Successful Scientific Writing and Publishing: A Step-by-Step Approach

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES — Volume 15 — June 14, 2018

John K. Iskander, MD, MPH 1 ; Sara Beth Wolicki, MPH, CPH 1 ,2 ; Rebecca T. Leeb, PhD 1 ; Paul Z. Siegel, MD, MPH 1 ( View author affiliations )

Suggested citation for this article: Iskander JK, Wolicki SB, Leeb RT, Siegel PZ. Successful Scientific Writing and Publishing: A Step-by-Step Approach. [Erratum appears in Prev Chronic Dis 2018;15. http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2018/18_0085e.htm .]  Prev Chronic Dis 2018;15:180085. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd15.180085 external icon .

Introduction

Basic recommendations for scientific writing, sections of an original research article, beginning the writing process, acknowledgments, author information.

Scientific writing and publication are essential to advancing knowledge and practice in public health, but prospective authors face substantial challenges. Authors can overcome barriers, such as lack of understanding about scientific writing and the publishing process, with training and resources. The objective of this article is to provide guidance and practical recommendations to help both inexperienced and experienced authors working in public health settings to more efficiently publish the results of their work in the peer-reviewed literature. We include an overview of basic scientific writing principles, a detailed description of the sections of an original research article, and practical recommendations for selecting a journal and responding to peer review comments. The overall approach and strategies presented are intended to contribute to individual career development while also increasing the external validity of published literature and promoting quality public health science.

Publishing in the peer-reviewed literature is essential to advancing science and its translation to practice in public health (1,2). The public health workforce is diverse and practices in a variety of settings (3). For some public health professionals, writing and publishing the results of their work is a requirement. Others, such as program managers, policy makers, or health educators, may see publishing as being outside the scope of their responsibilities (4).

Disseminating new knowledge via writing and publishing is vital both to authors and to the field of public health (5). On an individual level, publishing is associated with professional development and career advancement (6). Publications share new research, results, and methods in a trusted format and advance scientific knowledge and practice (1,7). As more public health professionals are empowered to publish, the science and practice of public health will advance (1).

Unfortunately, prospective authors face barriers to publishing their work, including navigating the process of scientific writing and publishing, which can be time-consuming and cumbersome. Often, public health professionals lack both training opportunities and understanding of the process (8). To address these barriers and encourage public health professionals to publish their findings, the senior author (P.Z.S.) and others developed Successful Scientific Writing (SSW), a course about scientific writing and publishing. Over the past 30 years, this course has been taught to thousands of public health professionals, as well as hundreds of students at multiple graduate schools of public health. An unpublished longitudinal survey of course participants indicated that two-thirds agreed that SSW had helped them to publish a scientific manuscript or have a conference abstract accepted. The course content has been translated into this manuscript. The objective of this article is to provide prospective authors with the tools needed to write original research articles of high quality that have a good chance of being published.

Prospective authors need to know and tailor their writing to the audience. When writing for scientific journals, 4 fundamental recommendations are: clearly stating the usefulness of the study, formulating a key message, limiting unnecessary words, and using strategic sentence structure.

To demonstrate usefulness, focus on how the study addresses a meaningful gap in current knowledge or understanding. What critical piece of information does the study provide that will help solve an important public health problem? For example, if a particular group of people is at higher risk for a specific condition, but the magnitude of that risk is unknown, a study to quantify the risk could be important for measuring the population’s burden of disease.

Scientific articles should have a clear and concise take-home message. Typically, this is expressed in 1 to 2 sentences that summarize the main point of the paper. This message can be used to focus the presentation of background information, results, and discussion of findings. As an early step in the drafting of an article, we recommend writing out the take-home message and sharing it with co-authors for their review and comment. Authors who know their key point are better able to keep their writing within the scope of the article and present information more succinctly. Once an initial draft of the manuscript is complete, the take-home message can be used to review the content and remove needless words, sentences, or paragraphs.

Concise writing improves the clarity of an article. Including additional words or clauses can divert from the main message and confuse the reader. Additionally, journal articles are typically limited by word count. The most important words and phrases to eliminate are those that do not add meaning, or are duplicative. Often, cutting adjectives or parenthetical statements results in a more concise paper that is also easier to read.

Sentence structure strongly influences the readability and comprehension of journal articles. Twenty to 25 words is a reasonable range for maximum sentence length. Limit the number of clauses per sentence, and place the most important or relevant clause at the end of the sentence (9). Consider the sentences:

By using these tips and tricks, an author may write and publish an additional 2 articles a year.

An author may write and publish an additional 2 articles a year by using these tips and tricks.

The focus of the first sentence is on the impact of using the tips and tricks, that is, 2 more articles published per year. In contrast, the second sentence focuses on the tips and tricks themselves.

Authors should use the active voice whenever possible. Consider the following example:

Active voice: Authors who use the active voice write more clearly.

Passive voice: Clarity of writing is promoted by the use of the active voice.

The active voice specifies who is doing the action described in the sentence. Using the active voice improves clarity and understanding, and generally uses fewer words. Scientific writing includes both active and passive voice, but authors should be intentional with their use of either one.

Original research articles make up most of the peer-reviewed literature (10), follow a standardized format, and are the focus of this article. The 4 main sections are the introduction, methods, results, and discussion, sometimes referred to by the initialism, IMRAD. These 4 sections are referred to as the body of an article. Two additional components of all peer-reviewed articles are the title and the abstract. Each section’s purpose and key components, along with specific recommendations for writing each section, are listed below.

Title. The purpose of a title is twofold: to provide an accurate and informative summary and to attract the target audience. Both prospective readers and database search engines use the title to screen articles for relevance (2). All titles should clearly state the topic being studied. The topic includes the who, what, when, and where of the study. Along with the topic, select 1 or 2 of the following items to include within the title: methods, results, conclusions, or named data set or study. The items chosen should emphasize what is new and useful about the study. Some sources recommend limiting the title to less than 150 characters (2). Articles with shorter titles are more frequently cited than articles with longer titles (11). Several title options are possible for the same study (Figure).

Figure 1. Two examples of title options for a single study. [A text version of this figure is also available.]

Abstract . The abstract serves 2 key functions. Journals may screen articles for potential publication by using the abstract alone (12), and readers may use the abstract to decide whether to read further. Therefore, it is critical to produce an accurate and clear abstract that highlights the major purpose of the study, basic procedures, main findings, and principal conclusions (12). Most abstracts have a word limit and can be either structured following IMRAD, or unstructured. The abstract needs to stand alone from the article and tell the most important parts of the scientific story up front.

Introduction . The purpose of the introduction is to explain how the study sought to create knowledge that is new and useful. The introduction section may often require only 3 paragraphs. First, describe the scope, nature, or magnitude of the problem being addressed. Next, clearly articulate why better understanding this problem is useful, including what is currently known and the limitations of relevant previous studies. Finally, explain what the present study adds to the knowledge base. Explicitly state whether data were collected in a unique way or obtained from a previously unstudied data set or population. Presenting both the usefulness and novelty of the approach taken will prepare the reader for the remaining sections of the article.

Methods . The methods section provides the information necessary to allow others, given the same data, to recreate the analysis. It describes exactly how data relevant to the study purpose were collected, organized, and analyzed. The methods section describes the process of conducting the study — from how the sample was selected to which statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Authors should clearly name, define, and describe each study variable. Some journals allow detailed methods to be included in an appendix or supplementary document. If the analysis involves a commonly used public health data set, such as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (13), general aspects of the data set can be provided to readers by using references. Because what was done is typically more important than who did it, use of the passive voice is often appropriate when describing methods. For example, “The study was a group randomized, controlled trial. A coin was tossed to select an intervention group and a control group.”

Results . The results section describes the main outcomes of the study or analysis but does not interpret the findings or place them in the context of previous research. It is important that the results be logically organized. Suggested organization strategies include presenting results pertaining to the entire population first, and then subgroup analyses, or presenting results according to increasing complexity of analysis, starting with demographic results before proceeding to univariate and multivariate analyses. Authors wishing to draw special attention to novel or unexpected results can present them first.

One strategy for writing the results section is to start by first drafting the figures and tables. Figures, which typically show trends or relationships, and tables, which show specific data points, should each support a main outcome of the study. Identify the figures and tables that best describe the findings and relate to the study’s purpose, and then develop 1 to 2 sentences summarizing each one. Data not relevant to the study purpose may be excluded, summarized briefly in the text, or included in supplemental data sets. When finalizing figures, ensure that axes are labeled and that readers can understand figures without having to refer to accompanying text.

Discussion . In the discussion section, authors interpret the results of their study within the context of both the related literature and the specific scientific gap the study was intended to fill. The discussion does not introduce results that were not presented in the results section. One way authors can focus their discussion is to limit this section to 4 paragraphs: start by reinforcing the study’s take-home message(s), contextualize key results within the relevant literature, state the study limitations, and lastly, make recommendations for further research or policy and practice changes. Authors can support assertions made in the discussion with either their own findings or by referencing related research. By interpreting their own study results and comparing them to others in the literature, authors can emphasize findings that are unique, useful, and relevant. Present study limitations clearly and without apology. Finally, state the implications of the study and provide recommendations or next steps, for example, further research into remaining gaps or changes to practice or policy. Statements or recommendations regarding policy may use the passive voice, especially in instances where the action to be taken is more important than who will implement the action.

The process of writing a scientific article occurs before, during, and after conducting the study or analyses. Conducting a literature review is crucial to confirm the existence of the evidence gap that the planned analysis seeks to fill. Because literature searches are often part of applying for research funding or developing a study protocol, the citations used in the grant application or study proposal can also be used in subsequent manuscripts. Full-text databases such as PubMed Central (14), NIH RePORT (15), and CDC Stacks (16) can be useful when performing literature reviews. Authors should familiarize themselves with databases that are accessible through their institution and any assistance that may be available from reference librarians or interlibrary loan systems. Using citation management software is one way to establish and maintain a working reference list. Authors should clearly understand the distinction between primary and secondary references, and ensure that they are knowledgeable about the content of any primary or secondary reference that they cite.

Review of the literature may continue while organizing the material and writing begins. One way to organize material is to create an outline for the paper. Another way is to begin drafting small sections of the article such as the introduction. Starting a preliminary draft forces authors to establish the scope of their analysis and clearly articulate what is new and novel about the study. Furthermore, using information from the study protocol or proposal allows authors to draft the methods and part of the results sections while the study is in progress. Planning potential data comparisons or drafting “table shells” will help to ensure that the study team has collected all the necessary data. Drafting these preliminary sections early during the writing process and seeking feedback from co-authors and colleagues may help authors avoid potential pitfalls, including misunderstandings about study objectives.

The next step is to conduct the study or analyses and use the resulting data to fill in the draft table shells. The initial results will most likely require secondary analyses, that is, exploring the data in ways in addition to those originally planned. Authors should ensure that they regularly update their methods section to describe all changes to data analysis.

After completing table shells, authors should summarize the key finding of each table or figure in a sentence or two. Presenting preliminary results at meetings, conferences, and internal seminars is an established way to solicit feedback. Authors should pay close attention to questions asked by the audience, treating them as an informal opportunity for peer review. On the basis of the questions and feedback received, authors can incorporate revisions and improvements into subsequent drafts of the manuscript.

The relevant literature should be revisited periodically while writing to ensure knowledge of the most recent publications about the manuscript topic. Authors should focus on content and key message during the process of writing the first draft and should not spend too much time on issues of grammar or style. Drafts, or portions of drafts, should be shared frequently with trusted colleagues. Their recommendations should be reviewed and incorporated when they will improve the manuscript’s overall clarity.

For most authors, revising drafts of the manuscript will be the most time-consuming task involved in writing a paper. By regularly checking in with coauthors and colleagues, authors can adopt a systematic approach to rewriting. When the author has completed a draft of the manuscript, he or she should revisit the key take-home message to ensure that it still matches the final data and analysis. At this point, final comments and approval of the manuscript by coauthors can be sought.

Authors should then seek to identify journals most likely to be interested in considering the study for publication. Initial questions to consider when selecting a journal include:

Which audience is most interested in the paper’s message?

Would clinicians, public health practitioners, policy makers, scientists, or a broader audience find this useful in their field or practice?

Do colleagues have prior experience submitting a manuscript to this journal?

Is the journal indexed and peer-reviewed?

Is the journal subscription or open-access and are there any processing fees?

How competitive is the journal?

Authors should seek to balance the desire to be published in a top-tier journal (eg, Journal of the American Medical Association, BMJ, or Lancet) against the statistical likelihood of rejection. Submitting the paper initially to a journal more focused on the paper’s target audience may result in a greater chance of acceptance, as well as more timely dissemination of findings that can be translated into practice. Most of the 50 to 75 manuscripts published each week by authors from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are published in specialty and subspecialty journals, rather than in top-tier journals (17).

The target journal’s website will include author guidelines, which will contain specific information about format requirements (eg, font, line spacing, section order, reference style and limit, table and figure formatting), authorship criteria, article types, and word limits for articles and abstracts.

We recommend returning to the previously drafted abstract and ensuring that it complies with the journal’s format and word limit. Authors should also verify that any changes made to the methods or results sections during the article’s drafting are reflected in the final version of the abstract. The abstract should not be written hurriedly just before submitting the manuscript; it is often apparent to editors and reviewers when this has happened. A cover letter to accompany the submission should be drafted; new and useful findings and the key message should be included.

Before submitting the manuscript and cover letter, authors should perform a final check to ensure that their paper complies with all journal requirements. Journals may elect to reject certain submissions on the basis of review of the abstract, or may send them to peer reviewers (typically 2 or 3) for consultation. Occasionally, on the basis of peer reviews, the journal will request only minor changes before accepting the paper for publication. Much more frequently, authors will receive a request to revise and resubmit their manuscript, taking into account peer review comments. Authors should recognize that while revise-and-resubmit requests may state that the manuscript is not acceptable in its current form, this does not constitute a rejection of the article. Authors have several options in responding to peer review comments:

Performing additional analyses and updating the article appropriately

Declining to perform additional analyses, but providing an explanation (eg, because the requested analysis goes beyond the scope of the article)

Providing updated references

Acknowledging reviewer comments that are simply comments without making changes

In addition to submitting a revised manuscript, authors should include a cover letter in which they list peer reviewer comments, along with the revisions they have made to the manuscript and their reply to the comment. The tone of such letters should be thankful and polite, but authors should make clear areas of disagreement with peer reviewers, and explain why they disagree. During the peer review process, authors should continue to consult with colleagues, especially ones who have more experience with the specific journal or with the peer review process.

There is no secret to successful scientific writing and publishing. By adopting a systematic approach and by regularly seeking feedback from trusted colleagues throughout the study, writing, and article submission process, authors can increase their likelihood of not only publishing original research articles of high quality but also becoming more scientifically productive overall.

The authors acknowledge PCD ’s former Associate Editor, Richard A. Goodman, MD, MPH, who, while serving as Editor in Chief of CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Series, initiated a curriculum on scientific writing for training CDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Service Officers and other CDC public health professionals, and with whom the senior author of this article (P.Z.S.) collaborated in expanding training methods and contents, some of which are contained in this article. The authors acknowledge Juan Carlos Zevallos, MD, for his thoughtful critique and careful editing of previous Successful Scientific Writing materials. We also thank Shira Eisenberg for editorial assistance with the manuscript. This publication was supported by the Cooperative Agreement no. 1U360E000002 from CDC and the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health. The findings and conclusions of this article do not necessarily represent the official views of CDC or the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health. Names of journals and citation databases are provided for identification purposes only and do not constitute any endorsement by CDC.

Corresponding Author: John Iskander, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA. Telephone: 404-639-8889. Email: [email protected] .

Author Affiliations: 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia. 2 Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, Washington, District of Columbia.

  • Azer SA, Dupras DM, Azer S. Writing for publication in medical education in high impact journals. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2014;18(19):2966–81. PubMed external icon
  • Vitse CL, Poland GA. Writing a scientific paper — a brief guide for new investigators. Vaccine 2017;35(5):722–8. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon
  • Sellers K, Leider JP, Harper E, Castrucci BC, Bharthapudi K, Liss-Levinson R, et al. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: the first national survey of state health agency employees. J Public Health Manag Pract 2015;21(Suppl 6):S13–27. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon
  • Salas-Lopez D, Deitrick L, Mahady ET, Moser K, Gertner EJ, Sabino JN. Getting published in an academic-community hospital: the success of writing groups. J Gen Intern Med 2012;27(1):113–6. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon
  • Azer SA, Ramani S, Peterson R. Becoming a peer reviewer to medical education journals. Med Teach 2012;34(9):698–704. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon
  • Baldwin C, Chandler GE. Improving faculty publication output: the role of a writing coach. J Prof Nurs 2002;18(1):8–15. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon
  • Nicholas D, Watkinson A, Jamali H, Herman E, Tenopir C, Volentine R, et al. Peer review: still king in the digital age. Learn Publ 2015;28(1):15–21. CrossRef external icon
  • Crowson MG. A crash course in medical writing for health profession students. J Cancer Educ 2013;28(3):554–7. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon
  • Gopen GD, Swan JA. The science of scientific writing. Am Sci 1990;78(6):550–8.
  • Ecarnot F, Seronde MF, Chopard R, Schiele F, Meneveau N. Writing a scientific article: a step-by-step guide for beginners. Eur Geriatr Med 2015;6(6):573–9. CrossRef external icon
  • Letchford A, Moat HS, Preis T. The advantage of short paper titles. R Soc Open Sci 2015;2(8):150266. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon
  • Groves T, Abbasi K. Screening research papers by reading abstracts. BMJ 2004;329(7464):470–1. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon
  • Xu F, Mawokomatanda T, Flegel D, Pierannunzi C, Garvin W, Chowdhury P, et al. ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Surveillance for certain health behaviors among states and selected local areas — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2011. MMWR Surveill Summ 2014;63(9):1–149. PubMed external icon
  • PubMed Central https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/. Accessed April 22, 2018.
  • National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) https://report.nih.gov/ .Accessed April 25, 2018.
  • CDC Stacks. https://stacks.cdc.gov/welcome. Accessed April 25, 2018.
  • Iskander J, Bang G, Stupp E, Connick K, Gomez O, Gidudu J. Articles Published and Downloaded by Public Health Scientists: Analysis of Data From the CDC Public Health Library, 2011-2013. J Public Health Manag Pract 2016;22(4):409–14. CrossRef external icon PubMed external icon

The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors’ affiliated institutions.

Exit Notification / Disclaimer Policy

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website.
  • Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
  • You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link.
  • CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website.
  • PRO Courses Guides New Tech Help Pro Expert Videos About wikiHow Pro Upgrade Sign In
  • EDIT Edit this Article
  • EXPLORE Tech Help Pro About Us Random Article Quizzes Request a New Article Community Dashboard This Or That Game Popular Categories Arts and Entertainment Artwork Books Movies Computers and Electronics Computers Phone Skills Technology Hacks Health Men's Health Mental Health Women's Health Relationships Dating Love Relationship Issues Hobbies and Crafts Crafts Drawing Games Education & Communication Communication Skills Personal Development Studying Personal Care and Style Fashion Hair Care Personal Hygiene Youth Personal Care School Stuff Dating All Categories Arts and Entertainment Finance and Business Home and Garden Relationship Quizzes Cars & Other Vehicles Food and Entertaining Personal Care and Style Sports and Fitness Computers and Electronics Health Pets and Animals Travel Education & Communication Hobbies and Crafts Philosophy and Religion Work World Family Life Holidays and Traditions Relationships Youth
  • Browse Articles
  • Learn Something New
  • Quizzes Hot
  • This Or That Game
  • Train Your Brain
  • Explore More
  • Support wikiHow
  • About wikiHow
  • Log in / Sign up
  • Education and Communications
  • College University and Postgraduate
  • Academic Writing
  • Research Papers

How to Write a Medical Research Paper

Last Updated: February 5, 2024 Approved

This article was co-authored by Chris M. Matsko, MD . Dr. Chris M. Matsko is a retired physician based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. With over 25 years of medical research experience, Dr. Matsko was awarded the Pittsburgh Cornell University Leadership Award for Excellence. He holds a BS in Nutritional Science from Cornell University and an MD from the Temple University School of Medicine in 2007. Dr. Matsko earned a Research Writing Certification from the American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) in 2016 and a Medical Writing & Editing Certification from the University of Chicago in 2017. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 89% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 202,633 times.

Writing a medical research paper is similar to writing other research papers in that you want to use reliable sources, write in a clear and organized style, and offer a strong argument for all conclusions you present. In some cases the research you discuss will be data you have actually collected to answer your research questions. Understanding proper formatting, citations, and style will help you write and informative and respected paper.

Researching Your Paper

Step 1 Decide on a topic.

  • Pick something that really interests you to make the research more fun.
  • Choose a topic that has unanswered questions and propose solutions.

Step 2 Determine what kind of research paper you are going to write.

  • Quantitative studies consist of original research performed by the writer. These research papers will need to include sections like Hypothesis (or Research Question), Previous Findings, Method, Limitations, Results, Discussion, and Application.
  • Synthesis papers review the research already published and analyze it. They find weaknesses and strengths in the research, apply it to a specific situation, and then indicate a direction for future research.

Step 3 Research your topic thoroughly.

  • Keep track of your sources. Write down all publication information necessary for citation: author, title of article, title of book or journal, publisher, edition, date published, volume number, issue number, page number, and anything else pertaining to your source. A program like Endnote can help you keep track of your sources.
  • Take detailed notes as you read. Paraphrase information in your own words or if you copy directly from the article or book, indicate that these are direct quotes by using quotation marks to prevent plagiarism.
  • Be sure to keep all of your notes with the correct source.
  • Your professor and librarians can also help you find good resources.

Step 4 Organize your notes.

  • Keep all of your notes in a physical folder or in a digitized form on the computer.
  • Start to form the basic outline of your paper using the notes you have collected.

Writing Your Paper

Step 1 Outline your paper.

  • Start with bullet points and then add in notes you've taken from references that support your ideas. [1] X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source
  • A common way to format research papers is to follow the IMRAD format. This dictates the structure of your paper in the following order: I ntroduction, M ethods, R esults, a nd D iscussion. [2] X Research source
  • The outline is just the basic structure of your paper. Don't worry if you have to rearrange a few times to get it right.
  • Ask others to look over your outline and get feedback on the organization.
  • Know the audience you are writing for and adjust your style accordingly. [3] X Research source

Step 2 Know the required format.

  • Use a standard font type and size, such as Times New Roman 12 point font.
  • Double-space your paper.
  • If necessary, create a cover page. Most schools require a cover page of some sort. Include your main title, running title (often a shortened version of your main title), author's name, course name, and semester.

Step 3 Compile your results.

  • Break up information into sections and subsections and address one main point per section.
  • Include any figures or data tables that support your main ideas.
  • For a quantitative study, state the methods used to obtain results.

Step 4 Write the conclusion and discussion.

  • Clearly state and summarize the main points of your research paper.
  • Discuss how this research contributes to the field and why it is important. [4] X Research source
  • Highlight potential applications of the theory if appropriate.
  • Propose future directions that build upon the research you have presented. [5] X Research source
  • Keep the introduction and discussion short, and spend more time explaining the methods and results.

Step 5 Write the introduction.

  • State why the problem is important to address.
  • Discuss what is currently known and what is lacking in the field.
  • State the objective of your paper.
  • Keep the introduction short.

Step 6 Write the abstract.

  • Highlight the purpose of the paper and the main conclusions.
  • State why your conclusions are important.
  • Be concise in your summary of the paper.
  • Show that you have a solid study design and a high-quality data set.
  • Abstracts are usually one paragraph and between 250 – 500 words.

Step 7 Cite while you write.

  • Unless otherwise directed, use the American Medical Association (AMA) style guide to properly format citations.
  • Add citations at end of a sentence to indicate that you are using someone else's idea. Use these throughout your research paper as needed. They include the author's last name, year of publication, and page number.
  • Compile your reference list and add it to the end of your paper.
  • Use a citation program if you have access to one to simplify the process.

Step 8 Edit your research paper.

  • Continually revise your paper to make sure it is structured in a logical way.
  • Proofread your paper for spelling and grammatical errors.
  • Make sure you are following the proper formatting guidelines provided for the paper.
  • Have others read your paper to proofread and check for clarity. Revise as needed.

Expert Q&A

Chris M. Matsko, MD

  • Ask your professor for help if you are stuck or confused about any part of your research paper. They are familiar with the style and structure of papers and can provide you with more resources. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Refer to your professor's specific guidelines. Some instructors modify parts of a research paper to better fit their assignment. Others may request supplementary details, such as a synopsis for your research project . Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Set aside blocks of time specifically for writing each day. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

how to write a research paper on a disease

  • Do not plagiarize. Plagiarism is using someone else's work, words, or ideas and presenting them as your own. It is important to cite all sources in your research paper, both through internal citations and on your reference page. Thanks Helpful 4 Not Helpful 2

You Might Also Like

Use Internal Citations

  • ↑ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3178846/
  • ↑ http://owl.excelsior.edu/research-and-citations/outlining/outlining-imrad/
  • ↑ http://china.elsevier.com/ElsevierDNN/Portals/7/How%20to%20write%20a%20world-class%20paper.pdf
  • ↑ http://intqhc.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/3/191
  • ↑ http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html#form

About This Article

Chris M. Matsko, MD

To write a medical research paper, research your topic thoroughly and compile your data. Next, organize your notes and create a strong outline that breaks up the information into sections and subsections, addressing one main point per section. Write the results and discussion sections first to go over your findings, then write the introduction to state your objective and provide background information. Finally, write the abstract, which concisely summarizes the article by highlighting the main points. For tips on formatting and using citations, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

  • Send fan mail to authors

Reader Success Stories

Joshua Benibo

Joshua Benibo

Jun 5, 2018

Did this article help you?

Joshua Benibo

Dominic Cipriano

Aug 16, 2016

Obiajulu Echedom

Obiajulu Echedom

Apr 2, 2017

Noura Ammar Alhossiny

Noura Ammar Alhossiny

Feb 14, 2017

Dawn Daniel

Dawn Daniel

Apr 20, 2017

Am I a Narcissist or an Empath Quiz

Featured Articles

Accept Your Body

Trending Articles

How to Make Money on Cash App: A Beginner's Guide

Watch Articles

Make Homemade Liquid Dish Soap

  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy Policy
  • Do Not Sell or Share My Info
  • Not Selling Info

Don’t miss out! Sign up for

wikiHow’s newsletter

Grad Coach

How To Write A Research Paper

Step-By-Step Tutorial With Examples + FREE Template

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) | Expert Reviewer: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | March 2024

For many students, crafting a strong research paper from scratch can feel like a daunting task – and rightly so! In this post, we’ll unpack what a research paper is, what it needs to do , and how to write one – in three easy steps. 🙂 

Overview: Writing A Research Paper

What (exactly) is a research paper.

  • How to write a research paper
  • Stage 1 : Topic & literature search
  • Stage 2 : Structure & outline
  • Stage 3 : Iterative writing
  • Key takeaways

Let’s start by asking the most important question, “ What is a research paper? ”.

Simply put, a research paper is a scholarly written work where the writer (that’s you!) answers a specific question (this is called a research question ) through evidence-based arguments . Evidence-based is the keyword here. In other words, a research paper is different from an essay or other writing assignments that draw from the writer’s personal opinions or experiences. With a research paper, it’s all about building your arguments based on evidence (we’ll talk more about that evidence a little later).

