of the bones of Herakles' back…’”
  • Or you may write, "The study charts the rise in addiction levels, concluding: 'There is a higher level of addiction in specific areas of the United States.'"

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 6

  • For example, you may write, “Carson views events as inevitable, as man moving through time like “a harpoon,” much like the fates of her characters.”
  • Or you may write, "The chart indicates the rising levels of addiction in young people, an "epidemic" that shows no sign of slowing down."

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 7

  • For example, you may write in the first mention, “In Anne Carson’s The Autobiography of Red , the color red signifies desire, love, and monstrosity.” Or you may write, "In the study Addiction Rates conducted by the Harvard Review...".
  • After the first mention, you can write, “Carson states…” or “The study explores…”.
  • If you are citing the author’s name in-text as part of your citation style, you do not need to note their name in the text. You can just use the quote and then place the citation at the end.

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 8

  • If you are paraphrasing a source, you may still use quotation marks around any text you are lifting directly from the source.

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 9

  • For example, you may write, “In the novel, the characters express desire for each other: ‘When they made love/ Geryon liked to touch in slow succession each of the bones of Herakles' back (Carson, 48).”
  • Or you may write, "Based on the data in the graph below, the study shows the 'intersection between opioid addiction and income' (Branson, 10)."
  • If you are using footnotes or endnotes, make sure you use the appropriate citation for each piece of evidence you place in your essay.

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 10

  • You may also mention the title of the work or source you are paraphrasing or summarizing and the author's name in the paraphrase or summary.
  • For example, you may write a paraphrase like, "As noted in various studies, the correlation between addiction and mental illness is often ignored by medical health professionals (Deder, 10)."
  • Or you may write a summary like, " The Autobiography of Red is an exploration of desire and love between strange beings, what critics have called a hybrid work that combines ancient meter with modern language (Zambreno, 15)."

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 11

  • The only time you should place 2 pieces of evidence together is when you want to directly compare 2 short quotes (each less than 1 line long).
  • Your analysis should then include a complete compare and contrast of the 2 quotes to show you have thought critically about them both.

Analyzing the Evidence

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 12

  • For example, you may write, “In the novel, Carson is never shy about how her characters express desire for each other: ‘When they made love/ Geryon liked to touch in slow succession each of the bones of Herakles' back (Carson, 48). The connection between Geryon and Herakles is intimate and gentle, a love that connects the two characters in a physical and emotional way.”
  • Or you may write, "In the study Addiction Rates conducted by the Harvard Review, the data shows a 50% rise in addiction levels in specific areas across the United States. The study illustrates a clear connection between addiction levels and communities where income falls below the poverty line and there is a housing shortage or crisis."

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 13

  • For example, you may write, “Carson’s treatment of the relationship between Geryon and Herakles can be linked back to her approach to desire as a whole in the novel, which acts as both a catalyst and an impediment for her characters.”
  • Or you may write, "The survey conducted by Dr. Paula Bronson, accompanied by a detailed academic dissertation, supports the argument that addiction is not a stand alone issue that can be addressed in isolation."

Image titled Introduce Evidence in an Essay Step 14

  • For example, you may write, “The value of love between two people is not romanticized, but it is still considered essential, similar to the feeling of belonging, another key theme in the novel.”
  • Or you may write, "There is clearly a need to reassess the current thinking around addiction and mental illness so the health and sciences community can better study these pressing issues."

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  • ↑ https://depts.washington.edu/owrc/Handouts/Strong%20Body%20Paragraphs.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.ursinus.edu/live/files/1156-evidencepdf
  • ↑ Tristen Bonacci. Licensed English Teacher. Expert Interview. 21 December 2021.
  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/quoliterature/
  • ↑ http://abington.psu.edu/ice-introduce-cite-and-explain-your-evidence
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/evidence/
  • ↑ http://www.deakin.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/810596/Guide-to-essay-paragraph-structure_Deakin-Study-Support.pdf

About This Article

Tristen Bonacci

Before you introduce evidence into your essay, begin the paragraph with a topic sentence. This sentence should give the reader an overview of the point you’ll be arguing or making with the evidence. When you get to citing the evidence, begin the sentence with a clause like, “The study finds” or “According to Anne Carson.” You can also include a short quotation in the middle of a sentence without introducing it with a clause. Remember to introduce the author’s first and last name when you use the evidence for the first time. Afterwards, you can just mention their last name. Once you’ve presented the evidence, take time to explain in your own words how it backs up the point you’re making. For tips on how to reference your evidence correctly, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Evidence Based Practice Essay

evidence based essay examples

Evidence Based Practice

In this essay, I am going to consider how evidence-based practice can be used to support, justify, legitimate and/or improve clinical practice. I am also going to explore and discuss primary and secondary research evidences about how nursing interventions can potentially improve the quality of life of patients in the community suffering from heart failure. I will gather these evidences using a literature search which I will include an account of. Using a critiquing framework for support, I will

