- Awards Season
- Big Stories
- Pop Culture
- Video Games
How Secure Is Your Gmail Account? A Quick Guide on Sign-in Protocols
Gmail is one of the most popular email services in the world, with over 1.5 billion active users. With such a large user base, it’s no wonder that Google takes security seriously when it comes to sign-in protocols. In this article, we’ll take a look at how secure your Gmail account really is and what you need to know about sign-in protocols.
Before we dive into the security of your Gmail account, let’s first define what sign-in protocols are. Sign-in protocols are a set of rules and procedures that determine how users log in and access their accounts. These protocols ensure that only authorized users can access an account and protect against unauthorized access.
How Does Gmail Protect Your Account?
When it comes to protecting your Gmail account, Google uses several layers of security measures to ensure that only you can access your email. First and foremost, Google requires a strong password for each account. Additionally, Google uses two-factor authentication (2FA) to provide an extra layer of security.
With 2FA, you’ll need to enter a verification code sent via text message or generated by an app after entering your password. This means that even if someone else has your password, they won’t be able to log in without also having access to your phone or the app generating the code.
Google also monitors each login attempt for suspicious activity. If something seems off – say you’re logging in from an unfamiliar device or location – Google may ask for additional verification before allowing you into your account.
What Should You Do To Ensure Your Account Is Secure?
While Google takes many steps on their end to keep your Gmail account secure, there are things you can do as well to ensure maximum protection. First and foremost is using a strong password – one that’s at least 8 characters long and includes a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols.
Next, enable two-factor authentication on your account. This extra layer of security provides an additional safeguard against unauthorized access.
Finally, be mindful of where you’re logging into your Gmail account. Avoid using public computers or unsecured Wi-Fi networks to access your email. If you need to log in from an unfamiliar device or location, be sure to verify that it’s really you with Google’s additional verification steps.
In conclusion, Google takes the security of Gmail accounts seriously. With strong sign-in protocols in place and extra layers of security like 2FA and suspicious activity monitoring, you can feel confident that your email is safe from prying eyes. However, it’s important to do your part as well by using a strong password and avoiding insecure login situations. By working together with Google, you can ensure maximum protection for your Gmail account.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
MORE FROM ASK.COM
Port Mapping Protocol
UPnP & NAT-PMP ¶
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) and NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP) are network services which allow software and devices to configure each other when attaching to a network. This includes automatically creating dynamic NAT port forwards and associated firewall rules.
The UPnP and NAT-PMP service, located at Services > UPnP & NAT-PMP , enables client PCs and other devices such as game consoles to automatically allow required inbound traffic and can account for outbound NAT on traffic using the same ports. There are many popular programs and platforms which support UPnP such as Torrent clients, Steam/Steam Deck, Nintendo consoles, PlayStation consoles, XBox consoles, video conferencing apps, and more. NAT-PMP is supported primarily by Apple products.
For advice on specific consoles and games, see Configuring pfSense Software for Online Gaming .
UPnP employs the Simple Service Discovery Protocol (SSDP) for network discovery, which uses UDP port 1900 . The UPnP daemon used by pfSense® software, miniupnpd , also uses TCP port 2189 . When using a strict LAN ruleset, manually add firewall rules to allow access to these services, especially if the default LAN-to-any rule has been removed, or in bridged configurations. NAT-PMP is also handled by miniupnpd and uses UDP port 5351 .
UPnP & NAT-PMP and IPv6 ¶
As of this writing, the UPnP and NAT-PMP service on current versions of pfSense software supports IPv6, but client support is still rare.
IPv6 UPnP client traffic will almost always require manual rules to pass. Clients are likely to use a link-local source going to a multicast destination, which is not covered by the default interface rules.
Security Concerns ¶
UPnP and NAT-PMP are a classic example of the “Security vs. Convenience” trade-off. By their very nature, these services are insecure. Any program on the network can allow in and forward any traffic – a potential security nightmare. On the other side, it can be a chore to enter and maintain NAT port forwards and their associated rules, especially when it comes to game consoles. There is a lot of guesswork and research involved to find the proper ports and settings, but UPnP just works and requires little administrative effort. Manual port forwards to accommodate these scenarios tend to be overly permissive, potentially exposing services that should not be open from the Internet. The port forwards are also always on, where UPnP may be temporary.
Access controls in the UPnP service configuration can lock down which devices are allowed to make alterations. Over and above the built-in access controls, further control may be exerted with firewall rules. When properly controlled, UPnP can also be a little more secure by allowing programs to pick and listen on random ports, instead of always having the same port open and forwarded.
Configuration Options ¶
Master control for the entire service. When unchecked, all of the services on this page are disabled.
When checked, the service allows UPnP.
When checked, the service allows NAT-PMP.
The interface for outgoing traffic. This must be set to the WAN containing the default gateway. Only one External Interface may be selected.
The local interfaces where clients allowed to use UPnP/NAT-PMP reside. Multiple interfaces may be selected.
When a bridge is in use, only select the bridge interface with an IP address.
Maximum download speed reported to clients, in Kilobits per second.
Maximum upload speed reported to clients, in Kilobits per second.
Selects an alternate interface IP address to use on WAN rules added by the daemon, such as a CARP or IP Alias Virtual IP address.
The name of an ALTQ (not Limiter) traffic shaping queue in which the firewall will place traffic allowed through UPnP.
Exercise caution when selecting this queue. UPnP is used by traffic such as game consoles, which need high priority, and also by file transfer clients which may need low priority.