Now, it’s worth noting that there are many different types of research papers , including analytical papers (the type I just described), argumentative papers, and interpretative papers. Here, we’ll focus on analytical papers , as these are some of the most common – but if you’re keen to learn about other types of research papers, be sure to check out the rest of the blog .

With that basic foundation laid, let’s get down to business and look at how to write a research paper .

Research Paper Template

Overview: The 3-Stage Process

While there are, of course, many potential approaches you can take to write a research paper, there are typically three stages to the writing process. So, in this tutorial, we’ll present a straightforward three-step process that we use when working with students at Grad Coach.

These three steps are:

  • Finding a research topic and reviewing the existing literature
  • Developing a provisional structure and outline for your paper, and
  • Writing up your initial draft and then refining it iteratively

Let’s dig into each of these.

Need a helping hand?

how to write a research paper on a disease

Step 1: Find a topic and review the literature

As we mentioned earlier, in a research paper, you, as the researcher, will try to answer a question . More specifically, that’s called a research question , and it sets the direction of your entire paper. What’s important to understand though is that you’ll need to answer that research question with the help of high-quality sources – for example, journal articles, government reports, case studies, and so on. We’ll circle back to this in a minute.

The first stage of the research process is deciding on what your research question will be and then reviewing the existing literature (in other words, past studies and papers) to see what they say about that specific research question. In some cases, your professor may provide you with a predetermined research question (or set of questions). However, in many cases, you’ll need to find your own research question within a certain topic area.

Finding a strong research question hinges on identifying a meaningful research gap – in other words, an area that’s lacking in existing research. There’s a lot to unpack here, so if you wanna learn more, check out the plain-language explainer video below.

Once you’ve figured out which question (or questions) you’ll attempt to answer in your research paper, you’ll need to do a deep dive into the existing literature – this is called a “ literature search ”. Again, there are many ways to go about this, but your most likely starting point will be Google Scholar .

If you’re new to Google Scholar, think of it as Google for the academic world. You can start by simply entering a few different keywords that are relevant to your research question and it will then present a host of articles for you to review. What you want to pay close attention to here is the number of citations for each paper – the more citations a paper has, the more credible it is (generally speaking – there are some exceptions, of course).

how to use google scholar

Ideally, what you’re looking for are well-cited papers that are highly relevant to your topic. That said, keep in mind that citations are a cumulative metric , so older papers will often have more citations than newer papers – just because they’ve been around for longer. So, don’t fixate on this metric in isolation – relevance and recency are also very important.

Beyond Google Scholar, you’ll also definitely want to check out academic databases and aggregators such as Science Direct, PubMed, JStor and so on. These will often overlap with the results that you find in Google Scholar, but they can also reveal some hidden gems – so, be sure to check them out.

Once you’ve worked your way through all the literature, you’ll want to catalogue all this information in some sort of spreadsheet so that you can easily recall who said what, when and within what context. If you’d like, we’ve got a free literature spreadsheet that helps you do exactly that.

Don’t fixate on an article’s citation count in isolation - relevance (to your research question) and recency are also very important.

Step 2: Develop a structure and outline

With your research question pinned down and your literature digested and catalogued, it’s time to move on to planning your actual research paper .

It might sound obvious, but it’s really important to have some sort of rough outline in place before you start writing your paper. So often, we see students eagerly rushing into the writing phase, only to land up with a disjointed research paper that rambles on in multiple

Now, the secret here is to not get caught up in the fine details . Realistically, all you need at this stage is a bullet-point list that describes (in broad strokes) what you’ll discuss and in what order. It’s also useful to remember that you’re not glued to this outline – in all likelihood, you’ll chop and change some sections once you start writing, and that’s perfectly okay. What’s important is that you have some sort of roadmap in place from the start.

You need to have a rough outline in place before you start writing your paper - or you’ll end up with a disjointed research paper that rambles on.

At this stage you might be wondering, “ But how should I structure my research paper? ”. Well, there’s no one-size-fits-all solution here, but in general, a research paper will consist of a few relatively standardised components:

  • Introduction
  • Literature review
  • Methodology

Let’s take a look at each of these.

First up is the introduction section . As the name suggests, the purpose of the introduction is to set the scene for your research paper. There are usually (at least) four ingredients that go into this section – these are the background to the topic, the research problem and resultant research question , and the justification or rationale. If you’re interested, the video below unpacks the introduction section in more detail. 

The next section of your research paper will typically be your literature review . Remember all that literature you worked through earlier? Well, this is where you’ll present your interpretation of all that content . You’ll do this by writing about recent trends, developments, and arguments within the literature – but more specifically, those that are relevant to your research question . The literature review can oftentimes seem a little daunting, even to seasoned researchers, so be sure to check out our extensive collection of literature review content here .

With the introduction and lit review out of the way, the next section of your paper is the research methodology . In a nutshell, the methodology section should describe to your reader what you did (beyond just reviewing the existing literature) to answer your research question. For example, what data did you collect, how did you collect that data, how did you analyse that data and so on? For each choice, you’ll also need to justify why you chose to do it that way, and what the strengths and weaknesses of your approach were.

Now, it’s worth mentioning that for some research papers, this aspect of the project may be a lot simpler . For example, you may only need to draw on secondary sources (in other words, existing data sets). In some cases, you may just be asked to draw your conclusions from the literature search itself (in other words, there may be no data analysis at all). But, if you are required to collect and analyse data, you’ll need to pay a lot of attention to the methodology section. The video below provides an example of what the methodology section might look like.

By this stage of your paper, you will have explained what your research question is, what the existing literature has to say about that question, and how you analysed additional data to try to answer your question. So, the natural next step is to present your analysis of that data . This section is usually called the “results” or “analysis” section and this is where you’ll showcase your findings.

Depending on your school’s requirements, you may need to present and interpret the data in one section – or you might split the presentation and the interpretation into two sections. In the latter case, your “results” section will just describe the data, and the “discussion” is where you’ll interpret that data and explicitly link your analysis back to your research question. If you’re not sure which approach to take, check in with your professor or take a look at past papers to see what the norms are for your programme.

Alright – once you’ve presented and discussed your results, it’s time to wrap it up . This usually takes the form of the “ conclusion ” section. In the conclusion, you’ll need to highlight the key takeaways from your study and close the loop by explicitly answering your research question. Again, the exact requirements here will vary depending on your programme (and you may not even need a conclusion section at all) – so be sure to check with your professor if you’re unsure.

Step 3: Write and refine

Finally, it’s time to get writing. All too often though, students hit a brick wall right about here… So, how do you avoid this happening to you?

Well, there’s a lot to be said when it comes to writing a research paper (or any sort of academic piece), but we’ll share three practical tips to help you get started.

First and foremost , it’s essential to approach your writing as an iterative process. In other words, you need to start with a really messy first draft and then polish it over multiple rounds of editing. Don’t waste your time trying to write a perfect research paper in one go. Instead, take the pressure off yourself by adopting an iterative approach.

Secondly , it’s important to always lean towards critical writing , rather than descriptive writing. What does this mean? Well, at the simplest level, descriptive writing focuses on the “ what ”, while critical writing digs into the “ so what ” – in other words, the implications . If you’re not familiar with these two types of writing, don’t worry! You can find a plain-language explanation here.

Last but not least, you’ll need to get your referencing right. Specifically, you’ll need to provide credible, correctly formatted citations for the statements you make. We see students making referencing mistakes all the time and it costs them dearly. The good news is that you can easily avoid this by using a simple reference manager . If you don’t have one, check out our video about Mendeley, an easy (and free) reference management tool that you can start using today.

Recap: Key Takeaways

We’ve covered a lot of ground here. To recap, the three steps to writing a high-quality research paper are:

  • To choose a research question and review the literature
  • To plan your paper structure and draft an outline
  • To take an iterative approach to writing, focusing on critical writing and strong referencing

Remember, this is just a b ig-picture overview of the research paper development process and there’s a lot more nuance to unpack. So, be sure to grab a copy of our free research paper template to learn more about how to write a research paper.

You Might Also Like:

Referencing in Word

Submit a Comment Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

  • Print Friendly

Cerebrovascular Diseases

Introduction

Subjects and methods, acknowledgment, how to write a research paper.

  • Split-Screen
  • Article contents
  • Figures & tables
  • Supplementary Data
  • Peer Review
  • Open the PDF for in another window
  • Get Permissions
  • Cite Icon Cite
  • Search Site

Andrei V. Alexandrov; How to Write a Research Paper. Cerebrovasc Dis 1 August 2004; 18 (2): 135–138. https://doi.org/10.1159/000079266

Download citation file:

  • Ris (Zotero)
  • Reference Manager

Background: Busy strokologists often find little time for scientific writing. They sometimes develop a mental condition equivalent to that known by neurologists as writer’s cramp. It may result in permanent damage to academic career. This paper provides advice how to prevent or treat this condition. Methods: Prepare your manuscript following the IMRaD principle (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion), with every part supporting the key message. When writing, be concise. Clearly state your methods here, while data belong to Results. Successful submissions combine quality new data or new thinking with lucid presentation. Results: Provide data that answer the research question. Describe here most important numeric data and statistics, keeping in mind that the shorter you can present them, the better. The scientific community screens abstracts to decide which full text papers to read. Make your point with data, not arguments. Conclusions: Conclusions have to be based on the present study findings. The time of lengthy and unfounded speculations is over. A simple message in a clearly written manuscript will get noticed and may advance our understanding of stroke.

By now you probably wrote an abstract and submitted it to a stroke conference. Your mentor reminds you several times to start drafting a paper, and you have no idea where to start. As a simple trick, copy and paste your abstract so that Background becomes your introduction. For the rest, follow the IMRaD principle: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion [ 1, 2, 3 ]. Think what ‘take home message’ you’d like to deliver and to whom. The title sells the paper.

‘Busy strokologists often find little time ... to treat this condition’: this introduction concisely describes the study hypothesis, rationale, purpose, and objectives. A three-paragraph introduction is plenty for most topics. Expand with facts from papers previously published by others, among whom you may occasionally find your mentor. Do a thorough literature search for earlier sources dealing with your subject [ 4, 5, 6 ]. Tell here what is known in the field. You do not need to refer to every paper ever written on this topic. Select key references and remember that for publishing purposes, less is better than more. Consult your mentor as often as possible – he is the senior author after all.

The third paragraph should state the research question [ 7 ]. You may take an original paper already published in Cerebrovascular Diseases to use as a template. Formulate the research question clearly since data presentation should provide equally clear answers.

The first author drafts the manuscript and determines co-authors [ 8 ]. Although general guidelines are available [ 8 ], the reality often demands seeking advice from your mentor. Inappropriate inclusion of authors will decrease the likelihood of manuscript acceptance.

Describe subject selection criteria and data collection tools. Make this description detailed enough so that if someone wants to repeat the study, it will be possible. If new imaging technology was used, tell how and by whom these tests were validated. Avoid presenting actual data in this section: ‘Study subjects were recruited from 1,215 patients admitted to our stroke unit from August 1999 through August 2002’. Instead say: ‘Study subjects were recruited from consecutive patients admitted to our stroke unit. Inclusion criteria were ...’. Methods may disclose power calculations, estimated sample size, and stopping rules.

Provide additional evidence that would increase confidence in the reliability of your methods. Control for biases, validation of research tools, ‘blinding’ of observers – all of these facts, if established before the study initiation, will strengthen the manuscript. Describe in detail the outcome models or dependent variables. For clinical outcomes or surrogate markers, reference a pivotal trial or study that established their relevance.

Documentation of protection of research subjects is essential. Clearly state if a local ethics committee approved your study. This ensures patients or animal rights protection, particularly if experiments were performed. The author also needs to disclose funding sources and potential for commercial bias such as connections with the pharmaceutical industry. Data safety monitoring, independent data acquisition and analysis during clinical trials and appropriate overseeing committees should be mentioned if applicable.

Major scientific journals currently accept less than 25% of submitted manuscripts. If rejected, it does not necessarily mean your manuscript is poor. Rejection means that reviewers did not give it a high enough priority. You should not be too disappointed because, after all, you got very good advice how to improve your manuscript. Follow reviewers’ suggestions and you increase the likelihood that another esteemed journal will accept it. The most important factors for publication are the quality, novelty, reliability and scientific or clinical importance of your work. A manuscript should disclose new information or a new way of thinking about old information. If not, it will not be published – regardless of how well it is written. Avoid redundant or duplicate publications since these should not be published. Scientific publishing is extremely competitive, and chances are that by the time you conceived the project, 10 other groups were already doing it and 5 others have already published it. Stay on top of current literature and know the limitations of research done by others.

The last paragraph of this section should describe tools of statistical analysis appropriate to study design. Consult a statistician before embarking on a project, work with a statistician to analyze and interpret the data, and have a statistician reviewing the whole manuscript for clarity of statistical analysis and data presentation.

Your results are the most important part of the manuscript. Present them clearly by avoiding long and confusing sentences. The shorter you can present your data in tables and figures, the better. Remain focused and disciplined. The flurry of numbers and ‘p’ values should follow simple logics. Start by describing your study subjects, use actual numbers for study demographics. Avoid opening sentences like: ‘Table 1 summarizes our findings in sub-group C’. This makes reviewers frustrated since they have to flip back and forth through pages to understand what was done to study subjects.

Make data presentation so clear and simple that a tired person riding late on an airplane can take your manuscript and get the message at first reading. Very few people can write a perfect manuscript on the first draft. Return to the draft, read it, change cumbersome parts, read other papers and change the draft again, and again, and again. I still do it before I give the manuscript to my co-authors. But do not hold it for too long. Remember, ‘10 other groups ...’.

Present results to colleagues since they would likely ask for more data or analyses. Most likely the reviewers of any esteemed journal would do the same, so include data in the first draft of your manuscript. The internal review is helpful to determine sufficient data to answer the research question.

Most importantly, provide data relevant to the research question. Observations beyond the primary research question can be included in the manuscript, if they strengthen your case. Remember to stay in focus. If you get lost from the aim of the study, so will be reviewers. Prestigious journals have a strict word limit for papers they accept. You need all this space to deliver the key message, so do not mess around but concentrate on the essential. Packing manuscript with data is better than splitting the paper into separate small ones.

Mention a statistical test that generated specific ‘p’ values or coefficients. Show absolute numbers as well as percentages so that reviewers can judge the significance of your observations. Remember that statistical difference does not necessarily translate into clinical significance.

Make your point with data, not arguments.

This section should start with: ‘Our study showed ...’ to lucidly summarize your study findings. Discussion is often the weakest part of the manuscript. Do not repeat the introduction. Do not present any new data that were not shown in the results section and avoid repeating data presentation. There is no reason to underline how terrific your results are – let them speak for themselves.

The second paragraph may describe the novelty of your findings or if they parallel previous research. Remember, only the beginners try to refer to all published papers in the field. No esteemed journal can afford the space needed for this. A skillful selection of the most pertinent references demonstrates a command of the relevant literature. Confirmatory research makes passing the review process more difficult. Arbitrarily, the ratio of abstracts to original papers in curriculum vitae should be less than 3 to 1. If there are too many abstracts, you either have writer’s cramp or the quality of your research is insufficient for publication.

The third paragraph may describe how your study contradicts previous research or established dogmas. If there was disagreement about study interpretation by co-authors, mention different conclusions drawn from your results or other studies [ 9, 10 ]. Avoid general statements that are not founded in data. Do not provide your opinion how to solve a problem that was not directly evaluated in your study. Do not write a review of all possible mechanisms that you have not accounted for in your study. You can write a short but to-the-point Discussion.

The fourth paragraph should describe study limitations. If you do not discuss study weaknesses, the reviewers will. Study limitations may be contrasted with study strengths. This part may also mention unresolved questions and direction of future research.

The concluding paragraph can summarize the potential significance of your findings and what changes to research or clinical practice your data may support. This is a critical part since it is easy to overestimate the significance of your research. Avoid broad claims and strong statements. Remember that even pioneer break-through studies require independent confirmation. Publication in a peer-reviewed journal means completion of your project and dissemination of research results [ 11, 12 ].

Clinicians need to develop skills in scientific writing. If you make a significant observation, a proper and fast scientific communication is required [ 12 ]. Improving your scientific writing is a life-long process. If and when your papers are rejected, remember that most manuscripts face the same fate. Avoid choosing an inappropriate journal for your manuscript submission. Common reasons for rejection include inappropriate or incomplete statistics; over-interpretation of results; inappropriate or sub-optimal instrumentation; a sample too small or biased; difficult-to-follow writing; insufficient problem statement; inaccuracy or inconsistency of the data reported; incomplete, inaccurate, or outdated review of the literature; insufficient data presented, and defective tables or figures [ 13, 14, 15 ]. When reading criticism, learn from your mistakes or the advice given to you. While wrestling with reviewers, you will become a better scientific writer but also a better, more critical scientist. In the long run this will make a major difference to your academic career, and probably will also improve your patient care. Most likely, your way of writing will become more evidence based.

An anonymous and probably frustrated academician once said: ‘Publish or perish!’. This brutally honest statement should motivate you to learn yet another set of useful skills. Good luck!

The author is not a native English speaker. I am indebted to John Norris, MD, FRCP, for – among many things during fellowship training – his patience with my ‘a’s and ‘the’s, and the first lessons in study design, analysis, and presentation. The infamous ‘Norris Rules’ that he taught his fellows are partly reflected in this paper.

Email alerts

Citing articles via, related articles.

  • Online ISSN 1421-9786
  • Print ISSN 1015-9770

INFORMATION

  • Contact & Support
  • Information & Downloads
  • Rights & Permissions
  • Terms & Conditions
  • Catalogue & Pricing
  • Policies & Information
  • People & Organization
  • Stay Up-to-Date
  • Regional Offices
  • Community Voice

SERVICES FOR

  • Researchers
  • Healthcare Professionals
  • Patients & Supporters
  • Health Sciences Industry
  • Medical Societies
  • Agents & Booksellers

Karger International

  • S. Karger AG
  • P.O Box, CH-4009 Basel (Switzerland)
  • Allschwilerstrasse 10, CH-4055 Basel
  • Tel: +41 61 306 11 11
  • Fax: +41 61 306 12 34
  • Contact: Front Office
  • Experience Blog
  • Privacy Policy
  • Terms of Use

This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

Disease Research Paper

Academic Writing Service

View sample disease research paper. Browse research paper examples for more inspiration. If you need a health research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. This is how your paper can get an A! Feel free to contact our writing service for professional assistance. We offer high-quality assignments for reasonable rates.

Disease is a phenomenon that appears to have struck people globally at all times. However, the conceptions of what disease is have varied with time and place. This research paper gives an overview over various conceptions of disease and highlights what is at stake in the debates on the concept of disease. The core questions for the article are: what is disease and what are the ethical issues entangled in this question?

Academic Writing, Editing, Proofreading, And Problem Solving Services

Get 10% off with 24start discount code, introduction.

Disease is a phenomenon experienced by most people during their lifetime, and it is something most people fear. Disease is a core concept in the health sciences, in philosophy, and in bioethics, but it is difficult to define. Broadly speaking there are three types of definitions of disease: descriptivist, normativity, and hybrid definitions of disease, claiming that disease is given by phenomena described in nature, by human norms, or both nature and human norms, respectively.

The concept of disease is ethically important as it sets standards and limits, e.g., to what a health-care system is supposed to do and who deserves access to certain goods. It also influences people’s self-conception, their relations to others, their social roles, and their social status. Disease also raises a series of ethical issues, especially related to overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis, undertreatment and overtreatment, medicalization, and just distribution of healthcare resources. This makes disease an important concept with far-reaching implications for individuals, health professionals, health insurers, health policy makers, bioethicists, and politicians.

History And Development

From the interest of understanding and helping people, a wide range of theories and conceptions of disease have emerged. Such theories have altered with time and place. Table 1 gives a brief outline of some theories of disease.

This eagerness to understand disease can make us wonder, why is it so important to understand what disease is? Why is the concept of disease needed? There appear to be many reasons why the concept of disease is important:

  • Disease implies a right to attention and care, as disease is related to suffering.
  • Disease (in many countries) implies a right to treatment and is thus of great importance to individuals, health professionals, health-care institutions, health insurers, and health policy makers.
  • Disease (in many countries) implies exemptions from duties, such as the duty to work or to take care of others (e.g., relatives or friends).
  • Disease (in many countries) implies a right to economic compensation (e.g., during sick leave) and therefore is important to individuals, employers, insurers, and health policy makers.
  • Disease may exempt from accountability and moral responsibility (in cases of crime).
  • Disease is important for individuals to understand their own situation: “I cannot do or be as I would like, because I am diseased.”
  • Disease is important for individuals to explain  situation to themselves and others.
  • Disease has been important to delimit the tasks of health care from other social tasks and topics.
  • Disease has been important to classify and organize the tasks of health care, e.g., in taxonomies and hospital departments.
  • Disease has been important to delineate the subject matter of health-related sciences.

Table 1 . Brief overview of some influential theories of disease throughout the history of medicine

Disease Research Paper

Hence, disease is an important concept with far-reaching implications for individuals, health professionals, health insurers, health policy makers, bioethicists, and politicians. It sets standards, e.g., for how health professionals are educated and how health insurance is regulated, and it sets limits, e.g., who deserves access to certain goods. It also influences people’s self-conception, their relations to others, their social roles, and their social status (see below).

Conceptual Clarification/Definition

There have been many definitions of disease, all trying to highlight or clarify the various important aspects of disease given in the list above (Reznek 1987; Humber and Almeder 1997; Caplan et al. 1981; Cooper 2002; Murphy 2008; Ereshefsky 2009). At present, there is little agreement on how to define disease. The various definitions can be classified in descriptivist, normativist, and hybrid definitions.

Descriptivist positions define disease in terms of biological or mental phenomena which can be described in nature (Davies 2003). Hence, such definitions are often also called naturalist definitions. According to the most referred descriptivist definition, disease is an internal condition disturbing natural functioning. Hence, if a bodily or mental function is reduced below what is statistically normal, then there is disease. This definition is oftentimes called “the biostatistical theory of disease,” and it takes into account differences due to gender, age, and species, so that functional differences in such factors do not become diseases (Boorse 1975). That is, a person is not diseased although the person’s heart has reduced functioning at the age of 100 years old compared to the total population. Diseases are kinds that occur in nature, i.e., natural kinds, and they can be classified on the basis of characteristics that can be described in nature.

According to normativist definitions, disease is a social convention. Disease is the judgment that someone is harmed in a way that (is decided that) can be explained in terms of bodily or mental conditions or processes. Hence, human norms of harm decide what disease is and not biological or mental phenomena, therefore the name normativist. Accordingly, diseases are not natural kinds, although they may be classified according to phenomena which are considered to occur in nature. The reason is that the phenomena that is studied and classified in nature are so classified because they serve human interests, e.g., helping people. The electrical signals in the heart (measured by ECG) are of relevance for medicine because professionals think that they relate to something harmful that can be avoided. When the troponin level in the blood appears to be better in order to characterize, treat, or prevent disease, e.g., myocardial infarction, professionals (and subsequently laypersons) will pay attention to troponin. Correspondingly, it is because blood pressure is related to something harmful that hypertension is of interest in medicine. According to a normativist conception of disease, the phenomena that are measured and manipulated in medicine are relevant to medicine due to human interests (to understand and to help).

Table 2 . Three levels apparent in reflections on disease

Disease Research Paper

Hybrid definitions of disease can be placed between descriptivist and normativist definitions of disease, as they combine elements from both. For example, disease has been defined as harmful dysfunction, where dysfunction is a description of phenomena in nature, while the issue whether it is harmful is a value judgment. Only those deviations from normal functioning that are harmful can be termed disease (Wakefield 1992).

The debates on the concept of disease are sometimes complex and confusing. One reason for this can be that it is not always clear what is discussed, e.g., because the three levels described in Table 2 are confused.

There are also a wide range of terms related to disease, which sometimes are used synonymously, such as malady, illness, sickness, injury, wound, lesion, defect, deformity, disorder, disability, impairment, deficit, etc. (Culver and Gert 1982). This research paper will not address all these terms but will try to clarify the relationship between some of them below, i.e., disease, illness, and sickness.

The Ethical Dimension Of Disease

Inherent in the debates on the concept of disease, there are a series of ethical issues, such as disease’s inherent imperative to help, over diagnosis, overtreatment, medicalization, and justice. These will be briefly discussed in the following.

The Imperative To Help

The most obvious ethical aspect of disease is the imperative to help persons who suffer from disease. The term disease indicates that there is something that may be eased. Hence, disease calls us to help persons who are diseased in the best possible manner, either from duty (deontology), in order to maximize the total well-being (consequentialism); from the character of the professional (virtue ethics); or from the calling in the sufferer’s face (proximity ethics).

Who Decides What Disease Is?

In clinical practice as well in public debates, there are controversies on whether specific conditions count as disease. Previously, drapetomania (slaves running away), homosexuality, and dissidence have been counted as disease. Today it is discussed whether obesity, sorrow, baldness, freckles, and caffeine-induced insomnia count as disease. Specific interest groups may argue that something is a disease, while professionals may be hesitant, or conversely professionals may measure certain biological conditions that are not experienced by persons at all (and may be never will). Correspondingly, society may consider something to be a disease, while persons and professionals disagree. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be but one example. Hence, who decides? This is a moral question that relates to the debate between descriptivists and normativists.

Descriptivists tend to claim that nature decides. It is given by nature whether something is a disease or not, i.e., by abnormal functioning of some organ or process. But where to set the limits between normal and pathological? Does nature tell us the limit of glycated hemoglobin (A1C) in the blood for having diabetes type 1? Although hard core descriptivists claim that nature does, critiques argue that such limits are defined from human interests of trying to help people in the best possible manner. If they are right, there are normative aspects at the core of the descriptivists’ conception of disease. Normativists on the other hand are clear that disease is based on human interests and values. However, it is not clear how values and interests are to be balanced. Is it the patients’, the professionals’, relatives, or society’s values and interests that will decide what disease is?

In order to try to clarify some of the conceptual and normative issues, it has been suggested to differentiate between various perspectives of disease, as indicated in Table 3.

Table 3 . Characteristics of three perspectives of human ailment: disease, illness, and sickness

Disease Research Paper

The three perspectives can explain some of the conceptual controversies, as it may be difficult to cover all perspectives of human ailment by one concept. Moreover, the perspectives may also clarify some of the normative issues in terms of conflict of interest between persons, professionals, and society (Hofmann 2002). Impotence (at the age of 70) may not be considered to be a disease from a medical perspective or a sickness from a social perspective, but it definitely may be perceived to be an illness, i.e., it is illness, but not disease and sickness. If all perspectives cohere, there is little controversy. If the perspectives diverge, there may be conceptual and ethical challenges.

Figure 1 indicates the relationship between the concepts of illness, sickness, and disease. Other perspectives, such as existential and risk-related perspectives, may be added.

Figure 1 . The relationship between the concepts of illness, sickness, and disease

Disease Research Paper

As can be seen from vast and vivid debates on specific diseases, such as obesity, ADHD, and myalgic encephalomyelitis, there is no general agreement on whose perspective is prevailing. While descriptivist definitions of disease will favor the professional perspective, normativist definitions will have a higher affinity to social perspectives. Several positions in bioethics will favor the personal perspective on human ailment, i.e., illness (Toombs 1990; Carel 2008).

