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Interactions between Street Food and Food Safety Topics in the Scientific Literature—A Bibliometric Analysis with Science Mapping

Claudio bellia.

1 Department of Agricultural Food and Environment (Di3A), Università degli Studi di Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy; [email protected]

Simona Bacarella

2 Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences (SAAF), Università degli Studi di Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy; [email protected]

Marzia Ingrassia

Associated data.

Not applicable.

Street food (SF) consists of ready-to-eat food prepared and sold on the street. This food constitutes the food traditions of local populations in many countries of the world. SF characterizes a large number of cities around the world, from New York to Paris, from Palermo to cities of North Africa, China, India and Japan. SF is inexpensive and prepared following traditional methods that meet local consumer preferences, culinary culture and lifestyles. Moreover, SF allows a unique experience for tourists who also want to experience a destination through traditional food consumed on the street together with the locals. Nevertheless, SF is linked to several health hazards. Hence, several studies discussed on the compliance with hygiene and food quality requirements that SF vendors should guarantee, to ensure human health. So far, there is no bibliometric review attempting to provide an objective and comprehensive analysis of the existing scientific documents that simultaneously study the scientific topic of SF linked to that of Food Safety (FS). Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework of the interactions between studies on SF and FS topics, in order to discover if the combined topic of “Street Food Safety” (SFS) was investigated as a topic in its own right. A bibliometric analysis was carried out analyzing 276 scientific contributions from the last 21 years, indexed in the Elsevier Scopus database and in the Clarivate Web of Science database. The results showed a very strong interaction between the two topics and many others in several scientific sectors; In particular, the topic of SFS involves many disciplines of social sciences. The results highlight that the scientific topic of SFS exists but not consciously, and it is believed that the research interest in this topic can grow considerably in the coming years, also because of the current COVID-19 pandemic situation that we are experiencing.

1. Introduction

Street food (SF) belongs to the culture of many populations around the world. In particular, it is a food usually eaten in many cities of continents such as Africa, India, Asia and Latin America [ 1 ]. Street food and street food vendors are particularly popular in under-developed regions and countries, where they constitute a relevant part of their economy [ 2 , 3 , 4 ]. However, SF represents a fundamental part of the eating habits in many cities of the most developed countries. As a fundamental part of the local culture, SF is often an attraction for visitors/tourists in many cities and countries of the world (e.g., New York in the USA, Paris, Vienna, Lisbon, Madrid, Rome and Palermo in Europe, but also in Greece, Turkey and other countries of the Mediterranean Basin) [ 5 , 6 ]. According to the FAO definition, street foods are ready-to-eat foods and beverages prepared and/or sold by vendors or hawkers especially in the streets and other similar places. SF includes a very wide quantity of products of animal and vegetable origin, grilled or fried, seasoned and served according to local traditions [ 7 ].

SF is gaining increased popularity in both under-developed and developed countries [ 8 ]. It is clear that the consumption of SF is due to different factors depending on whether we are referring to a more developed or non-developed country. In fact, for millions of low- and middle-income consumers in urban areas of developing countries, street food is a substantial component of their daily diet. For them, street foods may be the cheapest and most accessible way to have a nutritionally balanced meal outside of the home, provided that the consumer is knowledgeable and capable of selecting the right combination of foods. Moreover, in developing countries with inadequate education or skills, preparing and selling street food is a reliable source of income. Differently, in some developed countries, SF is considered an additional tourist attraction. Think about the so-called “food & wine” tourism that, for example in Italy, attracts millions of interested tourists every year to try the typical street food and live a complete and inclusive experience together with the inhabitants of the place they are visiting [ 9 , 10 ]. SF is a conscious way to show tourists and visitors part of the cultural identity of the local population, the so called “food identity” [ 11 ]. SF allows a unique experience for tourists who also want to experience a destination through traditional food consumed on the street together with the locals [ 12 ]. Street food vendors, along the road, become a meeting point between locals and visitors, between tasting and storytelling [ 9 ]. This point was addressed by some authors that described street food as a “diversified touristic attraction and offer” [ 9 ], as it allows, at the same time, tourists to explore culinary traditions of the visited country/city and the territory of origin of the products tasted. This contributes to have a unique experience of travel and knowledge of places and cultures of which the food itself contributes to maintaining a positive memory [ 13 ]. It is linked to broader concept of experience that include cultural heritage, food quality, local food products, health, and food safety [ 12 ].

However, street food can also exert negative impacts in the long term on human health and the environment, such as pollution, damage to biodiversity, etc. [ 14 ]. Additionally, SF has some problems connected to food safety, hygiene, and food quality, which can compromise the health of consumers, both during the immediate consumption and in the long term (due to cooking and preparation methods) [ 15 ]. According to FAO, local governments, international organizations, and consumer groups are becoming aware of the socioeconomic relevance of street foods, as well as the risks that come with them [ 15 ]. Food safety is the primary concern, but other issues such as sanitation (waste accumulation in the streets and clogged wastewater drains), traffic congestion in the city, including for pedestrians (occupation of sidewalks by street vendors and traffic accidents), illegal occupation of public or private space, and social issues have also been raised (child labor, unfair competition to formal trade, etc.). In many parts of the world, the possibility of serious food poisoning outbreaks linked to street foods remains a concern. A lack of understanding of the causes of food-borne illness among street food vendors is a problem. The relationship between street food (SF) and food safety (FS) is particularly interesting, due to its importance the global economy. In recent decades, the subject of FS has taken on a significance linked to the economic development of the countries to which it refers [ 16 , 17 ]. In fact, FS is generally associated with the probability of contracting diseases due to the qualitative characteristics of the food or to the lack of compliance of SF vendors with the minimum health and hygiene requirements [ 18 ]. For example, it is important for consumers to adopt some caution, such as avoiding raw foods, because the preservation methods required to keep them fresh are rarely possible on the street, or avoiding drinking running water [ 14 , 15 ]. It is also important that the surfaces on which food is processed and cooked are well cleaned and that fresh foods are stored in refrigerators. Finally, the handling of money with hands before serving or eating the food is another problem [ 3 , 7 , 14 ].

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the sanitary crisis, the consumers’ behavior in regard to food consumption and purchasing has significantly changed, particularly in urban cities in the most developed countries in the world [ 19 ]. Because of the persistence of lockdowns and the fear of the spread of contagions, consumers avoided traditional neighborhood markets of fresh foods, for the need of social distancing, and reduced the consumption of SF, preferring to buy food at supermarkets or grocery stores, often online, or requesting for home delivery [ 20 ]. In addition, it was observed that consumers stocked up essential items at home, and these behaviors largely remained even after the reopening [ 21 ]. Additionally, the SF economic sector was significantly affected, not only with regard to the lower number of local consumers but also for the absence of tourists/visitors, which is also an economic loss for SF sellers [ 22 , 23 ].

Because of the above-explained variation of food safety with geography, the term “Street Food Safety” calls for stronger contextualization and substantiation.

Despite the importance of studying issues related to the healthiness and safety of SF, notwithstanding scientific progress made in this field, bibliometric analysis of scientific works published on these topics is still lacking. Literature on SF begins around the end of nineties [ 24 ], and some studies have been conducted on SF and FS about specific topics such as hygienic practices [ 25 , 26 ], food allergens [ 27 ] and others, such as the tourism economic perspective for small enterprises [ 28 , 29 , 30 ]. Nevertheless, there is no bibliometric analysis attempting to provide an objective and comprehensive analysis of the existing interactions between these two topics. Abrahale et al., which presents a scoping review concerning SF and its socio-health aspects [ 31 ], and another Bouafou et al., [ 32 ] on food science and technology, and there are a few recent works in the literature on SF around the world and the risk perception toward FS in SF [ 33 , 34 ].

Therefore, the study of the links between the scientific topics SF and FS appears of interest for researchers that want to know how different disciplines, fields, expertise and documents/authors relate to each other while investigating those two topics, and discover any existence of a further scientific topic related to them, that is, “Street Food Safety” (SFS). This study focused on the two scientific topics of research, SF and FS, with the aim to highlight any strand of research concerned with studying the combined topic SFS or the two topics separately. Moreover, this study aims to identify which scientific fields emerge in which these two topics (SF and FS) are studied together, or in which field the specific SFS topic is studied. Specifically, the object of this paper was to discover, based on the empirical evidence, any existing objectively demonstrable interaction between the scientific topics of SF and FS, and the existence of the scientific field of research regarding “Street Food Safety”. The research questions were:

RQ1. What relation is there between street food and food safety topics in the scientific literature?

RQ2. What is the current scientific literature analyzing the “derived” composed topic “Street Food Safety”, by focusing on leading scientific contributions?

To answer these questions, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of the literature based on scientific mapping [ 35 , 36 ] in order to highlight any aspect of the bibliometric links between SF topic and FS topic and any existence of the topic “Street Food Safety” highlighted by authors who have studied this theme in any scientific sector (not necessarily the field of exact sciences). Results provided an interesting insight into current research trends and potential directions for future research.

2. Materials and Methods

Following the objectives of this study, it was considered more appropriate to combine two methodological approaches. First, the PRISMA protocol [ 35 ], a proven procedure in the field of “systematic literature reviews” and “meta-analyses” that provides transparency and replicability to the review. By the use of this procedure, it was possible to obtain a representative set of scientific documents regarding the topics of “Street Food”, “Food Safety” and “Street Food Safety”. Moreover, using scientific mapping analysis (or bibliometric mapping analysis, using “keywords” analysis, co-citation analysis and “co-occurrence analysis”, it was possible to highlight how disciplines, fields, expertise and individual documents or authors relate to each other [ 34 , 37 ]. Both techniques have been used in previous works [ 35 , 36 ]. Keyword and co-occurrence investigation provided a theoretical framework of the relations between studies on SF and FS topics, and the combined topic of “Street Food Safety” (SFS), particularly the interactions between the three topics in diverse disciplines and the most interesting studies published related to these research themes (co-citation analysis).

2.1. Bibliometric Analysis

An extensive literature search, a chronological/conceptual review of international literature, was conducted in March 2021 and in February 2022, with the aim to find out scientific documents published from 2000 to 2021 (included) discussing the relations between the topics “Street Food” and “Food Safety” [ 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ]. This analysis was carried out on documents published from 2000 because, during the last 21 years, consumers and the scientific community have started to take more into consideration the problems linked to the risks to human health of the consumption of certain foods. In addition to that, the importance of the controls on foods quality and food safety have increased since that time, especially in developing countries, where the issue of food safety is still a very important public health issue.

The Clarivate Web of Science and the Elsevier Scopus databases were used for this study. The choice to combine these two databases allowed to reduce greatly any type of bias in the selection of data sources, as it ensured an adequate number and model of document classification according to the purpose of this study. In fact, it was thought to have a sufficient number of medium to high quality documents covering the natural and social sciences, both sectoral and interdisciplinary, within a formal or applied sciences system [ 41 ]. Moreover, the choice of the two databases appeared the most suitable to have a more heterogeneous significant sample, because of the high number of journals of medium–high quality indexed. Among all the scientific database, Google Scholar was excluded because it indexes many non-scientific papers. Finally, the PubMed database specializes in “biomedical literature”, and was therefore too sectorial, and not suitable for our investigation. Regarding the language used, there were selected scientific documents published in all languages.

The first step of the used method concerned the research and selection of the studies under investigation in the two databases.

Usually, PRISMA protocol is used in systematic literature reviews to show a series of successive stages that allowed us to select the relevant documents for the study. In this study, the PRISMA protocol was applied ( Figure 1 ) because, similarly to other bibliometric reviews [ 34 ], it appeared suitable to simplify the understanding of the study design followed, providing transparency and replicability of the review.

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Inclusion and exclusion criteria using PRISMA protocol. Final number of documents observed N = 276.

The initial search was screened and refined using the Elsevier “Search within” function, applying multiple combinations with article titles, abstract and keywords. The search terms were selected in line with previous research in the field of street food [ 35 , 36 ] used Boolean strategies that are: “Street Food” AND/OR “Food Safety” OR “Street Food Safety”. Through this procedure, a first database was created (identification).

After the first step of identifying the sample for analysis, the times when pairs of articles within the sample were cited in the other scientific documents within the entire Elsevier Scopus database were counted [ 35 , 36 ].

During the last twenty-one years, there has been a strong increased interest from academics for the topics concerning street food and/or food safety; therefore, it was decided to consider for this study all documents published from 2000. The extraction rules were limited the extrapolation only to scientific articles, books/book chapters and reviews fully published in Journals between 2000 and 2021 (included), written in all languages. It is possible that after 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the interest of researchers on street food safety increased further; therefore, this study can be continued into the future.

Duplicates and documents not providing original data (e.g., opinion papers), and study protocols were excluded. So, the initial database consisted of N = 414 documents.

From the initial database of documents, it was created a second database (N = 370), after having checked the consistence of contents with the words searched as representative of the research topics (SF, FS and SFS).

The final database consisted of N = 276 documents eligible for the bibliometric analysis, which included 231 articles (83.69%), 30 book chapters (10.86%) and 15 reviews (5.43%).

A first analysis of the selected documents was performed using basic quantitative statistics in order to know the characteristics of documents included in the final database (FD), such as year of publication, authors, type of document, document citations, scientific areas, countries, etc.

Subsequently, with the frequencies obtained some multivariate statistical techniques were applied, with the aim to identify the existent structure of connection among the documents based on the terms considered representative of the observed topics (SF, FS and SFS). For this BA, the software Microsoft VOSviewer (version 1.6.16.) was used. This (Van-Eck & Waltman, 2011, 2020) software allows researchers to create two-dimensional maps for the construction and visualization of bibliometric networks [ 42 , 43 ]. It enables us to build keyword networks extracted from scientific literature, using a text mining functionality. Using this software, it was possible to carry out the scientific mapping.

2.2. Science Map Analysis

The so-called scientific mapping, or “science maps”, are spatial representations that help to visualize the relations that arise among documents, based on links between authors, bibliographic references, journals, disciplines, and specific words. This type of network analysis allows researchers to search into the content of documents through the co-occurrence of “specific words” (SW) (or key-words). This methodology is especially suitable to know the intellectual structure of a specific research field or topic of interest. According to previous studies [ 34 , 36 ], the SW used in the content of documents and those contained in titles, abstracts and keywords are essential for the identification of significant topics within a specific research topic of issue.

The visual representation of the Science Map can be obtained using any bibliometric software [ 34 , 36 ]. For this study, the VOSviewer [ 42 , 43 ] appeared the most suitable because it provides a high-quality overview of targeted research topics. However, the information underlying the visual representations provided by the software is certainly of interest. In this study, due to the graphical power of the software, and the meaning of each of the visual representations, we wanted to know the relationships between the topics of “Street Food” and “Food Safety” and any scientific interest in the topic identified as “Street food Safety”, despite the possible non-use of the specific keyword.

Thanks to VOSviewer, the importance of a SW (node) is represented by its relative position in the network. The software calculates the importance of all the SW selected and displays the largest possible number of thematic networks. The node size represents the importance of those words, based on the frequency of occurrences [ 43 ]. Links between nodes denote the number of times words appear together, and the thickness of the link means the strength of the link.

Special words’ map analysis and links’ strength analysis (co-occurrence analysis) were performed. The co-occurrence analysis allowed us to discover any relations arising among the documents selected and the entity/strength of these relations (links), which consists of distances and label size, based on the frequency of words co-occurrences. Therefore, VOSviewer provided a visual representation of the networks among the three topics investigated: street food, food safety and street food safety.

This study provides the first bibliometric analysis (BA) and classification framework of the existing literature about street food and food safety and the bibliometric links between these two scientific topics. The aim was to know if the topic “Street Food Safety” was an existing cross-sectorial topic of interest for researchers, and what were the main scientific areas in which this issue was studied as relevant topic.

The final database (FD) consisted of 276 documents published and indexed in the two databases in the period between January 2000 and December 2021.

3.1. Analysis of the Selected Manuscripts: Data Description and Classification

Through this BA, it was possible to classify the documents observed by author names, title, year of publication, document’s type, journal’s title, and number of citations by other scientific documents. Despite the fact that there are several publications documenting these topics in various parts of the world, the most frequently cited publications are, primarily, cases studied in Africa and South America. Most of them are documents focusing on specific case studies on food safety of street food, with some theoretical contribution to existing theories. This might be because the problem of food safety of street food is very relevant in those world areas.

Results shows a progressive increase, albeit non-linear, from 2000 until 2021, of publications regarding topics of street food and food safety, as shown in Figure 2 .

