A better path forward for criminal justice: Training and employment for correctional populations

  • Download a PDF of this chapter.

Subscribe to Governance Weekly

Grant duwe and grant duwe research director - minnesota department of corrections, adjunct scholar - american enterprise institute makada henry-nickie makada henry-nickie executive director - jpmorgan chase & co, former nonresident fellow - governance studies.

  • 36 min read

Below is the sixth chapter from “A Better Path Forward for Criminal Justice,” a report by the Brookings-AEI Working Group on Criminal Justice Reform. You can access other chapters from the report here .

People involved in the correctional system in the U.S. tend to be undereducated and underemployed compared to the general population. Roughly two-fifths of the people entering prison do not have a high school degree or General Educational Development (GED) credential, 1  a rate which is three times higher than for adults in the U.S. 2  The disparity for postsecondary education is even greater, where the rate at which adults have an associate’s degree or more is four times higher than what has been observed for prisoners.

Due to the stigmatizing mark of a criminal record along with the association between education levels and employment, 3 relatively high rates of unemployment have been observed for correctional populations.  A number of studies have shown that the pre-prison employment rate (in the year before coming to prison) for people in prison is no higher than 35 percent. 4 Post-release employment rates have been found to increase shortly after individuals were released from prison but later decline, 5 eventually returning to pre-prison employment levels within a few years. 6

Level Setting

Education programming.

The emphasis on providing education programming for correctional populations is due not only to the lower observed rates of educational attainment but also to the well-documented relationship between low educational achievement and increased antisocial behaviors. 7  Education and employment have each been identified as moderate risk factors for recidivism, which is the metric often used to determine the effectiveness of correctional programming. Risk factors for recidivism have been categorized as major (history of antisocial behavior, antisocial personality pattern, antisocial cognition, and antisocial associates), moderate (education/employment, family/marital, leisure/recreation, and substance abuse), and minor (low IQ and social class). 8

Meta-analyses of prison education research have shown that it reduces recidivism, although the effect sizes have ranged from modest 9 to relatively large. 10 Prison education has been found to be more effective in lowering recidivism when participants complete the course or program, 11  and individuals with the largest education deficits tend to benefit more from this type of programming. 12  Although participating in secondary-degree programs has been found to reduce recidivism by 30 percent, 13 better results have often been observed for postsecondary education programming. 14

While the literature has evaluated the impact of education programming on recidivism, it has also examined the effects on other important outcomes such as prison misconduct, post-release employment and return on investment (ROI). Although prior research has yielded mixed results regarding the impact of educational programming on prison misconduct, 15 the literature has consistently shown that prison education improves post-release employment outcomes. 16 Even though meta-analyses of prison education have generally reported modest reductions for recidivism, the ROI estimates have been relatively large. Indeed, research has reported a ROI of $19.62 for prison-based correctional education (basic and postsecondary) and $13.21 for vocational education. 17

Employment Programming

Obtaining employment is, as noted earlier, challenging for those involved in the correctional system due to the relatively low levels of educational attainment and the presence of a felony conviction. Having a job, however, has been shown to reduce recidivism, 18 and individuals are less likely to commit crimes when they have stable, full-time employment. 19 To address this moderate criminogenic need, correctional systems frequently provide individuals with employment programming, including prison labor opportunities as well as participation in programs such as work release.

Having a job, however, has been shown to reduce recidivism,  and individuals are less likely to commit crimes when they have stable, full-time employment.  

The evidence suggests the effect of prison labor on recidivism is, at best, minimal. Although some research has reported that prison employment reduced recidivism, 20 other studies have not found significant effects overall. 21 Conversely, the impact of prison labor on prison misconduct and post-release employment has generally been favorable. 22 The most recent evaluation found that people who spent a greater proportion of their overall confinement time working a job in prison had less misconduct, lower recidivism, and increased post-release employment. 23 The results from a cost-benefit analysis of correctional programming reported a ROI of $4.74 for the prison industry. 24

Within the U.S., correctional agencies have long relied on the use of prison work release programs, which allow participants who are near the end of their prison terms to work in the community and return to a correctional or community residential facility during nonworking hours. Although most of the existing evaluations are outdated, the most recent research indicates work release produces a significant, albeit modest, reduction in recidivism. 25 Prior research has consistently found positive results for employment, with the most recent evaluation showing that work release significantly increased the odds that participants found a job, the total hours they worked, and the total wages they earned. 26 Given these findings, prior research has reported a ROI of $11.19 for work release and a benefit of nearly $6,900 per participant. 27 In addition, an evaluation of a work release program in Minnesota reported a cost avoidance of nearly $700 per participant for a total of $350,000 annually. 28

Policy Implications

Access to legal employment is key to reducing recidivism and the post-prison social disabilities that returning citizens endure. Extensive research has documented the interaction between employment and increased educational attainment as pivotal to reducing an individual’s propensity to recidivate. 29 Roughly 7.9 million people return to local communities from state prisons and local jails across the country each year. 30 The status quo of fractious federal and state policies combined with insubstantial funding are incompatible with the enormity of reentry challenges.

Reducing employment barriers for returning citizens requires practitioners and policymakers to enact policies at a scale commensurate with the decarceration rate. State and federal policies must be aligned and braided into an overarching policy framework to synchronously address the interlocking issues citizens encounter on reentry. Increasing access to gainful employment for returning citizens relies on seamlessly articulating multi-jurisdictional policies into a coordinated strategy across three (3) critical pillars: workforce training, educational upgrading, and regulatory employment barriers.

Accordingly, our recommendations include:

Short-Term Reform

  • Deepen Pell Grant Investments for Incarcerated Individuals

Medium-Term Reform

Expand Pre-Release Workforce Development Services

Long-Term Reform

Reform Employment-based Criminal Background Checks

Short-term reforms.

Without a doubt, education and employment are linked. The approved COVID-19 Economic Relief legislation reinstated the Pell Grant eligibility for incarcerated students. This legislation reversed approximately three decades of government-sanctioned educational segregation.

Included in this legislation, the government funded Pell Grant’s minimum eligibility requires applicants to have earned either a high school diploma or GED. Data shows that nearly two in three (64 percent) incarcerated adults have a high school credential, clearing the way for them to take advantage of the Pell Grant repeal. 31 However, 30 percent of incarcerated adults have not earned a high school credential. As a result, these individuals are considered ineligible for the Pell Grant unless enrolled in a career pathway program. We believe the COVID-19 Economic Relief legislation’s revival of the Pell Grant eligibility for incarcerated students will increase their access to postsecondary training. Yet it is too early to determine all of the legislation’s effect on inmates’ educational achievements.

There are important questions about the functional literacy levels of the incarcerated adult population. Incarcerated adults with a high school diploma or less have significantly lower numeracy literacy levels than the U.S. adult population. Attaining a high school credential does not necessarily correlate to functional literacy. According to Rampey and others, 43 percent of incarcerated adults with a high school credential have low literacy and numeracy rates. Literacy rates among incarcerated adults without a high school diploma were even more alarming; 79 percent of these adults had low numeracy and literacy rates. 32  The implication of these abysmal literacy statistics is grave, especially when translated into functional competencies. Adults scoring below basic on OECD’s aptitude test can perform basic arithmetic and read relatively short primary printed texts. However, individuals with low aptitude scores are likely to encounter difficulties with higher-order cognitive reasoning tasks, including drawing low-level inferences or interpreting basic statistics (OECD, 2013). 33 These disquieting figures point to systematic functional illiteracy challenges within the incarcerated population.

It is urgent that policymakers address systemic remedial educational needs along with increasing access to postsecondary education for incarcerated students and structural education gaps. The impact of functional literacy challenges can limit the effectiveness of policies aimed at expanding access to postsecondary educational programming. Evidence shows that participation in correctional educational programming can increase the probability of finding post-release employment. 34 Furthermore, President Biden should commission a task force to study fundamental educational competencies, functional literacy, numeracy, and digital literacy levels of the incarcerated adult population. This task force should also have a national advisory board of experts to study structural deficiencies and propose recommendations for digitizing education programs, providing qualified educators, and increasing access to educational resources.

It is important to note that only upgrading educational quality will not increase access to employment for returning citizens. Generally, in the U.S. labor market, individuals with a high school diploma experience substantially higher unemployment rates than their peers with a college degree. In 2020, the unemployment rate of individuals with a high school diploma was 63.6 percent higher than that of college-educated persons with a bachelor’s degree. 35 Furthermore, the tremendous earnings gap between workers based on educational attainment mirrors employment disparities. Workers a high school credential earned 40 percent lower median wages than those with a bachelor’s degree. Similarly, individuals with less than a high school diploma earned nearly 53 percent less than their college-educated peers. 36 Altogether, these labor market statistics show the benefits of a college education. Additional supporting evidence from a RAND Corporation meta-study suggested that inmate access to occupational training coupled with academic training were associated with a 43 percent reduction in probability to recidivate.