Underdiagnosis And Overdiagnosis, Undertreatment And Overtreatment

The concept of disease delimits diseased from non-diseased, and where this limit is set is of ethical significance. If the limit is set so that suffering persons who could have been helped are excluded, this is morally wrong. They are underdiagnosed, may be undertreated, and may experience unnecessary uncertainty, anxiety, pain, and death. Conversely, if the limits are too low, it is morally wrong as well. Then healthy persons are diagnosed as having a disease. They may become anxious from being diagnosed and they may be treated unnecessarily and have side effects from unnecessary treatment. While underdiagnosed persons oftentimes gain attention in the media (“could have been saved”), over diagnosed persons get little attention. They do not know that they are over diagnosed but are actually happy that “they found something and saved my life.” Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) may be one example, as it can result in invasive breast cancers, but it does not always do so. When found, DCIS are oftentimes treated as breast cancer, although one does not know whether they would actually have caused symptoms, suffering, or death.

Making Risk A Disease

Another ethical issue related to the concept of disease is the predictive aspirations in modern medicine. A wide range of tests are able to predict diseases. The ethical drive for this is to detect disease before it becomes noticeable and, by prevention or early treatment, to avoid disease or diminish its consequences. However, very few tests are perfect. The outcomes of tests are uncertain and so are the outcomes of subsequent treatment. Hence, the test provides a risk, or a range of risks, for a certain disease. For example, 55–65 % of women who inherit a BRCA1 mutation will develop breast cancer by age 70 years, while about 12 % of women in the general population will develop breast cancer sometime during their lives. Hence, testing positive for the BRCA1 mutation significantly increases the risk of breast cancer but does not mean that the person will have breast cancer. It is a risk estimate. Such risk estimates do not only give people important opportunities to save their lives and reduce suffering; it also gives them difficult choices, as it is uncertain whether they will become diseased, e.g., should a woman prophylactically remove her breasts? Hence, handling risk factors as disease poses ethical challenges to health policy makers, health professionals, and, last but not least, to individual persons. This also connects to ethical challenges with the right to know and the right not to know. The issue of making risk a disease relates to another ethical issue in modern medicine: medicalization.

Medicalization

It has been widely argued that the conception of disease has become too wide and inclusive, e.g., that it has come to include conditions that are considered to be part of ordinary life, such as sorrow (Horwitz and Wakefield 2007), stress, unhappiness, and various kinds of social behavior. It may be ethically challenging when the conceptions of disease make ordinary life conditions or behaviors subject to medical attention. Hence, the critique of medicalization is closely connected to the (unreflective) expansion of the concept of disease.

Disease As An Existential Threat

As disease traditionally has been life threatening and because most people die from a disease, disease is an existential issue. Hence, getting the message of having a disease may be disturbing and challenging, meriting attention and care, beyond handling the disease. Moreover, some diseases have symbolic attributes. Cancer has been considered to be a death sentence and has been a stigma. While the existential aspects of disease have been were at the core in the hospital tradition and still are in many parts of the world, they have gained less attention in modern Western medicine.

Social Prestige And Stigma

Disease is normally considered to be something negative. However, it may also have some positive aspects, such as increased attention, right to treatment, economic compensation, and freedom from duties (work), as pointed out before. Specific disease labels may give identity and strong relations between persons with the same disease. Conversely, not being labeled diseased may make people feel deserted, in despair, and guilty. Hence, disease labeling may influence people’s self-conception and self-esteem.

Moreover, professionals appear to have a relatively stable prestige hierarchy for disease entities (Album and Westin 2008). Organ specific diseases have higher prestige than vague diseases. Diseases related to organs placed in the upper part of the body, such as brain and heart, have higher prestige than those related to organs in lower body parts. Acute diseases prevail over chronic diseases. Hi-tech diseases trump low-tech or no-tech diseases. Such prestige hierarchies of disease tend also to be present in laypeople and patients as well. When disease hierarchies influence how patients are handled or how resources are allocated or prioritized, it becomes ethically challenging.

Conceptions of disease also raise ethical concerns beyond prestige hierarchies. The 90–10 gap is ethically relevant, as 90 % of research resources go to diseases relevant for 10 % of the global population. Correspondingly, it may also be argued that the disease concepts used in the economically richer part of the world is of little relevance to the poorer part of the world. It appears to be ethically important to increase the attention to disease entities that prevail in poorer populations, as well as avoiding a general disease concept that is biased toward affluent populations.

Disease is a phenomenon experienced by most people during life. It is something most people fear, and it is a core concept in the health sciences, in philosophy, and in bioethics. Descriptivists tend to define disease as the malfunctioning of some organ or process and argue that diseases are natural kinds. Normativists, on the other hand, argue that disease is not discovered in nature but is the judgment that someone is harmed in a way that can be explained in terms of bodily or mental conditions or processes. Hybrid conceptions of disease claim that disease is both descriptive and normative, e.g., as harmful dysfunction.

The concept of disease sets standards and limits, e.g., to what a health-care system is supposed to do and who deserves access to certain goods. It also influences people’s self-conception, their relations to others, their social roles, and their social status. Hence, disease is an important concept with far-reaching implications for individuals, health professionals, health insurers, health policy makers, bioethicists, and politicians. It also raises a series of ethical issues, especially related to over diagnosis and underdiagnoses, under treatment and overtreatment, medicalization, and just distribution of health-care resources.

Bibliography :

  • Album, D., & Westin, S. (2008). Do diseases have a prestige hierarchy? A survey among physicians and medical students. Social Science and Medicine, 66(1), 182–188.
  • Boorse, C. (1975). On the distinction between disease and illness. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 5, 49–68.
  • Caplan, A., Englehardt, H., Jr., & McCartney, J. (Eds.). (1981). Concepts of health and disease: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • Carel, H. (2008). Illness: The cry of the flesh. Dublin: Acumen.
  • Cooper, R. (2002). Disease. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Biology & the Biomedical Sciences, 33, 263–282.
  • Culver, C. M., & Gert, B. (1982). Philosophy in medicine. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Davies, P. S. (2003). Norms of nature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Ereshefsky, M. (2009). Defining ‘health’ and ‘disease’. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 40(3), 221–227.
  • Hofmann, B. (2002). On the triad disease, illness and sickness. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 27(6), 651–674.
  • Horwitz, A. V., & Wakefield, J. C. (2007). The loss of sadness. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Humber, J. M., & Almeder, R. F. (Eds.). (1997). What is disease? Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
  • Murphy, D. (2008). Health and disease. In A. Plutynski & S. Sarkar (Eds.), The blackwell companion to the philosophy of biology (pp. 287–298). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Reznek, L. (1987). The nature of disease. New York: Routledge.
  • Toombs, K. (1990). The meaning of illness: A phenomenological account of the different perspectives of physician and patient. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Wakefield, J. (1992). The concept of mental disorder: On the boundary between biological facts and social values. American Psychologist, 47, 373–388.
  • Mukherjee, S. (2011). The emperor of all maladies. A biography of cancer. New York: Scribner.
  • Sigerist, H. A. (1961). History of Medicine. Vol. II: Early Greek, Hindu, and Persian Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Sontag, S. (1978). Illness as metaphor. New York: Farrar. Strays and Giroux.
  • Taylor, F. K. (1979). The concepts of illness, disease and morbus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ORDER HIGH QUALITY CUSTOM PAPER

how to write a research paper on a disease

how to write a research paper on a disease

Epidemiology Research Essay: A Guide with Steps, Insights, & Tips

how to write a research paper on a disease

As a nursing student, one of the best pieces of advice you will get is to learn how to write an epidemiology essay. Although not so challenging, an epidemiology class can easily fall within challenging nursing school classes . We are here to change that narrative. Epidemiology is the scientific study of the distribution and determinants of disease and health-related events in a specific population. While these essays or research papers seem challenging at first, you will be on your way to getting a top grade on your paper once you get the hang of it. The following guide will exhaustively explore all the steps you need to write a high-quality paper.

Steps for Writing an Epidemiology Essay

In nursing or med school, you will be assigned to write an essay about a specific disease either of your choice or one that your professor or instructor specifies. Instead of panicking, we’ve compiled this step-by-step guide to writing an epidemiology research essay to help you write a paper that meets the rubric requirements. Our epidemiology essay writers find the entire process thrilling and rewarding, albeit tiresome. Having gone through the process endless times, we have mastered all it takes to write a perfect epidemiology research essay, and here are the steps:

1. Pick a Topic (Disease)

Sometimes professors will ask students to choose a topic for their epidemiology paper. While this is exciting, it can become challenging because there are tons of epidemiology topics available, and you may need help to pick the right one. To make things easier, you must be clear about the topic.

First, you need to understand what epidemiology entails. Consider any topic that covers health risks for people due to genetics and environmental conditions. Make sure you pick an interesting topic that can lead to powerful results.

Related Reading:

  • Steps for Choosing the best nursing dissertation topic .
  • Hot research topics on nursing to consider for your next paper.

2. Conduct the Research

You must have all the suitable material to write a compelling epidemiology essay. If your instructor still needs to give you materials for your research, start by doing the work yourself. The best places to start include organizations such as the CDC , WHO , PubMed , NIH , NHS , etc. You need to gather as much information as possible so that all the information flows well when you start writing.

3.  Come Up with an Outline for Your Essay

To write a well-structured essay, you need to have a relevant outline. An outline will help organize your thoughts, which helps in creating a well-balanced paper. An example of an outline for an epidemiology essay would be like this:

Introduction

  • Disease Description
  • Social Determinants of Health
  • Epidemiologic Triangle
  • Community Health Nurse
  • National Agency or Organization Helping Out
  • Global Implication

Related Reading: Get over the embarrassment when you repeat a class .

This section introduces your topic, background data, and research details. If you are writing a paper about a disease like HIV/AIDS, share how it has affected people worldwide and briefly state how it is spread. Then show the aim of your essay. For instance, you can say: “ The following paper will provide a compelling overview of what HIV/AIDS is, including the social determinants leading to its progression.

Simultaneously, the essay will provide the epidemiological triangle showing how the disease is spread, the actions taken by the community health nurse, and the contribution made by the different government agencies…etc.”

Describe the Chosen Disease

Now that you have decided which disease to write about, it is time to describe it. The definition of the disease should be as straightforward as possible. Also, please provide what you think are the possible causes, common symptoms, how it is transmitted, complications, and treatment.

Moreover, include a demographic of interest (incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality). Incidence refers to the measure of disease that makes it possible to determine the probability of a person being diagnosed with a particular disease in a given period. For instance, if five women are diagnosed with HIV from a group of 200 women (HIV-free) for a year, then the incidence of HIV will be 0.025.

Prevalence is the measure of a disease that makes it easy to determine a person's likelihood of getting a disease. In other words, prevalence is the total number of disease cases in a given population.

Morbidity is simply another name for a disease. A patient can have several morbidities. These can range from heart disease to cancer and so much more. Mortality is also referred to as death. The mortality rate is the number of deaths caused by a disease.

Still, in this section, say whether the disease is reportable. If it is, provide details such as when it is reported and to whom.

Write Down the Social Determinants of the Disease

Social determinants are non-medical causes that influence the outcome of a disease. These conditions influence health outcomes, including stigma, poverty, lack of education, access to quality healthcare, etc. As you list them, show how they lead to the development of a disease.

This section is crucial, as it will help understand where the disease is coming from and those likely to be impacted. For instance, if you are writing about infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS, you can say that poor people or those with proper education are the most likely to get the disease. Some can be lured to engage in sexual activities with promises of money, food, and shelter.

Discuss the Epidemiology Triangle Related to the Disease

As an epidemiologist, it is imperative to understand the process by which a disease spreads is essential. They use a tool to help them understand how this process occurs. This tool is referred to as an epidemiology triangle . In other words, an epidemiology triangle is a simple tool for explaining the organisms that cause disease and the conditions that allow this to happen.

You should be aware that diseases such as HIV/AIDS spread from one person to another. An epidemiology triangle can guide people to understand how disease spreads from one person in a given situation.

This triangle consists of the following:

  • Causative Agent
  • Environment

In the same example of HIV/AIDS, the causal agent is HIV. The host is the organism carrying the virus and transmitting it to another person. The environment is the social and economic factors that influence the rate at which the disease spreads.

You should also note whether any considerations are given to schools, communities, or the public. If so, please list them down. Also, mention if these regions are responsible for the spread of the disease through inappropriate behavior or practices. Show how all these people can benefit from measures that will keep them safe. These measures could be things like education, posters, and pamphlets.

Discuss the Role of Community Health Nurses

A community health nurse is responsible for encouraging healthy living, preventing diseases, and providing medical treatment. Research their role in case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-ups, and include them in your essay.

Additionally, say why the demographic data is essential. Demographic data encompasses all aspects of a population. This data helps in providing greater accountability and treatment measures. When done correctly, this data can help treat people of different ethnic backgrounds, gender, and age difference. These people can be treated with the correct data by considering specific demographic factors.

Point Out the Organization that Organization Helping Out

If an organization (s) addresses the disease you are discussing, please mention it. Also, mention the measures they have in place to resolve or combat the impact of the disease.

For instance, say how governments are actively involved in helping to find solutions to a particular disease. Include measures put in place by governments to support these organizations and society in general. You can list government-funded institutions that conduct studies to solve health problems. 

What are the Global Implications?

List down the implications for the disease in question. What is the mortality rate? Have there been any economic damages or social or psychological impacts? How do different countries address these impacts? Has it affected different cultures? Is the particular disease endemic? All these questions are essential and must be addressed in the paper. For instance, if you are writing epidemiology of HIV, you can say the implications are;

HIV affects people in every country, thus resulting in governments and healthcare institutions prioritizing it. Researchers in every country have been engaged internationally to study and find ideas to help manage the disease.

In this section, write down the summary of your paper. Say what the epidemiology has discovered about the disease in question. Also, add what government agencies and international communities should do to solve the health problem.

Remember that this is a concluding paragraph and should be a summary of what you have written. Refrain from introducing any new points or ideas.

This section provides detailed information about all the materials you used in your epidemiology paper. Write this section in a separate paper and ensure you follow the same formatting style.

Related Reads:

  • Overcoming burnout in nursing/med school.
  • Challenges in nursing school and their respective solutions.

How to Format Your Epidemiology Paper

When writing your epidemiology essay, your paper should have the following sections: title page, introduction, body, conclusion, and references when writing in APA format

  • Title of 10-12 words reflecting the content of your essay, formatted in APA, AMA, or Harvard referencing styles.
  • Write and double-space the title, your name, and the name of the college
  • Create a page header and include the running head, which should be in capital letters.
  • The topic of the essay.

The purpose of an introduction paragraph is to provide the reader with a clear picture of what the body will be about.

A good introduction should summarize, incorporate and evaluate the collected data in a way that will set the stage for the body of the essay. It should also have the thesis statement of your paper, which is the main idea or argument in your entire paper.

If you want the readers drawn to reading your epidemiology paper, ensure that you have a catchy or thought-provoking hook statement or attention grabber.

Ensure there is also a logical flow of ideas to avoid confusing your readers. You can also signpost ideas so that the readers have a clear roadmap of the paper right from the start.

Related: Tips for writing an outstanding nursing class essay.

This is the longest and most important part of your essay. It contains all the main ideas and points you are trying to convey. This is where you guide the reader through all ideas, arguments, and points supporting your research topics. You must explain all of them in detail.

Related: How to formulate a PICOT Question or statement .

Use the insert page breaker feature in Microsoft Word to begin a new page when setting up your reference paper. Remember that the header and margins are similar to that of the body, and the pagination will continue from the body of your essay. The header and page number will also appear correctly in the reference section if the paper is set correctly.

To format your entries, include the following:

  • Author(s) name
  • The year and date(where applicable)
  • The source's full title
  • If it is a book, write the city where it was published.
  • If it is articles or essays, write down the name of the books where they appear.
  • Write the volume, issue number, and the page where you sourced the article.
  • Write the URL of the source if it is from the Web.

Other rules to keep in mind for APA format:

  • Your assignment must be printed on 8½-by-11-inch
  • Leave a 1-inch margin on each side
  • Make sure there are page numbers

Related Readings:

  • How to critically appraise an epidemiology-nursing article.
  • Do nursing school grades matter?
  • Steps for writing an annotated bibliography.
  • Writing a reflective nursing essay.
  • Debatable or argumentative nursing topics.

Tips for Writing a Compelling Epidemiology Essay

Nursing epidemiology essays, just like other academic writing, must meet specific criteria to be A+ level. Follow these tips to avoid mistakes that could cost you a higher grade.

  • Avoid using Colloquialisms; this is an academic paper and needs to be written with some level of professionalism.
  • Make sure you revise the essay. Revising entails paying attention to the little things you missed while writing the essay. It involves checking the word choice to ensure clarity. Try to avoid the use of passive voice and use active voice instead. In addition, use online tools to edit your work.
  • This is the final polishing technique after revisions. It involves checking formatting issues, misspellings, punctuation, and any other mistakes you might have missed.
  • Read your work aloud to pick out any errors you might have missed. Remove all unnecessary words and repetition.
  • Make sure your work is precise and to the point. Consider checking that every sentence, word, or phrase makes sense.
  • Even when grammatically correct, long sentences can muddle the intended meaning, so avoid them.
  • If you are asked to make a concept map for your epidemiology paper, ensure that you develop a well-labeled, refined, and illustrative nursing concept map .

Writing an epidemiology essay as a nursing student can be challenging at first. However, once you have all the correct information and steps with you, it will be a smooth ride. Ensure you understand the topic and have all the right data before writing. With this in place, you can follow the above steps to perfect your paper. Also, revise and proofread your work to meet the required standards.

Related Reading: The cost of getting your paper done at NurseMyGrade .

Are you stuck with an epidemiology essay or paper? Do you need someone to pay to do your epidemiology essay? We can help. Our established nursing and medical writers at NurseMyGrade have a wealth of knowledge in writing epidemiology papers. It does not matter whether it is tough or challenging; they always get it right. The good thing, they use scholarly peer-reviewed nursing journals that are country specific. So, if you are an Australian nursing or med student, they will only use relevant Australian-based peer-reviewed journals. The same applies to our clients from Canada, the USA, or the UK.

We write 100% original, non-AI generated, and well-polished papers that can serve as excellent references for inspiration when writing your future nursing or med school papers. Trust us today and get top-quality papers. We also handle online classes for nursing students at an affordable fee. Just tell us, “ do my online nursing class ,” and we will reach out to you and figure out a personalized approach for mutual benefit.

Struggling with

Related Articles

how to write a research paper on a disease

How to Fight Nursing Student Dismissal and Win

how to write a research paper on a disease

How to Write a Nursing Interview Essay

how to write a research paper on a disease

Best Topics and Ideas for Social Media and Nursing

NurseMyGrades is being relied upon by thousands of students worldwide to ace their nursing studies. We offer high quality sample papers that help students in their revision as well as helping them remain abreast of what is expected of them.

618 Disease Essay Topics & Examples

Need some disease essay examples to check out or ideas to look through? Good thing that our experts have prepared this list for you!

🏆 Best Disease Essay Topics & Examples

👍 good disease topics to write about, ✅ easy diseases to write about, 💡 most interesting disease topics to write about, 📌 writing prompts about disease, 🔍 good research topics about disease, ❓ research questions about diseases.

After the Covid-19 pandemic, students are regularly assigned to explore health issues and precautions. Whether you’re interested in writing about risk factors, chronic illnesses, or lifestyles, we can help! Check our disease essay topics and get a perfect title for your paper.