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Evolution of the number of articles (276 documents observed) published per year.

It can be noticed that the number of scientific documents published increased significantly in 2014 (11.59% of the total 276 documents observed). Specifically, most of the published documents on the studied topics (204 documents, equal to 73.91% of total documents observed) were published between 2014 and 2022, with the exception of 2015, where there were only 12 articles, but that year was the only one not in line with the trend of the last 8 years.

Figure 3 shows the number of scientific documents on the topics SF and FS published from 2000 to 2021, by focused country.

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Frequency of the scientific papers about street food and food safety by focused country.

It can be seen that India, with 35 documents on SF and/or FS (12.68% of the 276 documents), was the country with the highest number of interested authors; following India were Brazil, USA and Ghana, with more than 20 documents, South Africa with 20 documents (7.2% of total 276 documents), and then Indonesia (16 documents, 5.8%), Nigeria (4.3%), UK (4.3%) and Bangladesh (3.6%). This result highlights that generally, in the occidental countries and specifically in the EU, the topic of food safety for street food is not considered an issue, possibly thanks to specific strict regulations to preserve food quality and to maintain a high level of sanitary standards. Moreover, street food is much more frequently sold and consumed as a regular meal in developing countries than in those more developed [ 25 , 29 , 44 ].

Figure 4 shows a high heterogeneity of documents and the diversity of the research fields where the topics SF and/or FS were studied (12 research field in total), according to the number of documents published in the selected databases.

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Number of published documents by research field.

The five research fields with more documents were: agricultural and biological sciences (included agricultural economics) with 137 documents—49.63% of the total (276); medicine (81 documents) 29.34% of the total; social sciences (48 document on 276) 17.39% of the total database; biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology 16.3% (45 documents) and immunology and microbiology 36 documents—13%. Following these were environmental science, engineering, business management and accounting, nursing, multidisciplinary, pharmacology and economics, econometrics and finance. In this scenario, it is interesting to observe that social sciences is a field where SF and FS were studied relatively frequently (almost 20% of the total documents observed), and also in combination.

Table 1 shows the top 20 most cited documents in the SD. Specifically, the manuscript of Mensah et al. (2002) [ 44 ] has the highest number of citations, 202 citations, among all the publications observed in the FD on an article analyzing safety and healthiness of street food in a city of Ghana. It is followed by a review of Rane (2011) [ 45 ], with a citation frequency of 103, that analyzes the problems of risks related to street food. By observing all the articles in this Table, it is possible to notice that the most recurring themes are the relationship between street food and the hygiene of the place where it is sold and consumed, and the fact that it has become an important public health issue in the developing continents. Other aspects investigated by the authors are related to the socio-economic role of the street food vendors. Most of these are documents published on very sectorial journals concerning food safety, knowledge and risk, etc. such as the journal “Food control”, which deals with these issues.

Rank of first 20 most cited articles.

Note: Our elaboration on data from Elsevier Scopus and Web of Science Database, 2022.

3.2. VOSviewer Results: Science Maps

All the SW contained in the titles, abstracts and keywords of the 276 selected documents were selected, and they consisted of 797 words to be analyzed (census) [ 42 , 43 ]. Previously, the database was manually cleaned of duplicates, plural words, and other words considered not relevant for this study (e.g., “analysis”, “theory”, “study”, “review”, etc.). At the end, the words database consisted of 110 words. The 110 selected words were analyzed using the VOSviewer software, with the final result a science map showing the relationships between the various SWs, and among them, plus their association through the thematic clusters highlighted ( Figure 5 ).

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VOSviewer keywords analysis and co-occurrences in the selected documents.

In the map, it was possible to see clearly the bibliometric links between the two topics observed (SF and FS) and all the other correlated SW in the selected documents. As shown in Figure 5 , following the “VOSviewer keywords analysis” each node is a word, the larger the node, the higher the frequency of occurrence of the word identifying it. The lines between two nodes (links) and their thickness indicates the co-occurrence of two words in the same document. Specifically, links between/among nodes indicates that two or more words appear in the same document, and the thicker the line, the higher the frequency of word co-occurrence [ 42 , 43 ]. Moreover, the thickness of the link indicates the strength of the link based on co-occurrences. The network connections show the words that appear together more frequently in the analyzed documents. Thus, it is possible to identify clearly the most prevalent/important research topics discussed in the research/study documents, according to their authors.

The “VOSviewer keywords analysis” [ 42 , 43 ] highlighted two big clusters based on the 110 words analyzed. These words are displayed in the science map with 306 links that connect them to each other, highlighting the multidisciplinary approach to issues related to SF and FS.

The nodes’ size indicates the weight of the SW, i.e., its occurrences. Food safety is the biggest node, followed by Street Food. The word “Food Safety” appears in almost half of the documents in the selected database; consequently, this node is the biggest one, having the highest number of co-occurrences with the other linked words, and it clusters the largest number of correlated topics.

The second biggest cluster is that of the topic “Street Food”, which is obvious considering that these two words were the ones selected as “key-selection words” in the first phase of sampling in the Elsevier Scopus database. However, the interesting thing is the strength of the link between these two topics, which shows that there is high interest of research for the two combined topics of SF and FS. Furthermore, the nodes and the links discovered show what are the other principal topics studied in combination with SF and FS, this highlights the scientific sectors and issues wherein these two topics are studied together.

Very few documents (1.5% of the total documents observed) contained the word “Street Food Safety” in their titles, abstracts and keywords, regarding microbial safety, social determinants of health, public health intervention and food safety education in elementary school students. Due to the low frequency with which this word has been detected, it does not appear in the visual representation provided by the software.

It can be observed that the strongest connections of FS are with topics related to human health issues, such as “food”, “hygiene”, “nutrition”, “hazard” and “contamination”. Moreover, the most important connections with SF are other topics related to consumers and their awareness of SF hazards and SF characteristics, e.g., topics such as: “consumers”, “knowledge”, “street vendors”, “hazard”, “hygiene practices”, “women” and “nutrition”.

Table 2 shows the most relevant words found in the analysed documents based on occurrences and links’ strength.

Rank of the 15 most frequent keywords, occurrences and links’ strength.

Note: Our elaboration of data extracted from selected documents.

From the total of 276 selected articles and review documents, the keyword “Food Safety” was found in 79 documents, reflecting a percentage of 28.6% of the total number of documents, with the highest strength of the links (LS 180) that correlate it with other topics. It is not surprising that this topic is followed by “Street Food” with a frequency of 48, which is 17.2% of the 279 selected articles and a link strength (LS) of 104. Other frequent SW are “hygiene” (8.3%) and “vendors” (4.3%). “Consumers”, “Food hygiene” and “Es. Coli” (2.9%) are moderately frequent, although not as relevant as the first ones. These results show that the other SW do not have their own capability to be a multidisciplinary topic, because their combination with any of the other word observed is modest. On the other hand, these findings show the relevance of combination among SF and FS topics and other topics such as “consumers”, “food hygiene”, “knowledge”, “nutrition and diseases” and the way in which the issue of food safety of SF is studied.

Figure 6 displays the clusters’ density. This Figure shows the same bibliographic findings of Figure 5 , but without networks. In this Figure, the intensity/density of the color reveals the weight of each cluster measured by the number of items belonging to that cluster in the neighborhood of the point [ 36 , 37 ].

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Density visualization performed by the VOSviewer program.

The density of Cluster 1, with 58 words (data not shown) (63%), addresses “Food Safety” issues. Cluster 2 (density of 33 words) addresses street food issues, with a weaker cooperation strength than that of Cluster 1. The similar colors and their intensity show cooperation strength of the words, which identifies the topics studied in the same document.

Nevertheless, the interesting finding that emerges from this result is that the highest density is located in the proximity of the word FS and SF. Therefore, it is possible to demonstrate that a line of research, or a field, that studies issues and themes regarding “ Street Food Safety ” exists, despite the fact that this “key”-word is used very rarely in the selected documents.

4. Discussion

Through this pilot research, using a bibliometric analysis of scientific documents on the topics “Street Food” and “Food Safety”, it was attempted to discover the scientific interactions and connections between the two topics.

The first finding that emerges from the results is that the interest to pursue research related to food safety within street food sector has significantly increased during the last 21 years; in fact, between 2000 and 2021, the number of articles on street food, food safety and their connection increased progressively ( Figure 2 ). The aim of the studies observed was to study how to increase food safety and hygiene during preparation and consumption of street food and also the consumers’/vendors’ knowledge about this issue [ 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 ]. Although the SFS covers a wide range of subject categories, a large proportion of the publications were related to street food and food safety separately. Specifically, it is possible to note that in the Cluster 1, according to the topics found [ 51 , 70 , 71 ], groups all the documents where the issue of food safety is discussed, and Cluster 2 groups documents about street food. Interactions between the street food topic and food safety, and other relevant research topics, show that relations are mainly related to economic topics [ 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 ].

The analysis of the 279 selected documents highlights the increasing interest of researchers for issues of SF for human health, and thus the importance of FS for global and local policies [ 2 , 74 , 75 ]. Almost all public health challenges are discussed with regard to specific geographic areas, so there is an increase in the number of journals in these fields, journals such as Foods , Food Control , International Journal of Food Microbiology , etc.

The interactions between SF and FS can be also found by observing the other research sectors linked to them, such as “food allergies”, “diseases and hygiene”, “nutrition” and “food contamination” issues [ 1 , 55 , 76 , 77 ]. Topics related to nutrition, hygiene practices, food safety knowledge, hazard, contamination, microbiological quality, risk assessment, and others were the most discussed in the identified articles, showing some common issues of great concern. Much research has been conducted in developing countries [ 2 , 76 , 77 ].

Moreover, street food and food safety issues are closely related to the food system topics. In fact, most of the documents were included in the research area “Agricultural and Biological science” in which there are journals dealing with issues of “Agricultural Economics”. SFS research involves about 84% of all subject categories, meaning that there are numerous perspectives of research and scientific studies on the specific topic of SFS. The study found that SFS topics are studied mainly with regard to developing countries, such as India, Brazil and Ghana, which have undeveloped economies and little investment in scientific research. Nevertheless, this topic is also covered with regard to the USA. In fact, SFS cannot disregard based on political, socio-economic and environmental regional characteristics; nevertheless, the current bias in geographical distribution of SFS research seems acceptable and thus it allows the generalization of findings.

It is believed that further research targeting developed countries is needed [ 66 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 ], and also the analysis of documents written in different languages other than English and indexed in other scientific databases, because they address these themes and topics from different point of view and with a more systemic approach.

This pilot study, with BA [ 81 ], contributes to the actual research showing a new latent field of research on “Street Food Safety”, because of the revealed closed links between the two topics, particularly in the research areas of medicine, agricultural economics, biological sciences, and social sciences. Therefore, this opens up a new potential research field in the literature. This novelty of findings may be of interest for other authors interested in studying the Street Food Safety issues from a broader interdisciplinary perspective, and not necessarily linked only to food hygiene or public health issues. In fact, results clearly show that there is an existing research interest on the SFS topic that includes other topics of cross-sectoral interest, studied primarily by academics of social sciences (agricultural economics, agricultural politics, economics, etc.), e.g., food quality topics, quality certifications, of the traceability and retraceability of a food product, block-chain, etc.

Limitations and Future Lines of Research

The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the specific broad interest research sector of Street Food Safety . This pilot study, using BA [ 80 , 81 ], opens the door for future analysis by combining other databases of research documents that can confirm or contrast our results. However, the results of this study have some limitations that need to be addressed in future studies, and do not offer a unique view of reality. In particular, the most important is that, although we were able to obtain objective results on the topic of SF and FS and with regard to the discovered latent topic of Street Food Safety, some reasons behind these results are still not explained. Therefore, a more detailed analysis of the studies about the topic of Street Food Safety in developed countries appears useful in adjusting the geographic distribution of research documents analyzed. Therefore, to address this limitation, which is typical of BA [ 80 , 81 ], future research could be carried out with the using statistical methods suitable for explorative studies in social sciences. Additionally, these results could be integrated with a systematic literature review. However, the complexity of the phenomenon and its importance demonstrates that more research need to be conducted on the extensive topic of Street Food Safety.

5. Conclusions

This study is the first bibliometric analysis and classification framework to review systematically the status of the existing literature on the topic of “Street Food Safety” highlighting the bibliometric links between street food topic and food safety topic. The aim was to know if the topic “Street Food Safety” was an existing cross sectorial topic of interest for researchers, and what were the main scientific areas in which this issue was studied as relevant topic. A quantification of the increase in SFS-related interdisciplinary topics was made in order to highlight the importance that the scientific topic of SFS in acquiring progressively during the last 21 years (from 2000 to 2021).

Through the co-occurrence analysis of research countries and journals, and to citation analysis [ 35 , 36 , 81 ] we found that most research is performed in developing countries and that these countries have similar problems related to food safety of street food and health of regular consumers of street food. Furthermore, keywords analysis, co-occurrence analysis and cluster analysis, revealed the current research focus and trends [ 36 ]. Researchers are focused on one main aspect: food security related to street food preparation and consumption in the daily diet of consumers. This finding highlights that there is a developing field of research on the topic “Street Food Safety” and on all the other topics related to it. Specifically, the research sectors where authors investigate on this topic are those of the social sciences where topics are studied using an integrated and systemic view. Therefore, more research should be carried out in the future investigating documents that focus on developed countries also using other database to complete the analysis.

Abbreviations

The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript:

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, C.B. and M.I.; methodology, C.B. and M.I.; software, C.B.; validation, C.B. and M.I.; formal analysis, S.B., C.B. and M.I.; investigation, C.B.; resources, S.B. and M.I.; data curation, C.B. and M.I.; project administration, C.B. and M.I.; writing—original draft preparation, C.B. and M.I.; writing—review and editing, S.B., C.B. and M.I.; visualization, S.B. and M.I.; supervision, C.B. and M.I.; funding acquisition, S.B., C.B. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

This research was partially funded by the research fund “FFR 2021 Prof. Simona Bacarella” And partially funded by the research project “Sostenibilità economica, ambientale e sociale del sistema agroalimentare del mediterraneo”, Principal investigator Prof. Claudio Bellia funded by PIAno di inCEntivi per la Ricerca di Ateneo (PIACERI) UNICT 2020/22 line 2, UPB: 5A722192154, University of Catania.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Informed consent statement, data availability statement, conflicts of interest.

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

81 Food Safety Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best food safety topic ideas & essay examples, 📌 good essay topics on food safety, 💡 simple & easy food safety titles.

  • Food Contamination and Adulteration: Environmental Problems, Food Habits, Way of Cultivation The purpose of this essay is to explain reasons for different kinds of food contamination and adulteration, harmful contaminants and adulterants and the diseases caused by the usage of those substances, prevention of food contamination […]
  • The Importance of Food Safety in Live The food control system is an internationally recognized system that details various elements that are involved in food handling and to ensure safety and fitness for human consumption. We will write a custom essay specifically for you by our professional experts 808 writers online Learn More
  • Beef Industry: Nutrition and Food Safety Analysis The amount of saturated fat in the six leanest beef cuts is almost equal to that in the chicken’s leanest cut, the skinless chicken breast.
  • Food Hygiene Inspection of a Food Premises and the Intervention Strategies The need to conduct this inspection was necessitated by the complaints that were received from the customers about the food served at this store.
  • Food Safety Policy for a Music Festival Several food businesses are expected to be at the festival thus posing a threat to the health of the participants should the right measures fail to be implemented to avoid the spread of food-borne diseases.
  • Food Hygiene Legislation in the UK For comprehension purposes, the applicable food laws and powers of authorized officers who conducted the inspection are presented briefly in the first section of the report.
  • The Governmental Role in Food Safety The government has the mandate to supervise the overall procedures that are undertaken for food to be made from the farms to the shelves.
  • Food Safety Policy and Inspection Services To begin with, I would like to dwell upon the issue of food safety establishments’ attitude towards the complaints of the citizens. The friend’s story mentioned in the discussion serves as a vivid example of […]
  • Food Safety and Its Application The realization that low temperatures slow down the growth of microbes and the process of food spoilage led to the invention of refrigeration.
  • Preserving Food Hygiene and Safety Thirdly, assessment Apps have aided in the transition of audits from worksheets to a platform designed to implement and track food safety procedures.
  • The Actuality of Issue of Food Safety Although the article does not explore specific strategies that can be utilized to increase food safety globally, identifying the necessity to promote food safety culture and behavioral change toward food safety make it a reliable […]
  • Safety of Food: Weaning Management Practices The methods have different significance in the efficiency and performance of the calves, but the main impact remains to prevent and reduce stress.
  • Operations to Ensure Food Safety The Preventive Controls for Animal Food regulation requires suppliers of animal food, particularly pet food, to apply the same careful preparation used to identify and avoid dangers in the growth of human food.
  • Food Safety Modernization Act and Its Importance Because of the increasing concerns about the food safety outbreak of foodborne diseases and other food contamination in the United States, sophisticated inspection-based procedures based on accurate detection technologies are necessary to ensure that food […]
  • Position on Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) The peer discusses the content of the law, the danger of foodborne illness, food pollution, and presents arguments supporting the position on the inefficiency of FSMA.
  • Food Safety and Organic Growing in the USA According to Ehlermann, the technique allows to contain food spoilage, destroy foodborne pathogens, such as bacteria, and eliminate the effects of insect pests without significantly affecting the taste or smell of food.
  • Wildlife Conservation and Food Safety for Human From the epidemiological investigation, the seafood market in Wuhan was termed as the cause of the outbreak and Coronavirus was identified as of bat origin.
  • Food Safety and Information Bulletin Moreover, meat, poultry, fish and other fresh products should be packed in separate plastic bags in order not to spoil the rest of the products selected.
  • Food Safety in the Modern World It is evident that the process of delivering food to the table is highly complex and there are multiple points along the way where food may be mishandled leading to contamination.
  • Impacts of H7N9 Virus and Food Contamination at Maleic Acid on Inbound Tourism for Elderly to Taiwan In addition, health involves the advancement of the entire body of the individual with regard to the individual’s mind, spirit, or will to aid in his/her functionality.

