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Please select your worksheet in accordance with the academic year of admission

2023-2024 academic year, bachelor of commerce.

90-credit program

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Degree worksheets: previous years

Certificates, bachelor of commerce , bachelor in administration.

108 credits

120 credits

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John Molson on social media


Concordia University Irvine - Social Media Playbook

Veronica Steele

This playbook is supporting documentation behind Concordia University Irvine's Social Media Policy. For questions on use or permissions please contact Veronica Steele.

marketing worksheet concordia


Social Media Brand Plan

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  • 1. The Office of Marketing and Communications Social Media Playbook
  • 2. Overview Before jumping into any initiative it’s wise to understand the ideas, concepts and best practices behind it. Social Media is no different. With over 2 billion people using the Internet and more than 1 billion users on Facebook, business are in a new era of relating and communicating to customers. This playbook will provide you with Concordia University Irvine’s social media guidelines as they pertain to official CUI social media sites. It is designed to review social media etiquette, promote social media engagement and assist with social media best practices. Procedure Ready to begin a social media initiative for your department? Here are the key steps of how to get started. 1. Email the Social Media Manager at [email protected] and include the department or entity you wish to represent on a social networking site. 2. Review and fill out the Social Media Assessment Worksheet in preparation for training. 3. Along with the Social Media Manager create a strategy. 4. Follow the Social Media Best Practices and get started! Strategy Creating a strategy for social media efforts is another key element to having a successful social media presence. Your strategy should include realistic goals and objectives that take into account the resources you have on hand. Some questions to consider are: 1. What is the social media landscape at present? Are you creating a new account or rebranding an account? 2. Who will manage (monitor, listen, post, report) the account? 3. What are your top purposes of having the account? (Goals) 4. How will you measure success/failure? Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 2
  • 3. Frequently Asked Questions General 1. What is social media? Answer: Social media is user-generated web content that is highly available and collaborative. Social media allows conversations in a world-sized room. Anyone can join. Everyone can join. Social media is distinct from industry media because it is user-generated. Therefore the public tends to trust and value social media differently than industry media. 2. What is the difference between the Social Media Employee Policy and the Social Media Policy for CUI accounts? Answer: The Social Media Employee Policy addresses your conduct on your private and personal social media sites such as your personal LinkedIn, Facebook or Twitter accounts. The Social Media Employee Policy was created and is managed by HR along with other executives. CUI’s Social Media Policy, implemented by the Marketing and Communications department, is designed to promote and protect CUI’s brand on social media sites representing facets of the University. 1. W hat is CUI’s Social Media Policy and why does it exist? Answer: The Marketing and Communications department has created a Social Media Policy to better promote and protect CUI’s brand externally. To do this, it is vital that we are all on the same page as to what we are sharing about CUI’s brand as well as listening to what others have to say about CUI’s brand. The policy is designed to protect CUI from uninformed misuse of social media to the detriment of the University. It is to be used as a risk management tool and to educate CUI employees on best practices to social media. An important note about CUI’s Social Media Policy is what to do in an event of a campus or PR crisis. No CUI social networking account is authorized to post or engage in conversation regarding the event other than redirecting people and conversations to CUI’s main Facebook ( and/or Twitter ( accounts. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 3
  • 4. CUI’s Social Media Policy can be found at: 3. How do I begin a social media presence for my department? Answer: Before jumping onto a social networking site, Marketing and Communications asks that you first contact the Social Media Manager at [email protected]. For more information about beginning a social media, please read the “Procedure” section further on in this document. Social Media Use as Part of Your Job Responsibilities 4. What is a Social Media Community Manager (SMCM)? Answer: At CUI we practice the hub and spoke model for social media. This model allows for a centralized position (Social Media Manager) to be cross-functional using Social Media Community Managers to promote CUI’s brand. Social Media Community Managers are staff or faculty members across campus that represents a CUI community using social media. It is their responsibility to manage, engage, promote and advocate their expertise on social media site(s) specifically designed for their department. You can read more about CUI’s Social Media Community Managers at: 5. Is it okay to use my own personal social media login to post to CUI accounts or create CUI accounts? Answer: No. Do not use your personal social networking login to manage/create CUI accounts or create CUI social media accounts using your email. When you would like to have an account created please email the Social Media Manager at [email protected]. CUI social media accounts are created using a shared inbox email address to prevent locked accounts due to employee status changes. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 4