Evidence-Based Practice

Evidence-based practice is an approach in the decision making of using the best evidence about the care of a patient.it is an integration of clinical expertise, patient values and the available evidence from ongoing research .taking into consideration internal and external influences, it promotes critical thinking in the application of the evidence in patient care. The impact of EBP has been echoed in the optimal health care, quality of life and clinical outcomes (Mabbott, 2011). Application of EBP

Evidence-Based Practice Article Summary The peer reviewed journal article, A Decision Tree Model for Postoperative pain Management, is an article describing postoperative pain management regimens using evidence-based practice. This article’s author has created a guide for prescribers who are managing postoperative pain levels for patients. This article is using evidence-based practice to help future patients have adequate pain relief, but not have the serious ramifications that can occur from the

Evidence-based practice is one of the strategies that has been applied in various aspects of social studies and social work. Researchers have associated this approach of social work with various benefits as well as challenges. However, there are various facets of evidence-based practice ranging from published case studies and the use of empirical studies. The process of selecting a particular evidence-based practice in social work depends on availability of resources, scope of the study and the

Importance for Nurses to Utilize Evidence Base Practice Utilizing evidence based practice in nursing is paramount today in the always evolving field of nursing. Having the clinical expertise and knowledge of a nurse is just the first step in making decisions for the treatment of a client. Adding the most recent and up to date evidence alongside with the client’s values and preferences is ideal to guiding the process of healthcare (Kelly & Tazbir, 2010). When evidence based guidelines are set forth in

Evidence Based Practice And Practice

Itroduction: Evidence-based practice is an approach to medicine that uses scientific evidence to determine the best practice (Beyea & Slattery, 2006). As nurses perform their daily tasks they must continually ask themselves, “What is the evidence for this intervention?”. Nurses are well positioned to question current nursing practices and use evidence to make care more effective. In order to improve patients’ outcomes it is the responsibility of the nurse to transition evidence-based practice into the

In the past few decades, many nursing practices were relied on state regulation, cost, or insurance policy. However, evidence based practice (EBP) are increasingly recognized and emphasized to change in nursing practice. For many clinical settings, there are thousands of resources available today. Not only most of nursing practice are made based on a pilot study but also implied to bring most benefits of the care. Simply, benefits of applying EBP in patient care would be the desired outcome for the

The impact of evidence based practice has been brought into nursing through education, practice, and science over the last decade. Evidence based practice provides quality care to patients that is effective, safe, and efficient. Evidence based practice promises moving care to a high level of producing the intended health outcome for the patients. “EBP is aimed at hardwiring current knowledge into common care decisions to improve care processes and patient outcomes” (Stevens, 2013). EBP empowers nurses

Evidence-based clinical practice or evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients” (Sackett et al., 1996). The beginning of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), formerly known as evidence-based medicine, was initiated by Archie Cochrane in the 1970’s. Cochrane discovered that when many methods of research start developing revealed as main findings that the clinicians were making decisions about

nursing research and evidence-based practice such as improved quality of practice and changes to practice based on new data. This competency is crucial for the professionalism in nursing practice”. So being in the nursing profession, we should participate in continuous quality improvement and evidence based changes to nursing practice. According to Mccrae (2012), “The legitimacy of any profession is built on its ability to generate and apply theory” (p. 222). Evidence-based practice promotes using best

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Essay on Evidence-Based Practice

Since its official introduction in 1992, Evidence-based practice (EBP) has gained lots of ground. It is the process of assembling, processing, and applying research results to improve clinical practice, the work setting, and patient outcomes. The clinical practice’s approach is currently used in other fields such as nursing, education, and psychology. This paper aims to discuss evidence-based practice, identify two of its trails, and analyze how they influence care delivery.