✍️ Food Safety Essay Topics for College

  • The Sunshine Wok: Food Hygiene Inspection At the kitchen, the food handler was not aware of the requirement to maintain high-risk food at a temperature of not above 8 C and was at 9.4oC.
  • The Routine Food Hygiene Inspection The report will outline the conditions present in the food establishment that violate the food hygiene legislation and regulations. The main food legislations in the UK and Europe include the Food Safety Act 1990, the […]
  • The Food Industry as a Threat to Public Health and Food Safety Nestle examine the problem of food safety, but the main difference is that they focus on the practical aspect of the issue. The authors suggest the regulation and monitoring of the food industry by health […]
  • Public Service Bulletin: Food Safety Issues It should be noted that food itself does not cause illnesses but what causes illnesses are the pathogens and bacteria present in food. There are several illnesses commonly referred to as food borne diseases that […]
  • Independent Food Safety Inspections in US Restaurants In order to take proper control over the quality of the food served in facilities, the Us Food & Drug Administration has implemented the system of regulatory inspections.
  • The Problem of Food Safety and the Spread of Various Diseases These days the low level of food safety, the absence of health infrastructure, and the inability of the authorities to take preventive measures contribute a lot to appearing emergencies in some countries.
  • Safety and Quality: Food Contaminants and Adulteration Food adulteration according to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act is any food that contains materials that are injurious or noxious to the health of a human being.
  • 3D Printed Food and Utensils Safety The former is typically implemented in the production of simple foods and components, whereas the latter is used in combined culinary, with the implementation of both natural and printed ingredients.
  • Food Safety and Regulations in China Today, China, the world’s largest food producer, has chosen the path to reforming domestic legislation in the field of food safety, by eliminating the contradictions between national standards and technical regulations for food production.
  • Casa Vasca Restaurant’s Food Safety and Sanitation As the restaurant is open daily, I have visited it once during the working days and on the weekend to compare whether the restaurant practices or service differs on regular days and at the weekends […]
  • Food Poisoning and Hygiene Awareness in Saudi Arabia The primary aim of the research is to establish the extent to which hygiene awareness in Saudi Arabia helps in the prevention of disease.
  • Food Safety and Health Violation at Workplace This can give pests access to food and enhance the growth and spread of bacteria. This can cause a quick growth and spread of bacteria.
  • Food Safety at Introducing of New Meal The former is the most significant threat from the medium risk category due to its high presence, and the latter is the biggest issue out of all the factors listed above.
  • Food Safety: Washing Contact Surfaces and Cooking An important aspect of food safety is the personal hygiene practices of the food handlers as they make contact with the food.
  • Aspen Hills Inc.’s Food Safety and Quality Issues For most of the food companies and restaurants, food safety is one of the primary components of quality management. As a result of the letter, the company’s officials chose to shut down the production activity […]
  • The Mass Production of Food: Food Safety Issue The development of the food industry regarding the mass production of food globally led to the discussion of the food safety and nutrition issues at the international level because the violation of the food safety […]
  • CookSafe Food Safety Management Audit The audit also highlights some of the major problems hindering the application and effectiveness of the CookSafe system. The suitability of HACCP in food safety management is made apparent in the wide scope of the […]
  • Food and Environmental Hygiene Department He also claims that the attendance book was left unattended and thus he filled in information in the absence of the receptionist attendant.Mr.
  • Food Preparation: Workplace Hygiene Thus if the chicken is not properly cooked or stored the bacteria in it can survive and cause food poisoning. Thus the chickens were contaminated by the germs or bacteria that were in the hands […]
  • Food Safety Risk Assessment Poultry is a reservoir of salmonella in human being due to the ability of salmonella to proliferate in the intestines of poultry.
  • Recommendations for Ensuring Food Safety & Reducing Disease-Causing Mosquitoes As such, the focus should be to introduce mandatory employee training especially in areas of food safety to guarantee that appropriate practices in hygiene, food handling and preparation, and sanitation are put in place in […]
  • Consumer Attitudes Towards Food Safety Risks Associated With Meat Processing
  • Food Safety Risk Perceptions as a Tool for Market Segmentation
  • Balancing Food Safety and Risk: Do Restrictions Affect International Trade?
  • Food Safety Strategies in Hybrid Governance Structures
  • Food and Its Effects on Health and Food Safety
  • Breeding Crops for Enhanced Food Safety
  • Evolving Food Safety Pressures in California’s Central Coast Region
  • Food Safety and Network Governance Structure of the Agri-Food System
  • Assessing the Potential Impact of Strengthening Food Safety Regulations on Developing Countries
  • Efficient Food Safety Regulation in the Food Manufacturing Sector
  • Contradictions, Consequences, and the Human Toll of Food Safety Culture
  • Consumer Demand for Innovations in Food Safety
  • Food Safety and Social Capital: A Double Side Connection
  • Demand for Improved Food Safety and Quality: A Cross-Regional Comparison
  • Agriculture and Health Through Food Safety and Nutrition
  • Analyzing Food Safety and Labeling
  • Are Food Safety Standards Different From Other Food Standards?
  • Food Safety and Trade: Winners and Losers in a Non-harmonized World
  • Demographic and Socioeconomic Influences on the Importance of Food Safety in Food Shopping
  • Benchmarking International Food Safety Performance in the Fresh Produce Sector
  • Benefits of Food Safety Policies in Vegetable Preparation and Consumption
  • Food Safety: Strengthening the Present With an Eye to the Future
  • Mandatory Versus Voluntary Approaches to Food Safety
  • Global Initiative for Food Safety in Government Facilities
  • Improving Food Safety Management Practices
  • Geographical Indications, Food Safety, and Sustainability
  • Mycotoxin Food Safety Risk in Developing Countries
  • Welfare Losses Due to Food Safety Regulation
  • Opportunities for the Coregulation of Food Safety: Insights From the United Kingdom
  • Contracts in the Supply Chain and Food Safety in International Markets
  • Modeling Food Safety Strategies
  • Public and Private Food Safety Standards: Facilitating or Frustrating Fresh Produce Growers
  • The Economic Forces Driving Food Safety Quality in Meat and Poultry
  • Managing Food Safety Modernization: The Produce Industry Perspective
  • Free International Food Safety Regulations
  • Maximum Residue Limits: Protectionism or Food Safety
  • Food Safety Standards and Their Impact on the Small Farms of Developed Countries
  • Redesigning Food Safety: Using Risk Analysis to Build a Better Food Safety System
  • The Potential of Insurance to Improve Food Safety
  • Assessing the Benefits and Costs of Improving Food Safety
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70 Food Safety Essay Topics

🏆 best essay topics on food safety, ✍️ food safety essay topics for college, 👍 good food safety research topics & essay examples, 🎓 most interesting food safety research titles.

  • Food Safety Issues in Modern Agriculture
  • The Six Major Elements of a Food Safety Plan (FSP)
  • Food Safety and Hazards
  • Discussion of Food Safety Issues
  • Food Safety: A Policy Issue in Agriculture Today
  • Food Donation and Food Safety: Environmental Health
  • Scientific Approach to Food Safety at Home
  • Behavior-Based Safety in the Food Industry: DO IT Method The so-called DO IT method is useful when applied to jobs in the restaurant industry, leading to an improvement in the work behavior of employees.
  • Food Safety Sanitation Requirements for a Child’s Health To maintain optimal diet and nutrition for a child’s health and welfare, emphasis must be made on sanitary criteria for food safety, storage, preparation, and food presentation.
  • Food Safety in the Commercial Industry In considering food safety in the commercial industry, it is important to consider this seriously since food production is carried out on a large scale to serve many people.
  • Food Safety and Information Bulletin Factors that contribute to food poisoning include; holding food at the wrong temperature which is mostly caused by inadequate cooling and inadequate cooking.
  • The Lack of Food Safety in Kansas City, Missouri Food safety is crucial in storing, preparing, and handling food in restaurants and other establishments where meals and refreshments can be ordered.
  • Hazard Analysis in Food Safety In the United States, just like in any other country, it is the manufacturers’ responsibility to produce fairly safe products.
  • Food Industry: The Safety Issues Among the many problems of the food industry, the identification of food products is the most relevant and multifaceted.
  • Agriculture and Food Safety in the United States Agriculture in the United States has grown progressively centralized. The shortcomings in the 2018 U.S. farm legislation resulted in multiple challenges in the food system.
  • Nurse-Led Program on Food Safety Problem The problem of food safety is on the world agenda today due to multiple cases of existing infections and contaminations.
  • Food Safety Issues and Standards Food hygiene standards are perhaps the most important for any country to observe due to the damage which the food of poor quality may bring to the health of the population.
  • Genetically Modified Food Safety and Benefits Today’s world faces a problem of the shortage of food supplies to feed its growing population. The adoption of GM foods can solve the problem of food shortage in several ways.
  • How Canadian Government Could Improve Food Safety? The paper points out how the government can cooperate with other stakeholders in the food industry to improve the existing standards.
  • Packaging in Marketing, Food Safety, Environment The principal functions of packaging are protecting products from the deterioration and external influences and providing important nutritional and marketing information.
  • Agricultural Marketing and Food Safety in China
  • The Importance of Food Safety in Public Health
  • Food Safety and Botulism Disease Prevention
  • Risk Analysis of Food Safety Hazards
  • The Economics of Food Safety: Costs and Benefits
  • A Historical Overview of Food Safety Regulations
  • The Role of Government Agencies in Food Safety Oversight
  • Food Safety Training and Education: Impact on Industry Practices
  • The Importance of Food Safety in Manufacturing
  • Food Safety and Consumer Confidence: Building Trust
  • The Relationship Between Health and Food Safety: Rules to Follow
  • Food Safety in Canning and Preservation Techniques
  • The Globalization of Food Supply Chains and Food Safety Challenges
  • Emerging Technologies in Food Safety Monitoring
  • Food Safety Compliance: Essential for Businesses and Handlers
  • The Importance and Conduction of Food Safety Training
  • Applications of Noble Nanomaterials in Ensuring Food Safety
  • Food Safety Culture: Nurturing a Safe Food Environment
  • Modern Food Safety and Its Issues: Bioterrorism and Tampering Risks
  • Norovirus Outbreaks and Food Safety Protocols
  • Chinese Frequent Food Safety Incidents
  • Food Safety in Meat and Poultry Processing
  • Dairy Products and Food Safety: Ensuring Quality
  • Food Safety and Hygienic Practices of Street Food
  • The Role of Irradiation in Food Safety
  • Food Safety in Beverage Production: Challenges and Regulations
  • Assessing the Impact of Food Safety Certification Programs
  • Food Safety and Sanitation: Essential Practices for Healthy Living
  • Achieving Food Safety in a Global Environment
  • Proper Handwashing Techniques: A Critical Component of Food Safety
  • Food Law, Food Safety, and Risk Management
  • Changing Behavior, Attitudes, and Beliefs About Food Safety
  • Advances in Food Safety Testing Methods
  • The Importance of Traceability in Food Safety
  • Food Safety in Home Cooking: Tips for Consumers
  • Consumers and Food Safety: A Food Industry Perspective
  • Food Safety Inspections and Audits: Ensuring Compliance
  • Importance of Knowledge in Food Safety
  • Big Data and Predictive Analytics in Food Safety
  • Communication and Culture: Imperative for Food Safety
  • Nanotechnology in Food Safety: Opportunities and Concerns
  • Improving Food Safety and Risk Communication
  • Using Artificial Intelligence for Food Safety Monitoring
  • Food Safety in an International Perspective
  • Consumer Attitudes Toward Food Safety Issues
  • Food Safety and Food Packaging Innovations
  • Global Food Safety Initiatives (GFSI) and Their Significance
  • How Behavior Affects Food Safety
  • Food Safety in Supply Chains: Collaboration and Accountability
  • Emerging Legal Issues in Food Safety Litigation

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These essay examples and topics on Food Safety were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.

This essay topic collection was updated on December 28, 2023 .

Food safety and security: what were favourite topics for research in the last decade?

Affiliation.

  • 1 Croatian Centre for Global Health and Department of Research in Medicine and Health, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia.
  • PMID: 23198104
  • PMCID: PMC3484739

The world is faced with the challenge to feed an estimated 9 billion population of the Earth by 2050. To address the scientific evidence for the safety of food, I searched the Web of Science bibliographical and citation database for most cited articles from this research area. The topics with greatest impact on the research community, judged by their annual rate of citations during the last decade, were food-borne pathogens and toxins, with emerging genetic studies and new methods of visualising toxins on surfaces. Epidemiological and survey studies demonstrated that there was systematic effort to document, rapidly detect and control epidemic spread of disease and that these measures decreased the threat to food safety in developed countries, but that there is still much room for improvement. Research relevant for developing countries included the potential molecular targets to alleviate accumulation of arsenic in rice. As in other areas of research and life, human factor seems to be the most important one for the safety of food. The five keys to safer food of the WHO - keep clean, separate raw and cooked, cook thoroughly, keep food at safe temperatures, use safe water and raw materials - are thus still very relevant for the developed as much as the developing world.

food safety topics for research paper

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  • Program Areas

Food Safety Research Information Office (FSRIO)

About fsrio.

The  Food Safety Research Information Office  (FSRIO) supports the research community by collecting, organizing, and disseminating food safety information in accordance with the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.

Explore FSRIO

An introduction to fsrio.

The Food Safety Research Information Office (FSRIO) is aligned with the  Research, Economics, and Education (REE) mission area  of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). It was created by the  Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998   (7 U.S.C.A. & 7654 Sec. 615) and was formally launched on July 2, 2001. 

The mission of FSRIO is to provide the research community and the general public with information on publicly funded, and to the maximum extent practicable, privately funded food safety research initiatives.

The purpose of the FSRIO information products is to prevent the unintended duplication of food safety research and to assist the executive and legislative branches of the Federal Government and private research entities with assessing food safety research needs and priorities. FSRIO works in partnership with a working group that consists of scientific experts in food safety across the USDA.

Key Information Products

Food safety research projects database.

food safety topics for research paper

The Research Projects Database provides users with information on current food safety research projects from both U.S. and international government and non-government organizations.

Research Publications (Food Safety)

food safety topics for research paper

An automated feed of the latest food safety research publications released from more than 200 peer-reviewed journals, including FDA/USDA specific publications.