Increasing access to quality academic education and occupational skills-based training that builds a skill base to meet the needs of the current labor market will significantly increase access to sustainable post-prison employment opportunities. Based on promising evaluation results, the Biden Administration should authorize the Department of Labor’s (DOL) expansion of its Pell Grant Short-Term Training experiments to include incarcerated adults. The DOL Pell experimental studies examined the impact of expanding Pell Grants’ use for occupational training and short-term training programs for underemployed individuals and unemployed individuals. Recently released findings were positive: post-bachelor participants were 36.7 percent more likely than nonparticipants to complete occupational training in high-demand fields, including health and information technology.

Increasing access to quality academic education and occupational skills-based training that builds a skill base to meet the needs of the current labor market will significantly increase access to sustainable post-prison employment opportunities.  

Not only were similar results obtained in short-term occupational training lasting less than 15 weeks, but also students were 15 percentage points more likely to enroll in additional educational programs and eight percentage points more likely to complete training. In short-term occupational training programs, students selected trade skill pathways in transportation and materials moving, health professions, and construction. Strikingly, the program’s positive effects—enrollment and completion—were most pronounced for dislocated workers and those facing employment challenges. 37

The debate surrounding the long-term employment and wage gains associated with short-term occupational training remains unsettled. Without credible data-driven evidence, questions about benefits for incarcerated adults will be even more contentious. Interactions between employment and adjacent barriers such as housing insecurity, lack of adequate transportation, and community supervision restrictions increase recidivism risk. The federal government should evaluate the efficacy of expanding the Pell Grant experiments on sustainable employment and wage quality. Additionally, the task force should examine the effects of applying the Obama-era Gainful Employment rule to experimental Pell programs to evaluate whether the accountability framework increases access to relevant, high-quality skill development training.

MEDIUM-TERM REFORMS

Policymakers should strive to align the timing of holistic services with expanded access to educational training to improve reentry success rates. It is essential to match policy that supports the intersecting barriers returning citizens face on reentry. The federal government should center the public workforce development system in policy responses aimed at improving quality employment outcomes for returning citizens. DOL’s now-dormant pilot, Linking to Employment Activities Pre-Release (LEAP), is an excellent policy candidate. Through LEAP, DOL established 20 jail-based job training centers to link incarcerated adults to the workforce system during incarceration to strengthen their connection to the labor market and enhance their employment readiness.

LEAP provided robust evidence on the types of workforce development services that improve post-carceral employment outcomes using a continuity-of-care model centered on linking pre-release services to post-release employment supports. Upon conclusion, 85 percent of LEAP’s scattered-site participants had increased their workforce readiness level, as measured by observed outcomes or improvements in job readiness pre- and post-testing. 38

Although LEAP sites failed to meet planned-retention and tracked-employment targets, program evaluators reasoned that data collection deficiencies may have contributed to systematic underreporting and resulted in deflated impact metrics. Despite data collection challenges, LEAP succeeded in reducing recidivism for program participants; evaluators reported an overall recidivism rate of 20 percent after one year of participants’ release. Roughly 75 percent of LEAP sites reported recidivism rates lower than the programmatic target of 22 percent. 39

The favorable results for LEAP are consistent with other research that has evaluated the effectiveness of employment programming that is designed to provide a continuum of services that begins within the correctional facility and continues in the community following release. In an evaluation of Minnesota’s EMPLOY program, which provided participants with employment assistance 90 days prior to release from prison and continued for up to one year after release, the results showed   that it significantly reduced rearrest by 35 percent. Program participants were also more likely to find and maintain a job after their release from prison than their comparison group counterparts, resulting in more total wages earned. 40 Due to these results, a cost-benefit analyses revealed that EMPLOY generated a ROI of $6.45 for a total of $2.8 million in costs avoided annually. 41

Despite LEAP’s promising results, structural barriers such as criminal background checks, conflicts with supervision requirements, and housing insecurity, among other issues, dampened the pilot’s employment and educational gains. Nonetheless, LEAP and EMPLOY provide a propitious proof of concept on siting pre-release workforce development services within the prisonsystem and leveraging strategic partnerships with external community-based organizations and correctional system decisionmakers to bolster the framework’s design. The federal government should reauthorize the LEAP pilot, build upon lessons learned, and fund the next iteration at a scale that increases the program’s impact.

LEAP’s reauthorization in conjunction with the First Step Act (reauthorization of the Second Chance Act) would weave crucial funding streams into a comprehensive policy response. In the final analysis, Second Chance Act (SCA) Adult Demonstration pilots showed that multijurisdictional funding supports and a follow-through-care approach to reentry increased employment outcomes and wages for program participants. Individuals included in the SCA treatment group were more likely to be employed and earned an average $1,800 more than nonparticipants; this wage differential represents a 70 percent improvement in employment earnings. Although the SCA program did not reduce the probability of recidivism, participants were more likely to report receiving cognitive behavioral therapy, housing support, and job search assistance. 42

LONG-TERM REFORMS

Successfully reintegrating formerly incarcerated individuals depends on policymakers’ abilities to close structural remedial education gaps and increase access to high-quality occupational skills-based training. Inattention to the large number of fundamental employment barriers challenges the effectiveness of any policy intervention. Criminal background checks present substantial hurdles to gainful employment even for college-educated, justice-involved persons. Criminal background checks function like a double-edged sword. Research has found that employers who conducted criminal background checks were more likely to hire Black men. 43 However, in the absence of background checks, employers overestimated the relationship between visible minority markers and criminality, leading them to statistically discriminate against Black men and those with weak employment records; these assumption patterns resulted in reduced employment opportunities. 44 The intersection of criminal records and stigmatized perceptions of criminality amplifies the social disadvantage for justice-involved persons. In essence, having a criminal record poses considerable obstacles to returning citizens, especially those without a college degree.

After two decades of steady momentum across states and local municipalities, efforts to promote fair chance hiring culminated in the passage of the Fair Chance to Compete for Jobs Act of 2019. 45 Research on the effects of ban-the-box policies is still emerging. However, several formative studies have shown counterproductive or de minimis effects of fair chance hiring policies on employment. 46 Similarly, another study found that ban-the-box policies reduced the employment rate of individuals with criminal records by 2.4 percentage points. 47  These studies, among others, suggest that well-intentioned fair chance hiring policies may lead to counterproductive effects that disadvantage intended beneficiaries, further muddying returning citizens’ employment landscape.

Employers’ growing and widespread use of algorithmic criminal background checks raise serious concerns about background check data, particularly as robust data protection regulations continue to lag behind market innovations. The algorithmic background-checking cottage industry is fraught with harmful data mining practices that frustrate individuals’ efforts to find gainful employment due to collateral data errors. 48 Policymakers should target other consequential screening barriers, such as the accuracy of criminal records that have been shown to adversely affect employment prospects.

Recommendations for Future Research

We suggest three promising avenues for future research to extend what we know about education and employment programming effectiveness for correctional populations. First, policymakers should expand research efforts to deepen our understanding of pre-release training programs. These efforts should rely on rigorous evaluation methods, including randomized controlled trials.

Second, while interventions that provide a continuum of service delivery from the institution to the community have generally yielded the best employment and recidivism outcomes, future research should examine the extent to which a continuum of care improves outcomes compared to services delivered only in prison or in the community. Finally, future research should focus on the extent to which functional literacy and digital illiteracy rates stymie incarcerated persons’ educational attainment pursuits and weaken their connection to gainful employment. Moreover, researchers should focus on identifying intersectional solutions, including educational models, with the potential to reduce literacy barriers.

Conclusions

The employability of returning citizens is a moral imperative and should be a central focal point of the criminal justice reform agenda. Increased educational attainment and connections to employment moderate recidivism risk factors; however, unimodal interventions seldomly yield sustainable outcomes. Addressing employability alone ignores attendant social vulnerabilities that returning citizens experience; formerly incarcerated women, in particular, are susceptible to adverse outcomes. The understandable effect of collateral consequences of incarceration should inform the scope of reentry policies. Furthermore, rigorous evidence-based research and robust evaluation strategies must inform comprehensive reintegration reforms.

Beyond employment, incarcerated persons contend with a morass of social and legal barriers that compound the social disadvantage of a felony label and increase recidivism risk. 49 Adopting an interdisciplinary approach to reentry policy formulation is critical to resolving crucial disconnects, reduce social exclusion, and improve post-prison employment outcomes for returning citizens.

Recommended Readings

Aos, S. & Drake, E. (2013). Prison, Police and Programs: Evidence-based Options that

Reduce Crime and Save Money (Doc. No. 13-11-1901). Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

Bellotti, Jeanne, Samina Sattar, Alix Gould-Werth, Jillian Berk, Ivette Gutierrez, Jillian Stein, Hannah Betesh, Lindsay Ochoa, and Andrew Wiegand. Developing American Job Centers in Jails: Implementation of the Linking to Employment Activities Pre-Release (LEAP) Grants . Rep. Washington: U.S. Department of Labor (DOL), Chief Evaluation Office, 2018. Print.