The measuring of blood pressure noninvasively in children is a good initiative for the prevention of hypertension. High blood pressure in children and adolescents has emerged as a public health issue, primarily driven by obesity’s widespread in the current population. (Stergiou, 2017). The main approaches for measuring blood pressure noninvasively are the auscultatory method using an aneroid device and the automated process using oscillometric devices. Auscultatory BP measurement confirms elevated BP after detection via an electrical BP monitor. The auscultatory BP measurement encounters several complications in children, majorly due to anatomic and bodily features of the undeveloped persons.

In contrast, Automated BP measurement in children has been disputed by researchers. An experiment done by Jaime Miranda in Peru on children suggested that blood measured by the oscillometric device was poorly connected; hence the use of automated blood pressure devices was concluded to have limitations and not recommended. (Miranda, 2009). Therefore, using the auscultatory method and eventually comparing the measurement against obtained data with the oscillometric form is a proper initiative to providing better care than using the processes separately.

Valuing the role of family members is also a beneficial initiative to the well-being of patients. It is estimated that 50% of healthy patients aged 65 or older have family involvement in their health care. Family members can play several roles, determined by factors such as the patient’s disease and healthcare decisions to be well-thought-out. In a study on patients with lung cancer, Siminoff discovered that their families counselled 17% of the patients to change doctors during treatment of the ailment, mainly because they were unhappy with their specialist’s style of communication (Siminoff, 2013).

Clinicians should contemplate the part family and friends play and their impact on the patient’s treatment choice. By recognizing family members input, care may be more effective and efficient. They may have a superior influence on how patients present their illnesses to doctors and the type of treatment they pursue or accept excluding those reinforced by evidence-based research. Hence, considering these influences will aid nurses to apply evidence-based research to its maximum potential.

In conclusion, Evidence-based practice is undoubtedly an operative practical approach to handling treatment. By reviewing and assessing the most recent, uppermost quality research, practitioners in healthcare deliver the best of care to patients. Based on research, using Auscultatory BP measurement to confirm elevated BP after detection by an electronic BP monitor is an operative initiative for treating hypertension in children. In addition, acknowledging the role of family members on patients results in care delivery be that of extreme quality. Studying and understanding this practice is thus vital for healthcare practitioners.

Siminoff, L. (December 2013). Incorporating Patient and Family Preferences into Evidence-based Medicine. Philadelphia, PA, United States:  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260377781_Incorporating_patient_and_family_preferences_into_evidence-based_medicine

Miranda, J.J., Stanojevic, S., Bernabe-Ortiz, A., Gilman, H., R., Smeeth, L., (2009).  Performance of Oscillometric Blood Pressure Devices in Children in Resource-poor settings . Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2685878/

Stergiou, S., G., Boubouchairopoulou, N., Kollias, A. (2017)  Accuracy of Automated Blood Pressure Measurement in Children.  https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.08553

Hawai’i State Centre for Nursing. (2020).  Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Initiatives  https://www.hawaiicenterfornursing.org/programs/evidence-based-practice-initiative/#:~:text=EBP%20refers%20to%20a%20problem,as%20well%20as%20clinician%20expertise.

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How to Introduce Evidence: 41 Effective Phrases & Examples

evidence based essay examples

Research requires us to scrutinize information and assess its credibility. Accordingly, when we think about various phenomena, we examine empirical data and craft detailed explanations justifying our interpretations. An essential component of constructing our research narratives is thus providing supporting evidence and examples.

The type of proof we provide can either bolster our claims or leave readers confused or skeptical of our analysis. Therefore, it’s crucial that we use appropriate, logical phrases that guide readers clearly from one idea to the next. In this article, we explain how evidence and examples should be introduced according to different contexts in academic writing and catalog effective language you can use to support your arguments, examples included.

When to Introduce Evidence and Examples in a Paper

Evidence and examples create the foundation upon which your claims can stand firm. Without proof, your arguments lack credibility and teeth. However, laundry listing evidence is as bad as failing to provide any materials or information that can substantiate your conclusions. Therefore, when you introduce examples, make sure to judiciously provide evidence when needed and use phrases that will appropriately and clearly explain how the proof supports your argument.

There are different types of claims and different types of evidence in writing. You should introduce and link your arguments to evidence when you

  • state information that is not “common knowledge”;
  • draw conclusions, make inferences, or suggest implications based on specific data;
  • need to clarify a prior statement, and it would be more effectively done with an illustration;
  • need to identify representative examples of a category;
  • desire to distinguish concepts; and
  • emphasize a point by highlighting a specific situation.

Introductory Phrases to Use and Their Contexts

To assist you with effectively supporting your statements, we have organized the introductory phrases below according to their function. This list is not exhaustive but will provide you with ideas of the types of phrases you can use.