Featured Topics

food safety topics for research paper

  • Call for applications to 2 large scale, cross programmatic projects entitled “ USDA-ARS Grand Challenge on Integrated Food Safety Solutions for Salmonella ”. Deadline is May 17, 2024.
  • U.S.-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund (BARD)  grants for scientists, graduate and postdoc fellows. 
  • ARS student opportunities from usajobs.gov for interns , and those seeking postdoctoral fellowships . Learn about other Temporary and Term positions .
  • The HHS, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)  Voluntary Qualified Importer Program (VQIP) application portal .
  • USDA, National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA)  Food Safety Outreach Program  grants.
  • USDA, National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA)  Agriculture Risk Management Education (ARME)  grants.
  • The  February 2024 FSRIO Monthly Newsletter  showcases  articles relevant to E.coli .
  • The  January 2024 FSRIO Monthly Newsletter  has been released, showcasing articles relevant to chemical contaminants   available in the  Research Publications  section.
  • The  December 2023 FSRIO Monthly Newsletter  has been released, highlighting articles relevant to produce safety and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)   available in the  Research Publications  section.
  • The  November 2023 FSRIO Monthly Newsletter  has been released, showcasing articles relevant to Bacterial Pathogens, Viruses, and Foodborne Illness   available in the  Research Publications  section.
  • The  October 2023 FSRIO Monthly Newsletter  has been released, showcasing articles relevant to Salmonella Research   available in the  Research Publications  section.
  • The  August 2023 FSRIO Monthly Newsletter  has been released, highlighting the new "About FSRIO" video which is available on the main FSRIO webpage.
  • The  June 2023 FSRIO Monthly Newsletter  has been released, highlighting research projects relevant to research on chemical contaminants available in the  Research Projects Database  section.
  • The  May 2023 FSRIO Monthly Newsletter  has been released, showcasing articles relevant to Food Safety Modernization Act available in the  Research Publications  section.
  • Growers can find county-level temperature changes through a new zone map on the USDA ARS Freeze Date Tool .
  • Dairy producers can enroll in the USDA 2024 Dairy Margin Coverage Service .
  • The USDA Economics, Statistics and Market Information System (ESMIS) ’s World Agricultural Production database includes "monthly reports on crop acreage, yield and production in major countries worldwide."
  • The USDA Science and Research Strategy, 2023-2026: Cultivating Scientific Innovation [PDF, 48 pages]  presents a near-term vision for transforming U.S. agriculture through science and innovation, and outlines USDA’s highest scientific priorities.
  • USDA Proposes Declaring Salmonella an Adulterant in Breaded Stuffed Raw Chicken Products | USDA (April 25, 2023), a significant first step that builds on FSIS’s 2022 proposed regulatory framework [usda.gov] to reduce salmonella infections linked to poultry products.
  • The Meat, Poultry, and Egg Product Inspection Directory [fsis.usda.gov]  is updated weekly and the current edition replaces all previous versions. It is a listing of establishments that produce meat, poultry, and/or egg products regulated by USDA FSIS. 
  • FSIS Strategic Plan for 2023-2026 [fsis.usda.gov] is available .
  • The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) provides access to foodborne and intestinal data through an interactive tool:  NARMS Now: Integrated Data [fda.gov] .
  • NECAFS Produce Safety Handbook for Buyers [necafs.org]  is an online tool to support compliance with produce safety standards across the Northeast region of the U.S.
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Secretary Tom Vilsack announced the Biden-Harris Administration Invests $59 Million to Strengthen Food Supply Chain and Rural Economies [usda.gov] .

FDA Roundup: April 5, 2024

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FDA Roundup: April 2, 2024

  • Apr 2, 2024

FDA Roundup: March 29, 2024

  • Mar 29, 2024

Shawnee Milling Company Issues Allergy Alert on Undeclared Milk and Egg in "5lb. Food Club All Purpose Flour"

  • Mar 28, 2024

Shawnee Milling Company Issues Allergy Alert on Undeclared Milk and Egg in “5lb. Food Club All Purpose Flour”

Frequently asked questions (faqs).

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) manages the  Predictive Microbiology Information Portal (PMIP) [ars.usda.gov]  to assist food companies in the use of predictive models. This portal contains:

  • The  Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP) [ars.usda.gov]  a package of models that predicts the growth and inactivation of foodborne bacteria under variable environmental conditions.
  • The  ComBase [ars.usda.gov] , a database of quantitative microbiological or kinetic data collected from different laboratories.
  • USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) maintains the  Kitchen Companion [PDF, 50 pages]  and the  Food Safety Basics resources [fsis.usda.gov] .
  • North Dakota State University (NDSU) has a  Food Storage Guide [PDF, 16 pages]  available online.
  • Food Marketing Institute maintains the  FoodKeeper [fmi.org]  application with helpful hints about food preparation, handling, and storage.
  • National Center for Home Food Preservation (NCHFP) maintains a website that focuses on  canning and other means of preservation [nchfp.uga.edu] .

Biosensor technology is used for the rapid detection of pathogens in our food supply. Please visit   the   U.S. Food and Drug Administration's   New Era of Smarter Food Safety [fda.gov]  resource for more information.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are the United States government agencies that regulate food safety.

  • AskUSDA [usda.gov]
  • Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) [fsis.usda.gov]
  • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) [aphis.usda.gov]
  • USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) [ams.usda.gov]
  • Small Business Assistance [fda.gov]
  • Contact us [cdc.gov]
  • Contact us about Agriculture [epa.gov]

Use the National Agricultural Library's  Ask a Question  form. 

Questions are answered by  FSRIO  Technical Information Specialists with expertise in food safety.

Phone:   (301)504-5022

To sign up for the ARS  Food Safety and News  Listserv go to  USDA Agricultural Research Service (govdelivery.com)

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  • A Research Guide
  • Research Paper Topics

120 Food Research Paper Topics

How to choose a topic for food research paper:, fast food research paper topics:.

  • The impact of fast food consumption on obesity rates in children
  • The influence of fast food advertising on consumer behavior
  • The correlation between fast food consumption and cardiovascular diseases
  • The role of fast food in the development of type 2 diabetes
  • The effects of fast food on mental health and well-being
  • The environmental impact of fast food packaging and waste
  • Fast food and its contribution to food deserts in urban areas
  • The economic implications of the fast food industry on local communities
  • Fast food and its association with food addiction and cravings
  • The nutritional value and quality of ingredients used in fast food
  • The influence of fast food on dietary patterns and nutritional deficiencies
  • The role of fast food in the globalization of food culture
  • The ethical concerns surrounding fast food production and animal welfare
  • The impact of fast food consumption on academic performance in students
  • Fast food and its relationship to food insecurity and poverty

Food Insecurity Research Paper Topics:

  • The impact of food insecurity on child development
  • Food insecurity and its relationship to mental health
  • Exploring the causes of food insecurity in urban areas
  • The role of food banks in addressing food insecurity
  • Food insecurity among college students: prevalence and consequences
  • The effects of food insecurity on maternal and infant health
  • Food insecurity and its implications for rural communities
  • The relationship between food insecurity and obesity
  • Food insecurity and its impact on academic performance in children
  • The role of government policies in addressing food insecurity
  • Food insecurity and its connection to chronic diseases
  • The effects of food insecurity on older adults’ health and well-being
  • Food insecurity and its influence on food choices and dietary quality
  • The role of community gardens in reducing food insecurity
  • Food insecurity and its impact on social inequalities and disparities

Organic Food Research Paper Topics:

  • The impact of organic farming on soil health and fertility
  • The nutritional differences between organic and conventionally grown fruits and vegetables
  • The effects of organic farming practices on water quality and conservation
  • The potential health benefits of consuming organic dairy products
  • The role of organic agriculture in reducing pesticide exposure and its associated health risks
  • The economic viability and market trends of organic food production
  • The impact of organic farming on biodiversity and ecosystem services
  • Consumer perceptions and attitudes towards organic food: A global perspective
  • The effectiveness of organic farming in mitigating climate change
  • The role of organic farming in promoting sustainable food systems
  • Organic versus conventional meat production: A comparison of animal welfare standards
  • The impact of organic food consumption on human health and disease prevention
  • The challenges and opportunities of organic food certification and labeling
  • The role of organic farming in reducing food waste and promoting food security
  • The potential environmental and health risks associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in organic food production

Food Technology Research Paper Topics:

  • The impact of food processing techniques on nutritional value
  • The role of food technology in reducing food waste
  • The development of sustainable packaging materials for food products
  • The use of nanotechnology in food processing and preservation
  • The application of artificial intelligence in food quality control
  • The potential of 3D printing in personalized nutrition
  • The impact of food technology on the sensory properties of food products
  • The role of food technology in improving food safety and reducing foodborne illnesses
  • The development of novel food ingredients using biotechnology
  • The use of blockchain technology in ensuring traceability and transparency in the food supply chain
  • The impact of food technology on the shelf life and stability of food products
  • The role of food technology in addressing food allergies and intolerances
  • The application of robotics in food processing and manufacturing
  • The development of functional foods for specific health conditions
  • The use of genetic engineering in enhancing crop productivity and nutritional content

Food Safety Research Paper Topics:

  • The impact of foodborne illnesses on public health
  • The role of government regulations in ensuring food safety
  • Food safety practices in the restaurant industry
  • The effectiveness of food safety training programs for food handlers
  • Food safety risks associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
  • The role of food packaging in maintaining food safety
  • Food safety concerns in the global food supply chain
  • The impact of climate change on food safety and security
  • Food safety risks associated with food delivery services
  • The role of consumer behavior in ensuring food safety
  • Food safety practices in home kitchens
  • The impact of food additives and preservatives on food safety
  • Food safety risks associated with food allergies and intolerances
  • The role of technology in enhancing food safety measures
  • Food safety challenges in developing countries

Food History Research Paper Topics:

  • The Evolution of Food Preservation Techniques
  • The Impact of the Columbian Exchange on Global Cuisine
  • The Role of Food in Ancient Egyptian Society
  • The Origins and Development of Chocolate as a Culinary Delight
  • The Influence of French Cuisine on Modern Gastronomy
  • The Cultural Significance of Spices in Medieval Europe
  • The History of Food and Nutrition in World War II
  • The Impact of Industrialization on Food Production and Consumption
  • The Role of Food in Ancient Greek and Roman Rituals and Festivals
  • The History of Street Food and its Socioeconomic Impact
  • The Origins and Evolution of Sushi in Japanese Cuisine
  • The Influence of Immigration on American Food Culture
  • The History of Food and Medicine: From Ancient Remedies to Modern Nutraceuticals
  • The Role of Food in Colonialism and Cultural Assimilation
  • The Evolution of Fast Food and its Impact on Global Health

Food Marketing Research Paper Topics:

  • The impact of social media on consumer behavior in the food industry
  • The effectiveness of celebrity endorsements in food marketing campaigns
  • The influence of packaging design on consumer perception and purchasing decisions
  • The role of sensory marketing in food product development and promotion
  • The effects of nutritional labeling on consumer choices and health outcomes
  • The use of virtual reality and augmented reality in food marketing strategies
  • The impact of food advertising on children’s food preferences and consumption patterns
  • The role of cultural factors in shaping food marketing strategies and consumer behavior
  • The effectiveness of personalized marketing approaches in the food industry
  • The influence of food branding and brand loyalty on consumer purchasing behavior
  • The role of sustainability and ethical considerations in food marketing practices
  • The effects of food pricing strategies on consumer choices and market competition
  • The impact of online food delivery platforms on consumer behavior and market dynamics
  • The role of food labeling claims and certifications in consumer trust and decision-making
  • The effects of food marketing on public health and policy implications

Food Chemistry Research Paper Topics:

  • Analysis of food additives and their effects on human health
  • Investigating the role of antioxidants in preventing food spoilage
  • The chemistry behind flavor development in fermented foods
  • Analyzing the chemical composition of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food
  • Understanding the chemical reactions involved in food browning and Maillard reaction
  • Investigating the chemistry of food preservation methods, such as canning and freezing
  • Analyzing the chemical changes in food during cooking and their impact on nutritional value
  • The role of enzymes in food processing and their effects on food quality
  • Investigating the chemistry of food allergies and intolerances
  • Analyzing the chemical composition and health benefits of functional foods
  • Understanding the chemistry of food packaging materials and their impact on food safety
  • Investigating the chemical changes in food during storage and their effects on shelf life
  • Analyzing the chemical composition and nutritional value of organic versus conventionally grown foods
  • Investigating the chemistry of food contaminants, such as heavy metals and pesticides

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Food Safety and Public Health

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Foodborne illnesses have a major impact on food safety and public health worldwide. In the USA alone, foodborne illnesses are leading to approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and around 3,000 deaths yearly, based on CDC estimates. They cost billions of dollars in healthcare-related and industry per year. ...

Keywords : Public Health, antibiotic- alternatives, Food Safety, antibiotic resistance, omics approach

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Food Safety and Inspection Service

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Food Safety Research Priorities & Studies

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has developed a listing of the top food safety research areas of interest. FSIS has also identified key data gaps and laboratory methods that are needed to fulfill our mission.

While FSIS is not a research funding organization, it recognizes the importance of keeping abreast of the latest scientific endeavors as well as its role in promoting research in areas important to the FSIS mission. This listing supports the three goals of the FSIS Strategic Plan :

  • Prevent Foodborne Illness and Protect Public Health
  • Modernize Inspection Systems, Policies, and the Use of Scientific Approaches
  • Achieve Operational Excellence

These priorities are presented as suggestions for researchers interested in pursuing food safety objectives that are relevant to FSIS regulated products. This list of research areas of interest may be useful to researchers who are preparing grants for submission to agencies that fund food safety research (e.g., USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture ( http://www.nifa.usda.gov ), National Institutes of Health ( https://www.nih.gov/ ), Grants.gov ( http://www.grants.gov ), or researchers with resources to conduct such research.

While FSIS is extremely interested in these research areas, this interest does not imply that the data and/or technologies generated by this research will be endorsed by FSIS.

This list represents FSIS' current assessment of priority research that will help further its public health mission; the list will be updated biannually. We encourage researchers to contact Dr. Isabel Walls by e-mail ( [email protected] ) or at (202) 924-1420 and Dr. John Hicks by e-mail ( [email protected] ) or at (301) 504-0840 with questions. We also welcome information about research on related topics not currently listed here.

Research Priorities

Chemicals of potential concern, screening/detection methods.

  • Develop or improve rapid methods for screening chemical compounds in FSIS regulated products
  • Develop models to estimate chemical residue concentrations in beef, pork, and chicken tissues

Chemical Characterization

  • Determine the magnitude and significance of migration of chemicals (e.g., endocrine disruptors) from packaging into FSIS regulated products

Intervention Strategies

  • Identify and/or develop and evaluate the effectiveness of pre- and post-harvest interventions to reduce levels of chemical hazards in FSIS regulated products

Biological Hazards

Screening/detection/enumeration methods.

  • Identify and evaluate improved sampling methods to ensure statistically relevant samples are collected in the most appropriate manner
  • Develop or refine technologies to reduce pathogen detection time, including improved sample preparation methods
  • Develop or refine technologies to detect multiple pathogens from a single sample of an FSIS regulated product
  • Develop or refine testing methods for quantifying pathogens in meat, poultry, and egg products

Pathogen Characterization

  • Develop bioinformatic methods for identifying epidemiologically meaningful patterns in whole genome sequence data
  • Develop or refine technologies for virulence/ pathogenicity characterization of pathogens
  • Improve our understanding of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens in poultry and cattle
  • Develop or refine cooking and cooling models for pathogens in foods
  • Determine the contribution of endogenous extra-intestinal sources of pathogens (e.g., lymph nodes) to contamination of FSIS-regulated products
  • Evolution and Ecology of Foodborne Pathogens
  • Identify and/or develop and evaluate the effectiveness of pre- and post-harvest interventions to reduce levels of pathogens in FSIS regulated products
  • Evaluate the impact of regulatory initiatives on food contamination
  • Identify consumer or retail practices which compromise the safety of FSIS regulated products
  • Generate data to develop public education and outreach to improve food-handling practices

Animal Welfare

  • Identify or develop approaches to facilitate humane handling of FSIS regulated livestock

Label Verification

  • Develop improved techniques for species identity in raw and processed products

FSIS has identified the following data gaps, where data are needed to inform FSIS policy and guidance documents.  Collecting these data will benefit small and very small producers of meat, poultry, and egg products.

FSIS Data Gaps

1. A study is underway at USDA's Agriculture Research Service in support of this project.

Laboratory Detection Methods

FSIS has identified studies that pertain to validating and optimizing new laboratory methods, that may be adopted in the FSIS laboratory system after the basic research has been completed.

Research Studies

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has developed a list of the top food safety research areas of interest. Below are a list of specific research studies associated with our food safety research priorities. 

1. Preharvest Interventions

2. postharvest, 3. consumer/retail, related resources.