Davis, L.M., Bozick, R., Steele, J.L., Saunders, J., & Miles, J.N.V. (2013). Evaluating the

Effectiveness of Correctional Education: A Meta-Analysis of Programs that Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults . Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Duwe, G. (2018). The Effectiveness of Education and Employment Programming for Prisoners .

American Enterprise Institute: Washington, DC. Available at: https://www.aei.org/research-products/report/the-effectiveness-of-education-and-employment-programming-for-prisoners/ .

Middlemass, Keesha. Convicted and Condemned: The Politics and Policies of Prisoner Reentry . New York: New York UP, 2017. Print.

  • Duwe, Grant and Valerie Clark (2014). The effects of prison-based educational programming on recidivism and employment. The Prison Journal, 94, 454–478.
  • Ryan, C.L., & Bauman, R. (2016). Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015. United States Census Bureau, 2015.
  • Berstein, J., and Houston, E. (2000). Crime and Work: What We Can Learn from the Low-Wage Labor Market. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.
  • Duwe, G., & Clark, V. A. (2017). Nothing will work unless you did: The predictors of post-prison employment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 44, 5, 657–677; Kling, J. (2006). Incarceration length, employment and earnings. American Economic Review, 96, 863–76; Lalonde, R. J., & Cho, R. M. (2008). The impact of incarceration in state prison on the employment prospects of women. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24, 243–265; Pettit, B., & Lyons, C. (2002). The Consequences of incarceration on employment and earnings: Evidence from Washington State. Unpublished manuscript; University of Washington: Seattle, WA; Sabol, W. (2007). Local labor-market conditions and post-prison employment experiences of offenders released from Ohio state prisons. In S. Bushway, M. Stoll, & D. Weiman (Eds.), Barriers to reentry? The labor market for released prisoners in post-industrial America (pp. 257–303). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Duwe, G., & Clark, V. A. (2017). Nothing will work unless you did: The predictors of postprison employment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 44, 5, 657–677; Lalonde, R. J., & Cho, R. M. (2008). The impact of incarceration in state prison on the employment prospects of women. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24, 243–265.
  • Kling, J. (2006). Incarceration length, employment and earnings. American Economic Review, 96, 863–76; Pettit, B., & Lyons, C. (2002). The Consequences of incarceration on employment and earnings: Evidence from Washington State. Unpublished manuscript; University of Washington: Seattle, WA; Sabol, W. (2007). Local labor-market conditions and post-prison employment experiences of offenders released from Ohio state prisons. In S. Bushway, M. Stoll, & D. Weiman (Eds.), Barriers to reentry? The labor market for released prisoners in post-industrial America (pp. 257–303). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Farrington, D.P. (2005). Childhood origins of antisocial behavior. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 12(3):177–190; Hagan, J., and McCarthy, B. (1997). Intergeneratioal sanction sequences and trajectories of street-crime amplification. In Gotlib, I.H. and Wheaton, B. (eds.) Stress and Adversity over the Life Course: Trajectories and Turning Points, pp. 73–90. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., Thornberry, T.P., and Cothern, L. (2000). Co-Occurrence of Delinquency and Other Problem Behaviors. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention; Maguin, E., and Loeber, R. (1996). Academic performance and delinquency. In Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, vol. 2, edited by M. Tonry. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Andrews, D.A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, S.J. (2006). The recent past and near future of risk and/or need assessment. Crime & Delinquency, 52, 7–27.
  • Adams, K., Bennett, K.J., Flanagan, T.J., Marquart, J.W., Cuvelier, S.J., Fritsch, E., Gerber, J., Longmire, D.R., and Burton, V.S. (1994). A Large-Scale Multidimensional Test of the Effect of Prison Education Programs on Offenders’ Behavior. The Prison Journal, 74(4), 433–449; Aos, S. & Drake, E. (2013). Prison, Police and Programs: Evidence-based Options that Reduce Crime and Save Money (Doc. No. 13-11-1901). Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy; Wilson, D.B., Gallagher, C.A., & MacKenzie, D.L. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education, vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347–368.
  • Davis, L.M., Bozick, R., Steele, J.L., Saunders, J., & Miles, J.N.V. (2013). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education: A Meta-Analysis of Programs that Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
  • Pompoco, A., Wooldredge, J., Lugo, M., Sullivan, C., & Latessa, E. (2017). Reducing inmate misconduct and prison returns with facility education programs. Criminology & Public Policy.
  • Adams, K., Bennett, K.J., Flanagan, T.J., Marquart, J.W., Cuvelier, S.J., Fritsch, E., Gerber, J., Longmire, D.R., and Burton, V.S. (1994). A Large-Scale Multidimensional Test of the Effect of Prison Education Programs on Offenders’ Behavior. The Prison Journal, 74(4), 433–449.
  • Duwe, Grant and Valerie Clark (2014). The effects of prison-based educational programming on recidivism and employment. The Prison Journal, 94, 454–478; Kim, R.H., & Clark, D. (2013). The effect of prison-based college education programs on recidivism: Propensity Score Matching approach. Journal of Criminal Justice, 41, 196–204.
  • French, S.A., & Gendreau, P. (2006). Reducing prison misconducts: What works! Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33, 185–218; Pompoco, A., Wooldredge, J., Lugo, M., Sullivan, C., & Latessa, E. (2017). Reducing inmate misconduct and prison returns with facility education programs. Criminology & Public Policy; Steiner, B., & Wooldredge, J. (2014). Sex differences in the predictors of prisoner misconduct. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41, 433–452.
  • Cho, R.M., & Tyler, J.H. (2013). Does prison-based adult basic education improve postrelease outcomes for male prisoners in Florida? Crime & Delinquency, 59, 975–1,005; Davis, L.M., Bozick, R., Steele, J.L., Saunders, J., & Miles, J.N.V. (2013). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education: A Meta-Analysis of Programs that Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation; Duwe, Grant and Valerie Clark (2014). The effects of prison-based educational programming on recidivism and employment. The Prison Journal, 94, 454–478.
  • Aos, S. & Drake, E. (2013). Prison, Police and Programs: Evidence-based Options that Reduce Crime and Save Money (Doc. No. 13-11-1901). Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.
  • Skardhamar, T. & Telle, K. (2012). Post-release employment and recidivism in Norway. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28, 629–649.
  • Crutchfield, R.D., & Pitchford, S.R. (1997). Work and crime: The effects of labor stratification. Social Forces, 76, 93–118; Uggen, C. (1999). Ex-offenders and the conformist alternative: A job quality model of work and crime. Social Problems, 46, 127–151.
  • Saylor, W.G., & Gaes, G.G. (1997). Training inmates through industrial work participation and vocational apprenticeship instruction. Corrections Management Quarterly, 1, 32–43.
  • Duwe, G. & McNeeley, S. (2018). The Effects of Prison Labor on Institutional Misconduct, Post-Prison Employment, and Recidivism. Corrections: Policy, Practice and Research; Maguire, K. E., Flanagan, T. J., & Thornberry, T. P. J. (1988). Prison labor and recidivism. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 4, 3–18; Richmond, K.M. (2014). The impact of federal prison industries employment on the recidivism outcomes of female inmates. Justice Quarterly, 31, 719–745.
  • Duwe, G. & McNeeley, S. (2018). The Effects of Prison Labor on Institutional Misconduct, Post-Prison Employment, and Recidivism. Corrections: Policy, Practice and Research; Gover, A.R., Perez, D.M., & Jennings, W.G. (2008). Gender differences in factors contributing to institutional misconduct. The Prison Journal, 88, 378–403; Saylor, W.G., & Gaes, G.G. (1997). Training inmates through industrial work participation and vocational apprenticeship instruction. Corrections Management Quarterly, 1, 32–43; Steiner, B., & Wooldredge, J. (2014). Sex differences in the predictors of prisoner misconduct. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41, 433–452.
  • Duwe, G. & McNeeley, S. (2018). The Effects of Prison Labor on Institutional Misconduct, Post-Prison Employment, and Recidivism. Corrections: Policy, Practice and Research.
  • Drake, E. (2007). Does Participation in Washington’s Work Release Facilities Reduce Recidivism? Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy; Duwe, G. (2014). An outcome evaluation of a work release program: Estimating its effects on recidivism, employment, and cost avoidance. Criminal Justice Policy Review. DOI: 10.1177/0887403414524590.
  • Duwe, G. (2014). An outcome evaluation of a work release program: Estimating its effects on recidivism, employment, and cost avoidance. Criminal Justice Policy Review. DOI: 10.1177/0887403414524590.
  • Aos, S. & Drake, E. (2013). Prison, Police and Programs: Evidence-based Options that Reduce Crime and Save Money (Doc. No. 13-11-1901). Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy;
  • Nally J. et al. 2012. Post-Release Recidivism and Employment among Different Types of Released Offenders. Official Journal of the South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV) ISSN: 0973-5089 January–June 2014. Vol. 9 (1): 16–34.
  • McKernan, Patricia. “Homelessness and Prisoner Reentry: Examining Barriers to Housing Stability and Evidence-Based Strategies That Promote Improved Outcomes.” Journal of Community Corrections, 2017, pp. 7–26.
  • Rampey, B. D., Keiper, S., Mohadjer, L., Krenzke, T., Li, J., Thornton, N., & Hogan, J. (2016). Highlights from the U.S. PIAAC Survey of incarcerated adults: Their skills, work experience, education, and training: program for the international assessment of adult competencies: 2014 (NCES 2016-040). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/ pubsearch
  • OECD (2019), Skills Matter: Additional Results from the Survey of Adult Skills, OECD Skills Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/1f029d8f-en.
  • “Unemployment Rate 2.0 Percent for College Grads, 3.8 Percent for High School Grads in January 2020: The Economics Daily: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.” Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2020/unemployment-rate-2-percent-for-college-grads-3-8-percent-for-high-school-grads-in-january-2020.htm#:%7E:text=Unemployment%20rate%202.0%20percent%20for,school%20grads%20in%20January%202020&text=The%20national%20unemployment%20rate%20was,people%20age%2016%20and%20older.
  • “Unemployment Rates and Earnings by Educational Attainment: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.” Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov/emp/chart-unemployment-earnings-education.htm.
  • Thomas, Jamie, Naihobe Gonzalez, Nora Paxton, Andrew Weigand, and Leela Hebbar. The Effects of Expanding Pell Grant Eligibility for Short Occupational Training Programs: Results from the Experimental Sites Initiative. Rep. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, 2020. Print.
  • Bellotti, Jeanne, Samina Sattar, Alix Gould-Werth, Jillian Berk, Ivette Gutierrez, Jillian Stein, Hannah Betesh, Lindsay Ochoa, and Andrew Wiegand. Developing American Job Centers in Jails: Implementation of the Linking to Employment Activities Pre-Release (LEAP) Grants. Rep. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor Chief Evaluation Office, 2018. Print.
  • Duwe, G. (2015). The benefits of keeping idle hands busy: The impact of a prisoner reentry employment program on post-release employment and offender recidivism. Crime & Delinquency, 61, 559-586.
  • Duwe, G. (2013). What Works with Minnesota Prisoners: A Summary of the Effects of Correctional Programming on Recidivism, Employment and Cost Avoidance. Minnesota Department of Corrections: St. Paul, MN.
  • D’Amico, Ronald, and Hui Kim. Evaluation of Seven Second Chance Act Adult Demonstration Programs: Impact Findings at 30 Months. Rep. Washingon, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 2018. Print.
  • Holzer, Harry J., et al. “Perceived Criminality, Criminal Background Checks, and the Racial Hiring Practices of Employers.” The Journal of Law and Economics, vol. 49, no. 2, 2006, pp. 451–80. Crossref, doi:10.1086/501089.
  • Avery, Beth, and Han Lu. Ban the Box U.S. Cities, Counties, and States Adopt Fair-Chance Policies to Advance Employment Opportunities for People with Past Convictions. Rep. New York: National Employment Law Project, 2020. Print.
  • Rose, Evan K. “Does Banning the Box Help Ex-Offenders Get Jobs? Evaluating the Effects of a Prominent Example.” Journal of Labor Economics, vol. 39, no. 1, 2021, pp. 79–113. Crossref, doi:10.1086/708063.
  • Jackson, Osborne and Zhao, Bo, The Effect of Changing Employers’ Access to Criminal Histories on Ex-Offenders’ Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the 2010–2012 Massachusetts Cori Reform (2017-02-01). FRB of Boston Working Paper No. 16-30, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2942005
  • Lapowsky, Issie. “Locked out of the Gig Economy: When Background Checks Get It Wrong.” Protocol The People, Power and Politics of Tech, 29 Apr. 2020, www.protocol.com/checkr-gig-economy-lawsuits. United States District Court Northern District of California. Jose Montanez V. Checkr, Inc. 29 June 2020. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/USCOURTS-cand-4_19-cv-07776/pdf/USCOURTS-cand-4_19-cv-07776-0.pdf
  • Middlemass, Keesha M. Convicted and Condemned: The Politics and Policies of Prisoner Reentry. NYU Press, 2017.