  • Control of Communicable Diseases Hence, there is a need to prioritize the control and prevention levels for these diseases upon the occurrence of the calamities.
  • Living With a Chronic Disease: Diabetes and Asthma This paper will look at the main effects of chronic diseases in the lifestyle of the individuals and analyze the causes and the preventive measures of diabetes as a chronic disease.
  • Hypertension. Disease Analysis The successful detection of genes that leads to the development of hypertension enables health experts to develop the appropriate strategies to mitigate the impact of the said disease.
  • Cell Organelles, Their Functions, and Disease Mitochondria-associated membrane, a specialized sub-group of the ER has specific lipid and protein composition and is involved in cross-communication with mitochondria.
  • Health, Disease and Social Problems As AIDS is relevant to the end of the last century, and the beginning of the millennium, there were questions, on whether the new disease is connected to the cultural changes that occurred in the […]
  • Managing Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease The PICOT question is “In the care of Alzheimer’s and dementia patients, does integrated community-based care as compared to being in a long-term care facility improve outcome throughout the remainder of their lives”.
  • Health Promotion and Disease Prevention and Management Strategies Since its founding in 1884, Montefiore Medical Center has worked tirelessly to improve the health and well-being of the people of New York City.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Timely intervention and the search for appropriate treatment can help to reduce the impact of the ailment on the human body, and the use of various methods to combat the disease can be effective in […]
  • The Case Study of Patient With Late-Stage Alzheimer’s Disease In the majority of cases of Alzheimer’s, it has been shown that patients are unable to make decisions on their own and are also unable to communicate their assent verbally.
  • AIDS/HIV: Description of the Disease This is the very reason why many who have acquired HIV or AIDS result to an eventual death because of the lack of immune system that protects them from acquiring other forms of illnesses.
  • The Role of Man in Environment Degradation and Diseases The link between environmental degradation and human beings explains the consequences of the same in relation to the emergence of modern-age diseases.
  • Family Trend Change and Disease Factor The hastening of our customs and the organization of the family as the leading structure has led to a new family trend.
  • Infectious and Lifestyle Diseases Negative impacts include a plethora of serious diseases, and not the least dangerous of them are infectious. In conclusion, a person’s body can be affected by a plethora of conditions that stem from outside intrusions […]
  • Pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s Disease The study will discuss the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, such as risk factors, cellular involvement, genetic influences, and the interventions of the available therapy’s pharmacological Interventions.
  • Noncommunicable Diseases, Risk Factors and Prevention Alcohol use is a significant preventable risk factor for noncommunicable diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver, certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and injury from violence and road clashes and collisions.
  • Poverty and Diseases A usual line of reasoning would be that low income is the main cause of health-related problems among vulnerable individuals. Such results that the relationship between mental health and poverty is, in fact, straightforward.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Community Teaching Plan Based on the study by Hailu, Mergal, Nishimwe, Samson, and Santos, the majority of adolescents receive no advice from parents concerning the unwanted consequences of sexual relationships, including STDs. Since 2013, in people aged 15-24, […]
  • Family Nursing Care Plan – Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Therefore, it is critical to consider a holistic approach to take care of the family and improve the quality of their lifestyle.
  • Meningitis Disease: Symptoms and Treatment The various transmission paths are detailed below: Mother to child-During delivery, some of the bacteria and viruses that cause meningitis can be transmitted from the mother to the baby.
  • Health Behaviors That Impact Risk Factors for Diseases High BMI characterizing overweight and obesity is a risk factor for According to Key et al, healthy eating is second to lack of smoking in the prevention of cancers.
  • The Pathophysiology of Hashimoto’s Disease The antibodies that bind and block the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor are a potential cause of the impairment of the functionality of the thyroid gland.
  • Coronary Artery Disease The inner walls of the arteries contain a lot of plaques, which leads to the restriction of the blood flow to the heart since arteries have abnormal function and tone.
  • Aspects of Childhood Diseases In my opinion, to some factors that may be contributing to an increased incidence of childhood allergies and asthma belong the state of the environment and people’s lack of responsibility for the health of others.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: Disease’ Biology Autoimmune diseases include a range of common conditions that affect the health of people in the United States, and according to the statistics, being a female is an important risk factor in the majority of […]
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Treatment The proton pump inhibitor is in the class of drugs that permanently block gastric proton pump which is essential for the secretion of the gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Prevention and Treatment A transplant surgery does not cure CKD. Therefore, recipients need to continue with other disease management strategies such as medications, diet, or dialysis.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Etiology and Management The statistics show the percentage of the population having CKD and the relation between demographic factors and the risk of developing this disease.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) This paper assesses the magnitude of CKD, develops a program, and sets objectives on how the program can be used to achieve the aim of the Healthy People 2020 in relation to CKD.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Crohn’s Disease The research was primarily conducted to report the causes of crohn’s disease and the people who can be infected by the disease.
  • Social Determinants of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Inequalities in the UK Consequently, social determinants are one of the key factors determining people’s health in the UK. Social determinants significantly impact people’s health, particularly the emergence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the UK.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lifestyle Secondary inhalation increases the total burden of the gases taken into the lungs leading to COPD and respiratory symptoms. In summary, COPD obstructs the flow of air from an individual’s lungs.
  • Analysis of Coronary Heart Disease In such a manner, the delivery of blood with oxygen and nutrients to the whole body is timely and undisrupted, which guarantees the healthy functioning of the whole physiological system.
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux Disease and Nursing Intervention The main cause of the disease is the dysfunction of the bladder as a result of nerve or muscle failure and blockage of the processes that control bladder emptying nursing care plans, 2019).
  • Poliomyelitis: Disease Overview The international agencies in health courses will help in the comprehension of the various health agencies in the world. This will help me in choosing the correct agency to work for so that it will […]
  • Policy Proposal in Regards to Sex Workers as a Site of Disease Spread Sex workers generally refer to those who work in the sex industry and provide sexual services. According to the International Union of Sex Workers, the term encompasses all those who work in the industry whether […]
  • Gallstone Disease Pathology and Treatment She further claims that the pain rotates around the chest and on the lower side of the inferior angle of the scapula.
  • Cardiovascular Disease and Caffeine Effects There have been conflicting ideas about the effects of caffeine on the body especially in relation to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is mainly due to the changes in […]
  • Mercury Toxicity: Description of Disease These different forms of mercury produce different levels of toxicity; however, all of them are toxic depending on the route of exposure, the period of such and the dose involved.
  • Addiction: Is It a Disease or Moral Failing? According to the journal article of clinical and research news, a disease can be defined as a complicated relationship existing between the environment of an individual and the general genetic makeup that combines together resulting […]
  • Typhoid Fever as a Global Infectious Disease A detailed description of a place where the disease is located allows one to understand its geography and focus on a particular area for the study to estimate the probability of contamination of different communities.
  • Community Teaching Work Plan: Diseases Prevention Topic: The topic of the teaching work plan proposal hereof is Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Miami, Florida. Since the number of the affected is on the rise in Miami, preventive teaching is required.
  • Genitourinary System Diseases Diagnostics Current medical problem: 28-year-old female presents to the clinic with a 2-day history of frequency, burning, and pain upon urination; increased lower abdominal pain and vaginal discharge over the past week.
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Acute Coronary Syndrome in Women The aim of this essay is to critically study a case of a female case of acute coronary syndrome, the path of discussion will focus on risk factors, pathogenesis and the role of emergency and […]
  • Environmental Health Burdens and Non-Communicable Disease The access to low-cost sanitation in Nepal may be expanded due to the involvement of the public and private sectors or such organizations as NGOs.
  • Workplace Accidents, Diseases and Safety Policies This report explores the negative effects of accidents and diseases on the wellbeing of for-profit organizations in a bid to understand why such organizations choose to invest in workplace health and safety.
  • Cardiovascular Disease Risks and Preventive Education First of all, tobacco use is considered to be one of the main risk factors that may lead to many health-related issues, including CVD.
  • Understanding Ebola: Symptoms, Transmission, and Prevention Measures Ebola is a viral disease that attacks all the cells of the body in a systematic process starting with the white blood cells.
  • Microbes and Human Health: Benefits, Disease, and Policies Microbes are capable of causing diseases to enter the body through different channels, including the digestive and respiratory tracts and damaged skin. Various policies are in place at the local, state, and federal levels to […]
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Disease The primary measure in case of MRSA appearance is the activation of search-and-destroy protocols against its further dissemination, while settings that are affected by this pathogen are also prompted to utilize MRSA guidelines for personal […]
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Treatments The purpose of Parkinson’s disease research is to better understand the causes, mechanisms, and progression of the disease and to develop new treatments and management strategies to improve the lives of people living with Parkinson’s […]
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Concept Map The goal of the study is to examine the issue in light of the patient’s other illnesses. Overall, Beryl’s past medical history and current symptoms can be explained by the pathological processes that occur in […]
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Overall Information Various demographic and environmental factors may be involved in the genesis of Parkinson’s disease and influence the severity of the condition, which widens the perspective on the topic.
  • Aspects of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease This is an infection of the upper parts of the female genital organs, and inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs usually occur in sexually active women.
  • Infectious Disease and Public Health A comprehensive evaluation and analysis of the disease, including its overall description, strategies to address it, and current research on the disease, allows the government to develop more practical and effective strategies to address the […]
  • Worst Infectious Disease Outbreaks in History: Plague The type of specimen to be studied may also include separable ulcers or punctate from the carbuncle in the cutaneous form of plague and material from the pharynx taken with a swab, and sputum in […]
  • Managing Crohn’s Disease: A Comprehensive Approach A diet low in fiber and residue is also recommended to minimize the likelihood of intestinal blockage brought on by a constricted stricture.
  • Chronic Diseases as a Public Health Issue A low level of education is related to the escalated risk of the chronic condition, and the illness poses a barrier to achieving higher educational levels.
  • Mitochondrial Diseases Treatment Through Genetic Engineering Any disorders and abnormalities in the development of mitochondrial genetic information can lead to the dysfunction of these organelles, which in turn affects the efficiency of intracellular ATP production during the process of cellular respiration.
  • The Gap in Quality Care of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease While nowadays, numerous efforts are made to address the gap in the quality of treatment of patients with COPD, the problem of poor communication between diverse services is rooted in history.
  • Telemedicine for Chronic Diseases: PICOT (Research) Question Hypertension is a diagnosis related to diseases of the heart and blood vessels associated with high blood pressure for a long time. Doing this is virtually more convenient for both the doctor and the patient.
  • The Urinary Disease and the Use of Diuretics Moreover, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of how diuretics, which are prescribed for other diseases of the body, act on the functioning of the nephron.
  • The Use of Telemedicine in Chronic Diseases Effective management of chronic diseases is essential for improving patient outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and decreasing the burden on healthcare systems. A specific opportunity in this area is the use of telemedicine for the management […]
  • How Spirituality Affects Disease Development The appearance of various diseases can be considered from the point of view of religion as a consequence of this fall and means the punishment of a person.
  • Mental Health Diseases in the Middle Ages and Today In the Middle Ages, the manner in which the conditions were addressed varied depending on the philosophical and religious beliefs of the patient as well as the caregiver.
  • Diseases of the Past and Their Modern Names Although studying the history of diseases and epidemics of the past is valuable for identification, one must be aware of the risks of arriving at speculative conclusions due to a limited understanding of the contextual […]
  • Heart Diseases in Florida: Cardiology The Centers for Disease Control in Florida encourages the management of heart ailments and dementia in all the regions and Districts of Florida.
  • Healthcare Cost Depending on Chronic Disease Management of Diabetes and Hypertension A sufficient level of process optimization and the presence of a professional treating staff in the necessary number will be able to help improve the indicators.
  • Cholera Disease: Diagnostics and Treatment Cholera may quickly become critical because in most serious cases, the swift loss of a large number of electrolytes and fluids in the body may contribute to death in a few hours.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases Discussion Therefore, the reason why HIV is so hard to cure is that it resides in the nucleus, which is a stable reservoir where it goes undetected by the immune system and the medication administered. Chlamydia […]
  • Ebola Disease, Its Nature and Treatment The virus takes its name from the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it was first reported.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Curable and Incurable However, if an individual with the disease fails to get treatment and does not take care of themselves by not sharing needles or not wearing a condom, then they could spread the disease.
  • Coronary Heart Disease Caused by Stress It is essential to study the degree of influence of stress on the development of coronary heart disease since, in this way, it will be possible to prevent it more successfully.
  • Tests and Screenings: Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease The test is offered to patients regardless of gender, while the age category is usually above 45 years. CDC1 recommends doing the test regardless of gender and is conducted once or twice to check the […]
  • Neurobiology of Disease: Article Summary Additionally, the study has demonstrated that activation of Akt by Ca2+ signaling, which is mediated by the AMPA receptor, controls glioblastoma cell growth and motility.
  • Immunization: Vaccines for Infectious Diseases Vaccines induce active immune defense against a dangerous substance A vaccine is a portion of a microbial pathogen Vaccination evolved from homeopathic perspectives By the 11th century of the use of variola scabs in the […]
  • Autoimmune Diseases: Types, Epidemiology, Symptoms & More The other type is a grave disease that alters the normal functioning of the thyroid gland, causing one to have weight loss. The existence of autoimmune diseases means a balance discrepancy between the regulator of […]
  • Chronic Kidney Disease and Phosphorus Management The expected outcome is improved staff knowledge that will lead to better patient education and may raise the bar in the care of patients with CKD.
  • Periodontal Disease: Patient-Focused Explanation Infections and inflammatory responses of the gums and jawbone that support the teeth are the primary causes of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is caused by inflammation around a tooth because bacteria in the mouth infect […]
  • Infectious Disease Assignment: Herpes Zoster Regarding agent factors, the presence of the varicella-zoster virus in the body after the recovery from chickenpox predisposes the host to develop HZ even if the virus remains dormant for years. HZ’s progression is linked […]
  • Neurological and Musculoskeletal Systems and Diseases The role of trigger phenomena in the musculoskeletal system, as well as the participation of the peripheral component in the occurrence of headaches, is considered indisputable.
  • Chronic Disease Cost Calculator (Diabetes) This paper aims at a thorough, detailed, and exhaustive explanation of such a chronic disease as diabetes in terms of the prevalence and cost of treatment in the United States and Maryland.
  • Cardiovascular Disease in Minorities The disease in question is left ventricular dysfunction, which is caused by social determinants of health, as she is a minority.
  • Lyme Disease and Its Clinical Spectrum However, the possibility of infection is not excluded by contact with the feces of the tick on the skin, with subsequent absorption by scratching. With effective therapy and recovery, the level of antibodies is normalized.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Vulnerable Settings In vulnerable settings, COPD becomes a challenge for healthcare facilities due to a combination of factors contributing to the prevalence of the condition, especially in rural areas.
  • Anorexia as Social and Psychological Disease Many who were used to his weight knew, though Bob is not the most handsome, but a charming person, kind and friendly.
  • Infectious and Chronic Diseases: Causes & Prevention These include poor nutrition, which leads to the emergence of vulnerabilities due to the failure to supply the necessary amount of nutrients and vitamins to the patient’s body, which leads to a drop in the […]
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Symptoms and Predictors The hypothesis was: “differences in the genotype and gender of rats affect the predicates of motor activity deficit as a symptom of Parkinson’s disease, namely anxiety and ultrasonic vocalization”.
  • Pollution and Respiratory Disease in Louisiana The United States of America is an industrial powerhouse, a powerful nation that devoted much of its time to the growth and development of the petrochemical industry.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnosis and Intervention The accumulation of plaques and tangles in the brain is a hallmark of the disease, resulting in the death of neurons and a decline in mental capacity.
  • Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children There is an increase in the number of confirmed cases, and the curve has a steep slope. The incubation period is the time from exposure to the onset of symptoms.
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease: Symptoms, Treatment, and Complications Thus, the authors point to the need for a more thorough and thoughtful study of the disease and how it can affect the development of other abnormalities in the human body.
  • Antioxidants: The Role in Preventing Cancer and Heart Disease Some of antioxidants are more widely known as vitamins E, C, and carotenoids, and have a reputation of preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Assessment and Intervention The caregiver is recommended to install safety locks and alarms on all doors and windows to prevent the patient from leaving the apartment without supervision.
  • Obesity and Coronary Heart Disease As shown in Table 1, the researchers have collected data about the rate of obesity and CHD in the chosen group.
  • Colorectal Cancer Screening and Its Effect on Disease Incidence The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental quality improvement project was to determine if or to what degree the implementation of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s System Approach to Tracking and Increasing Screening for […]
  • The End-Stage Renal Disease Program According to Benjamin and Lappin, the condition directly adds to the global incidence of death and morbidity by raising cardiovascular risk globally.
  • Ascites as Gastrointestinal Disease Process Ascites is a condition characterized by the pathological accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity. The condition worsens the quality of life and can lead to complications such as kidney failure, increased risk of infections, […]
  • Analysis of Communicable Disease: Influenza Droplets landing on the mouth or nose can promote transmission of the virus, which can also happen from touching infected surfaces and transferring into the mouth.
  • COPD, Valvular Disease, and CHF: Risk of Heart Disease Under these conditions, it is possible to analyze the case regarding the high risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, valvular disease, and congestive heart failure.
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Emerging Diseases In the United States, the people affected by the disorder are children at the age of 13 or younger, gay and bisexual men. HIV can be discovered by assessing the number of CD4 and the […]
  • Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Factors Thus, the pathogenesis of NAFLD is linked to the accumulation of fat in the liver and the subsequent development of insulin resistance.
  • Tetanus Infection, Disease and Treatment The disease interferes with breathing due to spasms in the ribs and the diaphragm muscles and rigidity in the abdominal and back muscles.
  • Measuring Motor Functions in Parkinson’s Disease The main idea of the Hoehn and Yahr scale is to measure the progress of symptoms and the level of disability in PD patients.
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Choline Theory The purpose of the paper lies in showing how ineffective conventional techniques have been to the masses and how the idea of choline supplements might be the key to mitigating NAFLD.
  • Morbidity and Mortality Factors of Disease Management It is worth noting that it is necessary to take into account not only the number of deaths from a particular disease but also the total number, as well as the severity of tolerance.
  • Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Older Adults The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides a standard curriculum for adults that helps with understanding the types of STDs and how to avoid them.
  • Pathophysiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Cancer It is also evident that the illness acts fast due to the continuous multiplication of the cancer cells leading to breathing disruptions and eventual death. This sustained weight loss is primarily essential to the advancement […]
  • Sickle Cell Disease and Its Hereditary Factor Given that SCD affects over 100,000 Americans, I do not support the practice of testing African Americans for the sickle-cell trait.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases Analysis Since the topic is sensitive and it might even be uncomfortable for the audience, the teacher will have to set the tone of the lesson to be serious and devoid of humor.
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Given the number and effect of barriers, CDC is committed to reducing their impact and helping the public to provide equal opportunities and improve the quality of life.
  • Disease Management for Diabetes Mellitus The selection of the appropriate philosophical and theoretical basis for the lesson is essential as it allows for the use of an evidence-based method for learning about a particular disease.
  • Infectious Diseases Affect the International Health Community Infectious diseases present a severe issue for the global health situation due to the transition ways and risk of a potential epidemic.
  • The Effect of Vitamin E on Cardiovascular Diseases In conclusion, the apparent difference is linked with the bias during the selection of participants for each study, as observational studies tend to be less objective.
  • Bilinguals’ Cognitive-Linguistic Abilities and Alzheimer’s Disease This irregularity is reflected in the preserved linguistic abilities, including code-switching and semantic fluency, and the declined functions in translation, picture naming, and phonemic fluency, calling for improved therapy and testing practices.
  • Epidemiology of Heart Disease Among Canadians At the end of the study, the connection between heart disease epidemiological evidence, community strategies, and internal and external impacts will be revealed to contribute to a better application of knowledge.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevalence The studies discussed to provide an in-depth analysis of the risk factors of COPD, the relation that the environment and other respiratory conditions have on the development of the condition, and the burden it has […]
  • Chronic and Communicable Diseases Prevention The weakness faced by each agency in relation to its mission may be the lack of research of the groups they work with.
  • Cushing Disease and Endocrine Control In turn, ACTH stimulates the production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex in the adrenal glands. In general, it is possible to say that a 24-hour urine test may be regarded as a highly accessible […]
  • America’s Growing Clean Water Crisis and the Resulting Diseases The current water crisis in Flint, Michigan, has focused a lot of attention on the state of water infrastructure. Lastly, there will be a not adequate amount of water to help in dissolving the nutrients […]
  • An Overview of Ebola Virus Disease: Pathogen, Symptoms, and Treatment First recognized as an emerging disease in 1977, this pathogen belongs to the genus Ebolavirus and is characterized by virulence, with up to 80% mortality rate among the infected.
  • Air Pollution and Lung Disease To design a study in order to explore the link between lung disease and air pollution, it would be possible to follow a four-step process started by identifying the level or unit of analysis.
  • Occupational Skin Disease Development In order to control the risk of developing OSD, it is necessary to use various preventive measures and changes in the process of performing official duties at the enterprise.
  • Communicable Diseases: Hepatitis C The disease poses a threat to the public health of global populations and health security due to the increase in the number of international travel and the economic growth of countries.
  • Ebola Viral Disease Impact Analysis The Ebola Virus Disease can be caused by various viruses, including the Tai Forest virus, Bundibugyo virus, the Zaire Ebola virus, and the Sudan virus.
  • Vitamin E for Prevention of Heart Diseases As experiments on the benefits of vitamin E show, ‘swimming’ is not always the key to a completely healthy life, in which the risk of a heart attack is reduced to a minimum.
  • Emergency Preparedness: Disease Control and Prevention Prevention, vaccination, vital capacity, and others matter. Risk factors, prevention, and treatment are essential.
  • Obesity and Related Inflammatory Diseases in the Cardiovascular System The hypothesis is to prove the decrease of TNF- concentration after ghrelin implementation on adipose cells. The study is quantitative with the measurement of the concentration of the pro-inflammatory molecule before and after adding the […]
  • Types of Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases are illnesses associated with the violation of the normal functioning of the human respiratory apparatus. The first health problem is characterized by the inflammation of the bronchi and is accompanied by […]
  • Obesity and Inflammatory Diseases in the Cardiovascular System One of the largest risks connected to obesity is the damage to the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system. However, when a part of this system is impaired due to obesity, the delivery process becomes […]
  • Center for Disease Control Wonder Database Telehealth clinical, or the administration, monitoring, and synchronization of nursing support, the Prevention Guidelines Database delivered using digital techniques to expand coverage to sufferers within the United States.
  • Heart Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Respiratory: The patient is diagnosed with COPD and continues to smoke up to two packs a day. Psychosocial: The patient is conscious and able to communicate with the staff, informing them of his state of […]
  • Preventing Readmission: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease To reduce the possibility of Marcia’s readmission, authorities should provide her with social interaction and communities that would support her case and issue. In addition, Marcia should stop smoking and develop a healthy routine to […]
  • Plan for Management of Patient with Schizophrenia and Heart Disease About 1% of the world’s population suffers from schizophrenia About 0. 7% of the UK population suffers from schizophrenia Schizophrenia can manifest any time from early adulthood onwards, but rarely when a person is below […]
  • Family Nurse Practitioner Case Study: Infectious Diseases Second, the nurse practitioner should ask about any medications that the patient has used to treat the pain and the time when the cough is more pronounced.
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) For instance, cardiovascular problem such as chest pain or angina due to the lack of oxygen can cause a burning pain in the epigastric areas. The excessive consumption of alcohol can cause inflammation and bleeding […]
  • Pfizer Vaccine: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The researcher adds that the MHRA claims that people with severe allergic reactions to the components of the vaccines should not receive the medicine.
  • Aspects of Chronic Disease Management The main difference between the treatment of chronic and acute ailments is that the indicators used to analyze the effectiveness of the treatment of acute diseases are usually associated with the recovery time of the […]
  • Hospitalization Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevention Plan Since Albuterol Oral Inhalation did not work best for Marcia, her care providers had to alter the medications that she used in managing the COPD to acquire effectiveness and keep her away from the hospitals […]
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Definition, Stages, Diagnosis Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia, and it is a condition in which the brain stops appropriately performing its functions.
  • Acromegaly: Assessment and Disease Research Cushing’s disease is caused not by medications but by the presence of a benign tumor in the pituitary gland and adrenocorticotropic hormone production.
  • Health Maintenance Plan For Coronary Artery Disease In the initial stages of the atheroma, the transfer of SMCs from tunica-based media towards the intima seems to be a vital outcome of the ongoing inflammatory fermentation.
  • Climate Change and Disease-Carrying Insects In order to prevent the spreading of the viruses through insects, the governments should implement policies against the emissions which contribute to the growth of the insects’ populations.
  • The History of Human Disease: COVID-19 The symptoms, severity of the disease, and duration of the illness vary greatly based on numerous factors, such as the immunity of a person, strain of the virus, and others.
  • Systemic Links to Periodontal Diseases Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that damages the tooth-supporting apparatus that is, its soft tissue and bone which, if untreated, will lead to tooth loss.
  • Nursing Care for End-Stage Renal Disease These issues are worsened by the fact that the patient has edema, the signs of which are swelling under the skin in the legs and arms produced by a buildup of fluid in one body’s […]
  • Avian Influenza as Viral Disease It is spread by influenza type A, and some of the strains can bypass the species barrier and cause infections to others, such as pigs and humans.
  • Minors Seeking Treatment for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Without Parental Consent Due to the severity of sexually transmitted diseases, it is very important for doctors to provide minors with the necessary care.
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Neurological and Musculoskeletal Pathophysiologic Processes The condition results from the deficiency of dopamine in the brain that interferes with the functions of the motor movements like body movement.
  • The Kidney Disease Blog Analysis The second essential element of this blog is the opportunity to get to the latest research in my field and see what rehabilitation methods promise the best results.
  • Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease The effects of air pollution on human health are primarily dependent on the pollutants, their components, and the sources of the pollution.
  • Aspects of Chronic Disease and Obesity Obesity is a complex condition that enhances the risk of other diseases’ development and complications. Chronic inflammation in the body that obesity causes leads to pain, in particular the development of arthritis.
  • Nutrition in Relation to Heart Diseases in African Americans While the causes of such an occurrence are varied, dietary and nutrition-based difficulties are one of the factors that can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease in an Iranian Patient The patient in the company of his son returns to the clinic after four weeks. Since the patient shows no side effects of the disease and an increase in Exelon to 6 mg orally BID […]
  • Growing Burden of Chronic Disease in Australia It an important intervention to reduce the burden of chronic diseases because individuals will not depend entirely on healthcare providers in the management of the conditions2.
  • Features of Treatment and Diagnosis of Severe Diseases The main topic of the previous module was pneumonia and the methods of its treatment. The amount and intensity of the drug should match the weight of the patient and the type of pathogen.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Bacterial Bronchitis In chronic bronchitis, bronchial inflammation causes bronchia edema and an increase in the number and size of the goblet cells and mucus glands in the epithelium. The incidence and prevalence of COPD in the US […]
  • Diabetes Disease of the First and Second Types It is a decrease in the biological response of cells to one or more effects of insulin at its average concentration in the blood. During the first type of diabetes, insulin Degludec is required together […]
  • How the Eczema Disease Affects Epithelial Tissues Because of the wide coverage of epithelial tissues in the body, there are many types of diseases affecting the tissue, and it is essential to know them to understand how the disease affects epithelial tissues. […]
  • Benefits of Bicycling for Persons With Parkinson’s Disease: Analysis The key issue in this article’s introduction is the goal-directed physical exercise and general physical activities that are in practice to alleviate the challenges faced by PD patients.
  • Diets to Prevent Heart Disease, Cancer, and Diabetes In order to prevent heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, people are required to adhere to strict routines, including in terms of diet. Additionally, people wanting to prevent heart disease, cancer, and diabetes also need to […]
  • Disease Pandemics in the Situations of Typhoid Mary and Novak Djokovic
  • The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Improving the Patients’ Services
  • Chronic Renal Failure Disease: Causes, the Population Affected, and Prognosis
  • Genetic Disease in a Pregnant Woman and Fetus
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Bowel Resection
  • Aspects of Parkinson’s Disease
  • Diagnoses and Medication of Bowel Disease
  • Treatment and Diagnosis of Crohn’s Disease
  • Reducing Risks of Heart Diseases
  • Critiquing Research: Fatigue in the Presence of Coronary Heart Disease
  • J.P.’s Case Assessment: Patient With Sickle Cell Disease
  • Malaria Disease Control and Prevention
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Female Patient
  • The Infectious Diseases Policy Process
  • Examination of Albinism Genetic Disease
  • Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis of Naegleria Fowleri Disease
  • Gout Disease: Variations and Treatments
  • Parkinson’s Disease: The Main Aspects
  • Epidemiology: Eye Diseases and COVID-19
  • Mr. Akkad and Alzheimer’s Disease: Case Study
  • Social Marketing in Reducing Cardiovascular Disease
  • Discussion of Neurofibromatosis Disease
  • Analysis of Sources for COVID-19 and Eye Diseases
  • Ethical Challenges in Healthcare and Nursing Practice: Obesity-Related Diseases
  • Hyperphosphatemia and Chronic Kidney Disease Link
  • Gonorrhea Disease Transmission and Treatment
  • Dietary Approaches to Heart Disease and Hypertension
  • Threat Factors of Coronary Artery Disease
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: History, Mechanisms and Treatment
  • American Heart Association on Coronary Artery Disease
  • Obesity and Kidney Disease Treatment and Rehabilitation
  • Stroke: The Human Disease Project
  • Helicase and Deficiencies-Related Diseases
  • Disease Surveillance Program: Hepatitis A Awareness
  • Cardiovascular Disease Drugs: Amiodarone, Flecainide, Hydrochlorothiazide
  • Epidemics and Diseases of the Past and Microbiomes
  • Quality of Life and Chronic Pain: Musculoskeletal Diseases
  • The Coronavirus Disease 2019: Health Services for Non-Communicable Diseases
  • Strategies to Control the Incidence of Diseases
  • How Outbreaks of Respiratory Disease Affect the Way Mass Events Are Held Indoors
  • Do Mental Diseases Cause Obesity?
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Role in Influenza Preparedness
  • How Is Globalization Affecting Rates of Disease
  • Coronavirus Disease 2019: Statistical Analysis
  • Nutrients: Food and Nutrients in Disease Management
  • Medicare in Case of End-Stage Renal Disease
  • Blood Transfusions in the Management of Hematological Diseases
  • Coronary Artery Disease Causes and Related Hypotheses
  • Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases Acquisition
  • Public Health. Burden of Disease in Nigeria
  • Governmental Challenges of Disease Surveillance
  • Self-Management and Prevention of Diseases
  • Heart Disease: Population Affected- Brooklyn
  • Grave’s Disease: Symptoms and Treatment
  • Crohn’s Disease: Treatment Plan and Prognosis
  • Effects of Age and Aging on the Immune Response to Diseases Such as COVID-19
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes and Treatment
  • Distribution of Funds for Subsequent Management of Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
  • Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology, Health Promotion, and Disease Prevention
  • Chronic Disease Aggravation in Joint Surgery
  • Pregnant Women With Type I Diabetes: COVID-19 Disease Management
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Overview
  • Lecithin, Trimethylamine Oxide, and Heart Diseases
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Implications
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Soybean: Physiological Traits, Management, Main Disease
  • Diabetes Insipidus: Disease Process With Implications for Healthcare Professionals
  • Chlamydia Sexually Transmitted Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease Research in the Arab World
  • Lyme Disease Diagnostics: Culturing and Staining Procedures
  • The Parkinson’s Disease Analysis
  • Chronic Disease Prevention With Physical Activity
  • Center for Disease Control, National Archives Catalog Photo
  • Michael J Fox: Parkinson’s Disease Case Study
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Hypertension, and Heart Failure: The Case Study
  • Social Stigma of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in North America
  • Approaches to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
  • Covid-19: Serious Disease in Comparison to Flu
  • Cardiac Diseases in Pregnancy
  • Frontotemporal Dementia vs. Alzheimer’s Disease in a Patient
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Comparison
  • Kidney Function Tests: Chemical Methods Used to Diagnose Kidney Disease
  • Global Health Issue: The Coronavirus Disease
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Diagnostic and Treatment
  • Communicable Disease Health Education Tool: HIV, AIDS
  • Parkinson’s Disease Case Study Analysis
  • Heart Disease Among Hispanic and Latino Population
  • Pharmacologic Treatment for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
  • Werner Syndrome: Disease Process and Nursing Management
  • Business Intelligence Systems: Coronavirus Disease
  • Frail Elderly: Geriatric Chronic Disease
  • Communicable Diseases: Rubeola and Pertussis
  • Primary Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison’s Disease)
  • Cardiovascular Disease Profile in Female Patient
  • The Types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • The Effect of Music on People With Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Nutrition Importance in Preventing Future Diseases
  • Detection of Newborn Disease by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • The Global Burden of Disease
  • Zoonotic Diseases: Leishmaniasis
  • Allergic Diseases and the Hygiene Hypothesis
  • The Relationship Between Vitamin D Deficiency and Asthma Disease in Children
  • Public Health and Chronic Disease – Obesity
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs)
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Analysis
  • Asthma: Culture and Disease Analysis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases and Health Promotion in Women
  • Creutzfeldt – Jakob Disease: Diagnosis, Control, Treatment
  • HIV and AIDS as a Chronic Disease: The Unique Contributions of Nursing Through Philosophical, Theoretical, and Historical Perspectives
  • Sickle Cell Disease Complications and Management
  • End-Stage Renal Disease: Creating Awareness Among Patients
  • Health Disparities & Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Epidemiological, Trends and Patterns of Norovirus Disease
  • Cardiology: Women and Heart Diseases
  • Disease Control and Prevention: The Evaluation Process
  • Swine Flu Disease in Australia
  • Researching Chlamydia Trachomatis Disease
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Aetiology, Risk Factors, and Symptoms
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: 80-Year-Old Female Patient
  • The Diagnosis and Prevention of Chronic Diseases
  • Heart Disease and Stroke in Sarasota County
  • Rabies in South Africa: Tropical Disease Control
  • End Stage Renal Disease and Hemodialysis
  • Community Health: Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Tasmanian Devil’s Facial Tumor Disease
  • Coronary Heart Disease: Review
  • End Stage Renal Disease Prevalence in African American
  • Hypoparathyroid Disease: Review
  • Celiac Disease Description and Treatment
  • End-Stage Renal Disease and Hemodialysis
  • Risk Factors Involving People with Ischaemic Heart Disease: In-Depth Interview
  • Osteoarthritis Disease and Its Risk Factors
  • Disease Trends and the Delivery of Health Care Services
  • Emerging Infectious Disease: Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses
  • Food Borne Diseases Associated With Chilled Ready to Eat Food
  • Inherited Mutant Gene Leading to Pompes Disease
  • Blood Disorder: Disease Analysis
  • Challenges of Living With Alzheimer Disease
  • The Burden of Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Congestive Heart Failure – One of the Most Devastating Diseases
  • Critical Analysis on Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Nutrition: Preventing Food Born Diseases
  • The Impact of Chronic Disease in the Community
  • Progeria: Disease Etiology, Symptoms, and Prognosis
  • Childhood Development and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Depressive Symptoms and HIV Disease Relationship
  • Lyme Disease: What Is the Mystery Behind It?
  • Lyme Disease and the Mystery Behind It
  • Identifying Lyme Disease Host Species
  • Genetic Counseling – Tay Sachs Disease
  • Meningococcal Disease: Causes, Phases, Prevention
  • Coronary Heart Disease Aggravated by Type 2 Diabetes and Age
  • Osteomyelitis and the Differential Diagnosis of the Disease
  • Chronic Care For Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Coronary Artery Disease: Normal Physiology and Pathology
  • Legionnaires’ Disease: Causative Agents, Methods of Reproduction
  • Heart Disease in New York State
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Physiology
  • Viral Skin Diseases: Plantar Warts and Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
  • Cardiovascular Diseases and Associated Risk Factors
  • Disease Control Prevention & Epidemiology Concepts
  • Psychiatric Genetics. Epigenetics and Disease Pathology
  • Communicable Disease Control Strategies for AIDS
  • The Problems Associated With Cardiovascular Disease
  • Heart Disease and Low Carbohydrate Diets
  • Heart Disease: Cell Death During Myocardial Infarction
  • The Mechanisms That Auto Infectious Parasites Use in the Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases
  • Intervention of Heart Diseases in Children
  • Identification and Assessment of Heart Disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis. Disease Analysis
  • Epidemiology Discussions: Childhood Obesity Disease
  • Researching Cystic Fibrosis Disease
  • Hypertension Disease Causation
  • Heart Disease Among Hispanic & Latino Population
  • Synopsis of Research Studies of Individuals Afflicted by Mild Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Oral Disease Prevention: Past and Present Practices
  • Diet Therapy & Cardiovascular Disease
  • The Function of Kinase Inhibitor Staurosporine in Healthy and Disease States
  • Communicable Diseases: Tuberous Sclerosis-1
  • Communicable Diseases and Precautionary Measures
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Naturopathic Medicine
  • Genetic Diseases: Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Biological Basis of Asthma and Allergic Disease
  • Managing Sickle Cell Disease
  • Brain Reduction and Presence of Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Heart Failure: Prevention of the Disease
  • Prevention of Heart Disease and Stroke in Collier County
  • Public Health Problems and Neglected Diseases
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease Pathogenesis
  • Pediatrics: Kawasaki Disease
  • Acute Tonsillitis: Disease Analysis
  • Arthritis: Disease Analysis
  • Acne: Disease Analysis
  • Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Coronary Heart Disease
  • Chronic Inflammation: Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Pathophysiology of Crohn’s Disease
  • Renewed Focus on Non-Communicable Diseases
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD): Overview
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Community
  • Communicable Disease Control
  • Saturated Fatty Acids and Coronary or Cardiovascular Disease
  • The Nature and Control of Non-Communicable Disease – Asthma
  • Quality of Life in African Americans With the End-Stage Renal Disease
  • Genetically Identical Twins and Different Disease Risk
  • Dietary Calcium Intake and Mortality From Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Understanding Emerging Diseases
  • Researching the Giardiasis Disease
  • Bacterial Diseases of Marine Organisms
  • Epilepsy Disease Discussion
  • Current Challenges in Infectious Diseases
  • Social, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Causes of Diseases: Type 2 Diabetes
  • Causes & Preventing Proliferation of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
  • Disease Surveillance and Monitoring
  • Cardiovascular Disease Among Disorders of the Heart
  • Leishmaniasis: Disease of the New World
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Thirty Years of a Disease
  • Addison’s Disease: A Long-Term Endocrine Disorder
  • Parkinson’s Disease and Its Nursing Management
  • Human Diseases: Exploring Malaria
  • Effects of Whole Body Vibration in People With Parkinson Disease
  • Human Disorders: Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia
  • Chronic Disease: Survey on Beliefs and Feelings
  • Screening for Diseases as Caution Against Potential Infections
  • Environmental Interview on a Patient With Alzheimer Disease
  • Resistant Salmonella: Analysis and Cause of the Disease
  • Consumption of Caffeine Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Parkinson’s Disease
  • Periodontal and Cardiovascular Diseases: Research Development Project
  • Demographic Paper – Parkinson’s Disease
  • Experimental Studies on Williams Syndrome Disease
  • Cholera: A Waterborne Disease
  • Technostress: An Emerging Man-Made Modern-Day Disease
  • Doxycycline in Periodontal Disease
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Managing Partners
  • Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
  • The Cystic Fibrosis Disease Analysis
  • Disease Causing Organism: Salmonella Enterica Typhi
  • Pain, Disease and Health Relationship
  • Alzheimer’s Disease Article and Clinical Trial
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention Program for Tanzania
  • Periodontal Disease and Contribution of Bacteria
  • Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease Relationship
  • Therapeutic Properties of Fish Oil: Reduction of Heart Diseases
  • Swine Flu H1N1: Populations Affected, Course of the Disease, Intervention
  • Chronic Disease Management Framework
  • Concepts of the Ankylosis Disease
  • Concepts of Pneumonia Disease
  • Anemia Disease: Types and Causes, Treatment
  • Melanocyte Disease and Its Treatment
  • Thalassemia – Inherited Autosomal Recessive Blood Disease
  • Graves Disease: Medical Case Assessment
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Regarding Physiology
  • Huntington’s Disease Analysis
  • Infectious Diseases Overview and Analysis
  • Social Determinants of the Heart Disease
  • World Health Organization, US Center of Disease Control and Individual Countries
  • Kawasaki Disease Analysis
  • Race-Based Medicine: Diseases in Different Groups of the Population
  • Application of Healthcare IT in Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Concepts of Culture and Disease Paper: AIDS
  • AIDS and Its Trends: An Infectious Disease That Causes the Vulnerability of the Human Internal System
  • Periodontal Disease and the Gram Negative Bacteria
  • Periodontal Disease: Medical Analysis
  • My Path of Dealing With Limes Disease
  • Mapping the Neurofibrillary Degeneration From Alzheimer’s Disease Patient
  • The Role of Bacteria in Human Health and Disease Giving Specific Examples
  • The Status of Hand Hygiene Practices and a Cause in Disease Outbreaks
  • Bleeding on Probing: Progression of Periodontal Disease
  • Disease Specific Program: Disease Management
  • Motor Neuron Disease: Types, Diagnostics, and Treatment
  • Pediatric Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases
  • Crohn’s Disease and Perianal Manifestations
  • Crohn’s Perianal Disease: A Comprehensive Review
  • Infectious Disease Control in Different Scenarios
  • Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: Description of Disease
  • Menkes Disease: Disorder of Copper Metabolism
  • Infectious Diseases and Their Impact on History
  • Diabetes Mellitus Effects on Periodontal Disease
  • Lifestyle Diseases and Reduce Productivity
  • Diabetes Type II Disease in the Community
  • Pathophysiology of Disease: High BP and NIDDM
  • Climate Change and the Occurrence of Infectious Diseases
  • Huntington’s Disease, Huntingtin Protein (Mhtt)
  • Important Information of Parkinson’s Disease
  • Clearing the Air: An Examination of Modes of Disease Transmission on Airlines
  • Organ Transplants and Communicable Diseases
  • Health Promotion Program: Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Decrease
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -1 and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Connection
  • Nervous System: Parkinson’s Disease
  • Parthenogenesis of Celiac Disease
  • Kinds and Methods of Treatment of Prion Diseases
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infections Education
  • Bacteria Infectious Diseases: Strep Throat
  • Coronary Artery Disease, Parathyroid Adenoma, and 99mTc-SestaMIBI
  • Connection Between Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Nursing Legacy. Elderly Care Problems and Age-Related Health Diseases
  • Strawberry Pest and Diseases Management
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment Protocols
  • Basic Information of Huntington’s Disease
  • COVID-19: Epidemiology of the Disease
  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Heart Diseases
  • Typhoid Disease: Risk Factors, Symptoms and Prevention
  • The Evaluation of the Website for the American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association
  • More People Die by Guillain-Barre Disease Than by Swine Flu
  • Dementia: Disease Analysis and Treatment Strategies
  • Parasitic Wedge and COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease)
  • Corona Virus Disease: Proposed Policy and Results
  • A Proband for the Pedigree: Hypertension as Hereditary Disease
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Review
  • Ebola Virus Disease Analysis
  • Fatty Liver and Gastrointestinal Tract Disease in Dogs
  • Opioid Disease Prevention: Levels of Disease Prevention
  • Alcoholism as a Disease
  • Tuberculosis: History and Current State of a Disease
  • The Problem of Food Safety and the Spread of Various Diseases
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Statistics in the New Jersey
  • Global Health Issue Analysis: HIV – A Relatively New Disease
  • Emerging Infectious Disease Preparedness and Response
  • Ongoing Gingivitis With Periodontal Disease: Symptoms and Prevention
  • Hepatitis A: A Fatal Infectious Disease That Affects the Liver
  • “Field Epidemiology” by Gregg and “Infectious Diseases” by Tamarack
  • Disease Testing and Phenotype
  • Genomics, Prevention, and Control of Common Chronic Diseases
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Website Tools
  • Culture & Disease: Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Cardiovascular Diseases and Saudi Male Patients Aged 40 – 65 Years
  • “Disease of the Skin and Disease of the Heart”: China History
  • Molecular Techniques Used in Hirschsprung Disease Study
  • Anatomy Diagnosis: Cardiovascular Disease
  • Non-invasive Ventilation in Non-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Respiratory Failure
  • Anthropology. Diseases and Their Impact on Humans
  • Endocrine System and Diseases
  • Gout Disease: Prevention and Treatment
  • Communicable Diseases: Tuberculosis
  • Measles Disease Pathophysiology and Its Vaccination
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Causes and Treatment
  • Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Role of Alzheimer’s Disease Advanced in Our Understanding of the Aging Process
  • Disease in the News: “Bird Flu: If or When?” by Sellwood
  • A Boxing Legend Muhammad Ali: Parkinson’s Disease
  • The Mad Cow Disease in Britain
  • Effect of Disease on Native Americans
  • World Health Organisation (WHO) And Infectious Diseases
  • Heart Diseases: History, Risks and Prevention
  • Culture and Disease: Tuberculosis and African Americans
  • Parkinson Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Nutrition for People With Hearth Disease
  • Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Disease
  • Neuropsychological Assessment of Patients With Parkinson Disease
  • The Effect of Disease on Modern America
  • Empirical Project: Social Networks and Lyme Disease
  • Alcoholism: The Disease Is Often Progressive and Fatal
  • The Hot Zone: Making of A Global Disease
  • Disorder of Movements: Parkinson’s Disease
  • Recent Advances in Respiratory Care For Neuromuscular Disease
  • Parkinson’s Disease Etiology
  • Insects and Civilization: Vector-Borne Diseases
  • Biology. Coral Reef Disease as an Emerging Issue
  • Biology: Coral Reef and Its Diseases
  • Genetics of Parkinson Disease-Associated PARK2 Gene
  • Disease Risk Measures in Public Health
  • Diabetes: Encapsulation to Treat a Disease
  • Phenylketonurea, Galactosemia, Tay-Sachs Disease
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Medical Issues
  • Clinical Heath Psychology and Cardiovascular Disease
  • Chronic Disease That Affects Minority Populations
  • Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Male Adult
  • Center for Disease Control and HIV Prevention Goals
  • Congestive Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease
  • World AIDS Day Celebration: Increasing the Awareness of the People About the Disease
  • Neuroscience. Huntington’s Disease Epidemiology
  • Diabetes: Discussion of the Disease
  • Alcohol Consumption and Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Conventional Angiography for Coronary Artery Diseases
  • Congenital Diseases and Disorders
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Medical Issues.
  • Celiac Disease: Medical Analysis
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Medical Analysis
  • Sex and Gender-Related Differences in Infectious Disease
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the Mediterranean Region in the 15th-16th Century
  • Comparing Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Neuroscience of Aging
  • Infectious Diseases Analysis and Review
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teaching Plan
  • Schizophrenia as a Common Mental Disorder
  • Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Initiatives
  • Cardiovascular Diseases: Statistics, Factors, Diets
  • Cigar Smoking and Relation to Disease
  • Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Laws
  • Beta Thalassemia: Disease Description
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Long Term Care
  • Skeletal System. Osteoporosis and Paget’s Disease
  • Integumentary System Diseases. Skin Cancer and Eczema
  • Cirrhosis: Non- and Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  • Baclofen (Lioresal) and Cerebral Diseases
  • AIDS: Emergence Factors of Infectious Disease
  • Infectious Diseases Caused by Insects
  • Radiation as a Diseases Cause
  • Polluted Water and Human Diseases
  • Lyme Disease: On Its History and Prevention
  • AIDS and Its Impact on Humankind: The Leading Killer Disease in the World
  • The Effects of Alzheimer’s Disease on Family Members
  • Environmental Factors and Autoimmune Diseases Review
  • Adherence to Cardiac Therapy for Men with Coronary Artery Disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis as a Neurological Disease
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment
  • Kerataconus: Disease Development and Modern Treatment
  • Heart Diseases and Their Pathophysiology
  • Chronic Diseases: Heart Failure and Cancer
  • Women’s Health. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Medical Nutritional Therapy for Celiac Disease Patients
  • Heart and Lung Diseases: Health History and Assessment
  • Examining Pathophysiological Processes: Heart Failure & Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Combating Heart Disease in the African American Community of Kings County, NY
  • How Is Disease Beautified in the Modern Society Under the Guise of Beauty?
  • Implementation of Clinical Decision Support Systems for Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Cardiovascular Disease in African American Women: Reasons
  • Beautifying Diseases in Modern Society
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease’s Treatment
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Medication Treatment
  • Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Middle East
  • Disease Diagnosis & Treatment in Historical Contexts
  • Huntington’s Disease: Diagnosis and Prevention
  • “COMT Val158Met Polymorphism Modulates Huntington’s Disease Progression” by de Diego-Balaguer et al.
  • Ebola Virus Disease: Global Health at a Glance
  • Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease
  • Are Hypometric Anticipatory Postural Adjustments Contributing to Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease?
  • Why Is Coronary Heart Disease an Important Health Concern?
  • What Types of Heart Disease Are Caused by Stress?
  • Does Cannabis Intake Protect Against Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?
  • What Is the Deadliest Disease in Human History?
  • How Does Cardiovascular Disease Affect the Lungs?
  • What Diseases Are Caused by Deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest?
  • How Can Genetic Technologies Be Used to Treat Specific Diseases?
  • Why Does Mediterranean Diet Reduce Heart Disease?
  • How Does Alzheimer’s Disease Affect the Entire Human Lifestyle?
  • Can Emotional Stress Cause Cardiovascular Disease?
  • What Were the Common Diseases Found in London During the 19th Century?
  • How Can Lifestyle Changes Help With the Management of the Diseases?
  • What Diseases Can Be Prevented by Vaccination?
  • How Is Coronary Heart Disease Affecting the World?
  • Does Diet Protect Against Parkinson’s Disease?
  • How Does Chronic Kidney Disease Affect the Body System?
  • What Lifestyle Factors Influence the Development of Coronary Heart Disease?
  • Is Smoking the Leading Cause of Disease?
  • How Does Flossing Prevent Periodontal Disease?
  • What Disease Was Killing Hundreds of People in London During 1854?
  • Does Heart Disease Cause Lung Infection?
  • What Are the Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease Dialysis?
  • How Does Heart Disease Affect Women Differently From Men?
  • What Are the Modern Ways of Genetic Diseases Treatment?
  • How Can Epigenetics Be Used to Treat Diseases?
  • Does Human Behavior Influence the Occurrence of Diseases?
  • What Is the Pathophysiology of Kawasaki Disease?
  • How Far Can Countries Be Prepared for Serious Outbreak of Disease?
  • What Is the Role of Probiotics in Preventing Allergic Disease?
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2023, November 9). 618 Disease Essay Topics & Examples. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/disease-essay-topics/