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160 Excellent Food Research Paper Topics for Students

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Are you a food science or food technology student searching for unique topics for your research paper? If yes, then this blog post is for you. Here, for your convenience, we have shared a list of the best 160 food research paper topics and ideas on various themes related to the subject.

Basically, food is essential for all living things because of the nutritional support it provides. Hence, it is impossible to imagine life without food. Moreover, in the fast-moving digital era, along with the development of technology, food has also taken different forms. In specific, processed food, packaged food, fast food and ready-made food with added preservatives are dominating human life. Due to these advancements in the food industry and the changes in the food style, certain health diseases also affect humans.

As food is one of the basic needs, a lot of research activities are being conducted in the field of food processing, food technology, food science, dairy technology, food safety, nutrition, and dietetics. So, for preparing your food research paper, you can also choose any intriguing topic from any of these domains.

Food Research Paper Topics

List of Food Research Paper Topics

Whenever you get stuck with what topic to choose for your food research paper or essay, the list of ideas presented below will be more helpful to you. Explore the entire list and pick any food research topic that you feel is appropriate for you.

Top Food Research Paper Topics

Food Research Paper Topics on Nutrition

  • What are the most important types of nutrition to help body development?
  • Bone density and poor nutrition: the correlation
  • How affordable are nutritional supplements for poor people?
  • The worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition
  • Is it safe to use nutritional supplements to help bone density?
  • Why is food science important in human nutrition?
  • Why are amino acids important to the growth of muscles?
  • How do the dietary habits of females affect their overall nutrition?
  • An exhaustive definition of nutritional deficiency and the critical diseases malnutrition can cause.
  • Nutrition-related health effects of organic foods
  • Do dry beans serve proper nutrition and health benefits?
  • Is organic milk a significant source of nutrition?
  • Increased nutrition regulations on fast food restaurants
  • Food preferences and nutrition culture
  • Qualitative analysis of natural nutritional supplements.
  • Should children be fed more dietary products like milk or less?
  • Women and diet around the world.
  • What are Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics?
  • Discuss the sugar reduction strategies in foods
  • Microbial safety evaluation of sugar-reduced foods and beverages
  • Discuss the health effects of fermented foods containing added sugars
  • Discuss some novel and emerging techniques for the detection of mycotoxins  in foods
  • How to remove mycotoxins from foods?
  • Psychological issues connected to food

Research Paper Topics on Food Safety

  • Food and antimicrobial resistance
  • How to eliminate the risk of botulism?
  • How to effectively reduce the risk of food allergies?
  • Meat and resistance to antimicrobials
  • Recommendations for Ensuring Food Safety & Reducing Disease-Causing Mosquitoes
  • Food safety and inspection service in your country
  • Food safety risk assessment
  • The role of government in food safety
  • Food safety and health violations at the workplace.
  • What consumers must know about Avian Influenza
  •  Food and antimicrobial resistance
  •  How to reduce the risk of botulism?
  •  Health concerns for the use of coffee and caffeine
  • Are color additives safe?
  • How a community can contribute to ensuring food safety?
  • Discuss the phenomena of negative-calorie foods
  • Why it is important to ensure food safety for all?

Research Paper Topics on Food Safety

Research Topics on Food Science

  • What happens to stored foods?
  • Factors that influence the taste of wine
  • How to effectively prevent food poisoning?
  • The influence of ethanol and pH balance on taste.
  • How to influence the psychology of eating?
  • What’s wrong with food addiction?
  • Production and uses of protein hydrolysates and removal of bittering principles
  • A comparative study on the physio-chemical properties of vegetable oils
  • The innovative ways to help to fight against Food Waste.
  • Toxicity of the aqueous environment
  • Why food science is important in human nutrition
  • How dietary habits of females affect their overall nutrition
  • Influence of Food Science on the Diet of Persons
  • Promoting Food Safety

Food Essay Topics

  • The effects of fast food on society
  • Should fast foods be sold in hospitals?
  • An analysis of the socio-economic benefits of the fast-food industry.
  • Do we need more fast-food restaurants in society?
  • Certain food groups should not be mixed – true or false?
  • What are the chronic diseases of lifestyle?
  • What are immune-boosting foods?
  • Protective fats are found in seeds and nuts.
  • Food presentation is a form of art.
  • The risks of eating junk food
  • The influence of food on America
  • Food culture and obesity
  • The future of food
  • How has technology changed the way we eat?
  • How do biofuels impact the food industry?
  • Nutrition: Food Containing Calories
  • Negative Influence of Fast Foods
  • Food Science and Technology of Genetic Modification.
  • Fast Food and Obesity Link

Argumentative Food Research Topics

  • What is the most salubrious way to cook eggs?
  • Are burgers sandwiches?
  • The pros and cons of grass-fed beef vs. grain-fed beef.
  • Is it possible to make good pizza at home?
  • Is a low glycemic index meal for a Neapolitan pizza a suitable choice for diabetes patients?
  • The health impacts of vegetarian and vegan diets.
  • Oxidative DNA damage in prostate: Can cancer patients consume tomato sauce?
  • What is the best way to boil rice?
  • Is it easy to become addicted to food quickly?
  • Overeating suppresses the immune system.
  • Do you think that abortion should be made illegal?
  • Do you think that animal testing should be banned?
  • Do you think that manufacturers are responsible for the effects of the chemicals used in creating their products?
  • Should Hospitals Ban Fast Food Outlets?
  • Where should food sauce be stored?

Read here:   Argumentative Essay Topics That You Must Consider

Interesting Food Research Topics

  • Are emotions related to consuming chocolates?
  • What causes raised acid levels in the body?
  • Should a vegetarian take vitamin and mineral supplements?
  • The role of tartrazine in foods such as butter and margarine
  • Do trans fats, found in many kinds of margarine, lead to cancer?
  • The Role of super-food in our health
  • Does green tea help burn kilojoules?
  • Does an apple a day keep the doctor away?
  • Why the humble lentil is considered a superfood?
  • The role of sodium in sports drinks
  • Coconut oil and Alzheimer’s disease
  • The role of honey in healing wounds.
  • Food additives: Artificial Sweeteners
  • Freshly extracted juices are the ultimate source of live enzymes.
  • How does the consumption of sugared soda drinks cause cell aging?
  • Is raw juice fasting effective for detoxifying?
  • Does poor detoxification lead to inflammation?
  • Does garlic help regulate insulin metabolism?
  • Is there a link between tartrazine and hyperactivity in children?
  • Organic food and healthy eating.
  • Our health and fast food from McDonald’s.
  • Fast food is a social problem of our time.
  •  National cuisine is like healthy competition for fast food.

Amazing Food Research Ideas

  • Is Genetically Modified Food Safe for Human Bodies and the Environment?
  • The role of plant sterols in treating high cholesterol.
  • Is there one optimal diet to suit everyone’s sporting needs?
  • Flavonoids – powerful antioxidants that prevent the formation of free radicals.
  • Explain the impact of caffeine on health.
  • Compare and contrast home-cooked meals and fast food.
  • The role of biotechnology and research in fulfilling the nutritional needs of people at a low price.
  • The winemaking process.
  • Myths of good and bad cholesterol.
  • Calcium deficiency and milk
  • The effects of sweeteners and sugar on health.
  • Is it healthy to skip breakfast?
  • Should plastic food packaging be banned?
  • Are beans a good substitute for meat proteins?
  • Food sensitivities in children.
  • Calcium sources for dairy-allergic people.
  • What are the advantages of the macrobiotic diet?
  • The impacts of a long-term ketogenic diet on health
  • What are the healthiest sugar substitutes?
  • Low Carb Diet Craze

Trending Food Research Paper Topics

  • Millenials: Food Trendmakers
  • Write about the production of Organic Food
  • Describe the connections between stress, junk foods, and obesity
  • Critical analysis of the issues related to fast safety in modern agriculture
  • Pizza and London Cheese Cake are the two most favorite foods among Americans: Explain
  • Discuss the food items consumed by the people belonging to America’s working class
  • Critical analysis of the results and implications of the slow food movement in America
  • Explain the importance of meeting Sustainable Development Goal 2: Zero Hunger for ensuring food safety globally
  • Describe the benefits and limitations of using 3D food printers and robotics in the food industry
  •  Describe the significance of the digital food management system
  • Describe the three most popular food technologies and their use
  • Discuss the top ten food technology trends in 2023
  • Discuss the benefits and limitations of alternative protein sources and personalized nutrition
  • Analyze the use and effectiveness of ‘Restaurant Voice Bots’ in the US-based startup named Orderscape
  •  Describe the importance of using eco-friendly materials for the packaging of baby foods
  • Discuss the prospects for the development of food industry enterprises using molecular cuisine technology
  • Analyze the pros and cons of food tourism in the context of developing nations.

Captivating Food Research Topics

  • Evaluate the properties of Oil obtained from Carica Papaya Seeds.
  • Discuss the effects of blending cow milk with soy milk and analyze the quality of yogurt.
  • Evaluate the vegetable oil refining process and its food value.
  • Explain the functional properties of plantain flour.
  • Evaluate the nutrient constituents of fresh forages and formulated diets.
  • Analyze the impact of nutrition education on the dietary habits of females.
  • Analyze the use of composite blends for biscuit making.
  • Discuss the storage time effects on the functional properties of Bambara groundnut.
  • Write about the additives and preservatives used in food processing and preservation.
  • Analyze the physical and chemical properties of soya beans.

The Bottom Line

Out of the top 150+ food research paper topics suggested in this blog post, pick an ideal topic of your choice. In order to make your work successful, when writing your food research paper, first, prepare an outline and then compose the content by providing the relevant facts and evidence supporting the main points of your topic.

If you struggle to find a good food topic for your research or if you are confused about how to write a persuasive food research paper, then reach out to us for assignment help . As per your requirements, our team of professional writers will assist you in writing an essay or research paper on any topic related to food science or food technology.

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  • Published: 03 May 2021

Food safety knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices of street-cooked food handlers in North Dayi District, Ghana

  • Lawrence Sena Tuglo 1 ,
  • Percival Delali Agordoh 2 ,
  • David Tekpor 3 ,
  • Zhongqin Pan 1 ,
  • Gabriel Agbanyo 3 &
  • Minjie Chu   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-7533-9119 1  

Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine volume  26 , Article number:  54 ( 2021 ) Cite this article

49k Accesses

38 Citations

Metrics details

Food safety and hygiene are currently a global health apprehension especially in unindustrialized countries as a result of increasing food-borne diseases (FBDs) and accompanying deaths. This study aimed at assessing knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices (KAP) of food safety among street-cooked food handlers (SCFHs) in North Dayi District, Ghana.

This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 407 SCFHs in North Dayi District, Ghana. The World Health Organization’s Five Keys to Safer Food for food handlers and a pretested structured questionnaire were adapted for data collection among stationary SCFHs along principal streets. Significant parameters such as educational status, average monthly income, registered SCFHs, and food safety training course were used in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models to calculate the power of the relationships observed.

The majority 84.3% of SCFHs were female and 56.0% had not attended a food safety training course. This study showed that 67.3%, 58.2%, and 62.9% of SCFHs had good levels of KAP of food safety, respectively. About 87.2% showed a good attitude of separating uncooked and prepared meal before storage. Good knowledge of food safety was 2 times higher among registered SCFHs compared to unregistered [cOR=1.64, p =0.032]. SCFHs with secondary education were 4 times good at hygiene practices of food safety likened to no education [aOR=4.06, p =0.003]. Above GHc1500 average monthly income earners were 5 times good at hygiene practices of food safety compared to below GHc500 [aOR=4.89, p =0.006]. Registered SCFHs were 8 times good at hygiene practice of food safety compared to unregistered [aOR=7.50, p <0.001]. The odd for good hygiene practice of food safety was 6 times found among SCFHs who had training on food safety courses likened to those who had not [aOR=5.97, p <0.001].

Conclusions

Over half of the SCFHs had good levels of KAP of food safety. Registering as SCFH was significantly associated with good knowledge and hygiene practices of food safety. Therefore, our results may present an imperative foundation for design to increase food safety and hygiene practice in the district, region, and beyond.

Introduction

A report by the World Health Organization (WHO) (2015) showed that about two million incurable cases of food poisoning materialize annually in unindustrialized nations. The WHO further estimates that 600 million food-borne diseases (FBDs) each year were related to poor food safety and hygiene practice with 420,000 deaths [ 1 ], the majority attributed to meat-related vulnerabilities [ 2 ]. About, 76 million FBDs caused 325,000 hospitalizations in the USA which led to 5000 deaths [ 3 ]. The source was associated with the consumption of turkey contaminated by Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg , responsible for salmonellosis in the USA [ 4 ]. Almost, 1.3 million FBDs resulted in 21,000 hospital stays reported in England which led to 500 deaths. The contamination was due to sprouts by Escherichia coli O104 [ 3 ]. Around 53% of the food-borne problems and 31% of its associated illness were attributed to meat consumption in the Netherlands [ 2 ]. The rate of FBDs in Malaysia was 47.8% out of 100,000 people who patronized street-cooked foods [ 5 ]. In Ghana, about 65,000 persons including 5000 kids below 5 years died yearly due to FBDs [ 6 ].

The risk factors such as inappropriate time interval, unsuitable temperature, weather condition, unhygienic activities, unacceptable handling of foods, foodstuff from insecure origins, impoverished self-cleanliness, improper cleaning of cooking materials, using untreated water, and improper food storages were attributed to the causes of FBDs [ 7 , 8 , 9 ]. Also, neglect of hygienic measures by food handlers has been implicated as enablers for the spread of pathogenic microorganisms [ 10 ] and the cause of infections among consumers [ 11 ].

Studies recount that 12 to 18% of food-borne illnesses are attributable to contaminations [ 12 , 13 ], poor food safety, and inappropriate hygiene practices which were accredited to street-cooked food handlers (SCFHs) [ 14 , 15 ]. These SCFHs are people who are wholly or partly engaged in the food preparation, processing, and production value chain and who have a direct touch on food and cooking utensils [ 9 , 16 ]. Foods prepared by food handlers under unhygienic conditions become a public health concern both in industrialized and low-income countries [ 17 ]. Food safety and hygienic practices of SCFHs are essential to ensure that food is free from any forms of contamination through preparation and processing for consumption and to prevent the spread of FBDs [ 18 , 19 ].

Food safety knowledge (FSK) is the understanding of food learned from skills or schooling, food safety attitude (FSA) refers to sensation or belief about food safety, and food safety practice refers (FSP) to the act or use of food safety [ 20 ]. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) are important because inadequate knowledge, poor attitude, and poor sanitation practices by SCFHs have a severe danger to food safety applications in food companies [ 21 ]; hence, KAP of food safety contributes significantly to the occurrence of food poisoning and FBDs among consumers [ 22 ].

A study conducted in Brazil among food truck food handlers revealed poor hygiene, poor clean observes, poor environments, and higher contaminated meals [ 23 ]. The problem of FBDs was higher in Southeast Asian and African counties [ 24 ]. Ma et al. [ 25 ] study in China, among street food vendors, revealed poor behaviour practices and knowledge of food safety among the respondents. Tabit and Teffo [ 26 ] in South Africa found over 60% of the respondents keep good knowledge and acceptable hygiene performance of food safety. Lema et al. [ 27 ] in Ethiopia reported that below half of the respondents obtained good food cleanliness applications. The effects of food-related illness expenditures in hospital treatments are about US$ 110 billion annually in developing countries, which resulted in decreasing production [ 28 ].

The recurrent happenings of food-related illnesses brought in its wake concerns about the food safety knowledge and hygiene among SCFHs [ 29 ]. Maintaining food safety involves establishing global laws conferring to an agreement between institutions that actualized this agenda [ 30 , 31 ]. The Government of Ghana affirmed food safety regulations in collaboration with the Food and Drug Authority (FDA) [ 30 ]. Yet, its application is undermined due to ineffective supervision by appropriate agencies [ 32 ]. The problem was due to the broad governmental assembly in cities and communities under the local administration [ 31 ]. Some local studies conducted in the four regions of Ghana such as Greater Accra, Northern, Western, and Central have reported adequate knowledge, good attitude, and positive behavioural practices of food safety and handling practices [ 11 , 33 , 34 , 35 ]. Studies have shown that SCFHs were not knowledgeable about the WHO’s Five Keys to Safer Food for food handlers [ 33 , 36 ] which include keeping clean, separating raw and cooked food, cooking thoroughly, keeping food at safe temperatures, and using safe water and raw materials [ 37 ].