When checked, port forwards generated by UPnP/NAT-PMP will be set to log, so that each connection made will have an entry in the firewall logs, found at Status > System Logs , on the Firewall tab.
By default, the UPnP daemon reports the service uptime when queried rather than the system uptime. Checking this option will cause it to report the actual system uptime instead.
When checked, UPnP only allows access to clients matching configured access control lists. This is a more secure method of controlling the service, but as discussed above, is also less convenient.
A custom URL this daemon presents to UPnP clients who click this device when listing devices on the local network. For example, when browsing the network in Windows Explorer. When left blank, the daemon uses the URL of the firewall GUI.
A custom model number presented to clients who click this device when listing devices on the local network. For example, when browsing the network in Windows Explorer. When left blank, the daemon uses the firmware version.
Stun Settings ¶
For UPnP to function properly, the External Interface must have a public IP address. Otherwise, this firewall is behind NAT and port forwarding may not be possible. In some cases the External Interface can be behind unrestricted NAT (e.g. 1:1) where all incoming traffic is forwarded and routed to the External Interface without any filtering. In these cases UPnP service needs to know the real public IP address. UPnP can learn this address by asking an external server using the STUN protocol.
Enable retrieving the external IP address and detecting the NAT type by using a remote STUN server.
The hostname or IP address of a remote STUN server.
There are a few public STUN servers available, including:
stun.l.google.com on port 19302
The UDP port on which the STUN server is listening for client connections.
UPnP Access Control Lists ¶
These fields specify user-defined access rules to control UPnP client behavior.
Rules are formulated using the following format:
If the Default Deny option is enabled, rules must be set to allow access.
UPnP User Permission Examples ¶
Deny access to external port 80 forwarding from everything on the LAN, 192.168.1.0 , with a /24 subnet, to local port 80 :
Allow 192.168.1.10 to forward any unprivileged port:
Configuration Procedure ¶
To configure UPnP and NAT-PMP:
Navigate to Services > UPnP & NAT-PMP
Configure the options as needed
The UPnP and/or NAT-PMP service will be started automatically.
UPnP & NAT-PMP Status ¶
To view a list of currently forwarded ports and clients, navigate to Status > UPnP & NAT-PMP . The output will be similar to UPnP & NAT-PMP Status Screen Showing Client PCs With Forwarded Ports .
UPnP & NAT-PMP Status Screen Showing Client PCs With Forwarded Ports ¶
View the status of the UPnP daemon at Status > Services . The Service Status page shows if the daemon is running or stopped, and allows the service to be stopped, started or restarted. Under normal circumstances, manually managing the daemon is not necessary.
Most issues with UPnP tend to involve bridging. In this case it is important to have firewall rules allow UPnP on UDP port 1900 . Since UPnP uses multicast traffic, the destination will be the broadcast address for the subnet, or in some cases a destination of any will be necessary.
For IPv6, it’s important to note that the traffic will almost always require manual rules to pass the traffic. Clients are likely to use a link-local source going to a multicast destination. That source is not covered by the default interface rules.
Consult the firewall logs at Status > System Logs , on the Firewall tab to see if traffic is being blocked. Pay particular attention to the destination address, as it may be different than expected.
Further trouble with game consoles may also be alleviated by switching to manual outbound NAT and enabling Static Port. See Static Port for more details.
About: NAT Port Mapping Protocol
NAT Port Mapping Protocol (NAT-PMP) is a network protocol for establishing network address translation (NAT) settings and port forwarding configurations automatically without user effort. The protocol automatically determines the external IPv4 address of a NAT gateway, and provides means for an application to communicate the parameters for communication to peers. Apple introduced NAT-PMP in 2005 by as part of the Bonjour specification, as an alternative to the more common ISO Standard Internet Gateway Device Protocol implemented in many NAT routers. The protocol was published as an informational Request for Comments (RFC) by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in RFC 6886.
Port mapping allows extranet access to a intranet server (such as to a WWW server or FTP server on an extranet). The private IP address and service port of an intranet server are mapped into a public IP address and port, so that users from the extranet can access the intranet server. With port mapping, the public IP address but not the private IP address is visible to the users.
The following uses an example to describe how to configure port mapping.
User A installs a camera at home with IP address 192.168.100.100 and port 80. The ONT IP address is 192.168.100.1 (private IP address), the WAN IP address is 100.100.100.100, and the port number is 8080. To allow users remotely check the camera footage, the required port mapping configurations are as follows:
Huawei ONT has been connected to the Internet.
On the ONT web page, configure port mapping.
Note: The web page may vary according to ONTs.
- Type : To customize port mapping content, select User-defined ; to implement port mapping for common services such as FTP, Telnet, and HTTP, select Apply. In this example, as the access object is a camera, set Type to User-defined .
- Protocol : Select a protocol used for communication with the server (camera in this example). In this example, select TCP .
- External Port number : Specify a port range used by extranet users to access the intranet server (camera in this example). In this example, only 1 port is used. Set External Port number* * to 2000--2000 .
- Internal Port number : Specify a port range used by the intranet server (camera in this example). In this example, only 1 port is used. Set Internal Port number to 3000--3000 .
- Internal Host : Specify the IP address of the intranet server (camera in this example).
After the configuration is successful, enter http://22.214.171.124:2000 in the address bar of the browser on a smartphone to access the camera and check the home. (126.96.36.199 is the ONT WAP IP address.)
Tips: The ONT WAN IP address can be queried in the status information.