Although any research author can make use of these helpful phrases and bolster their academic writing by entering them into their work, before submitting to a journal, it is a good idea to let a professional English editing service take a look to ensure that all terms and phrases make sense in the given research context. Wordvice offers paper editing , thesis editing , and dissertation editing services that help elevate your academic language and make your writing more compelling to journal authors and researchers alike.

For more examples of strong verbs for research writing , effective transition words for academic papers , or commonly confused words , head over to the Wordvice Academic Resources website.

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Practice is Based on Evidence in Preventing Dry Eye in Patients

The purpose of this research study was to determine the effectiveness of two nursing interventions in preventing dry eye in critically ill (ICU) patients. In determining which pharmaceutical approach to use, the authors compared two types of lubricating eye drops-liquid artificial tears (Lacribell), and artificial tears gel (Vidisic Gel) to help determine the most beneficial intervention for this group of patients (De Araujo et al., 2019). The authors collected quantitative data on dry eye prevention. The study design involved the […]

Is Violence Media Good for Kids?

Children usually learn better from what they see than what parents or teachers teach them. Even though, parents usually tell your children that violent media is not good for them, they should not try to play it, and it has to be forgotten completely, but some of them still try to play it, and many of them has been addicted to violent games. In the article "Violent Media is Good for Kids", the author Gerard Jones argues that bloody videogames, […]

Practice is Based on Evidence in Patient Care

Healthcare is one of the most rapidly changing industries; therefore the study of healthcare must also be evolving. Researchers and scientists are endlessly searching for better ways to improve patient care and outcomes; better technology, better techniques, better medicine. It is vital that nurses are equipped to handle these changes and lead the transformative changes that are occurring in healthcare (Allen et al., 2016, p. 102). The key tools to help foster enhancement in knowledge and skills are evidence-based practice […]

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When working on a telemetry medical surg unit we are exposed to many diseases, one comes to mind that is complex in nature and high acuity with nursing care for the patient. This disease is that of small bowel obstruction. A small bowel obstruction is caused by abdominal adhesions, hernias, Crohn disease, malignancies, and volvulus (also known as a kink in the bowel). In essence, when a patient is faced with a small bowel obstruction, the bowel is prohibiting the […]

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Understanding Research in Evidence Based Practice Essay Sample

Evidence-based practice in  adult nursing.

Evidence-based practice is a requirement of the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2018) Code, so incorporating these activities into practice is vital for nurses. This essay critiques a research study carried out by Sawer et al. (2020) with the title, Is shame a barrier to sobriety? A narrative analysis of those in recovery. Subsequent to critiquing the research, two of the findings will be analysed critically to consider these in the light of the broader evidence base. Finally, the discussion will evaluate how evidence-based research can enhance or affect practice before arriving at conclusions on this topic.

The study of Sawer et al. (2020) was critiqued utilising a critical review form for qualitative studies developed by Letts et al. (2007). The findings for each of the sections of this form can be seen in the Appendix. It should be noted at the outset that the type of research undertaken was in this case, qualitative. According to Grove and Gray (2022, p. 21) “Qualitative research is a systematic subjective approach used to describe life experiences and situations and give them meaning.” This helps to understand the perspectives, perceptions and worldviews of participants (De Chesnay, 2016). It differs very significantly from quantitative research paradigms which are typically based on gathering numbers and testing theory. Given that the authors wished to understand experiences in depth, the approach of Sawer et al. (2020) may be considered suitable for this study. The research design itself was a narrative inquiry – also suitable because this seeks to understand participants’ own stories in their own words  and comprehending lived experience (Blessinger and Carfora, 2015). Sawer et al. (2020, p. 79) clearly articulate their research questions which were: “In what ways do participants tell their stories of shame? And how is shame experienced and/or understood by those in recovery from alcohol dependence?” This helps demonstrate study reliability as the research questions are suited to the research design and type of research.

Sawer et al. (2020) gathered their sample of participants from Alcoholics Anonymous, including five males and three females within the study, and using a snowball sampling-based approach. Sampling is the process of selecting participants from the total population to take part in the study, aiming to include representative individuals from the wider group (Cernat et al, 2022). Snowball sampling is a technique that is usually used to access difficult to access populations, through asking participants for referrals to other potential participants (Terry, 2017). While it is very useful for this purpose, it also has the risk of sampling bias creeping into the process because people may potentially refer others that have similar experiences or worldviews, meaning that the research may narrow in its findings (Fain, 2017). This ultimately can lead to issues of reliability, trustworthiness and validity in research. Typically, in quantitative research, researchers seek to achieve saturation of data (Boswell and Cannon, 2022) which occurs when researchers are gathering data, and no new information is being found. Another key problem with the study of Sawer et al. (2020) is that the researchers do not refer to this within their study. This leads to further questions about reliability and trustworthiness of the findings, and the extent of academic rigour applied overall.