Hence, the acceptance and the use of the KAP instrument as a problem-solving approach in this study are validated from previous researches [ 23 , 38 , 39 ]. This would adequately support the policymaking development and the change of embattled intervention policies for the prevention and control of FBDs. The KAP’s tool assessment defined in this study is considered appropriate to other frameworks if the statements in the KAP’s sections are validated. To our knowledge, no research has yet been done on KAP of food safety among SCFHs selling commonly consumable foods on the street in Volta Region, Ghana. Hitherto, the high cases of FBDs such as diarrhoea, cholera, and typhoid fever outbreak occurrences in the district are presumed to be influenced by SCFHs. The KAP of SCFHs on food safety and hygiene precautions ruins uncertainty in the district, and a swift policy to mend some causes central to the occurrence of FBDs is obligatory. This would help the District Health Directorate’s regulatory agency to plan the prevention methods. Therefore, this study assessed knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices of food safety on SCFHs in North Dayi District, Ghana.

Materials and methods

Study design and setting.

This study was a descriptive cross-sectional carried out between August and November 2020 and used a validated, pretested, and structured questionnaire to collect data from stationary SCFHs along the principal streets within North Dayi District. North Dayi District is one of the 18 administrative districts in the Volta Region, Ghana [ 40 ]. It shares boundaries with Kpando Municipal to the north, South Dayi District to the south, and Afadzato South District to the east. The entire residents of the North Dayi District are 39,913 covering 46.7% men and 53.3% women [ 40 ]. The people of the District constitute 1.9% of the total population of the Volta Region [ 40 ]. Farming is the foremost financial activity, making it one of the main sources of income in the district [ 40 ]. We carried out this study because of the recent cases of food-borne illness reported among the residents such as diarrhoea, cholera, and typhoid fever in the district [ 41 ].

figure a

Eligibility criteria

Stationary SCFHs who directly served already cooked food to customers and those who owned their outlets were included in the study. SCFHs who dissented to partake in the research were excepted including all assistants and helpers. The assistants and helpers were excluded because not all vendors had assistants or helpers and they tend to be more in numbers than the vendor-owners themselves. So for as not to allow bias in the results, we chose to sample only the vendor-owners. Moreover, vendor-owners tend to have direct responsibility for monitoring the food safety environment of their vending sites; hence, we chose to sample them as the focus of this study.

Sample size and sampling

Cochran’s formula Z 2 p  (1 −  p )/ e 2 [ 42 ] for unknown study populations was used. Since a similar study in the Volta Region of Ghana among the population subgroup is unavailable, 50% was used for response distribution, with 95% confidence level, and a margin of error of 5% for the populace, plus 10% non-response rate which gave us a sample size of 423.

Data collection tools

A structured questionnaire was designed based on different studies conducted globally [ 16 , 20 , 38 , 39 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. Similar versions of the questionnaires were used in studies conducted in Ghana [ 47 , 48 , 49 ]. The instrument was distributed into 4 parts: socio-demographics, knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices. The statements on KAP were adapted from the WHO’s Five Keys to Safer Food guidebook for food handlers [ 37 ]. The questionnaire was firstly designed in English, then converted to local dialects, and translated back to English to ensure reliability and simplicity of the question. Four professionals in the field of the study assessed the face and the content validity of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was pretested on 12 stationary SCFHs in Tanyigbe located 7 km from the study area. The pretesting findings were not added to the main study but were used to modify some questions to improve their clarity. The most pertinent modifications done on the study instrument were a cooked meal should stay hot more than 60°C before serving, putting uncooked and prepared meal separating prevent cross-contamination, and checking and dispose of meal that past their expiry date. The data were collected through trained research assistant-led interviews which lasted for about 25 min per respondent. The interviewer-administered questionnaire was given to the SCFHs who could read and write to answer by themselves while those SCFHs who could not read and write have been aided by the research assistants in answering the questionnaire.

Determination of knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices on food safety

Section 2 of the questionnaire contained 10 structured questions on knowledge of food safety with 3 likely responses; “true”, “false”, and “do not know”. The questions precisely covered the respondents’ knowledge of individual cleanliness, food-borne illnesses, microbes, infection control, and sanitary practices. Each correct knowledge item reported was awarded a score of 1 point. Incorrect knowledge was awarded a 0 score (including “do not know”). In this study, if “true” is the correct answer, then “true” is score 1 point while “false” is score 0 point or otherwise reverse.

Queries relating to attitudes in the third segment of the questionnaire were designed to assess the knowledge of SCFHs on food wellbeing and hygiene. This part of the section assessed psychological state concerning views, opinion, morals, and characters to act in particular [ 21 , 48 ]. It contains 10 structured queries with 3 likely answers: “agree”, “disagree”, and “not sure”. Each correct attitude reported was awarded a score of 1 point while the other incorrect attitude option was rated a 0 score (including “not sure”). In this study, if “agree” is the correct answer, then “agree” is score 1 point while “disagree” is score 0 point or otherwise reverse.

  • Hygiene practice

Section 4 of the questionnaire measured food hygiene and sanitation practices of SCFHs. It contained 10 structured queries with 2 likely answers: “yes” and “no”. Each correct hygiene practice reported was awarded a score of 1 point while incorrect hygiene practices reported were awarded a score of 0. This method of assessment was used in previous studies [ 28 ]. In this study, if “yes” is the correct answer, then “yes” is score 1 point while “no” is score 0 point or otherwise reverse.

The grouping method is appropriate and suitable for studies allied to the assessment “of food handlers” KAP of food safety and hygiene [ 27 , 28 , 34 , 46 , 47 , 50 , 51 , 52 ]. The knowledge and attitude questions with “do not know” or “not sure”, thus the third option, had been presented to enable simplicity of responding by SCFHs for fascinating for thoughts considered by an undecided or doubtfulness [ 28 ]. This third option “do not know” or “not sure” always scores a 0 point due to the cumulative percentage approach adapted which considers only the acceptable response or the correct answer [ 53 ]. The cumulative percentage scoring method of assessment considers only the acceptable answer and the total cumulative score is converted to 100% [ 53 ]. The cumulative scores below 70% of the acceptable responses on WHO’s Five Keys to Safer Food-related knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices were considered as “poor”, and cumulative scores 70% and higher were considered as “good” [ 27 , 34 , 39 , 46 , 48 ].

Data analysis

Questionnaires were checked manually before entering into Microsoft Excel 2016 spreadsheet. Coding and analysis were done in IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA; https://www.spss.com ) version 24.0. Categorical variables were expressed as frequency and percentage. The disparity between categorical variable groups was verified using the Fisher exact or chi-square test where appropriate. Significant parameters were used in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models to calculate the power of the relationships observed. A p -value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Ethical consideration

Approval was sought from Ghana Health Service, North Dayi District Health Directorate, with the identity (NDDHD/GR/002/20) 15/07/2020. The research assistants introduced themselves and written informed permission was sought from the respondents. The research method was plainly explained to the respondents in their native dialects (English, Ewe, or Twi). Participants were identified by study numbers. The study numbers of the participants were kept in both locked files and secured computer files and accessible only to key investigators. All data were anonymized and unlinked to the respondents’ identities during the data analysis.

Demographic data

A total complete of 423 questionnaires were conveniently distributed for data collection based on the availability of SCFHs at their dedicated vending sites. Questionnaires of 407 were fully answered and collected from the respondents with a 96.2% (407/423) success rate. n = Z 2 p  (1 −  p )/ e 2   = 1.96 2 0.5 (1 − 0.5)/0.05 2 =384.16+38.416 =422.576. The majority ( n =343; 84.3%) of SCFHs were female, were between the age range of 26 and 35 years ( n =153; 37.6%), and were married ( n =311; 76.4%). Over one-third ( n =144; 35.4%) of SCFHs had attained secondary education. Most ( n =168; 41.3%) of SCFHs earned an average monthly income between GHc501 and GHc1000. Over half ( n =217; 53.3%) of SCFHs had 3–10 years of working experience. Regarding SCFH registered, n =297 (73.0%) reported that they have registered. More than half ( n =228; 56.0%) of SCFHs had not attended a food safety training course (Fig. 1 ).

figure 1

Demographic data of respondents

Food safety knowledge

Almost all ( n = 381; 93.6%) of SCFHs knew about the washing of hands for 1 min using water and soap before touching food. The majority ( n =313; 76.9%) of SCFHs knew that similar chopping board should not be used for uncooked and prepared foods if it appears wash; n = 336 (82.6%) knew that cooked meal should stay hot before serving (more than 60°C); and n = 275 (67.6%) knew that excess meal should be kept at zone temperature and eat for the following mealtime. Most ( n =239; 58.7%) of SCFHs knew that uncooked meal should be kept individually from a prepared meal; n = 363 (89.2%) knew that treated water should be used for cooking; n = 363 (89.2%) knew that cockroach and house flies should not be allowed into the kitchen; and n = 274 (67.3%) knew that wiping cloths can spread microorganisms and cause disease. However, the majority ( n =235; 57.7%) of SCFHs did not know that food cooking utensils should not be cleaned using tap water only. Also, n = 202 (49.6%) of SCFHs did not know that fresh meat should not be stowed anyplace in the fridge once it is cool (Table 1 ).

Food safety attitude

The majority ( n =277; 68.1%) of SCFHs disagreed that regular hand cleaning throughout meal processing is needless; n = 323 (79.4%) agreed that cleaning kitchen shells lessen the danger of infection, and n = 355 (87.2%) agreed that putting uncooked and prepared meal separating stop infection. Below half ( n =181; 44.5%) of SCFHs agreed that they should be able to differentiate healthy diets and rotten food through eyeing; n =262 (64.4%) disagreed that using different knives and chopping materials for a fresh and prepared meal require more time; n = 366 (89.9%) agreed that they cough or sneeze inside the elbow if towel or paper not available; n = 291 (71.5%) agreed that checking meal for cleanliness and healthiness is important; and n =377 (92.6%) agreed that it is vital to dispose of meals that have gotten to expiring date. Nevertheless, n = 332 (81.6%) of SCFHs agreed that it is acceptable to use the same cloth for dusting and drying and n =217 (53.3%) disagreed that is unhealthy to allow prepared meal stay outside of the fridge for over 2 h (Table 2 ).

Food safety hygiene practice

The majority ( n =343; 84.3%) of SCFHs cleaned their fingers throughout meal cooking; n = 267 (65.6%) washed their cooking utensils used to cook a meal before using for a different meal; n =234 (57.5%) used different cooking bowls and chopping material if cooking a fresh and prepared meal; and n =359 (88.2%) dispersed uncooked and prepared meal before preservation. Also, n =278 (68.3%) keep prepared food at room temperature for 2 h when finished cooking; n =269 (66.1%) checked and disposed of meal past its expiry date; n =372 (91.4%) cleaned fresh food that needs no cooking before consumption; n =320 (78.6%) inspected if a meal is cooked by eyeing; and n =359 (88.2%) examined if a meal is grilled by touching it. Moreover, n =253 (62.2%) used similar kitchen cloth to clean shells and hands (Table 3 ).

SCFH knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practice on food safety classification

A high proportion ( n =274, 67.3%; n =237, 58.2%; and n =256, 62.9%) of SCFHs had good levels in knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices on food safety (Fig. 2 ).

figure 2

Levels of respondents’ knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practice on food safety

Association between knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practice and demographic data

Statistical significance was observed in the knowledge section among registered SCFHs ( p =0.031). None of the respondent’s socio-demographic data was statistically significant in the attitude section of food safety p < 0.05. The study found significant differences ( p <0.05) in the hygiene practice scores section with the educational status, average monthly income, registered SCFHs, and SCFHs completing food safety training course of food safety among SCFHs (Table 4 ). The odds ratio showed registered SCFHs were 1.6 times good at food safety knowledge likened to unregistered SCFHs [cOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.04–2.59), p =0.032]. The logistic regression analysis revealed that respondents who had secondary education were 4.1 times good at hygiene practice of food safety [aOR=4.06 (95% CI 1.63–10.11), p =0.003] compared to informal education. The respondents with average monthly income greater than GHc1500 were 4.9 times more likely to have good food safety and hygiene practices compared to those who earned less than Ghc500 average monthly income [aOR=4.89 (95% CI 1.56–15.34), p =0.006]. Meanwhile, registered SCFHs were 7.5 times more likely to have good food safety and hygiene practices compared to unregistered SCFHs [aOR=7.50 (95% CI 4.27–13.19), p <0.001]. The SCFHs who had completed a food safety training course were 6 times more likely to have good food safety and hygiene practices compared to those who had no such training [aOR=5.97 (95% CI 3.50–10.18), p <0.001] (Table 5 ).

Pearson correlation between knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practice toward food safety

The study revealed a positive correlation in the knowledge with the attitude outcomes sections (FSA) of food safety ( r =0.153, p =0.002) (Table 6 ).

The present study investigated knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices of food safety on SCFHs in North Dayi District of Volta Region, Ghana. This study showed that the majority of SCFHs had good knowledge of food safety. This would help decrease the threat to contamination of foods, food poisoning, and FBDs to the consumers. Studies conducted in Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia, and Ghana have identified the importance of knowledge of food safety to SCFHs and have recommended training programmes on food safety to cultivate the knowledge into hygiene practices [ 14 , 27 , 34 ]. Our finding is inconsistent with previous studies done in Ethiopia and Jordan [ 38 , 45 ], however consistent with studies conducted in Ghana and Malaysia [ 47 , 54 ]. The possible reasons could be the type of food training courses received, the sample size, the scoring rubric applied, and understandings acquired on the subjects. This supported claims, creating an optimistic culture of food safety, inhibit food contamination if incorporated periodically [ 44 , 46 ]. This scenario affirms that the food safety training courses may remarkably enhance the knowledge of food handlers, especially concerning FBDs.

This study found that most of SCFHs knew about the washing of hands for 1 min using liquid and cleanser before touching food, which coincides with the study done in Iran [ 39 ]. The washing of hands with soap and water could reduce contamination of hands, cooking utensils, and cooking preparation surfaces leading to a substantive reduction of the risk of FBDs. Our finding does not corroborate with finding from a study done in Malaysia where a vast majority of SCFHs were knowledgeable of the 4th WHO Five Keys to Safer Food to keep the meal at healthy temperatures [ 20 ]. In our study, the SCFHs wrongly answered that fresh meat should be bestowed at any place in the fridge once it is cool. This misapplication of temperature could result in contamination and possibly proliferating of microbes in food. The reason is that appropriate temperatures can significantly lessen the risk at which foods will deteriorate, thereby preventing FBDs; hence for safety, foods must be held at an appropriate temperature sufficient to slow down the growth of microorganisms or kill microbes.

Attitude is one of the key elements that influence food safety and the practice and lessen the recurrence of food-related illnesses [ 51 ]. This study showed that most of SCFHs had a good attitude toward food safety. It means they understood their roles in food safety which was transmitted into attitude because they possibly serve as a vector for infectious pathogens which lead to food contamination. This agrees with studies conducted in Ghana and Haiti [ 48 , 55 ], but differs from a study done in Malaysia [ 36 ], where the majority of SCFHs had a poor attitude toward food safety. Possibly these could be due to the variances in socio-demographic characteristics, study population, and the study settings. These attitudinal variations could also be due to public reputation preference. Our study showed that visual checking was one of the key ways of differentiating healthy food from rotten ones, which concurs with a study conducted in Iran [ 39 ]. This finding is disturbing because the process of identifying food contamination cannot be performed by visual checking, since pathogens or toxins might be present in those foods without necessarily affecting SCFHs’ sensory aspects (smell, colour, or taste); therefore, food handlers who rely on visual checking for the identification of food contamination might expose consumers to an increased risk of contracting FBDs [ 39 , 56 ]. Therefore, the regulatory authorities must ensure that all SCFHs are trained professionally and certified.

The present study revealed a vast majority of SCFHs agreed that putting uncooked and prepared meal separating prevent cross-contamination, which corresponds to a study done in Haiti [ 55 ]. This act of putting fresh foods separating from cooked food could help prevent cross-contamination, which in turn may prevent infections from happening and halt FBDs. This is one of the highly endorsed public health measures to prevent cross-contamination [ 57 ]. This study found that almost all of SCFHs agreed that they coughed or sneezed into their elbows if a towel or paper is not available. Coughing and sneezing into the elbow or covering coughs and sneezes, and immediately washing the hands, could help to avert the spread of severe respiratory infections such as influenza and whooping cough. Our finding contradicts with other studies conducted in Malaysia and America; they reported that almost all respondents sneezed right away into their hands and never clean it [ 20 , 58 ]. This unpleasant attitude is harmful to the public since sneezing and coughing let out droplets of watery and perhaps transmittable microorganisms which can contaminate foods leading to FBDs.

