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Uninstalling a Program From Your Mac
In many cases, uninstalling a program from your Mac is as straightforward as it gets. However, some applications have been known to hide in obscure locations on a hard drive, making it necessary to conduct a more in-depth decluttering process.
Throw It in the Trash
Locate the program on the Mac and drag it from its current location to the Trash icon, which is located at the end of the Dock. Empty the trash to delete the program or app from your computer completely. If you change your mind before deleting it permanently, you can recover the program by selecting it in the Trash, choose the “file” and then select “Put back.”
Use the Finder
Click “Finder” in the Dock. When the Finder opens as a sidebar, click “Applications.” Find the folder holding the app, open it and look for an “uninstaller.” Double-click the uninstaller and proceed through the instructions to fully remove the program from your Mac.
Check for orphan files left behind after using the uninstaller. These files may be support files, possibly stored in Library or Applications folders. Look for folders with the same name as the deleted program. You can also search for files by using the “Spotlight” search function. When you find these orphan files, put them in the Trash.
Uninstalling Apps Purchased From the App Store
Open the Dock and find “Launchpad.” Open Launchpad by clicking the icon. Look for the app you wish to remove. When you find it, click and hold this app until all the apps in the Launchpad begin wiggling. At this point, you will see a small “x” delete button. Click the delete button to remove the app. If you don’t see a delete button, you’ll have to uninstall the program via an uninstaller or by dragging it to the Trash.
If you change your mind later and you want to reinstall the app on your Mac, go back to the App Store and reinstall it. You won’t have to pay for it again.
Native Apps You Can’t Remove
Apple doesn’t let you uninstall native apps that are a part of the Mac operating system. Therefore, you won’t be able to delete apps like Mail and Safari from your computer.
Managing Your Apps in the App Store
Even after you remove an app, you can still view it in the App Store. When signed in with your Apple ID, visiting the App Store will give you an option of viewing your list of purchased apps. If you don’t want specific apps to appear in your purchased list, you can hide them by hovering the cursor over the app, clicking “show more” and selecting “hide purchase.” Then, you can view these hidden apps by clicking “view information,” choosing “manage” and clicking “unhide.” To finish the process, click “done.”
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The Benefits of Investing in a High-Quality Database Program for Your Mac
As a Mac user, you already know that your computer is an essential tool for both personal and professional use. Whether you’re working on a creative project, managing your finances, or running a business, having access to the right software can make all the difference. One such software that is crucial for many users is a database program. In this article, we will explore the benefits of investing in a high-quality database program for your Mac.
Organize Your Data Efficiently
A database program allows you to organize your data efficiently and effectively. Whether you’re managing customer information, product inventory, or financial records, a well-designed database can help you keep track of everything in one place. With the right software, you can quickly sort through large amounts of data and find what you need with ease.
Additionally, many database programs offer powerful search tools that allow you to locate specific information quickly. This feature can be especially useful when dealing with large datasets that would otherwise be difficult to navigate.
Investing in a high-quality database program can also improve your productivity significantly. With streamlined data management processes in place, you’ll be able to spend less time searching for information and more time working on other tasks.
Moreover, many modern database programs come equipped with automation features that further enhance productivity levels. For example, some programs allow users to schedule automatic backups or set up alerts for specific events or changes within the system.
Data security is critical for any individual or organization that deals with sensitive information. A high-quality database program will offer robust security features designed to keep your data safe from unauthorized access or cyber-attacks.
Modern database programs provide encryption capabilities that protect sensitive data from prying eyes by scrambling it into unreadable code. Moreover, they allow administrators to set user permissions and access levels, ensuring that only authorized personnel can access specific data.
Finally, investing in a high-quality database program can improve collaboration among team members or departments. Many database programs offer features that allow multiple users to access the same data simultaneously. This feature enables teams to work together on projects or share information without worrying about version control issues.
Investing in a high-quality database program is an excellent way to streamline your data management processes, improve productivity levels, enhance security measures and improve collaboration among team members. With the right software in place, you can rest assured that your data is safe and well-organized, allowing you to focus on other critical tasks.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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How to use the function keys on your Mac
The top row of keys on your Apple keyboard can control built-in Mac features or be used as standard function keys.
Use the keys to control features
By default, the top row of keys on your Apple keyboard control many different features on your Mac. For example, pressing the keys with speaker icons adjusts the volume.
If your Mac has a Touch Bar, learn about using function keys on MacBook Pro with Touch Bar .
Use the keys as standard function keys
Change the default behavior of the keys
If you want to change the top row of keys to work as standard function keys without holding the Fn key, follow these steps, depending on the version of macOS you're using :
- Choose Apple menu > System Settings.
- Click Keyboard in the sidebar.
- Click the Keyboard Shortcuts button on the right.
- Click Function Keys in the sidebar.
- Turn on “Use F1, F2, etc. keys as standard function keys”. 2
Earlier macOS versions
- Choose Apple menu > System Preferences.
- Click Keyboard.
- Select “Use F1, F2, etc. keys as standard function keys”. 2
1. Standard function keys work differently depending on the app and the keyboard shortcuts that you've set up. Some apps have their own keyboard shortcut settings that you can customize.
2. If you don't see this setting, you might be using a keyboard not made by Apple, and you might need a third-party keyboard utility to change the keyboard functions. Check with your keyboard manufacturer for more information.
Start a discussion in Apple Support Communities
How to Remap Your Mac's Function Keys to Do Anything You Want
Here's how to remap your Mac keyboard to boost the function keys, which can do so much more with some customization.