On data collection, the authors used interviews with a view to encourage the telling of stories in some detail, with one initial question used asking about the participant’s story of recovery, followed up by further prompts to gain more data from participants (Sawer et al., 2020). Though the authors did not use the word “shame” in the interview, they did in the participant information sheet (Sawer et al., 2020). The use of semi structured interviews in this way is well-aligned to a qualitative research approach (Holloway and Galvin, 2016). It is not clear from the research why other techniques such as focus groups were not considered, since these can gather a greater depth of information when used at the right times (Dingwall and Staniland, 2020), however, this may be due to the nature of the topic and a possible reluctance to discuss shame in front of others. From the perspective of academic robustness, discussion of why not focus groups could have been helpful. On data analysis, Sawer et al. (2020, p. 80) carefully detail out their five step approach adopted from Crossley, which included reading and familiarising, identifying narrative tone, identifying imagery and themes, weaving a coherent story and cross analysis to synthesise themes. From a trustworthiness and validity perspective, noticeably missing from the Sawer et al. (2020) study is any reference as to how their own worldviews and beliefs may have shaped the data collected, its analysis and findings, since as Dewing et al. (2021) point out, this could have a significant influence. Holloway and Galvin (2016) argue that it could also draw in the potential for bias, leading to validity and reliability concerns.

Finally, the study was conducted according to ethical principles, and this is seen throughout the documentation of the research of Sawer et al. (2020). Sawer et al. (2020) describe how they sought ethical approval at the outset, and the use of informed consent forms to help ensure that harm did not come to participants (Llahana et al., 2019). They also anonymised names to ensure that participants could not be identified (Williamson and Whittaker, 2019) which might be considered particularly important on the topic of shame relating to alcohol misuse. One possible area for improvement might have been to signpost participants to extra counselling services, or having a counsellor present, since it is possible to imagine that the content may have been distressing for some, potentially.

One of the main findings of the Sawer et al. (2020) research was that participants had a deep seated negative view of self, present well before they were dependent on alcohol. Critiquing this finding, a few other studies were identified on undertaking a search, which support this point. In particular, the study of Kougiali et al. (2021) on mechanisms and processes involved in women’s pathways into alcohol dependence and towards recovery also highlights this point. The research of Kougiali et al. (2021) was a qualitative meta-synthesis of other studies undertaken in this field, identifying 23 research papers of relevance. Kougiali et al. (2021, p. 437) showed that there was a link between difficult situations in childhood and how this impacted on the person’s sense of self. Shame and stigma was seen to be present long before alcohol dependence, and sometimes it was found to delay seeking recovery, however, once recovery began, the authors showed that this helped revise the concept of self (Kougiali et al., 2021). This mirrors the findings of Sawer et al. (2020, p. 83) which showed that participants felt they had faults and that they had a “fault with self” which alcohol could relieve. Sawer et al. (2020) also pinpointed the concept that shame was likely to delay going to start the recovery process. Furthermore, while on the subject of offending and prison rather than alcohol dependence, Flood (2018) found that being able to recover and transform self-required shedding underlying feelings of shame. While the subject is somewhat different, the same overall process of deep seated shame can be seen to impact on change for a person (Flood, 2018) further adding some weight to the findings of Sawer et al. (2020).

Importantly, the research of Kougiali et al. (2021) might be considered higher up on the hierarchy of evidence than the research of Sawer et al. (2020). This is because the work of Kougiali et al. (2021) can be seen to be a robust and comprehensive review of other qualitative studies already existing in this specific area of research (Greenhalgh, 2019). Meanwhile, the study of Sawer et al. (2020) is lower down on the hierarchy of evidence because it represents just one small scale study into this topic. While there are various different hierarchies of evidence that have been proposed, as can be seen from the analysis of Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt (2018) in all cases, meta synthesis of qualitative studies are always considered more academically robust than a single qualitative study. Of course, this does depend on how the meta synthesis was conducted, since if the methodology was not academically robust this might affect validity of the Kougiali et al. (2021) findings, a point which does also challenge the hierarchy of evidence as a concept overall (Houser et al., 2016). Nonetheless, the study of Kougiali et al. (2021) does appear to be reliable, trustworthy and valid, so this is not the case in this scenario.