"618 Disease Essay Topics & Examples." IvyPanda , 9 Nov. 2023, ivypanda.com/essays/topic/disease-essay-topics/.

IvyPanda . (2023) '618 Disease Essay Topics & Examples'. 9 November.

IvyPanda . 2023. "618 Disease Essay Topics & Examples." November 9, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/disease-essay-topics/.

1. IvyPanda . "618 Disease Essay Topics & Examples." November 9, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/disease-essay-topics/.

Bibliography

IvyPanda . "618 Disease Essay Topics & Examples." November 9, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/disease-essay-topics/.

  • Pneumonia Questions
  • Stroke Questions
  • Cancer Essay Ideas
  • Human Papillomavirus Paper Topics
  • Myocardial Infarction Research Ideas
  • Palliative Care Research Topics
  • Therapeutics Research Ideas
  • Vaccination Research Topics

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

  • Publications
  • Account settings

Preview improvements coming to the PMC website in October 2024. Learn More or Try it out now .

  • Advanced Search
  • Journal List
  • J Cardiovasc Echogr
  • v.28(3); Jul-Sep 2018

Logo of jcardecho

How to Write a Research Protocol: Tips and Tricks

Matteo cameli.

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Siena, Siena, Italy

Giuseppina Novo

1 Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Cardiology Unit, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy

Maurizio Tusa

2 Division of Cardiology, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Italy

Giulia Elena Mandoli

Giovanni corrado.

3 Department of Cardiology, Valduce Hospital, Como, Italy

Frank Benedetto

4 Division of Cardiology, Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli Hospital, Reggio Calabria, Italy

Francesco Antonini-Canterin

5 High Specialization Rehabilitation Hospital, ORAS, Motta di Livenza, Treviso, Italy

Rodolfo Citro

6 Heart Department, University Hospital “San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi D’Aragona”, Salerno, Italy

The first drafting of the protocol for a new research project should start from a solid idea with one or more of these goals:

  • Overcoming the limits of the current knowledge in a determinate field with the aim of bridging a “knowledge gap”
  • Bringing something new in a scarcely explored field
  • Validating or nullifying previous results obtained in limited records by studies on a wider population.

A research proposal born with the intent to convince the others that your project is worthy and you are able to manage it with a complete and specific work plan. With a strong idea in mind, it is time to write a document where all the aspects of the future research project must be explained in a precise, understandable manner. This will successively help the researcher to present it and process and elaborate the obtained results.[ 1 ] The protocol manuscript should also underline both the pros and the potentialities of the idea to put it under a new light.[ 2 ]

Our paper will give the authors suggestions and advices regarding how to organize a research protocol, step by step [ Table 1 ].

Main sections and subsections in a complete research protocol

A research protocol must start from the definition of the coordinator of the whole study: all the details of the main investigator must be reported in the first paragraph. This will allow each participant to know who ask for in case of doubts or criticalities during the research. If the study will be multicentric, in the first section must be written also the number of the involved centers, each one possibly matched with the corresponding reference investigator.

Second section: Specific features of the research study

After completing the administrative details, the next step is to provide and extend title of the study: This is made for identifying the field of research and the aim of the study itself in a sort of brief summary of the research; the title must be followed by a unique acronym, like an ID of the protocol. If the protocol has been already exposed and approved by the Ethical Committee, it is appropriate to include also protocol number.

A list of 3–7 keywords must be listed to simplify the collocation of the protocol in its field of research, including, for example, disease, research tools, and analyzed parameters (e.g. three-dimensional echocardiography, right ventricle, end-stage heart failure, and prognosis).

The protocol must continue stating the research background that is the rational cause on the base on which the study is pursued. This section is written to answer some of these questions: what is the project about? What is already available in this field in the current knowledge? Why we need to overcome that data? and How will the community will from the present study?

As for an original research manuscript, the introduction to the project must include a brief review of the literature (with corresponding references). It is also fundamental to support the premises of the study, to underline the importance of the project in that particular time period and above all, of the materials and methods that will be employed. The rationale should accurately put in evidence the current lack in that field of scientific knowledge, following a precise, logical thread with concrete solutions regarding how to overcome the gaps and to conclude with the hypothesis of the project. A distinct paragraph can be dedicated to references, paying attention to select only the previous papers that can help the reader to focus the attention on the topic and to not excessively extend the list. In the references paragraph, the main studies regarding the object of the research but also state-of-art reviews updating the most recent discoveries in the field should be inserted.

The section should successively expose the study design: monocentric or multicentric, retrospective or prospective, controlled or uncontrolled, open-label or blinded, randomized or nonrandomized, and observational or experimental. It should also be explained why that particular design has been chosen.

At this point, the author must include the primary objective of the research, that is, the main goal of the study. This is a crucial part of the proposal and more than 4–5 aims should be avoided to do not reduce the accuracy of the project. Using verbs as “to demonstrate,” “to assess,” “to verify,” “to improve,” “to reduce,” and “to compare” help to give relevance to this section. Add also a description of the general characteristics of the population that will be enrolled in the study (if different subgroups are planned, the criteria on the base of which they will be divided should be specified); primary and secondary end-points, including all the variables that represent the measure of the objective (e.g., all-cause death, cardiovascular death, hospitalization, and side effects of a drug) follow in this section.

All the single parameters and variables that will be assessed during the study must be accurately and precisely listed along with the tools, the methods, the process schedule timing, and the technical details by which they will be acquired; Here, the author should explain how the Investigators who work in the other involved centers have to sent their results and acquired data to the Core Laboratory (e.g. by filled databases or by sending images).

A special attention must then be paid to clarify the planning of each examination the study patients will undergo: basal evaluation, potential follow-up schedule, treatment strategy plan, comparison between new and already-in-use drugs, dose and dosage of the treatment in case of a pharmacological study. This part can be enhanced by flowcharts or algorithms that allow a more immediate comprehension and interpretation of the study strategy.

This section may result more complete if one more subsection, illustrating the expected results, is included. Considering the idea at the base on the project, the endpoints and the pre-arranged objectives, the author can explain how its research project will

  • Contribute to optimize the scientific knowledge in that specific field
  • Give real successive implications in clinical practice
  • Pave the way for future scientific research in the same or similar area of interest, etc.

The study population must be specified in detail, starting from inclusion criteria (including age and gender if it is planned to be restricted) and exclusion criteria: the more precise are the lists, the more accurate the enrollment of the subjects will be to avoid selection biases. This will also help to raise the success rate of the project and to reduce the risks of statistical error during the successive analysis of the data. The sample size should be planned and justified on the base of a statistic calculation considering the incidence and prevalence of the disease, frequency of use of a drug, etc., and possibly also indicating if the study considers a minimal or maximal number of subjects for each enrollment center (in case of multicentric studies).

This section of the protocol should end with some indications regarding timing and duration of the study: Starting and end of enrollment date, starting and end of inclusion date, potential frequency of control examinations, and timing of the analysis of the acquired data. If already settled, it can be useful to indicate also the type of statistical analysis that the investigators will apply to the data.

It is always necessary to prepare an informed consent to be proposed to the patient where premises, methods, and aims of the research together with advantages (e.g., some visits or diagnostic examinations for free) and possible risks derived from the participation to the study.

In this short section, various pieces of information regarding safety of the study must be added (a classification is fundamental in case of studies that expect the use of invasive procedures or drugs use). Usually, for nonobservational studies, an insurance coverage must be considered.

If the investigators have requested or plan to request funding or financial support, all the obtained resources must be listed to avoid conflicts of interest.

C ONCLUSION

Writing a complete and detailed document is a paramount step before starting a research projects. The protocol, as described in this paper, should be simply and correctly written but must clarify all the aspects of the protocol. The document could be divided into three different sessions to give all the parts the appropriate attention.

R EFERENCES

How to write a research paper

Affiliation.

  • 1 Stroke Treatment Team, Houston Medical School, University of Texas, Houston, TX 77030, USA. [email protected]
  • PMID: 15218279
  • DOI: 10.1159/000079266

Background: Busy strokologists often find little time for scientific writing. They sometimes develop a mental condition equivalent to that known by neurologists as writer's cramp. It may result in permanent damage to academic career. This paper provides advice how to prevent or treat this condition.

Methods: Prepare your manuscript following the IMRaD principle (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion), with every part supporting the key message. When writing, be concise. Clearly state your methods here, while data belong to Results. Successful submissions combine quality new data or new thinking with lucid presentation.

Results: Provide data that answer the research question. Describe here most important numeric data and statistics, keeping in mind that the shorter you can present them, the better. The scientific community screens abstracts to decide which full text papers to read. Make your point with data, not arguments.

Conclusions: Conclusions have to be based on the present study findings. The time of lengthy and unfounded speculations is over. A simple message in a clearly written manuscript will get noticed and may advance our understanding of stroke.

Publication types

  • Authorship*
  • Peer Review, Research*

Spartanburg Community College Library

  • Spartanburg Community College Library
  • SCC Research Guides

NUR 120 - Care Plan and Pathophysiology Paper

  • 1. Getting Started

ask a librarian email questions

First Things First - Assignment Requirements

Before you begin your pathophysiology paper, examine the assignment closely for any requirements. 

Q. How long is the paper? 

Refer to your assignment. The care plan has a certain number of diagnosis, interventions, rationales, etc. that must be included (rather than a length), and the pathophysiology paper has a required minimum word count (i.e. 1,000 words).

Q. How many sources?

Though it's not specified for the care plan, the pathophysiology paper requires at least 3 outside sources (see below).

Q. What kind of sources?

For this assignment, your sources must be peer-reviewed professional journal articles published in the last 5 years. 1 should be a medical journal, and 2 should be nursing journals.

Q. How do you cite sources?

For this assignment, you will use APA format .

Q. What is due?

This assignment has multiple parts. Notice that you must turn in the care plan, the pathophysiology paper, and the articles (your sources). 

Q. When is it due?

How long do you have to work on this paper or project? Is there one due date for everything or are there multiple due dates for different parts of the assignment?  Plan out your time, so you don't get stuck doing all the work at the last minute. Plan extra time in case you have problems or get stuck.

Selecting a Pathophysiology

The first thing you need to do before you begin your paper is to select a pathophysiology that you're going to write about. Consider the following:

Q. Do you have a choice?

This assignment topic will center around a patient you interact with in clinicals. You may not choose a patient from a previous clinical (it must be current). The patient you choose will determine the content of your paper. The pathophysiology paper must contain information about your patient’s primary medical diagnosis (the reason the patient was admitted).  The expectation is that you will write about the pathophysiology of the disease process and then discuss how it impacts your patient.

  • << Previous: Home
  • Next: 2. Explore Your Topic >>
  • 2. Explore Your Topic
  • 3. Search for Information
  • 4. Find Sources
  • List of Nursing Journals
  • 5. Cite Your Sources
  • 6. Evaluate Your Sources
  • 7. Write Your Paper

Questions? Ask a Librarian

SCC Librarian and student working together

  • Last Updated: May 8, 2024 9:31 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.sccsc.edu/nur120-pathophysiology

Giles Campus | 864.592.4764 | Toll Free 866.542.2779 | Contact Us

Copyright © 2024 Spartanburg Community College. All rights reserved.