Governance Studies

Online Only

10:00 am - 11:30 am EDT

Richard Lempert

April 24, 2024

Russell Wheeler

April 18, 2024

Information for Work- Release, HCC, Intern Mentor and Field Experience Students

Dear Students, Parents/Caregivers, and Staff – Please review the following guidelines for students who are on release time:   If you are a student who has release time of any form, Intern Mentor, Site-Based Work, or Field Experience the following guidelines must be followed:

  • There are multiple forms of release time: work release, medical release (reduced schedule), HCC release.
  • Intern/Mentor, Site-based work release, and Field experience are all scheduled courses which also have students leaving the school building before the end of the day.
  • If your release time is after 3rd period, on a regular bell schedule day you leave after 3rd period ends at 10:10 am and after school, period ends on GLAD day at 10:25 am.  You do not get to leave your class early because we have an alternate bell schedule.
  • If you leave class early, this will be considered a class cut and the appropriate consequences will be assigned.
  • If there is ever a need to stay after to work with a teacher, you must get permission from your administrator in order to stay.
  • If you have sports after school and release time in the morning, you must leave school during the time you are not supposed to be in the building, and then return when your sport/club begins.
  • You must sign out every day at the attendance window with Ms. Derwart.

 If you have any questions or concerns, please see your assigned administrator.

Recent News

  • Gladiator News Posted on: Tuesday, March 12, 2024 - 8:14am
  • PROM 2024 Posted on: Wednesday, March 6, 2024 - 9:35am
  • Something Rotten! Posted on: Monday, February 5, 2024 - 12:26pm
  • 24-25 Course Scheduling Night Posted on: Friday, January 5, 2024 - 12:32pm
  • High School Semester Exam Schedule Posted on: Thursday, January 4, 2024 - 10:55am
  • Managing Midterms: 9th Graders Posted on: Tuesday, January 2, 2024 - 2:17pm
  • The Brothers Grimm Spectaculathon! Posted on: Wednesday, October 11, 2023 - 9:36pm
  • Underclassman Student Pictures, 9th - 11th Grade, October 5 & 13, 2023 Posted on: Friday, September 29, 2023 - 8:46am
  • Senior Portraits, October 17- 19, 2023 Posted on: Thursday, September 21, 2023 - 1:05pm
  • Back to School Night 23-24 Posted on: Friday, August 25, 2023 - 2:56pm

The Classroom | Empowering Students in Their College Journey

How Many Hours a Week Should a High-Schooler Work?

Dr. Kelly S. Meier

Advantages & Disadvantages of Working While Going to School

It’s enticing to consider working part time in high school. After all, who doesn’t want to earn some extra pocket change? At the same time, it’s important to think about the variables associated with working while going to school. High school and college are really the only opportunities in your life to focus on academic success and self-improvement without the distraction of paying for housing and food.

It’s critical to get involved while you’re in high school and make the most out of your academic experience. If you do want to go to college, earning top grades is an important factor in the college admissions process. For some students, working is a must. Perhaps you are trying to help out at home or save for college. If you do decide to get a job, the work hours for a high school student are contingent upon legal guidelines and the time that you need to be a successful student.

There isn't a finite number of hours that a high-schooler should work, but it's important to note that working 15 to 20 hours per week may hinder academic success.

Work Hours for a High School Student

The Fair Labor Standards Act provides specific parameters for people seeking employment who are under the age of 18. The minimum age to begin working is 14. If you are 14 or 15, you can work a maximum of three hours on school days and 18 hours or less per week. This limit jumps to eight hours per day or 40 hours per week during the summer and school breaks. There are no legal limits for average work hours per week for 16-year-old students or those who are 17.

Benefits of a Part-Time Job

As a high-schooler, you can learn a lot from working a part-time job. In addition to a paycheck, you’ll be responsible for showing up on time for a job and juggling multiple responsibilities. You may even have the opportunity to gain valuable leadership experience. A part-time job can help you define future career goals and set you up with references that you can use for other employment. You may also discover hidden talents and develop new skills by working part time.

High School Students and Job Statistics

In July 2018, the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicated that 55 percent of young people were employed. This isn’t surprising since the survey took place during the height of the summer employment season. When school is in session, it’s important to decrease the number of hours that you work each week. Working more than 15 hours per week will impact your ability to succeed in school, especially as you get older and classes become more difficult. In addition, it’s important to have a balance of classes, extracurricular activities and outside obligations like a job. Assess your time and financial need along with your future plans before determining the number of hours that you plan to work.

Work-Release Program

If you decide to work in high school, you may be able to take advantage of a program that will allow you to leave school early for a job. Work-release programs offer high school students the opportunity to gain practical experience while going to school. Most work-release programs are available for juniors and seniors who are maintaining adequate grades and are enrolled in a career exploration and training class. The best work hours for high school students can be maximized if the school day can be used for scheduled work hours.