  • 5. 6. How do I make time for social media? Answer: Managing your department’s social media account(s) doesn’t need to be a time sucking event. With the proper planning, scheduling and tools you should be able to manager your social media account(s) with little stress added to your workday. Here are some tips to help you manage your social media time: • Keep it simple: there is no need to join every social media-networking site. Less is more and when you target your audience to the site(s) they are on you will be more effective. • Set a schedule: Set a block of time from 10-30 minutes a day to check your social media account(s) activity, respond to questions or comments, and look for content to post. • Work smarter: There are free tools available such as Hootsuite, Tweetdeck and Facebook Scheduler that allow you to schedule posts at a specific time and date to multiple social networking sites. It is recommended to schedule a larger block of time (60-90 min) one day a month to set up your schedule of posts for the next month. Read the section below on Content for more insight. 7. What social media site(s) should my department be on? Answer: Choosing the best social networking site requires you to consider important criteria such as, who is your audience, what is their demographic (age/gender/occupation), and what engagement are you looking to attract? Example: Goal is to engage with Art students currently enrolled at CUI to showcase their work. Instagram or Vine are visual social networking sites and would allow you to see and promote student artwork. The Social Media Manager is equipped with the latest research and practices in choosing the right social media-networking site to meet your goals. 8. Can I run contests on social media? Answer: Yes! We highly encourage running engaging contests and games on social channels. Please be aware that every social channel has their own set of rules of how contests can be run along with prizes that can be offered so it is best to work with the Social Media Manager when developing a contest. For each contest a Contest Form must be filled out and submitted to [email protected]. The form creates the legal contest qualifications and will be posted on during the contest run time. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 5
  • 6. Responding to Comments on Social Networking Sites 9. What are some best practices when responding to comments? Answer: First off, social media should be social! With this belief, CUI encourages thoughtful discussion, debate, and interaction among social media users. User comments are not screened prior to being published within the public forum. When responding to comments keep these tips in mind: • Be authentic • Be accurate • Be respectful • Be positive • Encourage open conversation As part of CUI’s Social Media Policy, Comments Guidelines have been created to promote engaging conversation and avoid harmful or hate speech. Please review these guidelines at: 10. How do I respond to negative comments? Answer: Not everything everyone has to say is pleasant. Something negative said online is often amplified due to the public nature of social media. This is why it is important to evaluate the comment objectively. Please refer to the Social Media Response Assessment further down as a guide on how to respond appropriately. Always contact the Social Media Manager at [email protected] with any concerns. 11. What do I do when I see online abuse or harassment? Answer: As stated in CUI’s Comments Guidelines, harassing, abusive and hateful comments and posts are not tolerated. As an admin to CUI social networking sites you have the right to remove and report abuse happening on your social media channels. It is always best to take screen shots or document the abuse before deleting and reporting the user. If any questions or concerns about abusive behavior arise please contact the Social Media Manager at [email protected]. To learn more about how to report online abuse, harassment or bullying visit: Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 6
  • 7. Proprietary and Confidential Information 12. How do I determine what information is proprietary and confidential and if it should be posted? Answer: Security policies and practices on social networking sites vary so it is safe to always assume that the information you post may be compromised and used against you or the University. As a higher educational institution we are bound to follow the Federal Law of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), which protects the privacy of a student’s educational records. Any information regarding a students’ record should NEVER be shared publicly. Announcements of new programs, new hires, or institutional news should be consulted on with the governing parties before any posts or comments are made. When in doubt, contact the Social Media Manager at [email protected] or Human Resources. 13. Can I give my student employee access/admin rights to my CUI account? Answer: No. Student employees may not have direct access to CUI social media accounts as admins or be given login credentials to social media accounts. Students may help you aggregate content, create posts (in Word or Excel) for you to approve and post yourself. Students may also use their own personal social media accounts to promote CUI activities and pages. Please know that you will be held responsible for all CUI social media site misuse. When anyone other than yourself needs access to social media sites for which you are responsible, please contact the Social Media Manager at [email protected]. 14. How should I store my password? Answer: With the recent hacks of major corporate business’ social media sites, it is more important then ever to protect the passwords you use. Best practices are to avid writing down passwords on post-its or other places that may have public access. A tool to consider is a password management system like LastPass. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 7