Info for Library Staff | Guide Search

Return to SCC Website

My Paper Done

  • Services Paper editing services Paper proofreading Business papers Philosophy papers Write my paper Term papers for sale Term paper help Academic term papers Buy research papers College writing services Paper writing help Student papers Original term papers Research paper help Nursing papers for sale Psychology papers Economics papers Medical papers Blog

how to write a research paper on a disease

Top 100 Disease Research Topics For Paper Writing

how to write a research paper on a disease

Students have many disease research topics to consider when writing research papers and essays. A disease occurs when the body undergoes some changes. Science philosophy has pointed at pathogens and the causes of illness. Today, medicine focus on biochemical factors, nutrition, immunology levels, and environmental toxins as the causes of diseases. Research papers on disease topics can focus on specific illnesses independently or in groups. You can also write about infectious diseases like COVID-19 and HIV or non-communicable diseases. Non-communicable diseases are also known as chronic illnesses. These are diseases that you can’t get from a sick person. They include heart disease, cancer, stroke, and lung disease. These diseases account for up to 70% of global deaths. Nevertheless, whether you opt to write about advanced topics in Lyme disease or something simple like flu, research will be paramount. You  can also buy research papers cheap, if you don’t have time for it. So, d on’t put your grade at risk and get research paper online help .  

Why Choose Our Disease Research Topics?

Educators want you to convince them that you have taken the time to think about your topic and research it extensively. What’s more, your research should make a meaningful contribution to your study field. Therefore, select a good topic and research it extensively before you start writing. Analyze your information to determine what will make it to your research paper. Here is a list of 100 disease research paper topics worth considering for your paper or essay.

Top Disease Research Topics

Maybe you want to research and write a research paper on a topic that anybody will find interesting to read. In that case, consider ideas in this list of disease research topics.

  • How NSAIDS lead to peptic ulcers
  • What are pandemic diseases?
  • What is the role of pandemic diseases in the mankind history?
  • What are the symptoms of acute lung disease?
  • Explain how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder affects children
  • Discuss the AIDS pandemic in third world countries
  • Describe the main causes of AIDS
  • Explain how AIDS affects children
  • Discuss the treatment of AIDS
  • Is alcohol addiction a disease?
  • Discuss the Alzheimer’s disease scope and how it affects the elderly persons’ brain
  • How can you help dementia or Alzheimer’s disease patients and caregivers?
  • What are the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease?
  • What is autoimmune disease?
  • Explain how autoimmune thyroiditis begins
  • Examine acute protective membrane inflammation in bacterial meningitis
  • Compare pathology of AIDS and black death
  • Discuss the effects of cancer in today’s society
  • Autism and its causes
  • Different types of cancer and their prevalence

These are topics disease experts will recommend researching and writing about. And because students can write about these topics without getting complex, anybody will find them interesting. If you’re searching for research topics on Alzheimer’s disease, this list also has some ideas for you to consider.

Infectious Disease Topics for Research Papers

Are you interested in infectious disease research topics? If yes, you will find this list interesting. This category comprises hot topics in infectious disease fields. Consider some of these ideas for your research paper.

  • The virology, epidemiology, and prevention of COVID-19
  • The diagnosis of COVID-19
  • Prevention vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 infection
  • Questions people ask about COVID-19
  • Clinical features of COVID-19
  • COVID-19 management in a hospital setting
  • Infection control for COVID-19 in homes and healthcare settings
  • Skin abscess and cellulitis in adults
  • Clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and epidemiology of yellow fever
  • Transmission and epidemiology of measles
  • Role of untreated inflammation of genital tract in HIV transmission
  • Racial inequities of COVID-19 and HIV in black communities
  • Community-acquired pneumonia overview in adults
  • The use of procalcitonin in the infections of lower respiratory tract
  • Herpes simplex virus prevention and treatment
  • Uncomplicated Neisseria gonorrhea treatment
  • Society guidelines for COVID-19
  • Why public education is crucial in fighting COVID-19
  • Overview of Ebola over the last two decades
  • Investigations into the use of monoclonal antibody in treating Ebola

This category also has some of the best infectious disease presentation topics. Nevertheless, learners should prepare to research extensively before writing academic papers on these topics.

Interesting Disease Topics

Maybe you want to research and write a research paper on a topic that most people find interesting. In that case, consider these disease topics for research paper.

  • Discuss bulimia as a common eating disorder
  • Why are so many young people suffering from anorexia?
  • What causes most eating disorders
  • How serious are sleep disorders
  • Discuss rabies treatment- The Milwaukee protocol
  • Is assisted suicide a way to treat terminal diseases?
  • What are the effects of brain injuries?
  • What are professional diseases?
  • Is autism a norm variant or a disease?
  • The history of pandemics and epidemics
  • The role of antibiotics in treating diseases
  • What causes insomnia?
  • What are the effects of insomnia?
  • How to cope with insomnia
  • Can sleeping pills cure insomnia?
  • Explain what causes long-term insomnia
  • Using traditional medicine to fight insomnia
  • How to deal with bulimia and nervosa
  • How eating disorders affect self-harm behavior
  • How feminism affect anorexic women phenomenon

This is a list of easy disease topics for papers. What’s more, most people will find these research paper disease topics interesting to read about. Nevertheless, students should take time to research their preferred topics to come up with brilliant papers on any of these human disease research paper topics.

Cardiovascular Disease Research Topics

Maybe you’re interested in topic ideas on heart disease. Perhaps, you want to write about an illness of the respiratory system. In that case, consider these heart disease research topics.

  • An investigation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • A research of the causes of coronary artery disease
  • Antithrombotic therapy in surgical valve and prosthetic heart valve repair
  • Intervention choice for severe cases of calcific aortic stenosis
  • Prognosis and treatment of heart failure using preserved fraction of injection
  • Infective endocarditis management in adults
  • Risk assessment for cardiovascular disease for primary prevention
  • Prognosis and treatment of acute pericarditis
  • Treatment of reflex syncope in adolescents and adults
  • Anticoagulant therapy for preventing thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation
  • Cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 in adults
  • Acute decompensated heart failure treatment
  • What is hypertriglyceridemia?
  • How to manage elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in cardiovascular disease
  • Management and evaluation of cardiac disease
  • Conduction system and arrhythmias disease and COVID-19
  • Myocardial infarction in COVID-19
  • Can somebody inherit a cardiac disease?
  • How effective are treatments for irregular heartbeat?
  • How to determine the risk for a sudden cardiac death

This list comprises some of the best special disease topics. That’s because most people reading about these topics might not have heard about them before. Nevertheless, this category also has interesting research topics for disease control that may help individuals that want to avoid or manage some illnesses.

Research Topics for Chronic Disease

You probably know somebody living with a chronic illness. Unlike controversial topics in infectious disease, people don’t talk much about chronic illnesses. And for this reason, some people don’t know about these illnesses. When writing about non-communicable illnesses, you can settle for human genetic disease topics or even research topics for sickle cell disease. Here are some of the topics about non-communicable diseases that you can write about.

  • The risk of breast cancer after childbirth
  • Postpartum PTSD- Effective preventative measures
  • Experiences of females suffering from cardiac disease during pregnancy- A systematic review
  • Husbands attendance and knowledge of wives’ postpartum care in rural areas
  • Postpartum depression screening by perinatal nurses in hospitals
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus screening from the rural perspective
  • Maternal mortality- How to help cardiac and pregnant patients
  • Sex differences in cardio metabolic disorders and major depression- Effect of immune exposures and prenatal stress
  • Determinants and prevalence of anxiety and antepartum depressive symptoms in fathers and expectant mothers- Outcomes from perinatal psychiatric morbidity
  • Evaluating the effect of community health workers on non-communicable diseases, tuberculosis, malnutrition, antenatal care, and family planning
  • History of women with postpartum affective disorder and the risk of future pregnancies recurrence
  • New self-care guide package and its effect on neonatal and maternal results in gestational diabetes
  • Depressive symptoms and life events in pregnant women- Moderating the resilience role and social support
  • Gestational diabetes and ethnic disparities
  • Pregnancy and diabetes- Opportunities and risks
  • Cardiovascular disease maternal death reduction- A pragmatic investigation
  • Meta-analysis and systematic review of gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis with a two-step or one-step associations and approaches with negative pregnancy outcomes
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus treatment in women- A Cochrane systematic overview
  • Research in non-communicable diseases in Africa- A strategic investment
  • How to finance the national response to non-communicable diseases

Whether you opt to write about research paper topics in Huntington’s disease or non-communicable liver disease topics, you have to engage in extensive research to come up with a brilliant paper. We have more health research topics for you, so don’t hesitate to check them. Therefore, select an idea you will be comfortable researching and writing about. That way, you will avoid enduring a boring process of investing your topic and writing the paper. If you want to hire someone to help you with your assignment, just c ontact us with a “ do my research paper now ” request and we’ll get your papers done. 

Nutrition Research Topics

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Terms & Conditions Loyalty Program Privacy Policy Money-Back Policy

Copyright © 2013-2024 MyPaperDone.com

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

  • View all journals
  • Explore content
  • About the journal
  • Publish with us
  • Sign up for alerts
  • Published: 06 May 2024

APOE4 homozygozity represents a distinct genetic form of Alzheimer’s disease

  • Juan Fortea   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-1340-638X 1 , 2 , 3   na1 ,
  • Jordi Pegueroles   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-3554-2446 1 , 2 ,
  • Daniel Alcolea   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-3819-3245 1 , 2 ,
  • Olivia Belbin   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-6109-6371 1 , 2 ,
  • Oriol Dols-Icardo   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-2656-8748 1 , 2 ,
  • Lídia Vaqué-Alcázar 1 , 4 ,
  • Laura Videla   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-9748-8465 1 , 2 , 3 ,
  • Juan Domingo Gispert 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ,
  • Marc Suárez-Calvet   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-2993-569X 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ,
  • Sterling C. Johnson   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8501-545X 10 ,
  • Reisa Sperling   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-1535-6133 11 ,
  • Alexandre Bejanin   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-9958-0951 1 , 2 ,
  • Alberto Lleó   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-2568-5478 1 , 2 &
  • Víctor Montal   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-5714-9282 1 , 2 , 12   na1  

Nature Medicine ( 2024 ) Cite this article

14k Accesses

4462 Altmetric

Metrics details

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Predictive markers

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of APOE4 homozygosity on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by examining its clinical, pathological and biomarker changes to see whether APOE4 homozygotes constitute a distinct, genetically determined form of AD. Data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center and five large cohorts with AD biomarkers were analyzed. The analysis included 3,297 individuals for the pathological study and 10,039 for the clinical study. Findings revealed that almost all APOE4 homozygotes exhibited AD pathology and had significantly higher levels of AD biomarkers from age 55 compared to APOE3 homozygotes. By age 65, nearly all had abnormal amyloid levels in cerebrospinal fluid, and 75% had positive amyloid scans, with the prevalence of these markers increasing with age, indicating near-full penetrance of AD biology in APOE4 homozygotes. The age of symptom onset was earlier in APOE4 homozygotes at 65.1, with a narrower 95% prediction interval than APOE3 homozygotes. The predictability of symptom onset and the sequence of biomarker changes in APOE4 homozygotes mirrored those in autosomal dominant AD and Down syndrome. However, in the dementia stage, there were no differences in amyloid or tau positron emission tomography across haplotypes, despite earlier clinical and biomarker changes. The study concludes that APOE4 homozygotes represent a genetic form of AD, suggesting the need for individualized prevention strategies, clinical trials and treatments.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Access Nature and 54 other Nature Portfolio journals

Get Nature+, our best-value online-access subscription

24,99 € / 30 days

cancel any time

Subscribe to this journal

Receive 12 print issues and online access

195,33 € per year

only 16,28 € per issue

Buy this article

  • Purchase on Springer Link
  • Instant access to full article PDF

Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout

how to write a research paper on a disease

Similar content being viewed by others

how to write a research paper on a disease

Exceptionally low likelihood of Alzheimer’s dementia in APOE2 homozygotes from a 5,000-person neuropathological study

how to write a research paper on a disease

Association of APOE e2 genotype with Alzheimer’s and non-Alzheimer’s neurodegenerative pathologies

how to write a research paper on a disease

Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: pathobiology and targeting strategies

Data availability.

Access to tabular data from ADNI ( https://adni.loni.usc.edu/ ), OASIS ( https://oasis-brains.org/ ), A4 ( https://ida.loni.usc.edu/collaboration/access/appLicense.jsp ) and NACC ( https://naccdata.org/ ) can be requested online, as publicly available databases. All requests will be reviewed by each studyʼs scientific board. Concrete inquiries to access the WRAP ( https://wrap.wisc.edu/data-requests-2/ ) and ALFA + ( https://www.barcelonabeta.org/en/alfa-study/about-the-alfa-study ) cohort data can be directed to each study team for concept approval and feasibility consultation. Requests will be reviewed to verify whether the request is subject to any intellectual property.

Code availability

All statistical analyses and raw figures were generated using R (v.4.2.2). We used the open-sourced R packages of ggplot2 (v.3.4.3), dplyr (v.1.1.3), ggstream (v.0.1.0), ggpubr (v.0.6), ggstatsplot (v.0.12), Rmisc (v.1.5.1), survival (v.3.5), survminer (v.0.4.9), gtsummary (v.1.7), epitools (v.0.5) and statsExpression (v.1.5.1). Rscripts to replicate our findings can be found at https://gitlab.com/vmontalb/apoe4-asdad (ref. 32 ). For neuroimaging analyses, we used Free Surfer (v.6.0) and ANTs (v.2.4.0).

Bellenguez, C. et al. New insights into the genetic etiology of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. Nat. Genet. 54 , 412–436 (2022).

Article   CAS   PubMed   PubMed Central   Google Scholar  

Frisoni, G. B. et al. The probabilistic model of Alzheimer disease: the amyloid hypothesis revised. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 23 , 53–66 (2022).

Article   CAS   PubMed   Google Scholar  

Bateman R. J. et al. Clinical and biomarker changes in dominantly inherited Alzheimer’s disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 367 , 795–804 (2012).

Genin, E. et al. APOE and Alzheimer disease: a major gene with semidominant inheritance. Mol. Psychiatry 16 , 903–907 (2011).

Fortea, J. et al. Alzheimer’s disease associated with Down syndrome: a genetic form of dementia. Lancet Neurol. 20 , 930–942 (2021).

Fortea, J. et al. Clinical and biomarker changes of Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down syndrome: a cross-sectional study. Lancet 395 , 1988–1997 (2020).

Jansen, W. J. et al. Prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology in persons without dementia: a meta-analysis. JAMA 313 , 1924–1938 (2015).

Article   PubMed   PubMed Central   Google Scholar  

Saddiki H. et al. Age and the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease: a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker-based case-control study. PLoS Med. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1003289 (2020).

Jack, C. R. et al. NIA‐AA Research Framework: toward a biological definition of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Dement. 14 , 535–562 (2018).

Article   Google Scholar  

Beekly, D. L. et al. The National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC) Database: an Alzheimer disease database. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord. 18 , 270–277 (2004).

PubMed   Google Scholar  

Montine, T. J. et al. National Institute on Aging–Alzheimer’s Association guidelines for the neuropathologic assessment of Alzheimer’s disease: a practical approach. Acta Neuropathol. 123 , 1–11 (2012).

Reiman, E. M. et al. Exceptionally low likelihood of Alzheimer’s dementia in APOE2 homozygotes from a 5,000-person neuropathological study. Nat. Commun. 11 , 1–11 (2020).

Iulita M. F. et al. Association of Alzheimer disease with life expectancy in people with Down syndrome. JAMA Netw. Open https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2022.12910 (2022).

Corder, E. H. et al. Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type 4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in late onset families. Science 261 , 921–923 (1993).

Fortea, J., Quiroz, Y. T. & Ryan, N. S. Lessons from Down syndrome and autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurol. 22 , 5–6 (2023).

Therriault, J. et al. Frequency of biologically defined Alzheimer’s disease in relation to age, sex, APOE ε4, and cognitive impairment. Neurology 96 , e975–e985 (2021).

Betthauser, T. J. et al. Multi-method investigation of factors influencing amyloid onset and impairment in three cohorts. Brain 145 , 4065–4079 (2022).

Snellman, A. et al. APOE ε4 gene dose effect on imaging and blood biomarkers of neuroinflammation and beta-amyloid in cognitively unimpaired elderly. Alzheimers Res. Ther. 15 , 71 (2023).

Ghisays, V. et al. Brain imaging measurements of fibrillar amyloid-β burden, paired helical filament tau burden, and atrophy in cognitively unimpaired persons with two, one, and no copies of the APOE ε4 allele. Alzheimers Dement. 16 , 598–609 (2020).

Mehta, R. I. & Schneider, J. A. What is ‘Alzheimer’s disease’? The neuropathological heterogeneity of clinically defined Alzheimer’s dementia. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 34 , 237–245 (2021).

van der Lee, S. J. et al. The effect of APOE and other common genetic variants on the onset of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia: a community-based cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 17 , 434–444 (2018).

Belloy, M. E., Napolioni, V. & Greicius, M. D. A quarter century of APOE and Alzheimera’s disease: progress to date and the path forward. Neuron 101 , 820–838 (2019).

Belloy, M. E. et al. APOE genotype and Alzheimer disease risk across age, sex, and population ancestry. JAMA Neurol. 80 , 1284–1294 (2023).

Jack, C. R. et al. Long-term associations between amyloid positron emission tomography, sex, apolipoprotein E and incident dementia and mortality among individuals without dementia: hazard ratios and absolute risk. Brain Commun. 4 , fcac017 (2022).

Morris, J. C. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 43 , 2412–2414 (1993).

Weiner, M. W. et al. The Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 3: continued innovation for clinical trial improvement. Alzheimer’s Dement. 13 , 561–571 (2017).

Sperling R. A. et al. The A4 Study: stopping AD before symptoms begin? Sci. Transl. Med. https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3007941 (2014).

Molinuevo, J. L. et al. The ALFA project: a research platform to identify early pathophysiological features of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Dement.: Transl. Res. Clin. Interventions 2 , 82–92 (2016).

Johnson, S. C. et al. The Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention: a review of findings and current directions. Alzheimer’s Dement.: Diagnosis, Assess. Dis. Monit. 10 , 130–142 (2018).

Google Scholar  

LaMontagne P. J. et al. OASIS-3: longitudinal neuroimaging, clinical and cognitive dataset for normal aging and Alzheimer disease. Preprint at MedRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2019.12.13.19014902 (2019).

La Joie, R. et al. Multisite study of the relationships between antemortem [ 11 C]PIB-PET Centiloid values and postmortem measures of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology. Alzheimers Dement. 15 , 205–216 (2019).

Montal, V. APOE4-ASDAD. GitLab https://gitlab.com/vmontalb/apoe4-asdad (2024).

Download references

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the contributions of several consortia that provided data for this study. We extend our appreciation to the NACC, the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, The A4 Study, the ALFA Study, the Wisconsin Register for Alzheimer’s Prevention and the OASIS3 Project. Without their dedication to advancing Alzheimer’s disease research and their commitment to data sharing, this study would not have been possible. We also thank all the participants and investigators involved in these consortia for their tireless efforts and invaluable contributions to the field. We also thank the institutions that funded this study, the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitario, Carlos III Health Institute, the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas and the Generalitat de Catalunya and La Caixa Foundation, as well as the NIH, Horizon 2020 and the Alzheimer’s Association, which was crucial for this research. Funding: National Institute on Aging. This study was supported by the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitario, Carlos III Health Institute (INT21/00073, PI20/01473 and PI23/01786 to J.F., CP20/00038, PI22/00307 to A.B., PI22/00456 to M.S.-C., PI18/00435 to D.A., PI20/01330 to A.L.) and the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas Program 1, partly jointly funded by Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional, Unión Europea, Una Manera de Hacer Europa. This work was also supported by the National Institutes of Health grants (R01 AG056850; R21 AG056974, R01 AG061566, R01 AG081394 and R61AG066543 to J.F., S10 OD025245, P30 AG062715, U54 HD090256, UL1 TR002373, P01 AG036694 and P50 AG005134 to R.S.; R01 AG027161, R01 AG021155, R01 AG037639, R01 AG054059; P50 AG033514 and P30 AG062715 to S.J.) and ADNI (U01 AG024904), the Department de Salut de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Pla Estratègic de Recerca I Innovació en Salut (SLT006/17/00119 to J.F.; SLT002/16/00408 to A.L.) and the A4 Study (R01 AG063689, U24 AG057437 to R.A.S). It was also supported by Fundación Tatiana Pérez de Guzmán el Bueno (IIBSP-DOW-2020-151 o J.F.) and Horizon 2020–Research and Innovation Framework Programme from the European Union (H2020-SC1-BHC-2018-2020 to J.F.; 948677 and 847648 to M.S.-C.). La Caixa Foundation (LCF/PR/GN17/50300004 to M.S.-C.) and EIT Digital (Grant 2021 to J.D.G.) also supported this work. The Alzheimer Association also participated in the funding of this work (AARG-22-923680 to A.B.) and A4/LEARN Study AA15-338729 to R.A.S.). O.D.-I. receives funding from the Alzheimer’s Association (AARF-22-924456) and the Jerome Lejeune Foundation postdoctoral fellowship.

Author information

These authors contributed equally: Juan Fortea, Víctor Montal.

Authors and Affiliations

Sant Pau Memory Unit, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau - Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain

Juan Fortea, Jordi Pegueroles, Daniel Alcolea, Olivia Belbin, Oriol Dols-Icardo, Lídia Vaqué-Alcázar, Laura Videla, Alexandre Bejanin, Alberto Lleó & Víctor Montal

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas. CIBERNED, Barcelona, Spain

Juan Fortea, Jordi Pegueroles, Daniel Alcolea, Olivia Belbin, Oriol Dols-Icardo, Laura Videla, Alexandre Bejanin, Alberto Lleó & Víctor Montal

Barcelona Down Medical Center, Fundació Catalana Síndrome de Down, Barcelona, Spain

Juan Fortea & Laura Videla

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Lídia Vaqué-Alcázar

Barcelonaβeta Brain Research Center (BBRC), Pasqual Maragall Foundation, Barcelona, Spain

Juan Domingo Gispert & Marc Suárez-Calvet

Neurosciences Programme, IMIM - Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain

Department of Medicine and Life Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina. Instituto de Salud carlos III, Madrid, Spain

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid, Spain

Wisconsin Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA

Sterling C. Johnson

Brigham and Women’s Hospital Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Reisa Sperling

Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain

Víctor Montal

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Contributions

J.F. and V.M. conceptualized the research project and drafted the initial manuscript. V.M., J.P. and J.F. conducted data analysis, interpreted statistical findings and created visual representations of the data. O.B. and O.D.-I. provided valuable insights into the genetics of APOE. L.V., A.B. and L.V.-A. meticulously reviewed and edited the manuscript for clarity, accuracy and coherence. J.D.G., M.S.-C., S.J. and R.S. played pivotal roles in data acquisition and securing funding. A.L. and D.A. contributed to the study design, offering guidance and feedback on statistical analyses, and provided critical review of the paper. All authors carefully reviewed the manuscript, offering pertinent feedback that enhanced the study’s quality, and ultimately approved the final version.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Juan Fortea or Víctor Montal .

Ethics declarations

Competing interests.

S.C.J. has served at scientific advisory boards for ALZPath, Enigma and Roche Diagnostics. M.S.-C. has given lectures in symposia sponsored by Almirall, Eli Lilly, Novo Nordisk, Roche Diagnostics and Roche Farma, received consultancy fees (paid to the institution) from Roche Diagnostics and served on advisory boards of Roche Diagnostics and Grifols. He was granted a project and is a site investigator of a clinical trial (funded to the institution) by Roche Diagnostics. In-kind support for research (to the institution) was received from ADx Neurosciences, Alamar Biosciences, Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Eli Lilly, Fujirebio, Janssen Research & Development and Roche Diagnostics. J.D.G. has served as consultant for Roche Diagnostics, receives research funding from Hoffmann–La Roche, Roche Diagnostics and GE Healthcare, has given lectures in symposia sponsored by Biogen, Philips Nederlands, Esteve and Life Molecular Imaging and serves on an advisory board for Prothena Biosciences. R.S. has received personal consulting fees from Abbvie, AC Immune, Acumen, Alector, Bristol Myers Squibb, Janssen, Genentech, Ionis and Vaxxinity outside the submitted work. O.B. reported receiving personal fees from Adx NeuroSciences outside the submitted work. D.A. reported receiving personal fees for advisory board services and/or speaker honoraria from Fujirebio-Europe, Roche, Nutricia, Krka Farmacéutica and Esteve, outside the submitted work. A.L. has served as a consultant or on advisory boards for Almirall, Fujirebio-Europe, Grifols, Eisai, Lilly, Novartis, Roche, Biogen and Nutricia, outside the submitted work. J.F. reported receiving personal fees for service on the advisory boards, adjudication committees or speaker honoraria from AC Immune, Adamed, Alzheon, Biogen, Eisai, Esteve, Fujirebio, Ionis, Laboratorios Carnot, Life Molecular Imaging, Lilly, Lundbeck, Perha, Roche and outside the submitted work. O.B., D.A., A.L. and J.F. report holding a patent for markers of synaptopathy in neurodegenerative disease (licensed to Adx, EPI8382175.0). The remaining authors declare no competing interests.

Peer review

Peer review information.

Nature Medicine thanks Naoyuki Sato, Yadong Huang and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Primary Handling Editor: Jerome Staal, in collaboration with the Nature Medicine team.

Additional information

Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information.

Supplementary Methods, Results, Bibliography, Figs. 1–7 and Tables 1–3.

Reporting Summary

Supplementary code.

This code is also available in the GitLab repository.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article.

Fortea, J., Pegueroles, J., Alcolea, D. et al. APOE4 homozygozity represents a distinct genetic form of Alzheimer’s disease. Nat Med (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-024-02931-w

Download citation

Received : 03 November 2023

Accepted : 19 March 2024

Published : 06 May 2024

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-024-02931-w

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

Quick links

  • Explore articles by subject
  • Guide to authors
  • Editorial policies

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

how to write a research paper on a disease

555 Disease Research Topics & Disease Project Ideas

Are you tired of disease essay topics lists simply enumerating common illnesses? Then this article is exactly what you need! Here, you will find an outstanding list of interesting diseases to write a report on or make a presentation about.

🏆 Best Disease Topics for Project

✍️ disease essay topics for college, 👍 good disease research topics & essay examples, 🌶️ hot disease project ideas, 🎓 interesting diseases to write a report on, 📌 easy disease essay topics, 💡 simple disease essay ideas, ❓ disease research questions.