A second key finding of the Sawer et al. (2020) study was that participants’ recovery was enabled through being able to discuss and make sense of personal shame arising from experiences. On searching the literature, no one study was identified that outlined this exact finding, though there were some similar and related findings within the literature base. For example, research undertaken by Romo and Obiol (2021) that carried out interviews of 22 adults in alcohol recovery found that the way in which participants handled stigma and associated shame influenced their recovery. This lead Romo and Obiol (2021) to outline the importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and other treatment centres to use communication to break down stigma to lower barriers to recovery. Moreover, other research undertaken showed that one key stage in recovery was discussing shame with others and developing accountability which helped as a commitment to overcome drinking (Chambers et al., 2017).

However, the Chambers et al. (2017) study was based on the use of an online help group/network rather than in-person AA-style recovery, which means that the findings could diverge from those of Sawer et al. (2020) as a result of this. This is particularly pertinent given the point of Chambers et al. (2017) that online networks give people control over how they choose to present themselves – which may not necessarily align with the reality.

When considering this second finding of Sawer et al. (2020) it is helpful to consider analysis undertaken by Lund (2017) in a study which examined qualitative data drawn from interviews with 21 former substance abusers, examining their recovery process. Importantly, Lund (2017) links guilt and shame in recovery to the Christian faith, and highlights that these types of self-conscious emotions are partially socially constructed through this religion. While this highlights the importance of shame in recovery when considering those that identify as Christian or who have been brought up within Christian mindsets/worldviews, it does question the transferability of the findings to other different kinds of cultures. With this in mind, it should be noted that Sawer et al. (2020) gathered their data from participants at Alcoholics Anonymous, itself known to be a group based on Christian tradition (Douglas, 2013). Therefore, it cannot and should not be assumed that the findings of the Sawer et al. (2020) research will necessarily apply to other people who have different worldviews and beliefs based on different religious and spiritual perspectives, necessarily.

According to Abu-Baker et al. (2021) evidence-based practice is an approach that utilises both the best and latest available research, working alongside clinical expertise and drawing in the patient’s situation and values to determine the course of action for care/practice. Evidence-based research has benefits to bring to nurses in their practice (Linsley et al., 2019). Linsley et al. (2019) argue that this is more the case than ever before, as nursing roles are increasingly being expanded, requiring that they have greater knowledge. As Linsley et al. (2019) point out, this means that nurses need to be able to question their practice and interrogate the research to continually improve care. This is supported within the NMC (2018) Code, which requires that nurses offer care on the basis of the best available evidence relating to this. As argued by Ellis (2018) the drawing in evidence can help update practice and the provision of care so that it improves outcomes for service users.

As Abu-Baker et al. (2021) outline, incorporating evidence-based practice into nursing has a number of advantages for practice, which have been evidenced to show lower cost, improved quality of care, improving patient outcomes and enhancing safety. These are all good reasons for incorporating evidence into practice for nurses.

As Pooler (2014) outlines, evidence based practice is not something that is done once and then assumed to be complete. Rather, it is a continual process of working to improve practice and care (Pooler, 2014). This is important, given that a nurse’s career could conceivably span 40 or more years, and the evidence on best practice may very well change during that timeframe. Questioning what is being done and why is therefore something that needs to be done with regularity, which Pooler (2014) specifies must include identifying evidence, appraising it, acting on it and reflecting on the outcome, for the best results. However, this is not straightforward to do due to barriers that can exist hampering the use of evidence-based practice. For example, research by Li et al. (2019) on community nurses showed that while practitioners may have a positive attitude to adopting evidence-based practice, they may not necessarily have good knowledge of how to go about it. Furthermore, a lack of time and resources can make it to actually implement evidence-based practice into care, and these are further barriers that can be experienced (Li et al., 2019). Fry and Attawet (2018) also identified evidence that obstacles to evidence-based practice for nurses and midwives include a lack of time and a need for organisational and management support of this process. However, as has been demonstrated, evidence-based practice has a multitude of important benefits to bring, particularly in terms of positives for patient outcomes. Therefore, arguably nurses need to follow the NMC (2018) Code and ensure that time is made available for evidence-based practice so that these benefits can be realised for service users. Nurses should also reflect on their own knowledge and capabilities and work on personal development in this area as highlighted by Pooler (2014) to ensure that the best outcomes do indeed result from taking an evidence-based practice approach to care.