  • 8. Trademarks, Copyrights, Logos and Photos 15. Am I allowed to use CUI’s logo? What should I be aware of when using and posting CUI’s logos? Answer: Yes. When a social media account is crated the Social Media Manager will provide graphics to be used for a profile picture, background and/or cover photo. Every employee is responsible for protecting the integrity of use of CUI’s logo. Any requests for the use of CUI’s logo should be directed to [email protected]. 16. How do I report a site that is using CUI’s logo without permission? Answer: All online logo misuses should be reported to the Marketing and Communications Department by emailing [email protected]. Including a link to the site is helpful. 17. What are the copyright guidelines for posting content that doesn’t belong to me? Answer: The Copyright law protects almost all forms of content (digital and hard copy). You are held legally and financially responsible should Copyright be violated. To avoid content misuse it is best practice to cite sources in a clear and prominent place. When given permission to use content, photo, videos, e-books, etc. it is best to add a line noting the permission given and from whom. 18. Do I need to have individual’s consent before posting their pictures? Answer: A best practice to follow when taking pictures of people for social media use is to ask the individuals for permission or tell them what the picture will be used for. Pictures of individuals to be used for print/promotional use must have a written consent form signed. At no time should photos be tagged by When You Engage Engagement on social media is one of the key factors to having a successful and meaningful online presence. Promoting conversations, ideas, photos and answering questions or responding to complaints is what social media is all about. When participating in engagement keep these tips in mind. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 8
  • 9. Rules of Engagement • • • Stick to what you know. You are an expert in your field and that should be apparent in everything being posted. Think twice, post once. Consider what you are posting and how it reflects on you as an employee of CUI, the department you are representing and the overall University and brand. Be respectful of content that is not yours and the safety and security of personal information. Content A common misuse of social media for businesses is using it as a one-way broadcasting system. Social media sites should never be used to only promote your organization’s agenda. It should be used to engage your audience in conversations about ideas around your brand. Example (Don’t): Open House is on Monday, July 12. Register here. Objective: To broadcast Open House Example (Do): What was your favorite high school event? Prom, basketball championship game, winter formal? Monday, July 12 may hold your first favorite moment at CUI! (Link to registration) Objective: Have prospective UG applicants share their favorite High School memories. Choosing engaging content to post can be a daunting task at first but it doesn’t last. You are the expert in your field and are surrounded with articles, photos, news and other relevant media for you to share. RSS feeds are a tool to consider for collecting content. RSS feeds can be used in Outlook or through websites such as Feedly and be set up in one sitting and added to or updated at any time. Another wonderful aspect of social media is the ‘share’ or “retweet” option. If someone said it great the first time there is no need to recreate it. Sharing content from other accounts is equivalent to high fiving someone after an awesome speech. Sharing is caring. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 9
  • 10. Blogging Guidelines 1. Be authentic. Be yourself. Readers are interested in what you can offer them as far as expertise. 2. Write a minimum of one post a week. Blog posts should be 300-400 words long and comprehensively cover your topic. a. Do not focus on writing the maximum amount of words. Focus on writing quality content that your readers will value and remember. 3. A picture speaks 1,000 words. A video, even more! Tumblr blogs don't just have to be written. Tell your story in the best way that captures it. 4. Add links. It’s another great way to enhance your blog and engage readers. Just be sure to test the link before using it! 5. Be consistent with your blog theme but talk about the unique and interesting parts of your department, unit or expertise. Those things help people connect and stay interested. 6. Think about the audience who is reading your blog. What are they looking for? Remember, it’s not all about what you want to tell them. What questions can you answer for them? 7. Display respect for other opinions and people, and discourage personal attacks. 8. Consider the whole of Concordia University Irvine and Higher Ed experience including our location, academics, athletics, intramurals, friendships, homesickness, financial aid, music, theatre, hopes, dreams, and challenges. 9. Be CUI brand minded but not CUI focused. This means that not every post needs to include CUI in it. It also means that you should be mindful of what you say and the tone you say it. 10. Most importantly, portray enthusiasm through your content. If you’re excited about your topic, your readers will be encouraged to take action. 11. Protect your privacy and the privacy of other individuals; be aware that what you write will be viewable by the public for extended periods of time. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 10