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Role of a Nurse
  • Research Proposal: Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Peru – Globalization, Environment, Crime and Disease
  • “The Bear Came Over the Mountain”: True Love and Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Chickenpox: Disease Control and Prevention
  • Analysis of Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Diabetes: Causes and Effects of Disease
  • Prevention of Chronic Disease in the Modern Society The impact of the problem of chronic diseases is considered at the national level since many patients are at risk regularly.
  • Obesity as a Disease: Arguments For and Against Although some people consider that obesity is a disease caused by biological and psychological factors, others are confident that it should not be perceived as a disease.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: A Literature Review This paper focuses on the definition of Alzheimer’s disease, including the diagnosis, symptoms, prevalence, participating factors, and a description of more vulnerable groups.
  • Levels of Disease Prevention A healthy population is more beneficial for development since it is employable, and there is no need for state help.
  • Real-Life Story of Post-traumatic Stress Disease Philips’s case is an actual representation of the manifestation and intervention of PTSD, a piece of evidence the condition is treatable.
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Categories, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment The nerve cells (or the neurons) are located in the substantia nigra of the brain which is pigmented part of the brain that secrete a chemical substance known as dopamine.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patient Case Study A patient arrived at the ER with severe shortness of breath, persistent coughing, wheezing, and complaining of overwhelming fatigue.
  • Cardiovascular Disease: General Information This paper focuses on cardiovascular diseases, drawing from evidence-based studies and scientific data to understand the causes and develop recommendations for lowering CVD prevalence.
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease One of the most recognizable symptoms of GERD is regular heartburn, resulting in a burning, painful sensation in the chest.
  • Common Lung Diseases Overview The human lung is a respiratory organ made up of secondary lobules and Broncho vascular bundles, alveoli and blood vessels, and an interstitial.
  • Final Care Coordination Plan: Alzheimer’s Disease Facts Care coordination serves as an essential practice in patient-centered care, targeting patients’ needs, preferences, and values and ensuring access to care and holistic treatment.
  • Disease Management and Effects Regulation Disease management entails excellent healthcare interventions that aim at regulating the effects of a disease.
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis Disease Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition that can appear in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus and, in most severe cases, may turn out to be fatal if not addressed in due time.
  • Cholera Infectious Disease. Disease Spread Pattern Cholera is an infectious disease that is caused by a bacterium. The disease is transmitted through the consumption of food or water that is contaminated with fecal material.
  • Health Belief Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Health Belief Model is important in prevention of illness and promotion of health. As a result, the nurse should apply it to prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Oral Hygiene in Hospital Patients: Preventing Infectious Diseases Having an effective oral care program is a must for every hospital in order to protect patients from contracting infectious diseases.
  • Risk Factors for Hypokinetic Disease This study gives a short definition of the diagnosed health condition of two family members including information on risk factors for hypokinetic disease.
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The CDC can contribute to the enhancement of public health and safety, the promotion of equal opportunities, and the improvement of the quality of life.
  • Caregiver Burden for Adult Children Whose Parent Has Alzheimer’s Disease The purpose of the proposed study is to critically explore the relationship between caregiver burden and social stigma for adult children whose parents have AD.
  • Heart Disease and Stroke: Project Proposal and Budgeting This paper is a project proposal for the management of heart disease and stroke in Minnesota, outlines a leadership and strategic plan for addressing the high incidences.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases Impacts STD is an infectious disease transmitted through unprotected sexual activities such as anal sex, vaginal penetration, intravenous drug use or IV.
  • Healthy Lifestyle and Disease Prevention Representatives of the philosophical and sociological direction in medicine and prevention consider a healthy lifestyle as a global social problem.
  • Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases: Tuberculosis Although tuberculosis has gained massive notoriety within the first several months of its premiere, a lot of people remain unaware of the effects that the disease produces.
  • Heart Disease: Post-interventional Practice and Monitoring Patient education plays a key role, as the man must be aware of physical conditions characterized by negative dynamics.
  • The Sexually Transmitted Diseases Screening, vaccinations, and awareness are required because of sexually transmitted diseases’ rising trends, negative effects on the public’s health, and escalating costs.
  • Effect of Bananas and Other Compounds on Lyme Disease Bananas contain many bioactive compounds that are beneficial for health. Antioxidants such as Vitamin C are present in bananas as well.
  • Nursing Assessment of Patient With Respiratory Disease As the patient has a history of COPD diagnosis, it is vital to consider the pathophysiology of his disease process through the prism of potential exacerbations of COPD.
  • Drug Addiction: A Choice or a Medical Disease? This article examines two opposing points of view on the problem of drug addiction – does a person have a choice to be a drug addict or is drug addiction a medical disease?
  • Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Reduced intake of trans fats. This involves the banning of all industrial trans fats through a legislature, just like Denmark did.
  • The Cardiovascular Disease: Risk Factors The three main risk factors for cardiovascular disease include hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. They are modifiable since they are treatable and we can change them.
  • Nutrition, Disease, and Malnutrition The paper remarks on the essence of nutrition as a critical component of an individual’s overall health, and stresses the malnutrition outcomes.
  • Dealing with the Disease Outbreak A disease is a condition of the body in which some abnormality occurs, which may, in turn, cause pain, distress, or discomfort.
  • Project and Study Design of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Teeneagers The HBM will be used to gain a better understanding of the adolescents’ health behaviors and possible reasons for non-compliance with any recommended health actions.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Community Teaching Plan This paper is a summary and reflection of my personal teaching experience for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Cardiovascular Diseases: Causes and Risk Factors The main causes of cardiovascular diseases are lifestyle choices such as smoking and obesity coupled with physical inabilities.
  • Sickle Cell Disease Analysis Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) also referred to as Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) is an autosomal blood disorder that occurs in individuals who possess a pair of recessive Sickle Cell genes.
  • Tarui’s Disease Due To Phosphofructokinase 1 Deficiency Tarui’s disease is a metabolic ailment that arises from the deficiency of the enzyme phosphofructokinase. The glycolytic pathway does not go to completion in the muscles.
  • Crohn’s Disease Pathophysiology and Treatment The following paper will discuss the etiology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, treatment, and prevention of Crohn’s disease.
  • An Algorithm for Coronary Artery Disease Coronary heart disease can be dangerous if not treated at the right time. This paper provided a general formula that can be used to treat and manage coronary artery disease.
  • Health Promotion Theory for Chronic Kidney Disease Effective prevention of chronic kidney disease (CKD), clearly, requires different approaches to lessen the number of deaths in the world.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases Rates in Prince George’s County This paper focuses on the rate of sexually transmitted diseases in county of Prince George, in Maryland. More specifically the community diagnosed is that of Upper Marlboro City.
  • Dementia – The Disease of the Older Generation The research paper explores the ways in which the quality of life of patients with dementia could be improved.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Symptoms, Risk Factors, and Treatment Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Disease symptoms are normally occasioned by either chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
  • Human Disease Course Importance for Nursing Students For a nursing student, the information obtained during the Human Disease course provides a framework on top of which one may build further knowledge, skills, and competencies.
  • Disease Research: Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a multifactorial, complex illness that demands proper clinical understanding and a multidisciplinary way to determine diagnosis and treatment.
  • The Impact of Climate Change on Inflectional Diseases This paper will examine the increasing spread of infectious diseases as one of the effects of climate change, as well as current and possible measures to overcome it.
  • Communicable Disease Control. Medical Issues. Communicable diseases are those diseases that are easily spread from person to person by way of contact, food, water, contaminated objects or even through the air.
  • Understanding Ebola: Epidemiology of Virus Disease This paper describes the epidemiology of Ebola, related determinants of health, the epidemiologic triangle, the role of community health nurse in containing outbreaks and a global implication of this disease.
  • Physiology of Parkinson’s Disease The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease manifest themselves as a result of decreased activity of cells secreting dopamine.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Patient Nursing Care Plan Patients with renal failure are the target population the needs of which will be addressed in the course of the study.
  • Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Strategies The purpose of this analysis is to identify the most efficacious policy strategies that can help prevent heart diseases and strokes.
  • Female Patient With Hypotension and Alzheimer’s Disease The paper presents the case study analysis of a female patient with hypotension and Alzheimer’s disease who recently suffered a fall.
  • Discussion: Disease and Homeostasis Not all diseases can be cured, but some can be managed through treatments that help relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
  • Drug Addiction: A Disease or a Choice? Drug addiction remains a serious health concern for contemporary society. The problem of whether drug addiction can be viewed as a disease or a choice remains topical.
  • ADHD: The Center’s for Disease Control and Prevention Webpage The Center’s for Disease Control and Prevention webpage on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder sufficiently employs ethos, pathos, and logos rhetoric allures.
  • Stereotyping Related to Parkinson’s Disease The current paper will focus on analyzing the stereotypes relating to Parkinson’s disease. Specifically, the patient group which will be the subject of the study is older men.
  • Dementia Disease and Its Physiological Effects The rarest manifestations for people with dementia are euphoria and hallucinations. The significant clinical presentations of this condition are depression, apathy, and anxiety.
  • Researching the Disease Prevention Along with the development of new technologies and methods of patient care, modern medicine is characterized by progress in the field of prevention.
  • Gerontology Assignment: Aging and Chronic Diseases Most people on the planet long to have a long life, and many people make preparations on how to live their sunset years gracefully.
  • Improving Performance in Disease-Specific Indicators Despite following the recommendations of the Medicare Hospital, the hospital performances for pneumonia, acute myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure vary.
  • The Ebola Virus and Disease Prevention The Ebola virus belongs to the filioviridae family in the order of mononegaviruses. The virus is single-stranded and exhibits a distinct heterogenous threadlike structure.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pathophysiology Pelvic inflammatory disease is a disease of pelvic organs in women. It is defined as “an infection of the upper genital tract occurring predominantly in young women”.
  • Health Profile Assessment: Coronary Heart Disease Health Profile Assessment is a way of understanding the health conditions of individuals and families. It aids individuals to make decisions relating to their health.
  • DNP: Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention The goal of this paper is to introduce a self-assessment that represents my skills and proves my readiness to work on the DNP project to prevent STD in elderly male patients.
  • Congenital Heart Disease in Children Little remains known about the causes, effects, and remedies to congenital heart disease. The study provides the literature review that explores congenital heart disease in detail.
  • The Spread of Preventable Diseases One of the most impressive examples of the disease, which is widespread due to the willingness of part of the population to make vaccines, is measles.
  • Sickle Cell Disease: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention The current report is aimed at producing an approximate plan of action for a definite patient who has been diagnosed with sickle cell anemia at birth.
  • Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects of Diet and Exercise In this research paper, the effects of exercise and diet on human hearts were discussed through the prism of the analysis of cardiovascular diseases, its types, and risk factors.
  • Cell Organelles in Health and Diseases Organelles are structures in a cell that have specific functions such as energy production and controlling growth.
  • Genetic Diseases: Hemophilia This article focuses on a genetic disorder such as hemophilia: causes, symptoms, history, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease Through the Lens of a Relationship In this story, “The Mysteries of My Father’s Mind” by Rebecca Rotert, a whole complex of topics is raised related to the experiences of Alzheimer’s.
  • An Outbreak of the Irrational: Refusion from Measles Disease Vaccination Today people do not face measles disease and its consequences, and for this reason, they are not afraid of it enough. The paper discusses the reasons for refuse from vaccination.
  • A Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as “an infection-induced inflammation of the female upper reproductive tract predominantly caused by sexually-transmitted pathogens
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia Description As time goes by, people are more likely to encounter memory problems. This can be both a natural sign of aging or illness.
  • Epidemiology: Waterborne Diseases Development The article highlights the problem of water-borne diseases, the author also explains the reasons for the increase in the number of these diseases.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Nursing Activities Public health nurses play a critical role in the prevention of STDs and HIV by providing specialized care and creating interventions aimed at educating the population.
  • The Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Community Teaching Plan The present paper will offer a reflection on a lesson with a focus on the evaluation of related teaching experience, community response, and the aspects that could be improved.
  • Transition in Terms of Chronic Diseases Chronic diseases have become rather widespread. It is acknowledged that chronic diseases might start at any time in life, be it the childhood or elderly age.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease This paper includes educational lessons targeted at teaching how to overcome the burden of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Adolescents Sexually transmitted diseases can be spread by vaginal, anal, and oral intercourses and may not cause symptoms but be passed on to others unnoticed.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease in the “Away From Her” Movie This paper analyzes the movie “Away from Her” that presents an accurate portrayal of the lives of people with Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Health Promotion and Disease Prevention The research of the work is focused on finding the roots of the development of common adult diseases and addressing these roots at the early stages.
  • Differences Between Illness and Disease If people do not realize they have it, the illness will not affect them, but someone may pass away from it. In a perfect world, the sickness is healed, and the ailment goes away.
  • Microbe-Human Interaction in Health and Disease One of the most critical topics in microbe-human interaction concerns microbial reservoirs since they inform one about the various places pathogens can be found.
  • Healthy People 2030: Addressing Cardiovascular Diseases Healthy People 2030 develop programs and interventions to address the cardiovascular diseases issue from different angles simultaneously.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases Transmission Involving Drug Use Preventive techniques need to target drug addicts and sex workers to combat the STD epidemic and offer interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviors and drug use.
  • Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Osteopathic interventions appear to be beneficial in decreasing GERD symptoms in the long term. OMT may be an additional or alternative treatment.
  • Guillain-Barré Disease and Therapy Options Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon condition in which the immune system targets the nerves in the body leading to muscle weakness, tingling in the extremities, etc.
  • Cardiac Health and Disease Prevention The prevalence of cardiovascular conditions in today’s environment has become a pressing concern. Millions of people suffer from them.
  • Multiple Myeloma. Disease Analysis Multiple Myeloma is this blood disease that is widespread, as it is “the second most frequent blood malignancy” in the United States of America
  • The Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease The paper states that the incidence of end-stage renal disease has declined since the 2010s, but it is still the highest in the world.
  • Health Promotion Among Australian Aborigines with Respiratory Diseases The high prevalence rate of respiratory diseases among the Aborigines in Australia has prompted an urgency to carry out a need analysis for its causal factors.
  • Distribution of Oral Diseases The paper discusses how dental caries, periodontal diseases, and oral cancer are distributed nationally and globally.
  • Infectious Disease and Public Health Focus Infectious disease may be defined as the clinically manifest infection, resulting from the sickness caused by pathogens.
  • Peritonitis: Description of the Disease and Treatment Peritonitis is an acute peritoneum inflammation, which is a thin membrane covering the surface of the abdominal wall and the organs located in the abdominal cavity.
  • Lyme Disease: Causes and Treatment The purpose of this article is to consider Lyme Disease: pathogen, transmission routes, course of the disease, and treatment.
  • Living With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Diagnosis and Management Plan This study focuses on issues surrounding the diagnosis and management of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
  • Heart Disease Risk Factors and Assessment Approach The discussion focuses on three risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Three factors associated with heart disease have been chosen for review.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Epidemiology Principals This paper considers the development of the disease in the modern society and focuses on the epidemiology principals applied currently to the chronic kidney disease.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Symptoms, Treatment Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has varied pathophysiology, which provides for the need of assessment data while diagnosing and assessing the needs of patients.
  • Health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention This paper includes a brief analysis of the impact the CDC agency has on healthcare quality and community development.
  • Overview of Alzheimer’s Disease Patient Education Alzheimer’s disease patient education is an essential aspect of dealing with, treating, and living with the condition.
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Preventive Measures There are many ways of helping patients with chronic kidney disease to manage their chronic condition and avoid worsening of the illness.
  • Heart Disease and Stroke (HDS): Pathophysiology and Treatment Heart disease and stroke (HDS) can affect people of all ages, but the risk of developing HDS is increasing with age.
  • Myasthenia Gravis: An Autoimmune Disease Myasthenia Gravis is a neuromuscular autoimmune disease that causes varying degrees of muscle weakness. This paper seeks to review two articles done on the topic of MG.
  • Delirium Disease and Older Adult Patients Older adults are one of the most vulnerable groups in hospital settings as their bodies and minds are subject to a wide range of disorders, conditions, and illnesses.
  • Communicable Diseases: Measles and Its Impact on the Population Among the variety of communicable diseases, there are those that are typical for certain population groups. One of the problems of modern medicine is measles, mostly a child’s ailment.
  • Acute Pancreatitis as a Life-Threatening Disease Acute pancreatitis is hereditary for some people since gene mutations determining the patient’s disposition for the disease have been discovered.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease in Pinecrest Community People usually suffer from disorientation, loss of memory, details confusion, and mood changes. It is hard to introduce certain criteria for Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Its Prevention Various sources often contravene each other on the efficacy of this or that particular preventive measure in relation to pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Treatment This paper discusses the questions related to pelvic inflammatory disease, its symptoms and manage, teaching, and follow-up, by analyzing a particular case.
  • Heart Disease Patients’ Education and Barriers Relevant academic literature has been reviewed to identify major themes and important findings in the area of patient education among heart disease patients.
  • Self-Management Skills in Chronic Disease Management If a patient does not know how to manage his or her condition and engage in effective self-care, negative health outcomes can be expected.
  • Sickle Cell Disease and Healthcare Decisions The paper analyzes sickle cell disease, investigates the involvement of the family in making healthcare decisions and determines the role of grants and FDA regulations.
  • Miami-Dade County’s Communicable Diseases The monthly report on epidemic diseases in Miami-Dade County, FL, focuses on communicable diseases in all ages of the population.
  • Patient Teaching Plan: Hypertension as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Kidney Disease The patient has been diagnosed with renal failure. The present assignment shall focus on hypertension as a modifiable risk factor for kidney disease.
  • The Patients Suffering from Chronic Diseases The purpose of the given research is to determine the way a nurse might contribute to the improvement of the patients suffering from chronic diseases` health.
  • Quality Long-Term Care for Patients With Chronic Diseases The provision of quality long-term care for patients with chronic diseases can increase their life expectancy and improve its quality, although not cure the disease.
  • Kidney Stones Disease: Causes and Treatment The renal calculi, also known as kidney stones, is caused by an imbalance between the precipitation and solubility of the salts in the urinary bladder and the kidneys.
  • Family Planning: Human Reproductive Diseases Regular follow-up involves assessing satisfaction with the contraceptive method, changes in lifestyle and diet, or changes in medications.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Autoimmune Disease The paper states that rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease caused by inflammation in the body. It occurs when the body’s immunity targets healthy cells.
  • Heart Disease Risk Profiles and Gender Differences There are gender differences in heart disease risk profiles and associated chronic conditions, despite the similarity of the classical risk factors.
  • Shifting Disease Burden and Age Discrimination The disease burden is exacerbated by social and economic disparities affecting healthcare access. Age discrimination and challenges caused by multimorbidity should be addressed.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Genetic Risk and Ethical Considerations Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease that causes brain shrinkage and the death of brain cells. It is the most prevalent form of dementia.
  • Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease While Alzheimer’s disease can be found in every state, Texas’ statistics indicate the special prevalence of the condition, making dementia a permeating public health issue.
  • Feeding Patients With Dementia or Alzheimer’s Disease The effectiveness of probes in feeding persons with dementia/Alzheimer’s disease remains high. However, because of the risks, other less invasive methods are recommended.
  • Chronic Diseases’ Effects on Emotional & Social States Many people are diagnosed with various illnesses, and often those conditions are chronic. A significant number of people across the US face long-standing diseases.
  • Policy Changes to Control Disease Better Concerns and inquiries about the most effective ways to prevent and control viruses are raised by the increasing trend of disease transmission.
  • The COVID-19 Infectious Disease Analysis Talking about infectious diseases, modern people should remember the threat of COVID-19 and the necessity of taking certain precautionary steps.
  • Heart Disease in the Elderly: Risks, Pathological Changes, and Solutions Heart conditions or cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent among elderly individuals and are considered a leading cause of mortality among individuals over 65 years.
  • Diabetes Disease, Its Prevention and Treatment This paper states that the critical element of achieving success in the precluding of diabetes and its complications appears to be the prevention of diabetes.
  • A Critical Review of Psychological and Behavioral Responses to Coronavirus Disease 2019 The critical review examines the psychological and behavioral responses of individuals to the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the influence of personality traits.
  • Akan Adults with Hypertension: Self-Disease Management This essay discusses the necessary change models applicable for the Akan adult population in West Africa living with hypertension.
  • The Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in Nigeria Ebola is a highly infectious disease with elevated mortality and spread rates. The paper examines the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria.
  • Analysis of Ebola Virus Disease This paper discusses the Ebola virus disease, including its transmission mode, symptoms, and prevention mechanism deeply.
  • Cholera as a Water-Related Disease This paper explores the relationship between water and global health problems, focusing on cholera as a specific water-related disease.
  • Tuberculosis: Family Medicine and Disease Prevention This essay focuses on tuberculosis infection, prevention and control, surveillance, epidemiology, and significant events.
  • Aspects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD is the main nursing diagnosis. It is a chronic ailment that needs to be treated. Long-acting bronchodilators and steroid inhalation can be used to treat it.
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease poses a serious threat to public well-being. The population must be informed about the early symptoms of the disease.
  • Drug Addiction: The Brain Disease Drug addiction acts similarly to neurological diseases. Substances directly affected the brain, with addiction being the most acute phase of substance use disorder.
  • Graves’ Disease Symptoms and Treatment The purpose of this paper is to explore the symptoms, diagnostic methods, treatment, and possible prognosis of Graves’ disease.
  • Genetics in Diagnosis of Diseases Medical genetics aims to study the role of genetic factors in the etiology and pathogenesis of various human diseases.
  • Cancer: Disease Specifics and RNA-Based Detection The paper presents the analysis of cancer as one of the most common causes of death. It shows that there are many types of this disease.
  • The Syphilis Bacterial Infection and Disease By engaging in sexual activity with an infected person, an individual can contract the bacterial infection syphilis. This paper aims to analyze syphilis infectious disease.
  • The E-Cigarettes Impact on Respiratory Diseases Scientific studies prove that e-cigarettes impede the smoker’s immune system leading to increased levels of pneumonia and respiratory disease.
  • Heart Disease and Its Causes: Stroke Statistics According to a study published in the American Journal of Nursing, the leading cause of heart disease is lifestyle choices.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes and Symptoms Alzheimer’s disease is considered to be one of the most common causes of the development of dementia. Currently, there is no treatment that can cure the disorder.
  • Heart Diseases in the United States Cardiovascular diseases lead as causes of death worldwide, and they are credited with 10% of overall deaths, with 85% of these occurring in low-income countries.
  • Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Disease This paper discusses the most common type of lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which affects the lymphatic system and can cause tumors in various parts of the body.
  • The Causes of the Spread of Disease in Hinckley Water contamination with hexavalent chlorine spread in local reservoirs due to unwise PG&E activities to protect gas pipes from corrosion.
  • Sex Chromosomes’ Impact on Metabolic Diseases Sex chromosomes should not only be associated with genetic illnesses because their impact is more profound, and metabolic diseases are responsible for a high percentage of deaths.
  • Care Services for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease The growing number of Alzheimer’s cases requires the addition of new updated requirements to nursing care centers.
  • Epidemiology of Deadliest Diseases in History Deadly diseases continue to affect whole communities to this day. Such diseases as AIDS still do not have an effective cure, and some countries have many cases.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Mitochondrial Dysfunction Alzheimer’s is a mitochondrial dysfunction that affects the nervous system and the rest of the body. The disorder slowly and steadily destroys thinking and memory skills.
  • The Impact of Alzheimer’s Disease on Relationships “Understanding how your relationship may change” provides a clear picture of the potential impact of Alzheimer’s disease on family and personal relationships.
  • Using Mobile Health to Manage Chronic Diseases and Empower Patients The utilization of m-health and electronic health information in CDM ensures more active and knowledgeable patients in the move towards a patient-centered healthcare delivery paradigm
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: The Challenges Imposed on Family Members Specific strategies can be implemented to reduce the negative impact of Alzheimer’s dementia on families and relatives.
  • Patient Navigation Initiative in Care Coordination for Chronic Diseases The Patient Navigator Outreach and Chronic Disease Prevention Act of 2005 is legislation that curbs variability in the quality of healthcare delivery affecting vulnerable groups.
  • Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis as Treatment for End Stage Renal Diseases Recent studies in the field of the pathogenesis of chronic renal failure show that there is a wide multitude of factors influencing the outcomes of the treatment.
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Description, Causes, and Symptoms Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most prominent neurodegenerative complications, primarily affecting the individual’s motor system.
  • Lewy Body Disease in Aging Patients With Dementia
  • Heart Failure as Dangerous Heart Disease
  • Tuberculosis as an Infectious Disease
  • Drugs for Neglected Disease Initiative
  • Vitamin 12 and Its Deficiency and Excess Diseases
  • Chronic Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Rural America
  • Acromegaly: Disease Prognosis and Treatment
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Tasks and Aims
  • Sickle Cell Disease: Background, Issues & Effects
  • Aspects of Glycogen Storage Diseases
  • Association Between the Dietary Inflammatory Index and Small Vessel Disease
  • The Coronary Artery Disease: Nursing Intervention
  • Obesity and How It Can Cause Chronic Diseases
  • Physical Wellness to Prevent Obesity Heart Diseases
  • Sickle Cell Anemia as a Gene Mutation Disease
  • Literature Review: COVID-19 and Eye Diseases
  • Ethical Dilemma of Patient’s Disease Awareness
  • Lymphedema as a Lymphatic System Disease
  • Mobile Health Technologies for Diagnosing Diseases and Their Treatment
  • Career Burnout in Nurses Serving Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Effect of Weight on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Each BMI Range
  • Organelles Disease and Its Consequences on Human Health
  • Infectious Disease Prevention in the Orlando, FL
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Study Analysis
  • Osteoporosis: The Metabolic Bone Disease
  • Thyroid Disease as Chronic Complex Endocrine Condition
  • Strategies to Control Disease Incidence
  • Screening Tools for Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Dementia
  • Marketing to Promote Parkinson’s Disease Studies
  • Traveling With Congestive Heart Failure Disease
  • Disease in Vaccinated Populations
  • Nutritional Therapy and the Management of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Measures of Disease Frequency: Zika Virus
  • The Treatment of the Patient with Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Epidemiologic Methods in Infectious Diseases Study
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Recovery Plan
  • Overview of African Americans’ Genetic Diseases
  • Child Health and Communicable Disease
  • Genes and Epigenetic Regulation of Learning and Memory, Addiction, and Parkinson’s Disease
  • Diseases and Their Risk Factors
  • Women and Heart Disease: Knowledge, Worry, and Motivation
  • Schizophrenia as Dangerous Mental Disease
  • Tuberculosis: Control of Non-Endemic Communicable Diseases
  • HIV Disease’s and Kaposi Sarcoma’s Relationship
  • Communication Between Sadness and Disease in the Elderly
  • Public Health Nursing: Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Theories in Epidemiology. Stress and Heart Disease
  • Epidemiologic Methods in the Study of Infectious Diseases
  • Disease Outbreaks: Toxicity of Fatty Acid Profiles
  • An Analysis of the Health Conditions of the Patient with Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Self-Management Behaviors
  • Disease Emergence in Multi-Patch Stochastic Epidemic Models
  • Evaluating Electronic Disease Surveillance Systems
  • Epistemology of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD)
  • Cardiovascular Disease Etiology and Prevention
  • Cocaine Addiction and Parkinson Disease
  • Disease and Circulatory System Correlation Analysis
  • Epidemiology and Prevention Policy for Non-Communicable Diseases
  • Covid-19 as an Emerging Infectious Disease
  • Heart Disease Is a Silent Killer
  • Role of Nurses in Preventing the Spread of Diseases and COVID-19
  • Analyzing Disease Frequency What Impact on Mortality
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases Awareness Campaigns
  • Hispanic or Latino Populations of the USA: Health Status and Promotion and Disease Prevention
  • Sexually Transmitted Disease: Chlamydia Trachomatis
  • Lysosomes and Krabbe Disease: Overview
  • Effects of Parkinson’s Disease on Victims and Family
  • Sickle Cell Disease: Symptoms
  • Cardiac Disease During Pregnancy
  • Management and Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Change of Lifestyle
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Review
  • Autoimmune Disease: Sarcoidosis
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Seasonal Influenza Program
  • Heart Disease: An Epidemiological Problem in the U.S.
  • Analysis of a Preventing Chronic Disease
  • Addison’s Disease: Symptoms and Effects
  • The Spectrum of Infectious Diseases
  • A Preliminary Care Coordination Plan: Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Preventing Iodine Deficiency Disease in China
  • Communicable Disease Control in Emergencies
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overview: Diagnosis, Treatment, Care, and Condition
  • Life Stories of Older Adults With Sickle Cell Disease
  • Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Strategies for Access to Care
  • Lyme Disease in Children. The Lyme Disease Bacterium
  • Managing Communicable Disease in the Complexities of a Humanitarian Emergency
  • Mental Health Diseases: Diagnostic Assessment
  • Disease Management and Its Relevance to the Managed Care System
  • Parkinson’s Disease and Toxoplasma Gondii Correlation
  • Sexually Transmitted Disease: Public Health Campaign
  • Alzheimer’s Disease as a Neurological Disease
  • Genetics and Public Health: Disease Control and Prevention
  • Leprosy (Hansen’s) Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Identification, Control and Prevention of Mesothelioma Disease in the UK
  • The Prevalence and Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Diseases Among Hispanics
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Key Points
  • Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism in Terms of Disease Prevention
  • Infectious Disease: The CDC’s Malaria Program
  • Disease Processes. Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Effectiveness of Pharmacotherapeutics for Patients With Psychosocial Diseases
  • Specific Disease Condition of Women Life Span
  • Brain Disease: Bipolar Disorder
  • Predicting Disease Occurrence With Statistical Model
  • Improving Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries
  • Type II Diabetes: Disease Analysis
  • Integrated Concepts of Disease Management
  • Child’s Auto Immunological Diseases
  • Reproductive Diseases and Disorders
  • Degenerative Diseases: Alzheimer’s Disease – Causes and Treatment
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Overview and Analysis
  • Sexually Transmitted Disease Overview
  • The Importance of Understanding Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Mental Diseases and Violent Offenders
  • Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Correlation
  • Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in South Florida
  • Researching the Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes and Symptoms
  • Gene Modification: Means of Disease Prevention
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Medical Analysis
  • Quality Metrics for Chronic Disease Management
  • Alzheimer Disease: Causes and Treatment
  • Health Promotion Project for Chronic Diabetic Kidney Disease
  • The Link Between Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Public Health Campaign on Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Teenagers
  • The Cardiovascular Disease: Crucial Issues
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluating Intervention Plan
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Study Instruments
  • Universal Healthcare for Chronic Respiratory Diseases from Economic Perspective
  • Heart Disease: Types, Risk Factors, Symptoms and Treatment
  • Fever, Cold, or Pfeiffer’s Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease: Conditions
  • Heart Disease’s Fundamental Pathophysiologic Mechanism
  • Economics of End-Stage Renal Disease
  • Effects of Nutrition on Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease Control
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Causes and Treatment
  • Pathophysiology of Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease
  • Defining The Harm of Alcoholism Disease
  • Universal Healthcare for Chronic Respiratory Diseases: Barriers and Supports
  • Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis
  • Blood Sickle Cell Disease: Etiology and Treatment
  • Cesarean Section and Immune Function Disease
  • Chronic Disease Prevention: Program’s Effectiveness
  • Crohn’s Disease: Symptoms and Treatment
  • Coronary Artery Disease: Prevalence of Risk Factors in African American Society
  • Alzheimer’s Disease – Diagnostic Picture and Treatment
  • Arteriosclerosis in the Development of Cardiovascular Diseases
  • The Herniated Disk Disease: Causes and Treatment
  • Limitations and Solutions Related to Diseases
  • Vitamins E and C in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Men
  • The Prevalence of Fiber-Implicated Diseases
  • Lupus Disease: The Causes, Symptoms, and Types
  • Cholera: Overview of the Affected Population and Description of the Disease
  • Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease: Symptoms and Treatment
  • Radiation Effect and Human Disease Correlation
  • Huntington’s Chorea Disease: Genetics, Symptoms, and Treatment
  • A List of Blood Diseases and Their Overview
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Program Planning Project
  • Epidemiology. Tuberculosis as Communicable Disease
  • Registries as the Tools in Improving Disease Treatment: An Overview
  • A Connection Between Chronic Degenerative Diseases
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Recent Study Findings
  • Transcranial Doppler in Sickle Cell Disease
  • Genetics: Gaucher Disease Type 1
  • Chronic Disease: Occupational Health Promotion Interventions for Individuals at Risk
  • New Technology in Diagnosing Respiratory Diseases
  • Measles Disease Among Children Comprehensive Study
  • Analysis of Disease and Caring for the Nguyens
  • Methamphetamine, the Root Cause of Trauma Disease
  • Medical History Patient With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Healthcare IT in Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: the Evaluation Plan
  • Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Symptoms and Causes
  • About International Classification of Diseases
  • Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnostics: Mr. M.’s Case Evaluation
  • The Alzheimer’s Disease: Key Issues
  • The Use of Medical Marijuana in the Fight Against Various Diseases
  • The Alzheimer’s Disease: Basic Facts
  • Aspects of Sickle Cell Disease
  • The Disease of Breast Cancer: Definition and Treatment
  • Risk of Heart Disease in Obese Individuals
  • Health Promotion: Disease Control and Prevention
  • Binge Drinking May Cause Alzheimer’s Disease
  • The Disease of Seborrheic Dermatitis
  • Epidemiology. Disease Burden in Miami-Dade County
  • Chronic Renal Disease: Treatment and Management
  • Crohn’s Disease: A Patient Education Plan
  • Health Promotion: Coronary Heart Disease Prevention
  • The Parkinson’s Disease Process of Diagnosis
  • Survey on Non-Infectious and Blood-Borne Diseases
  • Stigma Associated With Disease
  • Universal Healthcare: Chronic Respiratory Diseases Management
  • Researching the Issue of Tuberculosis Disease in the World
  • Stem Cell Therapy in the Treatment of Heart Disease
  • Multifactorial Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Disease Management: Therapeutic Education Research
  • Encouraging Alternative Medicinal Solutions to Diseases Before Attempting Conventional Treatments
  • On the Influence of the Disease on the Personality
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Symptoms, Prevalence, Treatment
  • Pathophysiology of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
  • Discussion Board Post on the Huntington’s Disease
  • Assignment on Cardiovascular Disease
  • Mental Disorders in the US: Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease and Framingham Global Risk Model
  • Disease Pathology, Management, and Pharmacological Impact for Tularemia and Hantavirus
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Its Global Prevalence
  • Anemia of Chronic Diseases, The Review of Literature
  • Donepezil for Dementia Due to Alzheimer’s Disease by Govind
  • Manifestations of Lyme Disease
  • Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Case of Mrs. J
  • Management of Kawasaki Disease
  • Vaccination Challenges and New Disease Outbreaks
  • Dupuytren’s Disease: A Unified Treatment Protocol
  • Obesity Disease: Symptoms and Causes
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Concussion Initiative Evaluation
  • The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and its Burden on Society
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the US Society
  • Single Children Caregivers vs. Married Couple Caregivers: Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Skin Diseases: Pseudomonas Dermatitis, Propionibacterium Acnes
  • Women’s Disease: Breast Cancer and Its Consequence
  • Tar Sands Pipelines: Source of Dutch Disease in Canada?
  • The Dissemination of Infectious Diseases
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Diagnosis and Evaluation
  • Obesity: Is It a Disease?
  • Truths and Myths About Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Lou Gehrig’s Disease, Symptoms and Treatment
  • Polycystic Kidney Diseases: Types, Symptoms, and Complications
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment Protocols
  • Antigens, Cure, and Disease in Immunology
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Evaluation of Nursing Care
  • Pulmonary Diseases’ Diagnostic and Assessment
  • Diseases Prevention and Management. Nursing Research
  • Drug Addiction Is a Chronic Disease
  • Gangs, a Social Causation, Societies Disease
  • STD: Proportion of Females Aged 15-44 Years Who Required Treatment for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Reducing Readmission in Patients with Lung Disease
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Healthy People 2020
  • Identifying Alzheimer’s Disease in Elderly Patients
  • Infectious Disease Trends and Nursing Epidemiology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Miami Community
  • Contagious Diseases in the United States in 21st Century
  • Communicable Diseases: The Epidemiological Potential of HIV
  • Communicable Diseases: Influenza Analysis Through the Lenses of Determinants of Health and the Epidemiological Triangle
  • An Elderly Patient’s Diseases and Interventions
  • Alzheimer’s Disease Effects: Public Policy Meeting
  • Incurable Disease in Christianity and Buddhism
  • Health Statistics and Populations With Coronary Heart Disease
  • Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease
  • Public Health Policies for Disease Prevention
  • Communicable Disease Health Education in Uganda
  • Respiratory Diseases Caused by Climate Change
  • Hospital-Acquired Diseases & Hand Hygiene Studies
  • Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer Diseases
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Symptoms
  • Readmissions in Patients With Lung or Heart Diseases: Methodology
  • Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer Diseases
  • Personal Genetics and Risks of Diseases
  • Genetic Predisposition to Alcohol Dependence and Alcohol-Related Diseases
  • Anthropology: Infectious Disease Education for Indian People
  • Effectiveness of Acupuncture on the Treatment of Nervous System Diseases
  • Psychology: Prejudice as Disease Protection
  • Patient Medication Education for Chronic Diseases
  • Health Informatics: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Evidence-Based Practice
  • Sickle Cell Disease Concept
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Family Counseling Services
  • Communicable Diseases: Empowerment and Management
  • The Advocacy Model in the Diseases Problem Addressing
  • Heart Disease Prevention and Patient Teaching Plan
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Readmission
  • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Public Health Programs and Their Role in Disease Prevention
  • The Centers for Disease Control: Regulatory Agency
  • Alzheimer’s Disease Care: Project Implementation
  • Diseases and Health Promotion in African Americans
  • Prostatitis Disease Treatment: Principles and Practice
  • Communicable Diseases in Miami
  • Patient History with Respiratory Disease
  • Disease Control and Prevention Centers
  • The Physiology of Parkinson’s Disease
  • Communicable Disease Reporting Systems in the World
  • Miami Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Action Plan
  • Heart Disease Patients’ Education
  • School-Based Interventions for Preventing Diseases
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum: Analysis and Symptoms of the Disease
  • Parkinson’s Disease and Primary Headache Disorder
  • Abortion in Case of Down Disease in Fetus
  • Dialysis Patient Population: Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Clinical Question: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Fight Against Infectious Diseases in Humans
  • Smoking and Heart Disease Rates in African-Americans
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Locating Resources
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus as Infectious Disease
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Identifying
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases in High School Students
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Its Affecting Factors
  • “Zika Virus Disease: A Public Health Emergency of International Concern”: Article Summary and Significance
  • Research Utilization: Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Heart Disease and Stroke in Miami-Dade County
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Therapy
  • Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Programs in the US
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Description
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment
  • US Geriatric Population and Its Chronic Diseases
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: Symptoms and Treatment
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Progress Decreasing
  • Chronic Disease: Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diseases in the Elderly Population
  • Heart Disease in American Women: Raising Awareness
  • Lupus, Lyme Disease, Mononucleosis Diagnostics
  • Climate Change: Changing Patterns of Malaria Disease
  • Alzheimer’s Disease as One of the Mortality Causes
  • Residence and Genetic Predisposition to Diseases
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Memory Dysfunction
  • Patients With Diabetes and Concomitant Diseases’ Risk
  • Elderly With Alzheimer’s Disease: Functions and Falls
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Treatment and Care
  • Sickle Cell Disease and Family Involvement
  • Strategies for Empowerment and Communicable Diseases
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Pain Management
  • Venereal Diseases and Sex Education in Adolescents
  • Healthy People 2020 Program and Infectious Diseases
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Prediction and Recognition
  • Cardiovascular Disease: Issues and Research
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases’ Prevention and Management
  • Sickle Cell Disease Gene Mutation
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Behavioral Risk
  • Miami Infectious Diseases and Healthy People 2020
  • Descriptive Epidemiology: Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Identification and Control
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Patient Education
  • Ebola Virus Disease and Global Health Risk
  • Child Disease in “First Look: U.S. Youth and Seizures”
  • Miami Communicable Diseases and Action Plan
  • Tay-Sachs Disease, Its Signs and Symptoms
  • Education for Patients with Heart Disease
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases Impact and Prevention
  • Alzheimer’s Disease, Statistics and Disparities
  • Parkinson’s Disease Case: Patient’s History, Diagnosis, and Treatment
  • Chronic Diseases in Elderly People and Education
  • Communicable Diseases in Miami-Dade County
  • Cardiovascular Diseases in African Americans
  • Brucellosis, Gonorrhea, Lyme Disease in Miami
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Disease Process and Screening
  • Breast Cancer: Disease Screening and Diagnosis
  • Chronic Kidney Disease: Dimension and Perspectives
  • Infectious Diseases Caused by Infectious Agents
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Supporting Resources
  • Chronic Kidney Disease Patient’s Support Needs
  • Herpes Zoster: Disease Features and Prevention Strategies
  • Air Ventilation Effectiveness for Advanced Disease Patients
  • Cardiovascular Disease in African American Population
  • “Intensive Blood-Pressure Control in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease”: Article Critique
  • Understanding Alzheimer’s Disease: The Most Frequent Illness in the Elderly
  • Seven Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Alzheimer’s Disease Stages and Risk Factors
  • Physical Activity Role in Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease
  • Psychology: Amyloid Deposition and Alzheimer’s Disease
  • How Does Healthy Eating Prevent Disease?
  • Can Neurostimulation Prevent the Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease in Elderly Individuals With Schizophrenia?
  • Does Better Disease Management in Primary Care Reduce Hospital Costs?
  • Can Embryonic Stem Cells Be Used in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease?
  • Are Quality-Adjusted Medical Prices Declining for Chronic Disease?
  • Does Chronic Kidney Disease Result in High Risk of Atrial Fibrillation?
  • Can Flaxseed Prevent Heart Disease?
  • How Does Alzheimer’s Disease Affect the Brain?
  • Does Cognitive Impairment Affect Rehabilitation Outcome in Parkinson’s Disease?
  • Can Disease-Specific Funding Harm Health?
  • How Does Anxiety Affect the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?
  • Does Forest Loss Increase Human Disease?
  • Can Non-human Primates Serve as Models for Investigating Dengue Disease Pathogenesis?
  • How Does Bioarchaeology Reveal the Evolution of Disease?
  • Does Global Drug Innovation Correspond to Burden of Disease?
  • Can Stress Cause Coronary Heart Disease?
  • How Can Lifestyle Changes Affect Chronic Disease Management?
  • Does Lifestyle Affect the Development of Coronary Heart Disease?
  • How Did Disease Shape the History of London Between 1500 and 1900?
  • Can the Mediterranean Diet Reduce Heart Disease?
  • What Are Pathogenic, Deficiency, Hereditary, and Physiological Diseases?
  • How Does Chronic Kidney Disease Affect the Level of Organization?
  • What Causes Acid Reflux Disease?
  • How Has Human Disease Impacted Our Evolution?
  • Why Is Alcohol and Drug Addiction Considered a Disease?
  • How Are Stem Cells Changing the Way We Think About Disease?
  • Will Long-Term Periodontal Disease Causes Alzheimer’s Disease?
  • How Can Technology Cure Disease?
  • Why Has the Disease Been an Enemy of a Human Ever Since It Appeared?
  • How Will Climate Change Affect the Rates of Disease?