Preservation of good sanitary behaviours is one of the goals for any food establishment, thereby its observance is vital to ensure safe meals for consumers [ 28 , 59 ]. The proportion of SCFHs in this current study with good hygiene practices of food safety corroborates with previous studies conducted in Saudi Arabia and Ghana [ 21 , 34 ]. This is an indication that SCFHs can be relied upon to act as the first-line responder to prevent several FBDs when they practice what they know. This would help reduce accidental contamination of foodstuffs due to improper management of cooking utensils and surroundings. Contradictory, in the present study, the scores obtained on the practices section were higher than hygiene practices of food safety reported in studies done in China and Nigeria [ 25 , 60 ]. The likely explanations of the difference reported could be as a result of the research population, the study cut-off used, the disparity in food safety courses, and differences in the law enforcement regimes. Our study revealed that the level of hygiene practices score was greater than the level of the attitude score attained by the SCFHs which corresponds to a study conducted in Malaysia [ 15 ]. The probable justification could be the SCFHs tend to provide responses they trust will create a good picture of their hygiene practices which account for the greater level score. The current study revealed that a vast majority of SCFHs washed their cooking utensils used to cook meals before using them for different meals, which is in line with a study done in Iran [ 39 ]. This act is acceptable because food handlers have been mostly identified as a significant vector for food contamination and responsible for FBDs [ 14 , 15 ]. Our study found that SCFHs practised wrongly by using similar kitchen cloth to clean shells and hands at the time which concurs with a study done in Malaysia [ 20 ]. The possible justification could be due to the non-compliance of the respondents to food safety training received. It could also be that they lack understandings of food safety education received. Hence, this displeasing practice may eventually result in contamination of hands and transfers of microorganisms to the consumers. This study showed that a vast majority of SCFHs cleaned fresh food that needs no cooking before consumption, which is in line with a study conducted in Malaysia [ 20 ]. This good hygiene practice is necessary to the elementary control of the spread of possibly FBDs.

Our study revealed a positive relationship between knowledge and the attitude of food safety which corresponds to earlier studies conducted in Malaysia, Iran, and Ghana [ 15 , 39 , 47 ]. Nevertheless, the strength of the correlation identified in the knowledge with the attitude scores of food safety was not strong, which implies that it is vital for the respective agency to monitor SCFH activities and enforce safety standards. Previous studies conducted in Malaysia and Iran found no significant relationship in the knowledge with the hygiene practices of food safety [ 20 , 39 ], which corresponds to our finding but contradicts with studies done in Malaysia and Ghana [ 15 , 47 ]. This result confirms the assertion that good knowledge does not affect the hygiene performance of food safety [ 61 ]. Hence, food handlers should be encouraged by food safety regulatory agencies to at least practise good hygiene irrespective of their levels of knowledge of food safety. In our study, no statistical association was found in the attitudes with the hygiene practice scores of food safety, which opposes earlier studies conducted in Malaysia, Iran, and Ghana [ 39 , 47 , 54 ]. These disparities could be due to their levels of knowledge of food safety and also possibly as a result of the kind of food safety training courses received. This present study found that registered SCFHs were more likely to have good food safety knowledge likened to unregistered SCFHs which is in line with earlier research in Lebanon [ 51 ] but differs in the study done in Malaysia [ 62 ]. The potential explanation is that maybe before SCFHs have been given their certification of registration, they probably have been taken through food safety training courses which provide them with adequate knowledge of food safety and offer them a good understanding of food poisoning, contamination, and hygiene. This shows the importance of registering food handlers who have successfully been through food safety training courses to acquire knowledge on food safety.

This study showed that the odds of good hygiene practices were higher among SCFHs who had secondary education likened to those with no formal education which is in line with a study conducted in Ethiopia [ 12 ]. In contrast to our findings, other studies conducted in Ethiopia and Ghana found SCFHs with primary education as more likely to have good hygiene practices of food safety likened to secondary education [ 27 , 34 ]. The possible reasons are because most food preparation skills, personal hygiene, and cleanliness are learned from friends, relatives, parents, and media but not necessarily from formal education. However, a lower level of education reduces awareness but the higher one gets educated the better the knowledge which affects their attitude and eventually may reflect into hygiene practices. It implies that food handlers should be encouraged to attain at least basic education before engaging into the cooking business, although it serves as the first sources of income for most uneducated people in the societies. Nevertheless, a study conducted in Ghana showed that regardless of educational background, the food safety actions of SCFHs remain an issue in many nations [ 48 ].

The present study showed that SCFHs who earned average monthly income above GHc1500 were more likely to have good hygiene practices compared to respondents who earned less than Ghc500. Our finding confirms a study conducted in Ethiopia and Jordan that found good hygiene practice among food handlers with higher monthly income than those with lower higher monthly income [ 27 , 63 ]. The possible justification is that SCFHs with high monthly income can afford to purchase items needed to establish themselves in hygienic environments and afford more employees to help in cleaning and waste treatment which could result in a reduction in food poisoning and cross-contamination. This means the high monthly income of food handlers determine their ways of hygiene practices, purchasing more cooking utensils for preparing different meals and managing their leftovers foods to prevent contamination.

The present study showed that registered SCFHs were in favour of good hygiene practices of food safety than the unregistered. The likely description is because of the food safety training courses they received before being registered as food handlers which provides them with an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of hygiene practices such as proper handling of food, personal cleanliness, and sanitation while preparing food. However, there is no research found relating registration of food handlers with hygiene practice scores; hence, the lack of the associated literature offers difficulties to compare our finding to collective results reasonably with concrete answered questions. Nonetheless, our finding shows the importance of registering food handlers after they have been through food safety training courses to encourage them to practise good hygiene.

This study found that SCFHs who have completed training courses on food safety were in favour of good hygiene practices of food safety likened to respondents who had not. Our finding asserts with previous studies done in Ethiopia, Malaysia, and Ghana [ 36 , 38 , 47 ]. The probable justification is that SCFHs who have completed food safety training courses had gained the talents and awareness necessary to handle food safely and sustain great ethics of self-cleanness and hygiene practices. Our finding affirms the assertion that training upsurges understanding of food safety which might reflect into hygiene practices [ 48 ]. Hence, a lack of or inadequate training of SCFHs on food safety may inadvertently result in poor hygiene practices, thereby encouraging food contamination [ 26 , 36 ]. This implies providing food safety training to food handles is important to keep consumers from food poisoning and other wellbeing dangers that could arise from eating unsafe food.

In this present study, it is significant to highpoint SCFHs’ knowledge, attitudes, and hygiene practices are unpredictable from the study conceded, though most of SCFHs properly responded by answering appropriately to related questions of WHO’s Five Keys to Safe Foods guidelines for food handlers. This theoretic-based assessment of the KAP method applied to assessed food handlers’ food safety KAP has some limitations. Firstly, the postulation that the received knowledge on food safety is translated into attitude is not entirely true. The existence of a social desirability bias could similarly have added to the discrepancy amid interview-responded KAP of SCFHs. Social desirability bias is the propensity of SCFHs to provide publically anticipated answers which will be regarded approvingly by people [ 64 ]. This proclivity has been shown by their descriptions and overrating socially anticipated KAP questions on food safety. Secondly, as we beforehand mentioned, the research assistants revealed their identities and the purpose of the study to the SCFHs; therefore, the SCFHs were mindful of the hygiene practices and the significance of observing them, but they remained keen to acknowledge their nonconformity and these could likely affect the self-reported hygiene practices. Thirdly, the unavailability of sufficient data from related studies in the district impedes an evaluative comparison of our findings to determine an improvement of food safety KAP among SCFHs; therefore, our findings ought to be interpreted with caution. However, due to the representative nature of the sample assessed, the findings of this study can be generalized to other SCFHs in the district. After all, it makes a substantial impact concerning food safety KAP in North Dayi District because it is the first study conducted in the district that presents an imperative foundation for design to increase food safety and hygiene practice in the district, region, and beyond.

Over half of the respondents had good levels of KAP of food safety. This study found a significant relationship in the knowledge and hygiene practice scores of food safety with SCFH registration. This shows the importance of strict enforcement of registration and certification of SCFHs by regulatory agencies as a means of protecting the consuming public. Therefore, the government agency through FDA should intensify the vitality of undertaking food safety training on WHO’s Five Keys to Safer Food by food handlers before being registered. Furthermore, the District Health Directorate should properly and effectively supervise food handlers engaging in cooking businesses to ensure they transmit the link between knowledge with the attitude of food safety into hygiene practice. Further studies should assess the kind of food safety training modules received and their impacts on the KAP of WHO’s Five Keys to Safer Foods as well as evaluating their hygiene practices with observational checklists.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to ethical consideration but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Lawrence Sena Tuglo, Zhongqin Pan & Minjie Chu

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Tuglo, L.S., Agordoh, P.D., Tekpor, D. et al. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices of street-cooked food handlers in North Dayi District, Ghana. Environ Health Prev Med 26 , 54 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-021-00975-9

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food safety topics for research paper

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Top 50 Food Research Paper Topics For Students

food research paper topics

Choosing a suitable topic for a research paper is usually the hardest part of the research. The same is true in choosing food research paper topics. In reality, however, there are numerous food topics to choose from for research. Once you’re able to select food topics to write about, the going gets much easier! In choosing food research topics, it is vital that you select food topics that pique your interest. This way, you’ll be able to go the extra mile to write an excellent paper.

Without further ado, we would like to save you the stress of brainstorming too much for a topic. This is why we have written this article that contains 50 topics about food. These interesting food topics and other food related topics are all captivating and will get your audience hooked. Let’s get started!

Food Topics For Research Paper

Are you in need of some awesome research topics about food? Well, you’re in the right place!

  • Fatty foods: Why do children need more fats than adults?
  • Bone density and poor nutrition: the correlation
  • Is it safe to use nutritional supplements to help bone density?
  • Are organic foods better than inorganic foods in the body?
  • Why are antioxidants important dietary substances to our bodies?
  • How affordable are nutritional supplements for poor people?
  • Can chocolates be addictive?

Controversial Food Topics

Some food controversy topics are so controversial that they end friendships. Ready to explore some controversial food topics? Here are some food controversies topics for you!

  • What is the best way to cook eggs?
  • Is corn-fed beef better than grass-fed beef?
  • What is the best way to eat pizza?
  • Where should food sauce be stored?
  • Vegetarianism versus veganism.

Food Essay Topics

In this section, we shall consider some fast food topics. One can tweak these fast food research paper topics and make them fast food essay topics. Ready to explore some fast food research topics? Let’s delve right in!

  • Do we need more fast food restaurants in society?
  • The effects of fast food in society
  • Can people maintain a balanced diet if they eat at quick-service restaurants?
  • Should fast foods be sold in hospitals?
  • An analysis of the socio-economic benefits of the fast-food industry.

Food Debate Topics

In a subject area as wide as food, it is impossible to avoid arguments and debates. People see foods from different angles and through different lenses. For this reason, we have crafted some food arguments topics, and food debates topics for you!

  • Should chili have beans?
  • Should you use ketchup on a hot dog?
  • What’s the best way to boil rice?
  • Are burgers sandwiches?
  • Which part of chicken wings is better?

Food Safety Topics

Food safety is an important aspect of food research. It is the scientific aspect and discipline that describes the preparation, handling, and storage of food. These food handling processes are important to prevent food-borne illnesses. Do you have a meeting where you need to make a presentation on food safety? Well, you just hit the jackpot! Here are some food safety topics for meetings!

  • Are color additives safe? How safe?
  • How to effectively reduce the risk of food allergies
  • What consumers must know about Avian Influenza
  • Food and antimicrobial resistance
  • How to reduce the risk of botulism?
  • Health concerns for the use of coffee and caffeine

Food Science Research Topics

Food science is a combination of both basic and applied science of food. Food science is the complex enmeshment of agricultural science, nutrition, and the scientific aspects of food processing and safety. Findings from studies in food science dictate the development of various food technologies. If you need some food science research topics, then you’ve come to the right place. You can also check out our bioethics topics . Here are some food science topics for you!

  • Why food science is important in human nutrition
  • What happens to stored foods?
  • How to effectively prevent food poisoning
  • How dietary habits of females affect their overall nutrition
  • Factors that influence the taste of wine
  • How to influence the psychology of eating?

Food Justice Topics

Food justice when communities exercise their right to grow, eat, and sell healthy food. Food justice ensures access to food that is healthy, fresh, and locally grown. It also seeks to provide living-wage jobs for the farmers and helps to boost community control. Here are some food justice topics for you.

  • Finding common ground through food justice
  • How to increase government involvement in food justice?
  • How to get more land and animals to facilitate food justice?
  • Why is food justice important? Should their voice be heard?

Food And Nutrition Topics

Food and nutrition remain pivotal to the survival of all living species. This is because these are the channels and ways that we get fuel and energy for our bodies. There are many important nutrients in the body, such as fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and even water. These nutrients need to receive new supplies every day. If you’re interested in food and nutrition topics, then this is the place to be. Here are some food and nutrition topics for you!

  • An exhaustive definition of nutritional deficiency and the critical diseases malnutrition can cause.
  • Why are amino acids important to the growth of muscles?
  • Should children be fed more dietary products like milk or less?
  • What are the most important types of nutrition to help body development?
  • Women and diet around the world.

Food Related Research Topics

Food research also covers aspects that do not directly relate to the food substance itself. These areas of food research cover some aspects such as food arrangement, food preservation, food processing, etc. If you want to research some food-related aspects, here are some food-related research topics for you!

  • The best way to organize a refrigerator
  • The best spices and their corresponding health benefits
  • Organizing a spice cabinet: Best practices
  • How to effectively fight food-borne bacteria
  • Is slow cooking safe?
  • How important is it to take breakfast?
  • Which foods should you not freeze?

So here we are! Fifty food research paper topics from our thesis writers for your research work! Don’t forget to show them what you’ve got. We wish you the best of luck in your topic selection and research writing.

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150+ Food Research Paper Topics Ideas for Students

Green and White Illustrative Food Research Topics

When writing a research paper on food, there are many angles to explore to choose great research topics about food. You can write argumentative essay topics on food processing methods or search for social media research topics . Moreover, the food industry is advancing, and food styles are changing – another inspiration for an outstanding research topic about food. In other words, if you are looking for your ideal topic for food research , there are many places to look.

How to Choose the “Ideal” Food Research Topics

150+ ideas of experimental research titles about food, research title about food processing.

  • Interesting Research Topics on Fast Food

Research Title about Food Industry

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Nevertheless, it can be hard to decipher what characterizes a good example of a thesis title for food. Hence, this article will briefly explain what factors to look for in a research title about food so-to-speak. Then, we will provide up to 150 food topics you can explore.

Personal interest is a vital factor to consider when sourcing the best thesis title about food . If you’re choosing a research title about cookery, you want to ensure it is something you’re interested in. If you’re unsure where your interest lies, you can check out social issues research topics .

Also, the availability of information on the topic of food is important in any research, whether it’s a thesis statement about social media or nutrition topics . Furthermore, choose several food topics to have options if one thesis about food doesn’t work out. Last but not least, ensure your chosen topic about food is neither too broad nor too narrow.

If you are unsure what title about food to work on for your research paper, here we are. Below are some of the best examples of thesis titles or professional thesis writers about food for students and researchers.

  • Plant sterols in treating high cholesterol
  • Is skipping breakfast healthy?
  • Macrobiotic diet: advantages
  • Food trendmakers
  • Chocolates and emotions: the connection
  • Are trans fats carcinogenic?
  • Does green tea burn calories?
  • Humble lentil: a superfood?