  • 11. Frequency and Timing Every social networking site functions differently. You are not expected to post at the same time or frequency for each site. A general rule of thumb is: 1. Post to Facebook and/or Google+ 3 times per week but no more than 3 times per day 2. Post to Twitter daily 3. Post to LinkedIn 3 times per week 4. Post to Instagram 2 times a week 5. Post to a blog up to three times per week but no less than once per week The timing of a response to a comment is another important consideration. It is best to respond immediately (within 1 hour) however, it is acceptable to respond up to one day (24 hours). Always keep in mind that the best responses are authentic, honest, and transparent and that sometimes a simple “like” will do. Monitoring vs. Listening Your social media account can be used in many ways including a customer service center, focus group, brand advocacy unit and sales driver. However, it can only be used in these ways if you are monitoring and listening to your audience. When social media is used effectively and purposefully, engagement among your participants will be active. As a SMCM it is your responsibility to monitor what is being said about your department. Monitoring is passive. It simply requires that you read the interactions taking place on your site. Listening is active. Listening requires you to push aside your agenda and honestly receive what people are saying. Many times listening provokes a response either publically (responding to a comment) or internally (changing internal practices to create better service). It’s vital to understand the difference between monitoring and listening and responding appropriately. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 11
  • 12. Social Media Vocab Bitly: Bitly is a free URL shortening service that provides statistics for the links users share online. Bitly is popularly used to condense long URLs to make them easier to share on social networks such as Twitter. Blog: Blog is a word that was created from two words: “web log.” Blogs are usually maintained by an individual or a business with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. "Blog" can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Chat: Chat can refer to any kind of communication over the internet but traditionally refers to one-to-one communication through a text-based chat application commonly referred to as instant messaging applications. Circles: Circles are clusters of a user's friends on Google+, meaning you can group certain people you choose to connect with on your Google+ into a certain Circle--such as colleagues, college connections, family, etc. When you want to share content with only these individuals, you include that specific Circle in your post's sharing options. Com m ent: A comment is a response that is often provided as an answer or reaction to a blog post or message on a social network. Comments are a primary form of two-way communication on the social web. Connections: The LinkedIn equivalent of a Facebook 'friend' is a 'connection.' Because LinkedIn is a social networking site, the people you are connecting with are not necessarily people you are friends with, but rather you met in brief, heard speak, or know through another connection. Forum s: Also known as a message board, a forum is an online discussion site. It originated as the modern equivalent of a traditional bulletin board, and a technological evolution of the dialup bulletin board system. Follow Friday (#ff): Follow Friday is a trend via the hashtag #ff every Friday on Twitter. Users select other usernames and tweet them with #ff in their post, meaning they recommend following those Twitter users. People tweet at their favorite brands, colleagues, celebrities--you name it! Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 12
  • 13. Friends: No, not your pals you play poker with on the weekends. We're talking Facebook friends. These are individuals you consider to be friendly enough with you to see your Facebook profile and engage with you. Hangout: A Hangout is a video service on Google+ that allows you to video chat with up to 10 Google+ users are a time. You can name these chats, watch YouTube videos during them, open a Google Doc with colleagues, and much more. Hashtag: A hashtag is a tag used on the social network Twitter as a way to annotate a message. A hashtag is a word or phrase preceded by a “#.” Example: #yourhashtag. Hashtags are commonly used to show that a tweet, a Twitter message, is related to an event or conference, online or offline. HTM L: Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a programing language for web pages. Think of HTML as the brick-and-mortar of pages on the web. It provides content and structure while CSS supplies style. HTML has changed over the years, and it is on the cusp of its next version: HTML5. Inbound M arketing: Inbound marketing is a style of marketing that essentially focuses permission-based marketing techniques that businesses can use to get found by potential customers, convert those prospects into leads and customers, and analyze the process along the