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This critical analysis of a qualitative study by Sawer et al. (2020) has shown that the research undertaken does have some flaws in terms of reliability, trustworthiness and validity. These issues arise out of the recruitment, sampling and data collection processes as well as a lack of reflection on how the authors’ own beliefs might have influenced the findings overall. Nonetheless, some support can be pinpointed for the findings elsewhere in the body of literature, meaning that the work of Sawer et al. (2020) may still be considered of use in building the evidence in this area. This is important given that evidence based practice can improve the quality and safety of care provided by nurses. Nurses may need to work to ensure that barriers to implementing evidence-based practice are overcome to ensure that these benefits can be realised in providing care to service users.

  Reference List

Abu-Baker, N.N., AbuAlrub, S., Obeidat, R.F. and Assmairan, K. (2021) Evidence-based practice beliefs and implementations: a cross-sectional study among undergraduate nursing students, BMC Nursing , 20 (13) https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-020-00522-x

Blessinger, P. and Carfora, J.M. (2015) Inquiry-Based Learning for Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Programs , Bingley: Emerald Publishing Group

Boswell, C. and Cannon, S. (2022) Introduction to Nursing Research , 6 th edition, London: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Cernat, A., Sakshaug, J., Atkinson, P., Williams, R.A., and Delamont, S. (2022) SAGE Research Methods Foundations, London: SAGE Publications

Chambers, S.E., Canvin, K., Baldwin, D.S. and Sinclair, J.M.A. (2017) Identity in recovery from problematic alcohol use: A qualitative study of online mutual aid, Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 174 (1) 17-22

De Chesnay, M. (2016) Nursing Research Using Case Studies , New York: Springer

Dewing, J., McCormack, B. and McCance, T. (2021) Person-Centred Nursing Research , New York: Springer International

Dingwall, R. and Staniland, K. (2020) Qualitative Research Methods for Nurses, London: SAGE Publications

Douglas, M. (2013) Constructive Drinking , London: Taylor & Francis

Ellis, P. (2016) Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing , 3 rd edition, London: SAGE Publications

Fain, J.A. (2017) Reading, Understanding and Applying Nursing Research , 5 th edition, Philadelphia: F.A. Davis

Flood, F. (2018) Reframing Trauma: The Transformative Power of Meaning in Life, Work, and Community, Journal of Psychiatry and Psychiatric Disorders , 2 (1) 145-166

Fry, M. and Attawet, J. (2018) Nursing and midwifery use, perceptions and barriers to evidence-based practice: a cross-sectional survey, International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 16 (1) 47-54

Greenhalgh, T. (2019) How to Read a Paper , 6 th edition, London: Wiley

Grove, S. and Gray, J.R. (2022) Understanding Nursing Research: Building an Evidence Based Practice, 8 th edition, London: Elsevier Health Sciences

Holloway, I. and Galvin, K. (2016) Qualitative Research in Nursing and Healthcare , London: Wiley Publications

Houser, J. (2016) Nursing Research , 4 th edition, London: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Kougiali, Z.G., Pytlik, A. and Soar, K. (2021) Mechanisms and processes involved in women's pathways into alcohol dependence and towards recovery: a qualitative meta-synthesis, Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy , 28 (5) 437-453

Letts, L., Wilkins, S., Law, M., Stewart, D., Bosch, J., & Wes-Morland, M. (2007) Critical Review Form – Qualitative Studies , Hamilton: McMaster University

Li, S., Cao, M. and Zhu, X. (2019) Evidence Based Practice, Medicine , 98 (39) e17209

Linsley, P., Kane, R. and Barker, J.H. (2019) Evidence-Based Practice for Nurses and Healthcare Professionals, 4 th Edition, London: Sage Publications

Llahana, S., Yedinak, C., Follin, C. and Crossman, A. (2019) Advanced Practice in Endocrinology Nursing, New York: Springer International

Lund, P. (2017) Christian faith and recovery from substance abuse, guilt, and shame, Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work, 36 (3) 346-366

Melnyk, B. and Fineout-Overholt, E. (2018) Evidence Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare, Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health

NMC (2018) The Code, London: NMC

Pooler, A. (2014) An Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare, London: Taylor & Francis

Romo, L.K. and Obiol, M.E. (2021) How People in Recovery Manage the Stigma of Being an Alcoholic, Health Communication , https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2021.1983339