Interesting Research Topics Fast Food

  • Fast foods: impact on living organisms
  • Food court restaurants
  • Misconceptions about fast foods
  • Is McDonald’s healthy?
  • Fast food: a social problem?
  • National cuisine
  • Fast food: effect on the liver
  • Fast food education
  • Students’ nutrition
  • Fast food in children’s diet
  • Food and 3D virtual reality
  • The contemporary hotel industry
  • Food and fashion
  • Food in different cultures
  • Can food be used for cultural identification?
  • Trends in food box consumption
  • Information innovation in the food industry
  • The food industry in developing countries
  • Proper nutrition
  • History and origin of food traditions
  • Can dietary supplements increase bone density?
  • Why nutrition science matters
  • Organic food: impact on nutrition
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Services ensuring food safety in the US
  • Food safety violations in the workplace
  • pH balance impacts flavor
  • Animal testing should be abolished
  • Does overeating suppress the immune system?
  • Lifestyle-related chronic diseases
  • Food justice
  • Government’s involvement in food justice
  • Dietary deficiencies
  • Spice rack organization
  • Nutrients for body development
  • Milk for kids: more or less?
  • Organic food and health
  • Animal-sourced foods: beneficial or dangerous?
  • Continental dishes
  • Continental dishes vs. Indian spices
  • Food factor in national security
  • Junk food vs. healthy food
  • Environmental food safety
  • Safety and control of food colors in the food industry today
  • Criteria and scope of food security
  • Ensuring food security
  • Cooking technology
  • Food quality of agricultural raw materials
  • Problems and solutions to food safety
  • Food security: the theory and methodology
  • Recent labeling food innovations
  • Health benefits of genetically modified foods
  • The vegetarian diet
  • Caloric foods
  • Fast food affects on health
  • Food allergies
  • Fast foods: nutritional value
  • Food in the 21st century
  • The Slow Food movement
  • Doughnut’s history
  • Food safety: role in gene pool preservation
  • Controlling synthetic colors used in food
  • Food assessment and control
  • Food: its influence on pharmacotherapy’s effectiveness
  • Human rights to balanced nutrition
  • Quality of food products in urban areas
  • Food in rural areas vs. urban areas
  • Food security in Uganda
  • Food safety: developed vs. developing countries
  • Food factor in biopolitics
  • Corn starch in baking: the importance
  • Bacteria concerns in baking: Clostridium botulinum
  • Normal butter vs. brown butter
  • Matcha in Japanese pastry
  • Sweet in baked desserts
  • Effect of flour type on cake quality
  • Sugar vs. stevia
  • Why so much sugar in packed cakes?
  • Carob is use in baking
  • Coca-Cola baking: is it safe?
  • Cooking schools
  • Protein food preservation
  • Food preservation techniques
  • Vegan vs. non-vegan
  • Caffeine in drinks
  • Plastic and food quality
  • History of carrot cake
  • Turmeric: health properties
  • Japanese tea ceremonies
  • Healthy sugar substitutes
  • The popularity of plant-based diet
  • Food steaming: history
  • CBD-infused foods
  • Achieving the umami flavor in cooking
  • Climate and diet
  • Quick-service restaurants: impact on life expectancy
  • Drinking and Judaism
  • Chinese tea: a historical analysis
  • Meat canning
  • Resistance of meat to antimicrobials
  • Eliminating botulism
  • Reducing food allergies
  • Avian influenza
  • Vitamin D nutrition: the worldwide status
  • Nutritional supplements are available for the poor
  • Food science: importance in human nutrition
  • Amino acids and muscle growth
  • Poor nutrition and bone density
  • Women and diet
  • Tea vs. coffee
  • Is tea addictive?
  • Cholesterol: myths
  • Sugar vs. sweeteners
  • Keto diet: effect on health
  • Food sensitivities in children
  • African superfoods
  • Spirulina: the properties
  • Wine in French cuisine
  • Garlic and onions
  • Stored foods
  • Preventing food poisoning
  • Food addiction
  • How to fight against food waste
  • Aqueous environment: the toxicity
  • Fast food in hospitals
  • The risks associated with junk
  • Food culture and obesity
  • The link between fast food and obesity
  • Burgers: are they sandwiches?
  • Food additives
  • History of curry
  • Freezing dough: impact on quality
  • Best pizza Margherita recipe
  • Making low-calorie food tasty
  • Jamaica and British cuisine
  • Picked food in India
  • How to eat eggs
  • Egg poaching
  • Italian pasta: types

From food innovation research titles to food sustainability research topics , there are many areas of the food industry to explore. With the list of topics and tips for choosing a topic provided here, finding your ideal topic should be easier.

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Food Research Paper Topics

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Food Research Paper Topics

The food research paper will always be in demand. Every year, new brands appear on store shelves, which must comply with the law. Also, science is becoming aware of the dangers that various substances bring. Practically in any field of knowledge, there is a place for the food research paper that studies nutrition and its place in the culture of people and human society.

Our essay service has prepared a large list of food research paper topics, including food and nutrition topics, fast food research topics, and more, so that you can rapidly decide on a future topic for a food research paper.

What Food Research Paper Topics Can You Choose?

Nutrition is a source of life and pleasure at the same time. Today, the cuisine is cultivated by many people, so we have a wide range of problems related to food quality and human eating behavior, thus interesting food topics. To find suitable food research paper topics, we can think of the most popular questions that are known to each of us.

Pay attention to food and nutrition topics. Nutrition is an important element of human life. It can be viewed from different angles, some of which can even become the basis for food science topics. It is important that the child’s nutrition is monitored from the first day of life. A culture of proper nutrition should be in every family, but still, people do not know exactly what will be best for them and cannot find proper food research topics. Advertising confuses people in many ways. Business competition is becoming harmful to the civilian population due to the lack of writing a good food research paper.

Fast food research topics may also be of interest to you. There are many products on the shelves of stores that are half ready. The leaders of world sales in fast-food restaurants are trying to follow the trends of the new time. Their professionals are finding food research paper topics, but there are still many questions for them.

Fast Food Headlines You Might Be Interested In

Fast meals have been on the minds of people since its inception. When it comes to such an important issue as the health of the nation, the public is merciless.

The following food research paper topics include the hottest questions. Your food research paper can help those who do not know the truth to open their eyes and start thinking more about how they approach their diet and life in general. If you are looking for food research topics about fast food and would like to include them in your food research paper, check out the selected food related research topics.

  • How healthy or harmful are meals in fast food establishments?
  • The influence of the popularity of fast food on the health of the population of the country.
  • The influence of fast nutrition on the behavioral characteristics of adolescents.
  • The popularity of healthy eating: are many people really ready to eat exclusively healthy and wholesome meals, or is it done to be in trend?
  • Obesity is a result of a fast-food diet.
  • Carbonated drinks: how do they affect health?

Food and Nutrition Topics for Your Research Work

Nutrition includes several elements. Man is a complex being, so in addition to nutrients that can harm the body or, on the contrary, be beneficial, you can consider a food research paper topic related to the human psyche in your food research paper.

Nutrition is a source of vitamins that support the proper functioning of the human body and its mental activity. A person who eats bad products is likely to be unhappy. However, psychologists also consider eating only healthy meals wrong and learn food related topics to solve these matters.

Among the food research paper topics, you can choose those that will be related to chemistry as well as social aspects.

  • Psychology of nutrition: the right attitude to product intake in order to lose weight.
  • Eating disorders and related mental illnesses.
  • Nutrition in schools and kindergartens.
  • Causes of allergy to gluten and lactose at birth.
  • Therapeutic diets as the key to recovery.
  • Vegetarianism as a new step for humanity toward humanism and conscious consumption.
  • The connection between nutrition and social status.
  • Vegan diet in terms of influence on the development of the child’s body.
  • Connection between nutrition and human intelligence.
  • The effect of nutrition on sleep.

Food Related Research Topics for Students to Choose

No matter what you are studying, choose food related research topics. The meals research paper touches on many social issues. Just make sure your food research topics fit well with your area of ​​study. So a food research paper can be a great job for a hospitality student. Physicians can safely look up food research paper topics for their theses and term papers, as they know chemistry and can draw parallels to organ function. Nutrition-related research topics are also suitable for students of psychology, history, and sociology. Food and nutrition topics describe how and why man developed, pointing to his spiritual life, rituals, and traditions.

Food Safety Topics

Food research paper topics that include nutrition safety in the first place may be aimed at law students. This food research paper will let you explore how the state can influence the health and well-being of the population. Politics and human attitudes toward neighboring countries directly change the situation. Food research paper topics about meal production and distribution standards would be a great idea for a food research paper.

  • Nutrition is one of the first human needs.
  • Ensuring product security in the regions of the world.
  • Basic nutrition safety rules.
  • Electronic devices capable of measuring harmful substances in everyday life.
  • Kinder surprise: the reason for the ban on children’s sweets in the US.
  • Regions most affected by nutrition insecurity.
  • North Korean famine as an indicator of the state’s inability to establish domestic production.
  • World organizations helping the hungry.
  • What should be the cooking standards?
  • Humanitarian law: humanitarian aid to countries in active hostilities.
  • Impact of meat production on climate change.
  • Cancer-causing products.

International Cuisine Topics

The products manufacturing and selling industry will never go bankrupt. Food research paper topics will help you study the issue and understand how to open your own business. Your first food research paper could presumably start by looking at food-related research topics such as law and history. Interesting food topics do not have to be complex and abstruse.

  • Restaurant business: strategies for developing and starting a business.
  • The impact of globalization on the dietary habits of the population.
  • Is it possible to create meals on a 3D printer?
  • National cuisine: how many mixtures of cultures does the cuisine of a certain people of the world actually consist of?
  • Slow food is a promising direction in a modern restaurant.
  • Meals as a form of cultural identification.
  • Gastronomic tourism as a support for local cultural heritage.
  • Slow meals: what is it, and will it be fashionable?
  • Restaurants where people eat in the dark: a romantic gift or a road to disaster?
  • Factors affecting the perception of nutrition.

Food Toxicity Topics

The government provides new food research paper topics. Scientists make a new product research paper every year. Mothers try to make sure that teenagers eat quality products, read food research papers and share this information with friends. Not everyone is so categorical; some people like to eat tastily, and it does not matter to them whether the product will affect the development of diseases.

  • Product toxicity.
  • The level of acidity in products.
  • Baby products: milk mixtures and their effect on the body.
  • For or against: formula versus breast milk.
  • Sugar obsession: how to avoid addiction?
  • How products are tested for safety in European countries.
  • Myths and truths about GMOs.
  • Microplastics in products: how to stop poisoning the body when you buy coffee on the way to work.
  • Meals in portion packs: the harm of personalization for the environment.

Eating Disorders Topic Ideas

Psychiatry is developing rapidly. A product research paper about eating disorders will help you and your clients to understand yourself and build the right relationship with meals. The cult of food, stress, and the speed of life create nutrition research topics that we encounter in everyday life. However, behind the ordinary things are those that are difficult to fight.

Every creature lives for reward, and dogs are willing to learn when they have established contact with the owner, and often the attention shifts from scrutiny to treats. A person has more complex mental reactions; he can be influenced not only by the composition of the meal but also by the attitude towards it in society, as proved by food science topics in the articles.

Add examples from your own life to your nutrition research paper. Study the habits of people you know and, based on food research paper topics, take the most relevant issue specific to your environment.

  • Psychological training for people suffering from eating disorders.
  • Types of eating disorders.
  • The influence of fashion and social attitudes on healthy eating and psychological environment among young people.
  • Bad habits that lead to eating disorders. How to stop eating sweets and chips while sitting in front of the TV.
  • Body positivity: is it more harmful or beneficial for the right attitude towards health and meals consumed?
  • Food reward: how do you find the right motivation instead of comfort meals?
  • Medical and inpatient treatment of patients with eating disorders. Why is it important to deal with the psychological problems of the patient?

Food Research Paper Topics and Arguments for Your College Work

In addition to the usual essays on the food research paper topic, it is essential to develop a scientific approach to the study of the issue.

A scientific nutrition research paper will be an amazing addition to your resume when applying for a job. Take a closer look at the more serious food related topics.

  • Low-carb diet pros and cons.
  • The evolution of human nutrition: what problems did our ancestors experience, and how was their diet better than ours?
  • How advertising promotes the consumption of junk products.
  • Film culture and its impact on our understanding of proper nutrition in different age groups.
  • Japanese secrets: what products help with radiation infection.
  • Products that remove toxins.
  • The influence of diet on the appearance and youthfulness of the skin.
  • Scurvy and other occupational diseases associated with nutrition.
  • Meals that make us lethargic.

Getting the Best Food Topics

Were food research paper topics attractive to you? If not, you can come up with your own food research paper topics based on ours and improve them. However, if you do not have time for this, you can order to write a paper for any nutrition research paper topics using our essay writing service .

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IMAGES

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  1. Interactions between Street Food and Food Safety Topics in the Scientific Literature—A Bibliometric Analysis with Science Mapping

    Interactions between the street food topic and food safety, and other relevant research topics, show that relations are mainly related to economic topics [72,73,74,75]. The analysis of the 279 selected documents highlights the increasing interest of researchers for issues of SF for human health, and thus the importance of FS for global and ...

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  3. 70 Food Safety Essay Topics & Research Titles at StudyCorgi

    Looking for the best Food Safety topic for your essay or research? 💡 StudyCorgi has plenty of fresh and unique titles available for free. 👍 Check out this page! Free essays. ... Fast Food Paper Topics. Topics: 95. Diet Topics. Topics: 197. Food Research Topics. Topics: 449. Sugar Topics. Topics: 92 . Genetics Research Topics. Topics: 204.

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    1 INTRODUCTION. Quality management is a critical topic in the global supply chains management arena (Kuei, Madu, & Lin, 2011; Soltani, Azadegan, Liao, & Phillips, 2011).In this regard, food safety is an essential area for discussion and has been dramatically emphasized after global scandals, such as China's melamine milk contamination (Auler, Teixeira, & Nardi, 2017; Roth, Tsay, Pullman ...

  5. (PDF) Food safety and hygiene: A review

    PDF | On Mar 1, 2020, Sahil Kamboj and others published Food safety and hygiene: A review | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate

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    The world is faced with the challenge to feed an estimated 9 billion population of the Earth by 2050. To address the scientific evidence for the safety of food, I searched the Web of Science bibliographical and citation database for most cited articles from this research area. The topics with greate …

  7. Journal of Food Safety

    Journal of Food Safety welcomes Vivian Wu as Editor-in-Chief! Dr. Wu is the Research Leader of the Produce Safety and Microbiology Research Unit at the USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center. She is recognized nationally and internationally as an authority of food safety, pathogen detection, interventions, and functional foods.

  8. Food Safety Research Information Office (FSRIO)

    The Food Safety Research Information Office (FSRIO) is aligned with the Research, Economics, and Education (REE) mission area of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). It was created by the Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (7 U.S.C.A. & 7654 Sec. 615) and was formally launched on July 2, 2001.. The mission of FSRIO is to provide the research community ...

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    The scope of the Research Topic includes: • Infectious pathogens that affect food safety and public health. • Impact of antibiotic resistance of foodborne pathogens on public health. • Antibiotic-alternatives to control foodborne pathogens. • Using omics approaches to study host-pathogen interactions and drug-microbiome interaction.

  11. Food Safety Research Priorities & Studies

    This list represents FSIS' current assessment of priority research that will help further its public health mission; the list will be updated biannually. We encourage researchers to contact Dr. Isabel Walls by e-mail ( [email protected]) or at (202) 924-1420 and Dr. John Hicks by e-mail ( [email protected]) or at (301) 504-0840 with ...

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  13. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices of street-cooked

    Background Food safety and hygiene are currently a global health apprehension especially in unindustrialized countries as a result of increasing food-borne diseases (FBDs) and accompanying deaths. This study aimed at assessing knowledge, attitude, and hygiene practices (KAP) of food safety among street-cooked food handlers (SCFHs) in North Dayi District, Ghana. Methods This was a descriptive ...

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    Food safety: control of the use of synthetic colors. Microbiological risk analysis like a basis for improving the food safety assessment and control system. The role of food safety in preserving the gene pool of the population. Theoretical and methodological aspects of food security. 25 Food and Nutrition Research Paper Topics

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  17. 50 Best Food Research Paper Topics

    In choosing food research topics, it is vital that you select food topics that pique your interest. This way, you'll be able to go the extra mile to write an excellent paper. Without further ado, we would like to save you the stress of brainstorming too much for a topic. This is why we have written this article that contains 50 topics about food.

  18. 150+ Food Research Paper Topics for You to Explore

    When writing a research paper on food, there are many angles to explore to choose great research topics about food. You can write argumentative essay topics on food processing methods or search for social media research topics.Moreover, the food industry is advancing, and food styles are changing - another inspiration for an outstanding research topic about food.

  19. How to Pick the Most Suitable Food Research Paper Topics?

    Food Safety Topics. Food research paper topics that include nutrition safety in the first place may be aimed at law students. This food research paper will let you explore how the state can influence the health and well-being of the population. Politics and human attitudes toward neighboring countries directly change the situation.