way. Inbound marketing leverages tactics such as SEO, blogging, social media, lead generation, email marketing, lead nurturing, and analytics. It is in direct contrast to outbound marketing, which utilizes traditional interruptive marketing tactics such as direct mail, trade shows, print and TV advertising, and cold calling. Like: A “Like” is an action that can be made by a Facebook user. Instead of writing a comment for a message or a status update, a Facebook user can click the "Like" button as a quick way to show approval and share the message. News Feed: A news feed is literally a feed full of news. On Facebook, the News Feed is the homepage of users' accounts where they can see all the latest updates from their friends. The news feed on Twitter is called Timeline (not to get confused with Facebook's new look, also called Timeline). Podcast: A podcast, or non-streamed webcast, is a series of digital media files, either audio or video, that are released episodically and often downloaded through RSS. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 13
  • 14. Post: Anything answering the question "What's on your mind?" Retweet: A retweet is when someone on Twitter sees your message and decides to reshare it with his/her followers. A retweet button allows them to quickly resend the message with attribution to the original sharer's name. RSS Feed: RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated content such as blogs and videos in a standardized format. Content publishers can syndicate a feed, which allows users to subscribe to the content and read it when they please, and from a location other than the website (such as reader services like Google Reader). RSS Reader: An RSS reader allows users to aggregate articles from multiple websites into one place using RSS feeds. The purpose of these aggregators is to allow for a faster and more efficient consumption of information. An example of an RSS Reader is Google Reader. Tag: A tag is a special kind of link. When you tag someone, you create a link to their timeline. Tim eline: Timeline is the new Facebook format for personal profiles. It is essentially a digital scrapbook of a user's life, displaying their profile in an actual timeline format so they can see at exactly what point in time something a story occurred. Trend: A trend is seen on every social network. Facebook shows what is trending when multiple users are sharing the same link or discussing the same topic. Google+ highlights trending topic when a user conducts a search. Twitter has a section to the bottom right of its home feed which clearly shows what topics and hashtags are trending in tweets. And LinkedIn shows what industries (in LinkedIn Today) that a certain story is popular. Tweet: A tweet is a post or status update on Twitter, a microblogging service. Because Twitter only allows messages of 140 characters or less, "tweet" is as much a play on the size of the message as it is on the audible similarity to Twitter. Tweetup: A tweetup is an organized or impromptu gathering of people that use Twitter. Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 14
  • 15. Twitter Chat: A Twitter Chat is a chat or discussion that is held on Twitter and is open to all users. Questions are prompted from the user hosting the chat, while anyone else can respond using a particular hashtag. The hashtag is the marker for someone participating in the chat. HubSpot has its own chats hosted every other Tuesday via the hashtag #inboundchat. Viral M arketing: Viral marketing refers to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness or to achieve other marketing objectives through self-replicating viral processes. W eb Analytics: Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis, and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. W ebinar: A webinar is used to conduct live meetings, training, or presentations via the internet. Read more: Playbook based on an example from Hobsons Questions? Contact Veronica Steele ([email protected]) 15
  • 16. CUI SOCIAL MEDIA RESPONSE PROCEDURE Adapted from the Air Force Public Affairs Agency - Emerging Technology Division’s flow graphic POSTING ASSESSMENT Has someone discovered a post about your organization? Is it a positive post? EVALUATE NO “TROLLS” MONITOR ONLY Is this site dedicated to bashing and degrading others? CONCURRENCE A factual and well cited response which may agree or disagree with the post, yet is not negative. Avoid responding to specific posts, monitor the site for relevant information YES NO and comments. “RAGER” You can concur with the post, let stand or provide a positive review. Is this posting a rant, rage, joke, ridicule or satirical in nature? FIX THE FACTS Respond with factual information Do you want to respond? directly on the post NO (See 5 Response Considerations below) “MISGUIDED” NO Are there erroneous facts in the posting? YES YES LET STAND Let the post stand NO - no response RESTORATION Rectify the situation, respond and “UNHAPPY CUSTOMER” Is the posting a result of a negative experience from on of our constituents? YES RESPOND act upon a reasonable solution YES (See 5 Response Considerations below) NO YES FINAL EVALUATION SHARE SUCCESS Base response on present circumstances, site influence and stakeholders prominence. Will you respond? Do you wish to share your story & mission? YES YES RESPONSE CONSIDERATIONS SOURCING TRANSPARENCY Cite your sources by including Disclose your CUI connection. hyperlinks, video, images or other references. TIMELINES Take time to create good responses. TONE Respond in tone that reflects highly on the mission and beliefs of CUI. INFLUENCE Focus on the most influential posts related to CUI.