Sawer, F., Davis, P. and Gleeson, K. (2020) Is shame a barrier to sobriety? A narrative analysis of those in recovery. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy , 27 (1) 79-85

Terry, A.J. (2017) Clinical Research, 3 rd edition, London: Jones & Bartlett Learning

Williamson, G.R. and Whittaker, A. (2019) Succeeding in Literature Reviews and Research Project Plans for Nursing Students, 4 th edition, London: Sage Publications

Appendix: Critical Review Form

Critical Review Form-Qualitative Studies (Letts et al., 2007)

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Evidence-Based Practice and Research Author’s Name Institution

Abstract Numerous concerns characterize the clinical practice but several tools can be used by practitioners to address these problems. Some of these tools include quality improvement (QI), research, and evidence-based practice (EBP). Healthcare personnel should know the appropriate moment to apply each tool because each is unique and is characterized with unique strengths and weaknesses. The tools are also differentiated hence it is necessary for healthcare personnel to know the best tool to use when addressing a clinical problem. The focus of this paper is to show the differences between EBP and research. Additionally, the paper will aim to show how to identify an EBP project. The main difference between the two is the nature of evidence. The research aims at bringing new evidence regarding a clinical challenge whereas evidence-based practice uses existing evidence to solve a clinical issue. An EBP project can be identified by having a defined problem or using a model to solve a clinical problem. Keywords: Evidence-based practice, research, clinical problem, evidence

Differences between evidence-based practice and research Evidence-based practice denotes a clinical practice that makes use of a problem-solving approach by integrating systematic search to provide answers to burning clinical questions. On the other hand, research denotes a systematic inquiry that applies defined methods to solve cha…

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Sample Essay About Evidence Based Practice

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Nursing , Exercise , Practice , Evidence , Information , Breastfeeding , Science , Profession

Published: 11/08/2021

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Every nurse, irrespective of his/her age, is committed to providing care, and want to achieve the highest level of professional excellence. This is possible, only if all the nurses are willing to function as a team. This will add more fun to the profession, and help fellow nurses to motivate each other. Such a team effort will enable nurse leaders to develop courage and confidence. Just like care and compassion, evidence based practice is a key component of nursing practice. (Hogan & Costello-Nickitas, 2009) Evidence based practice, is a process through which nurses make professional decisions, that are based on sound scientific evidences or clinical expertise, as well as taking into consideration the patient preferences. Thus, understanding scientific information, and interpreting scientific information, has become an essential part of nursing practice. Any nurse, who is willing to allot time for learning and developing critical thinking, can develop these skills. Evidence based practice, will help to reduce uncertainties in an every changing healthcare sector, that is concerned with providing individualized care to its patients. (Woodward, 2013) Evidence based practice, is about doing things in the right way. Though most nurses trust in the healing power of God, clinical decision making needs to be backed by relevant data. Even Florence Nightingale, approved the importance of data in nursing practice. The notes she had made, and the statistical study, she conducted is a proof of this. She recognized the importance of applying logical reasoning and empirical knowledge in the nursing profession. (Hogan & Costello-Nickitas, 2009) In evidence based practice, it is necessary to ensure that the topic is extensively addressed through research and sufficient publications are made on the specific topic. Only then can a nurse consider the information for implementing change. Evidence based practice enables nurses to solve the problem in a systematic and scientific way. (Woodward, 2013)

References:

Hogan, M., & Costello-Nickitas, D. (2009). Nursing leadership and management. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Woodward, R. (2013). Belief-based and evidence-based practice. The Pharmaceutical Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/pj.2013.11120750

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    Essay on Evidence-Based Practice. Since its official introduction in 1992, Evidence-based practice (EBP) has gained lots of ground. It is the process of assembling, processing, and applying research results to improve clinical practice, the work setting, and patient outcomes. The clinical practice's approach is currently used in other fields ...

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    Pages: 1 Words: 275 Get Document Order Similar Evidence-Based Practice and Research Author's Name Institution Abstract Numerous concerns characterize the clinical practice but several tools can be used by practitioners to address these problems. Some of these tools include quality improvement (QI), research, and evidence-based practice (EBP).

  22. Evidence Based Practice Essay Sample

    Sample Essay About Evidence Based Practice. Every nurse, irrespective of his/her age, is committed to providing care, and want to achieve the highest level of professional excellence. This is possible, only if all the nurses are willing to function as a team. This will add more fun to the profession, and help fellow nurses to motivate each ...