Manage Your Time

Working as a high school student demands a mastery of time management. Even if you take advantage of a work-release program, you’ll need to schedule every hour of your day. Use a calendar or scheduling app to fill in each time slot with classes, work hours, study time, extracurricular activities and social time. Writing down obligations will help you determine how many hours you can work and when they best fit into your schedule.

Trade School and College Considerations

If you know that you’re interested in a particular trade, working in high school can help you gain important experience that can be applied to experiential hours needed for a trade degree. College-bound students may choose to limit their work hours to maximize the time needed to take advanced classes that are needed for college admission.

Related Articles

What Are the Effects of Part Time Jobs on High School Students?

What Are the Effects of Part Time Jobs on High School Students?

How to Deal With Your Workload in College

How to Deal With Your Workload in College

How Bad Study Habits Affect You Post-High School

How Bad Study Habits Affect You Post-High School

The Impact of Light Bulbs on Society

The Impact of Light Bulbs on Society

The Pros and Cons of Trade Schools

The Pros and Cons of Trade Schools

The Effect of College Students Struggling to Balance School & Work

The Effect of College Students Struggling to Balance School & Work

A Description of a Business Math Course

A Description of a Business Math Course

Funds to Help Pay Bills While in School

Funds to Help Pay Bills While in School

  • Bureau of Labor Statistics: Employment and Unemployment Among Youth Summary
  • CollegeBoard: Students & Part-Time Work

Dr. Kelly Meier earned her doctorate from Minnesota State Mankato in Educational Leadership. She is the author and co-author of 12 books and serves as a consultant in K-12 and higher education. Dr. Meier is is a regular contributor for The Equity Network and has worked in education for more than 30 years.

Search Job Title, Category, or Skill

Enter City, State, or ZIP

School to Work

Frequently asked questions.

What is the UPS School to Work Program ?

The UPS School to Work Program is a co-op program that provides high school seniors the opportunity to attend high school in the morning, work at UPS three to four hours per day as a package handler, and take extended academic courses during their senior year. The program allows a student to earn high school credit, earn college credit, and earn a paycheck while gaining valuable job experience, as they complete the requirements needed for their high school diploma. A STW student has the opportunity to stay at UPS after graduation to take advantage of UPS’s post-secondary education programs.

What does a student need to be qualified for the School to Work Program ?

Have a 2.0 cumulative GPA (freshman, sophomore, and junior year) Have a good high school attendance (90%) Get a recommendation from student’s high school counselor Be 16 years of age

What benefits does a student receive as a UPS employee ?

UPS employees receive a weekly paycheck, health, dental, vision, prescription, life and disability insurance after 9 months of employment. Employees also earn paid holidays and vacation time.

Does a student get additional benefits from being in the STW Program ?

Yes, students earn the same benefits that any employee earns, but STW students receive additional benefits that include: high school elective credit, up to six college credit hours (one class each semester), UPS-paid tuition, UPS-provided textbooks, support from a STW mentor, and automatic placement into UPS’s post-secondary education programs, Metropolitan College and Earn & Learn, plus job experience working for a Fortune 50 company.

What is a mentor ?

The role of a School to Work mentor is to assist high school seniors in successfully completing all three parts of the STW program: high school, work, and extended academic courses that may include college classes. The STW mentor works directly with the students by visiting them in the workplace and before the college classes. Mentors assist students with questions, issues, etc. Mentors also provide information and direction to help students continue their path to post-secondary education.

Can a student play sports and participate in the STW Program ?

Most major sports do not work with the STW program due to the release times from work and the college class, along with the time commitment a student athlete would need to make to their team. If a student is interested in the STW program, it is recommended they talk with their coach to see if they will work around the STW schedule. Students that are in the program must be able to work their scheduled hours and attend their college class on scheduled days.

Can a student participate in extracurricular activities and participate in the STW Program ?

Yes, as long as the activity or club does not interfere with the student’s work release time and/or their college classes. See the sports response above.

How does a student apply ?

High School Juniors must attend a presentation on the STW program, be eligible, and get a recommendation to participate. A student must wait until a recommendation is received from the high school counselor before applying. Eligible students will receive a letter with instructions on the online application and the interview process once they are recommended.

Can a student work at UPS while in high school without participating in the STW Program?

No, the only way to work at UPS during high school is through the STW program. Students that do not participate in the STW program can apply to UPS before the end of their senior year. A high school student will not be hired until after they graduate from high school. If there is a need for seasonal help at UPS, students who are at least 17 years of age could be considered. UPS package volume and school schedules determine this each year.

Can a STW student work only during summer break ?

No, the student will start their co-op in the summer, but the job is a commitment until graduation.

Can a student get more hours than the usual 15-20 per week?

Normally, a STW student works 15-20 hours per week but there are times that the sort span may last longer, especially from November through December (our busiest time of the year). A student may be scheduled to work additional days during peak season. There are opportunities to double shift during the year.

Can a STW student report to work if they do not attend school ?

No, they cannot report to work if the absence is due to an illness. Yes, if the student has a doctor or dentist appointment, they must supply a note and report directly to work.

What if there is a day that a student is required to stay at school?

If the high school requires a student to stay at school due to a mandatory event, students will be scheduled off from work that day. These days are normally worked out in advance. If the event is not mandatory a student must ask off just like any other job. There is no guarantee of time off on non-mandatory days.

Is Spring Break a holiday from work ?

No, Spring Break is a normal work week. If a student wants that week off, they need to request the time off from their supervisor. There is no guarantee of time off on these days.

How is a student’s high school co-op grade determined ?

The co-op grade is determined by the student’s performance and attendance both at work and in their college class/extended academic course.

What college classes are offered with the STW program ?

We offer basic education requirements that are needed for most degrees that are pursued in college. For example: English 101, English 102, College Algebra, Basic Public Speaking, Psychology, Humanities, Introduction to Business, Osha Safety, Blueprint Reading, etc. The classes are taught on site at UPS in our UPS Education and Technical Center (UPSTEC) by Jefferson Community and Technical College. A College Ready course is offered to students that do not meet the minimum requirements for JCTC. This course may assist students to meet high school benchmarks.

How many days a week does a student attend the JCTC college class ?

We offer many options for our students to be successful. The hybrid classes meet once a week, which includes extensive online coursework outside the classroom. Students are in class from 4:00 pm to 5:30 pm one or two days per week. Students will take one class in the fall and one in the spring.

What if a student does not pass the college class?

If a student does not successfully complete their college class, they will be responsible to reimburse UPS for the cost of the class. The failure will also show on the student’s college transcript.

What if I leave the program early ?

The commitment to the STW program is until high school graduation. If a student leaves before graduation, they would receive a W (Withdrawal) in the college class and be responsible for reimbursing UPS for the cost of the class. The student may receive a failing grade for their high school co-op, in addition to the concerns with returning to a full day of high school classes. The high school consequences depend on the policies of each individual high school.

What are the student’s options after high school graduation?

A student in the STW program has several options once they graduate high school:

Leave UPS after high school graduation. Continue with employment at UPS. Continue with employment at UPS and utilize Metro College or Earn & Learn.

More Information

high school work release program

School to Work Program

Learn about our exemplary work-based learning program, designed to provide high school seniors with the opportunity to gain valuable work experience and earn college credit.

UPS Worldport airplane

UPS Worldport

Get to know more about the biggest UPS hub in the world—also known as UPS Worldport—located right here in Louisville!

high school work release program

Metropolitan College

All the information you need to know about the Metropolitan College Education Program.

high school work release program

  • UI Tax for Employers
  • General UI Information
  • Frequently Requested Contact Information
  • Benefit Accuracy Measurement
  • What Is Unemployment Insurance Fraud?
  • Shared Work Unemployment Insurance Program
  • File a Claim
  • DOES Self Service Portal
  • Foreign Labor Certification
  • Job Bank Services
  • Office of First Source Compliance
  • Rapid Response
  • SIDES E-Response
  • Trade Adjustment Assistance
  • Work Opportunity Tax Credit
  • Workers' Compensation - DOES
  • Labor Statistics
  • Director's Bio
  • DOES Executive Team Biographies
  • DOES Local Job Training Quarterly Outcome Report for the Council of the District of Columbia
  • Office of Equal Employment Opportunity
  • Open Government and FOIA
  • Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA)
  • Grant Opportunities
  • DOES Career Opportunities
  • Bill of Rights
  • DOES Organizational Chart
  • Data & Performance Reports

2024-2025 High School Internship Program Applications Launches Today in the District

(WASHINGTON, DC) – Today, the Bowser Administration’s Department of Employment Services (DOES) officially launched the application period for the 2024-2025 High School Internship Program (HSIP) at Paul Lawrence Dunbar High School. District youth between the ages of 14 and 21 and interested employers are encouraged to apply online beginning at noon today at does.dc.gov.