John Molson School of Business (JMSB)


Out smart, out find ™ * blog by olivier charbonneau, senior business librarian at concordia university (montréal).

  • Blog posts on ™

Consumer behaviour

This page is designed by Olivier Charbonneau, Senior Librarian for the Marketing department of JMSB, to support learning and classroom activities of students enrolled in MARK 305 Consumer Behaviour.

See also: Business communication, for a half hour video on searching for business information.

Quick access : remember to access the Library’s (1) Business Research Portal for the recommended business sources; use the (2) Ask-A-Librarian help desk; and the (3) citing business sources in APA format . In addition, you can access the Library’s guide on how to create an annotated bibliography.

What is a consumer trend?

Powers, D. (2019).   On trend : the business of forecasting the future . University of Illinois Press. Retrieved 2023, from

Niosi, A. (2021). Introduction to Consumer Behaviour . BC Campus. Retrieved 2023, from

Many people have a lot to say about consumer trends. What should you believe? What is true? Many students have difficulty differentiating conjecture, opinion, beliefs and facts. Some of these are rooted in our own biases, experiences or expectations. One thing is certain: you are called upon to think critically about the claims you are making. Thinking critically, in this case, means providing credible evidence about the claims you are making.

Credibility can be expressed in a variety of factors. Who is behind the claim? How have they arrived to their conclusion? What data or evidence did they analyse to make the claim? Do they describe their method, the limits of their analysis? Was it reviewed by experts? Do they stand to benefit from you believing their claim? Do you really want to base your project on some shoddy source gleaned from an underwhelming search on Google?

“If you are only using Google for this project, you will fail in achieving its learning objectives. “ Source: Senior Librarian Olivier Charbonneau will never say it enough

To succeed in this project, you must eliminate opinions from facts and provide evidence from credible sources to support your claims about consumers. Here are some simple strategies to avoid making baseless claims from shoddy evidence.

Tip #1: Start by reading basic market & industry research reports

To succeed in this project, you are expected to access and read market and industry research reports from the Library’s collection of databases BEFORE identifying the consumer trend for your project. Concordia University Library provides complementary (free!) access to reports used by professionals in your field. Librarians at Concordia evaluate these databases and select the one providing the best evidence . These These sources are listed on the Library’s Business Research Portal but all students in this course are expected to use the following databases:

PassPort by Euromonitor

Passport from Euromonitor is a professional tool paid by the library and provides reports worldwide consumer markets, such as Megatrends , Consumer lifestyles Canada as well as sectorial reports and data (from Search> Search Full Tree). The library website provides for a tutorial on using Passport by Euromonitor.


IBISWorld provides over 1000 industry reports for business in Canada, the USA, China and global markets. Use these reports for insight on industries & external environment

Tip #2: Discuss sources with your group to identify salient claims and evidence they contain

As a group, discuss the preliminary research done so far. What did the basic sources tell you? Did they contradict or confirm what you expected? What are the salient companies (major players or brands), industries or consumer trends discovered so far?

“At this point, you have minimal information. You need to go much deeper in your research to succeed.” Source: true to his nature, Senior Librarian Olivier Charbonneau tells it like it is.

Tip #3: dig deeper in trade news and scholarly sources

If you think you can do this in Google, you are wrong . You will need to cite at least half-a-dozen trade news or scholarly articles in your paper to write a mediocre paper. Good papers have much more than the minimal threshold. Yes, this means using library databases to locate articles, read and discuss them in your group and select the most salient elements for your report. If you do not engage with this task, you shouldn’t complain about your grade. Forget Google for this step, use ProQuest instead .

Search for articles in ProQuest Business Databases :

Search for companies (name of major players, brands, etc.), industry name or consumer trend concept. For example:

Consum* behavio* AND (canad* or Quebec*) AND <company/brand/topic>

Filter Source type for:

  • Trade journals: for industry news
  • Scholarly journals: for credible research

Select & export citations in .RIS format to Zotero or create bibliography. You can also use Eureka (local newspapers in French) or Factiva (worldwide trade journals).

Tip #4: Use Vividata to support or double-check your claim(s) and evidence

Vividata (formerly PMB) is a database providing tables obtained from a yearly Canadian consumer survey. It contains psychographics & demographics based on a questionnaire. Create unique tables by combining variables, please watch the tutorial on the library website:

Tip #5: Dig through Statistic Canada’s Census and Data

To discover three essential data tools provided for free by Canada’s national statistics agency, please access this short post:

Get familiar with Statistics Canada

Try these different Data searches: household spending quintiles / “retail trade sales” / “labour force survey”…

Use the Census’ Data Products > Data Tables to get market size by demographic variables. If you don’t understand what that means, please Get familiar with Statistics Canada !

Parting thoughts

You may have to loop through the tips provided above a few times if you discover new evidence. Creatively combine data and insight from multiple sources to support your claims. Use only the most credible and authentic sources. Go to the bottom of things: be weary of superficial & fallacious sources.

Remember, a successful project will have you answer clearly and concicely the following questions:

  • Describe in your own words the consumer trend(s) you will discuss in your project: Canadian consumers are …
  • What is(are) the source(s) of this(these) trend(s)? According to X, Canadian consumers are…
  • What evidence do you bring forward to support your claim(s) ?

=> Get the “worksheet” for your final project <=

Ce contenu a été mis à jour le 2023-10-05 à 1:36 pm.


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