Cite this post

  • Chicago (N-B)
  • Chicago (A-D)

StudyCorgi. (2021, September 9). 555 Disease Research Topics & Disease Project Ideas. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/disease-essay-topics/

"555 Disease Research Topics & Disease Project Ideas." StudyCorgi , 9 Sept. 2021, studycorgi.com/ideas/disease-essay-topics/.

StudyCorgi . (2021) '555 Disease Research Topics & Disease Project Ideas'. 9 September.

1. StudyCorgi . "555 Disease Research Topics & Disease Project Ideas." September 9, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/disease-essay-topics/.

Bibliography

StudyCorgi . "555 Disease Research Topics & Disease Project Ideas." September 9, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/disease-essay-topics/.

StudyCorgi . 2021. "555 Disease Research Topics & Disease Project Ideas." September 9, 2021. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/disease-essay-topics/.

These essay examples and topics on Disease were carefully selected by the StudyCorgi editorial team. They meet our highest standards in terms of grammar, punctuation, style, and fact accuracy. Please ensure you properly reference the materials if you’re using them to write your assignment.

This essay topic collection was updated on January 8, 2024 .

An Easy Way to Write Essays on Diseases

Front view of people with medical masks coughing.

On the one hand, writing essays on diseases seems to be not that tricky. You have an opportunity to be original and even creative. Can you imagine the number of diseases that you can highlight in your disease essay? What is more, there is a lot of material available almost about every disease.

On the other hand, this great variety of ideas may confuse you. What particular disease should you choose to present in the disease essay (unless specified, of course)?

Well, there is just one thing we can advise you. Think of the disease that you are interested in most of all. Does someone you know suffer from Alzheimer’s disease? Do you have a neighbor who suffers from some kind of exotic disease? Choose whatever you want to learn more about.

Fine, you will pick a good idea for your essay on disease. What is next? Next, you need to think of how to disclose your topic. We can offer a simple plan that will help you create an informative essay on diseases.

Start with a brief overview of the chosen disease. Explain why you have selected this particular disease.

Tell about the causes of the disease, people who are more likely to have it, the main disease carriers, etc.

Describe the main symptoms of the disease in your essay. Here you can also tell about the major effects that the disease has on the human organism.

Finally, describe in your essay on disease the ways of preventing and treating it. Certainly, if you want to amaze your tutor with the essay on disease, this part of the paper should be based on the most up-to-date facts.

If you need more ideas for your essay on disease, make use of the following links: essays on alcoholism and an essay on HIV/AIDS .

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

Insights into maternal and neonatal anti-ro/ssa antibodies: implications on pregnancy and neonatal health provisionally accepted.

  • 1 Hamad Medical Corporation, Qatar
  • 2 Weill Cornell Medicine- Qatar, Qatar

The final, formatted version of the article will be published soon.

Research on obstetric and fetal complications in patients with anti-Ro/SSA positivity is of significant interest. However, the evidence regarding this subject is scarce. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effect of the association between anti-Ro/SSA antibodies and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. We included 79 pregnant women (132 pregnancies) with confirmed anti-Ro/SSA positivity. The results showed that, of the total pregnancies, 20% resulted in miscarriage, 5% resulted in intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), and 17% of the 99 live births were preterm. Moreover, 12% of the babies had low birth weights, and this percentage was higher among those with SLE. In this cohort, two neonates had congenital heart block (2%) and 1 had neonatal lupus (1%). We observed that women who received hydroxychloroquine had lower rates of miscarriage and IUFD. Further, we believe that this paper will be of interest to the readership of your journal because this is the first study to shed light on autoimmune diseases in pregnant women in this geographical region and to provide a description of neonatal anti-Ro titers. It is also a rare report documenting anti-Ro/SSA titers in neonates. These findings can serve as a foundation for future in-depth research on this topic.

Keywords: Eman Satti: Conceptualization, Formal analysis, methodology, Writing -original draft, Writing -review & editing. Nawal Hadwan: Investigation, Writing -review & editing. Samar AL-Emadi: Conceptualization, Data curation, supervision

Received: 19 Dec 2023; Accepted: 10 May 2024.

Copyright: © 2024 AL-Emadi, Satti and Hadwan. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Samar AL-Emadi, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar

People also looked at

IMAGES

  1. How to Write a Medical Research Paper: 12 Steps (with Pictures)

    how to write a research paper on a disease

  2. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Research Template

    how to write a research paper on a disease

  3. (PDF) A REVIEW PAPER ON PLANT DISEASE DETECTION USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    how to write a research paper on a disease

  4. 😎 Research paper on alzheimer disease. Research Paper On Alzheimers

    how to write a research paper on a disease

  5. How to write a scientific paper--a rough guide to getting published

    how to write a research paper on a disease

  6. How to Write a Research Paper ()

    how to write a research paper on a disease

VIDEO

  1. How to Read Research Paper Quickly

  2. How to write Research paper or article or assignment with AI tools

  3. How To Write A Research Paper For School

  4. كيفية كتابة بحث How to write research paper

  5. When your supervisors ask you to write a journal paper after finishing your PhD #shortsfeed #shorts

  6. Research Paper Writing Workshop

COMMENTS

  1. Successful Scientific Writing and Publishing: A Step-by-Step Approach

    Abstract. Scientific writing and publication are essential to advancing knowledge and practice in public health, but prospective authors face substantial challenges. Authors can overcome barriers, such as lack of understanding about scientific writing and the publishing process, with training and resources. The objective of this article is to ...

  2. How to Write a Medical Research Paper: 12 Steps (with Pictures)

    Include your main title, running title (often a shortened version of your main title), author's name, course name, and semester. 3. Compile your results. Divide the paper into logical sections determined by the type of paper you are writing.

  3. How to Write Your First Research Paper

    After you get enough feedback and decide on the journal you will submit to, the process of real writing begins. Copy your outline into a separate file and expand on each of the points, adding data and elaborating on the details. When you create the first draft, do not succumb to the temptation of editing.

  4. How to write a research paper

    2. ]. In this issue, after an introductory paper by Kotz et al, Kotz and Cals publish the first of a series of monthly compact one-page papers, each highlighting an essential step in preparing and writing a research paper. This series, containing a total of 12 one-pagers, originates from a PhD student course organized at Maastricht University ...

  5. How To Write A Research Paper (FREE Template

    We've covered a lot of ground here. To recap, the three steps to writing a high-quality research paper are: To choose a research question and review the literature. To plan your paper structure and draft an outline. To take an iterative approach to writing, focusing on critical writing and strong referencing.

  6. PDF Drafting a quantitative epidemiological research paper

    Provide an outline of the characteristics of study participants (e.g., demographic, clinical, social) and information on exposures and potential confounders, and indicate number of participants with missing data for each variable of interest. Data on the study participants can be provided very efficiently in a table.

  7. Disease Research Paper Topics

    Selecting a research topic is the first step in the journey of research writing. With these expert tips, you can navigate this step with confidence and prepare yourself for a rewarding research experience. How to Write a Disease Research Paper. Writing a disease research paper can be an arduous but rewarding process.

  8. SCC Research Guides: RES 111

    RES 111 - Disease Report; 7. Write Your Paper; Search this Guide Search. RES 111 - Disease Report. Write Your Paper/Project ... This site contains resources for writing, research, grammar, mechanics, and style guides (MLA & APA). Writer's Reference Center. This link opens in a new window;

  9. How to Create a Structured Research Paper Outline

    How to write a research paper outline. Follow these steps to start your research paper outline: Decide on the subject of the paper. Write down all the ideas you want to include or discuss. Organize related ideas into sub-groups.

  10. How to Write a Research Paper

    This paper provides advice how to prevent or treat this condition. Methods: Prepare your manuscript following the IMRaD principle (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion), with every part supporting the key message. When writing, be concise. Clearly state your methods here, while data belong to Results.

  11. How to Write a Research Paper

    Create a research paper outline. Write a first draft of the research paper. Write the introduction. Write a compelling body of text. Write the conclusion. The second draft. The revision process. Research paper checklist. Free lecture slides.

  12. Disease Research Paper

    Disease is a phenomenon that appears to have struck people globally at all times. However, the conceptions of what disease is have varied with time and place. This research paper gives an overview over various conceptions of disease and highlights what is at stake in the debates on the concept of disease.

  13. Infectious Disease

    Cryptococcal Disease in Diverse Hosts D.B. Meya and P.R. Williamson N Engl J Med 2024;390:1597-1610 Cryptococcus accounts for up to 180,000 deaths annually and 68% of HIV-related meningitis cases.

  14. How to Write an Epidemiology Research Essay

    Title of 10-12 words reflecting the content of your essay, formatted in APA, AMA, or Harvard referencing styles. Write and double-space the title, your name, and the name of the college. Create a page header and include the running head, which should be in capital letters. The topic of the essay.

  15. 618 Disease Essay Topics & Samples

    After the Covid-19 pandemic, students are regularly assigned to explore health issues and precautions. Whether you're interested in writing about risk factors, chronic illnesses, or lifestyles, we can help! Check our disease essay topics and get a perfect title for your paper. 🏆 Best Disease Essay Topics & Examples. Control of Communicable ...

  16. How to Write a Research Protocol: Tips and Tricks

    Open in a separate window. First section: Description of the core center, contacts of the investigator/s, quantification of the involved centers. A research protocol must start from the definition of the coordinator of the whole study: all the details of the main investigator must be reported in the first paragraph.

  17. How to write a research paper

    Methods: Prepare your manuscript following the IMRaD principle (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion), with every part supporting the key message. When writing, be concise. Clearly state your methods here, while data belong to Results. Successful submissions combine quality new data or new thinking with lucid presentation.

  18. SCC Research Guides: NUR 120

    The patient you choose will determine the content of your paper. The pathophysiology paper must contain information about your patient's primary medical diagnosis (the reason the patient was admitted). The expectation is that you will write about the pathophysiology of the disease process and then discuss how it impacts your patient.

  19. Infectious Disease Reports

    Expanded and high-quality conference papers can be considered as articles if they fulfill the following requirements: (1) the paper should be expanded to the size of a research article; (2) the conference paper should be cited and noted on the first page of the paper; (3) if the authors do not hold the copyright of the published conference ...

  20. How To Write a Research Paper Outline (With Examples and Tips)

    Write down all the ideas you want to include or discuss. 3. Gather information. Gather notes, resources and references that you will need to support your content. Also, complete any necessary research or investigations. Each main idea should have two or more supporting topics.

  21. 100 Disease Research Topics

    Here is a list of 100 disease research paper topics worth considering for your paper or essay. Top Disease Research Topics. Maybe you want to research and write a research paper on a topic that anybody will find interesting to read. In that case, consider ideas in this list of disease research topics. How NSAIDS lead to peptic ulcers

  22. APOE4 homozygozity represents a distinct genetic form of ...

    Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA. ... and provided critical review of the paper. All authors ...

  23. 555 Disease Essay Topics to Write about & Disease Research ...

    Peru - Globalization, Environment, Crime and Disease. "The Bear Came Over the Mountain": True Love and Alzheimer's Disease. Chickenpox: Disease Control and Prevention. Analysis of Alzheimer's Disease. Diabetes: Causes and Effects of Disease. We will write a custom essay on your topic tailored to your instructions!

  24. An Easy Way to Write Essays on Diseases

    Point 4. Finally, describe in your essay on disease the ways of preventing and treating it. Certainly, if you want to amaze your tutor with the essay on disease, this part of the paper should be based on the most up-to-date facts. If you need more ideas for your essay on disease, make use of the following links: essays on alcoholism and an ...

  25. Insights into Maternal and Neonatal Anti-Ro/SSA Antibodies

    Further, we believe that this paper will be of interest to the readership of your journal because this is the first study to shed light on autoimmune diseases in pregnant women in this geographical region and to provide a description of neonatal anti-Ro titers. It is also a rare report documenting anti-Ro/SSA titers in neonates.