For four years, the High School Internship Program (formerly known as the School Year Internship Program) has provided a Fair Shot to high school youth in DC by providing enriching internships. This year’s program will be administered during the fall and spring cohorts semesters. Youth will have the opportunity to select their preferred semester to best suit their needs. Fall Semester runs from October 1, 2024 – January 31, 2025. Spring Semester runs from February 3, 2025 – May 31, 2025.

“ I’m thrilled to announce the launch of the 2024-2025 High School Internship Program, ” said DOES Director Dr. Unique Morris-Hughes. "I encourage District youth to seize the chance to shape their future by applying and embarking on a journey of growth and discovery .”

Last year, over 2,600 youth applied for SYIP, and over 1,300 youth participated in the program. This year, the HSIP application launch took place at Paul Lawrence Dunbar High School, with dozens of former and current participants in attendance. There will be a Host employer interest meeting virtually at 2:00 on May 1; interested parties can sign up here .

For more information on the High School Internship Program, please visit summerjobs.dc.gov .

  • Cookie Policy
  • Privacy Policy
  • Terms of Service

CNA Classes Near You

Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) Classes & CNA Training Programs

How To Become a CNA While Attending High School

high school work release program

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts a 5 percent rise in demand for certified nurse aides during the years 2021 and 2031. As a high school student, you can benefit from growing demands for CNAs and start a rewarding career right out of high school. Maybe your aim is to pursue a career as a registered nurse. CNA training will place you ahead of the curve and increase your chances of acceptance to the best nursing schools. The training covers the foundational knowledge needed to become a registered nurse while providing the qualifications needed to begin working alongside nurses in acute and long-term care. Whatever your career goals, it is possible with planning and commitment to achieve success. It starts not only with the CNA classes , but also with the other classes and programs you pursue as a high school student. Health, anatomy, and science classes are some practical and necessary courses. Your activities outside of school are of equal importance. Any time you commit to the acquisition of experience within the health care industry will clear the path for making your dream a reality. The following information provides some insight that you can use to make a few adjustments to achieve your goal.

Consult With Your School Counselor

One of the best places to start is with your high school counselor. He may be able to provide resources such as programs for juniors and seniors to begin career training and earn certification. Your counselor will also be in a position to recommend courses of study and show you the best route to success.

Research the Field

High school is the place to explore your career options. Nurse assisting is the first step on the nursing career ladder. The position is grueling for many, and the turnover rate is higher than many jobs because the responsibilities are physically and mentally challenging. The satisfaction of helping others is the mainstay for many who remain in the profession. Do some research before you dive in to gain a clear understanding of the job and explore other related jobs, such as licensed practical nursing or registered nursing to map out a career plan or exit route if you need to. Also consider the job outlook in your area and the pay rate. The more information you have, the better prepared you will be to choose the right program.

Complete the Prerequisites

Make sure you meet all the prerequisites for enrolling in a program and entering the healthcare industry. These will differ by the program and your state’s requirements. High school CNA programs are typically available for juniors and seniors. They might commence in the 11 th grade and conclude in the 12 th grade. Work on keeping your grades up as they may determine your eligibility for the program. If you’re considering nursing school after completing your CNA certification, this will be the time to also enroll in advanced placement classes to earn college credit and save money. Advanced placement classes cover the same material as the college equivalent but are free for high school students. Anatomy, physiology, medical terminology, chemistry, microbiology, algebra, introduction to psychology, and nutrition are just a few of the common college prerequisites for health care professions.

Update Your Immunizations

Many CNA programs include a practical component at a health care facility. Clinical partners may require students to up-to-date with their immunizations. Start your immunization program early as some require more than one shot spaced over a specific period. Common immunizations include varicella, mumps, measles, pertussis, rubella, hepatitis B, tetanus, tuberculosis, influenza, and the recent COVID-19.

Get Certified

If your high school CNA program does not include first aid and CPR certification, you should consider an outside source such as the American Red Cross or the American Heart Association. Certification is required for employment as a CNA and admission to a nursing school. The small investment of time and money will give you a head start. Note that certification must be keep current and so renewal every year or two years is mandatory for health care workers.

Learn Your State’s CNA Requirements

CNA requirements vary by state. For instance, some states allow minors (16 year olds) to train, test, and work with parental consent. For other states, you must be at least 18 years to obtain certification. The contact hours for classroom and clinical training also varies by state; some programs may be a short as 75 hours, while others require 175 hours of training. All non-challenge states require candidates for certification to complete a program approved by the Board of Nursing. Your research should cover requirements for the clinical experience (background check and disqualifying felonies) nurse aide testing and eventual certification.

Also see:  CNA Requirements by State

Enroll in a CNA Training Program

Find a nurse aide class in your area. State-approved classes are available at community colleges, nursing homes, hospitals, private institutions or even at your local high school. Verify that the program is approved by your state’s department of health as only graduates from those programs are eligible to take the nurse aide evaluation to obtain certification. Note: Some program facilitators may request a permission form signed by your parent and school counselor as a prerequisite for enrollment. Also note that a high school CNA program is your best bet if you’re searching for a free option.

The course schedule should not collide with your school schedule as you’ll need 95-100% percent attendance to classroom and clinical training in order to graduate. Areas of study include human anatomy, medical terminology, legal issues, nutrition, vital signs, infection control, safety and emergencies, communication skills and residents’ rights. The clinical rotation provides hands-on experience where you’ll work directly with residents at an approved facility under the direction of a Registered Nurse.

Related:  CNA Classes by State

Take the Nurse Aide Competency Evaluation

Upon successful completion of the training program, you are now eligible to apply to sit for your state’s nurse aide evaluation. The test evaluates both your theoretical knowledge and your skills in order to determine your work readiness. You’ll need to schedule time to study your notes and practice your skills in preparation for the exam. Once you pass both components of the exam and the accompanying background and drug tests, you’ll obtain certification to work as a Certified Nursing Assistant.

Prioritize Your Mental and Physical Health

Start prioritizing your mental and physical health well before you begin your first job in healthcare. The duties of a CNA will challenge both. The visible reminders of pain, suffering, and death are not for the faint of heart. This is where research is critical and a commitment to stay the course. Take time to check in with yourself, to review and recommit to your goals. Maintaining a balanced mind and body is a crucial part of enduring long days and nights on the job.

Your Career as a Certified Nurse Assistant

If you’re under 18, your state’s laws may have restrictions on the number of hours you can work. Some hospitals and nursing homes may also have policies as it relates to hiring minors. Therefore, it’s essential that you consult with long term care facilities, hospitals, home health agencies and your state’s board of nursing before you pursue CNA certification ; it is one way to increase your chances of employment. Another way to catch employers’ attention is to offer to volunteer at local hospitals and nursing homes.

The CNA certificate has an expiration. Again, it depends on your state. The expiry is one year for some and two years for others. The licensing authority will send a notification of your upcoming renewal. However, it is your responsibility to know the expiration date and renew on time to maintain your CNA certification. If you submit for CNA license to obtain extra points for admission to a nursing program, you may have to maintain the certification throughout the nursing program – whether it is one year or four years. Completing of Continuing Education Units (CEUs) is mandatory for renewing your certificate in many states.

You can become a CNA while attending high school with a little preparation and a lot of commitment. As a Certified Nurse Aide, you’ll gain valuable experience that will prepare you for a career as a licensed practical nurse (LPN) or a registered nurse (RN).

Also see:  Financial Aids & Grants for CNA’s  &  CNA Salaries by State

4 thoughts on “How To Become a CNA While Attending High School”

Were in san jose ca and calexico ca.

Try the Red Cross: American Red Cross Silicon Valley 2731 North 1st St. San Jose , CA 95134

Phone: (877) 727-6771 http://www.redcross.org/ca/san-jose/take-a-class/certified-nurse-assistant

What’s the pay for this position?

Depends on the State you’re in. Salary for CNAs is around $30k/year on average – http://www1.salary.com/Certified-Nursing-Assistant-Salary.html

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

You must be logged in to post a comment.

Class of 2023- Work Release and College Release Time

Work Release & College Release Time

Below you will find the forms to request Work Release or College Release for your senior year schedule.  IMPORTANT REMINDER: Students are not to be on HCPSS property during the periods they have Release Time in their schedule.  If you are not able to leave school every day during your Release Time periods, you will be given a class at RHS. Make sure you have reliable transportation all year to accommodate your Release Time periods. 

Once you have completed your form, please return it to your School Counselor.

Student Aide/Peer Tutors

If you would like to be an Aide or Peer Tutor, please touch base with the teacher you would like to be with to see if they are interested in having an Aide or Peer Tutor so they can formally request you.

Recent News

  • RHS Spring Dance Recital Posted on: Monday, May 6, 2024 - 5:50am
  • PROM-4/26 Posted on: Thursday, April 4, 2024 - 11:10am
  • Class of 2024 Graduation Date and Senior Exam/Events Calendar Posted on: Wednesday, March 20, 2024 - 6:48am
  • JumpStart Registration Event Posted on: Thursday, February 29, 2024 - 5:31am
  • Link Generations Club Posted on: Thursday, February 1, 2024 - 2:08pm
  • Intérprete para la Familia Posted on: Tuesday, January 30, 2024 - 5:56am
  • GoFan-Purchase Tickets for Sporting Events at RHS Posted on: Monday, January 29, 2024 - 11:53am
  • GoFan-Purchase Tickets for Sporting Events at RHS Posted on: Monday, January 29, 2024 - 11:44am
  • Outdoor Track & Field Interest Meeting Posted on: Monday, January 29, 2024 - 6:05am
  • Toiletry Drive For Veterans Posted on: Monday, January 29, 2024 - 6:03am

Facts.net

40 Facts About Elektrostal

Lanette Mayes

Written by Lanette Mayes

Modified & Updated: 10 May 2024

Jessica Corbett

Reviewed by Jessica Corbett

40-facts-about-elektrostal

Elektrostal is a vibrant city located in the Moscow Oblast region of Russia. With a rich history, stunning architecture, and a thriving community, Elektrostal is a city that has much to offer. Whether you are a history buff, nature enthusiast, or simply curious about different cultures, Elektrostal is sure to captivate you.

This article will provide you with 40 fascinating facts about Elektrostal, giving you a better understanding of why this city is worth exploring. From its origins as an industrial hub to its modern-day charm, we will delve into the various aspects that make Elektrostal a unique and must-visit destination.

So, join us as we uncover the hidden treasures of Elektrostal and discover what makes this city a true gem in the heart of Russia.

Key Takeaways:

  • Elektrostal, known as the “Motor City of Russia,” is a vibrant and growing city with a rich industrial history, offering diverse cultural experiences and a strong commitment to environmental sustainability.
  • With its convenient location near Moscow, Elektrostal provides a picturesque landscape, vibrant nightlife, and a range of recreational activities, making it an ideal destination for residents and visitors alike.

Known as the “Motor City of Russia.”

Elektrostal, a city located in the Moscow Oblast region of Russia, earned the nickname “Motor City” due to its significant involvement in the automotive industry.

Home to the Elektrostal Metallurgical Plant.

Elektrostal is renowned for its metallurgical plant, which has been producing high-quality steel and alloys since its establishment in 1916.

Boasts a rich industrial heritage.

Elektrostal has a long history of industrial development, contributing to the growth and progress of the region.

Founded in 1916.

The city of Elektrostal was founded in 1916 as a result of the construction of the Elektrostal Metallurgical Plant.

Located approximately 50 kilometers east of Moscow.

Elektrostal is situated in close proximity to the Russian capital, making it easily accessible for both residents and visitors.

Known for its vibrant cultural scene.

Elektrostal is home to several cultural institutions, including museums, theaters, and art galleries that showcase the city’s rich artistic heritage.

A popular destination for nature lovers.

Surrounded by picturesque landscapes and forests, Elektrostal offers ample opportunities for outdoor activities such as hiking, camping, and birdwatching.

Hosts the annual Elektrostal City Day celebrations.

Every year, Elektrostal organizes festive events and activities to celebrate its founding, bringing together residents and visitors in a spirit of unity and joy.

Has a population of approximately 160,000 people.

Elektrostal is home to a diverse and vibrant community of around 160,000 residents, contributing to its dynamic atmosphere.

Boasts excellent education facilities.

The city is known for its well-established educational institutions, providing quality education to students of all ages.

A center for scientific research and innovation.

Elektrostal serves as an important hub for scientific research, particularly in the fields of metallurgy, materials science, and engineering.

Surrounded by picturesque lakes.

The city is blessed with numerous beautiful lakes, offering scenic views and recreational opportunities for locals and visitors alike.

Well-connected transportation system.

Elektrostal benefits from an efficient transportation network, including highways, railways, and public transportation options, ensuring convenient travel within and beyond the city.

Famous for its traditional Russian cuisine.

Food enthusiasts can indulge in authentic Russian dishes at numerous restaurants and cafes scattered throughout Elektrostal.

Home to notable architectural landmarks.

Elektrostal boasts impressive architecture, including the Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord and the Elektrostal Palace of Culture.

Offers a wide range of recreational facilities.

Residents and visitors can enjoy various recreational activities, such as sports complexes, swimming pools, and fitness centers, enhancing the overall quality of life.

Provides a high standard of healthcare.

Elektrostal is equipped with modern medical facilities, ensuring residents have access to quality healthcare services.

Home to the Elektrostal History Museum.

The Elektrostal History Museum showcases the city’s fascinating past through exhibitions and displays.

A hub for sports enthusiasts.

Elektrostal is passionate about sports, with numerous stadiums, arenas, and sports clubs offering opportunities for athletes and spectators.

Celebrates diverse cultural festivals.

Throughout the year, Elektrostal hosts a variety of cultural festivals, celebrating different ethnicities, traditions, and art forms.

Electric power played a significant role in its early development.

Elektrostal owes its name and initial growth to the establishment of electric power stations and the utilization of electricity in the industrial sector.

Boasts a thriving economy.

The city’s strong industrial base, coupled with its strategic location near Moscow, has contributed to Elektrostal’s prosperous economic status.

Houses the Elektrostal Drama Theater.

The Elektrostal Drama Theater is a cultural centerpiece, attracting theater enthusiasts from far and wide.

Popular destination for winter sports.

Elektrostal’s proximity to ski resorts and winter sport facilities makes it a favorite destination for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter activities.

Promotes environmental sustainability.

Elektrostal prioritizes environmental protection and sustainability, implementing initiatives to reduce pollution and preserve natural resources.

Home to renowned educational institutions.

Elektrostal is known for its prestigious schools and universities, offering a wide range of academic programs to students.

Committed to cultural preservation.

The city values its cultural heritage and takes active steps to preserve and promote traditional customs, crafts, and arts.

Hosts an annual International Film Festival.

The Elektrostal International Film Festival attracts filmmakers and cinema enthusiasts from around the world, showcasing a diverse range of films.

Encourages entrepreneurship and innovation.

Elektrostal supports aspiring entrepreneurs and fosters a culture of innovation, providing opportunities for startups and business development.

Offers a range of housing options.

Elektrostal provides diverse housing options, including apartments, houses, and residential complexes, catering to different lifestyles and budgets.

Home to notable sports teams.

Elektrostal is proud of its sports legacy, with several successful sports teams competing at regional and national levels.

Boasts a vibrant nightlife scene.

Residents and visitors can enjoy a lively nightlife in Elektrostal, with numerous bars, clubs, and entertainment venues.

Promotes cultural exchange and international relations.

Elektrostal actively engages in international partnerships, cultural exchanges, and diplomatic collaborations to foster global connections.

Surrounded by beautiful nature reserves.

Nearby nature reserves, such as the Barybino Forest and Luchinskoye Lake, offer opportunities for nature enthusiasts to explore and appreciate the region’s biodiversity.

Commemorates historical events.

The city pays tribute to significant historical events through memorials, monuments, and exhibitions, ensuring the preservation of collective memory.

Promotes sports and youth development.

Elektrostal invests in sports infrastructure and programs to encourage youth participation, health, and physical fitness.

Hosts annual cultural and artistic festivals.

Throughout the year, Elektrostal celebrates its cultural diversity through festivals dedicated to music, dance, art, and theater.

Provides a picturesque landscape for photography enthusiasts.

The city’s scenic beauty, architectural landmarks, and natural surroundings make it a paradise for photographers.

Connects to Moscow via a direct train line.

The convenient train connection between Elektrostal and Moscow makes commuting between the two cities effortless.

A city with a bright future.

Elektrostal continues to grow and develop, aiming to become a model city in terms of infrastructure, sustainability, and quality of life for its residents.

In conclusion, Elektrostal is a fascinating city with a rich history and a vibrant present. From its origins as a center of steel production to its modern-day status as a hub for education and industry, Elektrostal has plenty to offer both residents and visitors. With its beautiful parks, cultural attractions, and proximity to Moscow, there is no shortage of things to see and do in this dynamic city. Whether you’re interested in exploring its historical landmarks, enjoying outdoor activities, or immersing yourself in the local culture, Elektrostal has something for everyone. So, next time you find yourself in the Moscow region, don’t miss the opportunity to discover the hidden gems of Elektrostal.

Q: What is the population of Elektrostal?

A: As of the latest data, the population of Elektrostal is approximately XXXX.

Q: How far is Elektrostal from Moscow?

A: Elektrostal is located approximately XX kilometers away from Moscow.

Q: Are there any famous landmarks in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal is home to several notable landmarks, including XXXX and XXXX.

Q: What industries are prominent in Elektrostal?

A: Elektrostal is known for its steel production industry and is also a center for engineering and manufacturing.

Q: Are there any universities or educational institutions in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal is home to XXXX University and several other educational institutions.

Q: What are some popular outdoor activities in Elektrostal?

A: Elektrostal offers several outdoor activities, such as hiking, cycling, and picnicking in its beautiful parks.

Q: Is Elektrostal well-connected in terms of transportation?

A: Yes, Elektrostal has good transportation links, including trains and buses, making it easily accessible from nearby cities.

Q: Are there any annual events or festivals in Elektrostal?

A: Yes, Elektrostal hosts various events and festivals throughout the year, including XXXX and XXXX.

Elektrostal's fascinating history, vibrant culture, and promising future make it a city worth exploring. For more captivating facts about cities around the world, discover the unique characteristics that define each city . Uncover the hidden gems of Moscow Oblast through our in-depth look at Kolomna. Lastly, dive into the rich industrial heritage of Teesside, a thriving industrial center with its own story to tell.

Was this page helpful?

Our commitment to delivering trustworthy and engaging content is at the heart of what we do. Each fact on our site is contributed by real users like you, bringing a wealth of diverse insights and information. To ensure the highest standards of accuracy and reliability, our dedicated editors meticulously review each submission. This process guarantees that the facts we share are not only fascinating but also credible. Trust in our commitment to quality and authenticity as you explore and learn with us.

Share this Fact:

IMAGES

  1. FREE 9+ Work Release Form Samples in MS Word

    high school work release program

  2. FREE 47+ Printable Release Form Samples & Templates in PDF

    high school work release program

  3. 9 Sample Work Release Forms to Download

    high school work release program

  4. DuBois Area Senior High School Work Release Guidelines

    high school work release program

  5. School work release form: Fill out & sign online

    high school work release program

  6. FREE 10+ Sample Work Release Forms in PDF

    high school work release program

COMMENTS

  1. PDF High School Apprenticeships

    Since the legal age to begin work is 16 in most states, HS appreniceships are typically designed for high school juniors and seniors. HS appreniceship programs have two major components - classroom instrucion and paid on-the-job learning with a mentor. CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION. ON-THE-JOB LEARNING.

  2. PDF Work Release guidelines effective 6-1-19

    WORK RELEASE APPLICATION. Employer notice: Students must maintain employment with an average of 20 hours of work WEEKLY. If for any reason this student's employment is reduced below 20 hours per week or terminated, you are required to notify the student's School Counselor immediately. Call the DuBois Area High School at 814-371-8111 and ask ...

  3. A better path forward for criminal justice: Training and ...

    Workers a high school credential earned 40 percent lower median wages than those with a bachelor's degree. ... An outcome evaluation of a work release program: Estimating its effects on ...

  4. U.S. Department of Education Launches New Initiative to Support Career

    Today, the U.S. Department of Education (Department) announced the launch of Raise the Bar: Unlocking Career Success, a new Biden-Harris Administration initiative supported by the Departments of Commerce and Labor to increase and expand access to high-quality training programs to help young Americans pursue jobs in today's in-demand fields, and be prepared for careers of the future.

  5. How to Do a High School Work Study Program

    High school is so yesterday. Perhaps you find yourself ready for the real world at 16, but school is holding you back. Maybe you get so restless in class that you'd rather be spending the time filling your pocketbooks. There are programs that allow high school students to do a high school work study program that combines the best of both worlds.

  6. PDF BROCKWAY AREA Jr/Sr High School WORK RELEASE PROGRAM GUIDELINES The

    released to start work release. An administrator or the senior high school counselor will be checking the work site to confirm that the student is complying with the Work Release Guidelines. Final approval is granted by administration. Consideration will be given to the student's educational goals,

  7. Reentry Initiatives & Transitional Work Programs

    Regional Reentry Programs Since 2009, the Department has established 10 Regional Reentry Programs across the state. These regional reentry programs operate in conjunction with local sheriffs and are designed to reach individuals who are within one year of release or in a Transitional Work Program assignment, and returning to a specific region.

  8. Work Based Learning for High School Students

    The program is FREE for all interested FCPS high school students and provides participants with the opportunity to explore over 29 Professional Certificates offered by the industry's leading global companies. 3 Easy Steps to Join Program: Step 1: Complete this form: Coursera Student Interest Form. Step 2: Your parent/guardian will be notified ...

  9. Schools seek to strengthen work-based learning opportunities

    Existing barriers . While momentum is growing to add workplace experiences for secondary school students, there is still much work to do, including setting standards around work-based learning programs and finding solutions to common barriers, said those working on these efforts.. According to an ASA survey from 2020, 79% of high school students stated they were interested in an internship ...

  10. Information for Work- Release, HCC, Intern Mentor ...

    Release time refers to any student who has permission to leave the building before the end of the day (2:10 am) or comes to school after the start of the day (7:25 am). There are multiple forms of release time: work release, medical release (reduced schedule), HCC release.

  11. Work-Based Learning

    All work-based learning (WBL) experiences are career-based learning experiences (CBLEs), as you can see in this chart. In other words, all WBLs, which are a subset of CBLEs, are employer-connected experiences that allow K-12 students to participate in career awareness, career exploration, and career development. Learn more about work-based learning in this short video.

  12. NSA High School Work Study Students Visit the Pentagon: Applications

    The NSA HSWS program facilitates school-sponsored work experience for high school students, who are hired on a temporary, part-time appointment from September until June of their senior year with the possibility of an extension through mid-August. The program is divided into three categories: administrative and technical, vocational, and language.

  13. PDF Work Release Application

    4. Have a current work release form on file with the high school guidance office (under 18 years of age). 5. Students will submit a weekly work schedule with manager/owner signature to School Counseling Office. 6. Students will provide weekly/bi-weekly (depending on job) pay stubs to the School Counseling Office to ensure continuing employment. 7.

  14. How Many Hours a Week Should a High-Schooler Work?

    Work-release programs offer high school students the opportunity to gain practical experience while going to school. Most work-release programs are available for juniors and seniors who are maintaining adequate grades and are enrolled in a career exploration and training class. The best work hours for high school students can be maximized if ...

  15. UPS School to Work Program FAQ

    The UPS School to Work Program is a co-op program that provides high school seniors the opportunity to attend high school in the morning, work at UPS three to four hours per day as a package handler, and take extended academic courses during their senior year. The program allows a student to earn high school credit, earn college credit, and ...

  16. On-the-Job Training (OJT) Frequently Asked Questions

    A cooperative education program is a program with elective classes that permits a student to be released from the high school campus to work part-time in a job. It is truly "cooperative" because four contractual parties are responsible for the success of the program and must sign an agreement: the school & teacher/coordinator, employer ...

  17. 2024-2025 High School Internship Program Applications Launches Today in

    (WASHINGTON, DC) - Today, the Bowser Administration's Department of Employment Services (DOES) officially launched the application period for the 2024-2025 High School Internship Program (HSIP) at Paul Lawrence Dunbar High School. District youth between the ages of 14 and 21 and interested employers are encouraged to apply online beginning at noon today at does.dc.gov.

  18. How To Become a CNA While Attending High School

    Complete the Prerequisites. Make sure you meet all the prerequisites for enrolling in a program and entering the healthcare industry. These will differ by the program and your state's requirements. High school CNA programs are typically available for juniors and seniors. They might commence in the 11 th grade and conclude in the 12 th grade.

  19. Class of 2023- Work Release and College Release Time

    Course and Program Information; Media Center; RHS Scholars; Honor Societies; Student Services. ... Class of 2023- Work Release and College Release Time Wed, 05/18/2022 - 12:33pm ... Reservoir High School 11550 Scaggsville Road Fulton, MD 20759 P: (410) 888-8850

  20. District Work Experience Program

    With the new model in place, the program turns to the community for support in expanding work experiences and offering the students more opportunities. Contact one of our high school Work Experience Coordinators for more information about the program and how to get involved: Preble - Wanda Bronstad; East - Shane McDonough; West - Tarra Bruckner

  21. The SAT

    The SAT supports success in school and can help you on your path to college. Access your My SAT Dashboard to register or send SAT scores. SAT Suite of Assessments ... May SAT Score Release Add to Calendar. Getting Scores 2024. TUE, MAY 21, 2024. Late Registration Deadline for June SAT Add to Calendar. See All Dates 2024.

  22. Elektrostal

    Elektrostal , lit: Electric and Сталь , lit: Steel) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 58 kilometers east of Moscow. Population: 155,196 ; 146,294 ...

  23. File:Coat of Arms of Elektrostal (Moscow oblast).svg

    Main page; Contents; Current events; Random article; About Wikipedia; Contact us; Donate; Pages for logged out editors learn more

  24. Syngoniums Back to school Elektrostal

    《 Flowwow 》- Order Syngoniums Back to school, Live Plants Elektrostal. BEST next day and same day delivery service. Fast Delivery on Flowwow 24/7. Syngoniums Back to school, Live Plants Elektrostal, Moscow oblast, Russia - REAL photos!

  25. 40 Facts About Elektrostal

    Known as the "Motor City of Russia." Elektrostal, a city located in the Moscow Oblast region of Russia, earned the nickname "Motor City" due to its significant involvement in the automotive industry.. Home to the Elektrostal Metallurgical Plant. Elektrostal is renowned for its metallurgical plant, which has been producing high-quality steel and alloys since its establishment in 1916.