Are there any function keys on your Mac’s keyboard that seem useless to you? You can reprogram them to be more useful!
Remap a function key to take a screenshot instead of revealing active apps in Mission Control. Or change a key that normally opens Launchpad to instead bring up the emoji viewer, or a menu bar calendar of your choice.
Such changes are easy to make, as we’ll see below. But first, let’s take a closer look at function key behavior itself.
The Dual Role of Function Keys
By default, the function keys on your Mac’s keyboard trigger the actions indicated by the icons printed on them. Accordingly, the F1 and F2 keys adjust the screen brightness, the F3 key triggers Mission Control, the F4 key opens Launchpad, and so on.
They can also operate as regular function keys (F-keys) though, which are keys that can be programmed (or reprogrammed) to perform certain actions on your computer or in particular applications.
To use the old-fashioned F-keys, you have to hold down the Fn key as a modifier. macOS doesn’t have a default action linked to any F-keys except F11 and F12 when you do this, so they won’t do anything when pressed.
That’s where remapping these keys come in. We’ll tell you how to add actions to these empty keys in the sections below.
Meanwhile, would you prefer your function keys to default to being regular F-keys? That’s pretty easy to accomplish.
How to Use Function Keys as Standard F-Keys
Visit System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard and select the checkbox for Use all F1, F2 etc. keys as standard function keys .
Now the F1 , F2 , and other keys work as regular function keys, and you’ll have to use the Fn key modifier to access the printed symbol functions.
Actions to Assign to Function Keys
You can program many different actions onto your Mac’s function keys to make using your Mac a lot easier. It’s good to think about what specific actions you’ll want on each key so you can plan out your function key remapping efficiently.
Some actions we’d consider putting on F-keys are ones with hard-to-remember shortcuts, like the emoji viewer ( Control + Cmd + Space ).
You could also have a function key launch Calendar, Mail, or the Notification Center for you, if you use those a lot.
A word count F-key to run a macOS word counter script when you select text is another useful idea. As is a key that activates Spoken Content on your Mac , and a page reload key.
Many special macOS services also make great candidates for function key shortcuts, which you can assign from System Preferences > Keyboard > Shortcuts > Services .
Remapping Function Keys in System Preferences
To remap individual function keys to do your bidding, visit System Preferences > Keyboard > Shortcuts . That’s the same location for customizing keyboard shortcuts on macOS .
Here you’ll find two panes: one shows a menu of different macOS functions and settings and the other shows the list of actions you can perform with a keyboard shortcut or function key under that menu listing.
To alter or add a function key to an existing action, it must have the box beside it checked.
Once it does, you can click into the text box containing the function key, shortcut, or none text to the right of the action name, and hit the F-key you want to program the action onto.
As an example, say you want to toggle the Do Not Disturb mode using the F10 key. To program the F10 key, go to Mission Control in the settings pane, and ensure the box next to Turn Do Not Disturb On/Off is checked.
Click on none or the current shortcut, and hit F10 on your keyboard. Go ahead and hit F10 again—you’ll now be toggling Do Not Disturb on and off!
Some actions need to be added into your Shortcuts tab before you can assign them to a function key. This can include actions for specific apps, as well as actions that can apply to your entire computer.
Perhaps you want to be able to enter full-screen mode in any app on your Mac by hitting the F11 key. This action doesn’t exist in the macOS system settings, but it does exist in basically every app.
To add this action, head to App Shortcuts in the settings pane, and hit the plus (+) button below the actions pane. A window will appear for adding an action.
We’ll want the Application dropdown in this window to be All Applications for this example, but you can set it to specific apps for other actions.
The text in Menu Title needs to perfectly match the way and action is labeled in menus of applications. In this case, going into full-screen mode usually reads as Enter Full Screen under the View tab of most apps, so that’s what we’ll type into the box here.
Finally, to set Keyboard Shortcut , click on the text box beside it, and hit F11 on your keyboard. Click Add , and now when you hit F11 your active app will go into full-screen mode!
If you want to exit full-screen mode with F11 as well, you’ll need to add exiting full-screen mode as a separate action. Simply follow the steps above with Exit Full Screen in Menu Title instead, and now F11 will let you toggle full-screen mode.
Remapping Function Keys With Third-Party Apps
You can also program actions onto your function keys with third-party applications like Keyboard Maestro and Karbiner-Elements.
Keyboard Maestro and Karbiner-Elements both let you assign actions to function keys like you can in System Preferences, but they also let you design macros which you can assign to function keys as well.
Another app you might want is FunctionFlip, which lets you keep some function keys operating with its default actions while turning others into regular F-keys for you to program.
The best app to use depends on how much you want to customize your Mac’s keyboard behavior . But for more involved or complicated actions, a third-party app will give you more options than adjusting options in System Preferences.
Download: Keyboard Maestro ($36, free trial available)
Download: Karabiner-Elements (Free)
Download: FunctionFlip (Free)
Troubleshooting Function Key Issues
You might run into a few problems while remapping function keys, but there are workarounds for them:
- The key is already in use: You can disable or remap the shortcut for the clashing action, then map that function key to the new action.
- You want to launch an app with a function key, but you can’t do so from System Preferences: Visit the Preferences pane of the app you want to launch and program the shortcut from there. Or create a new Quick Action in Automator that’s just the Launch Application action and assign that file a shortcut from within Services in the settings pane in Keyboard System Preferences .
- You can’t assign function keys to certain actions: Install BetterTouchTool, the ultimate Mac productivity app . This can solve the problem where, say, an app insists that you use a function key only with a modifier. You can also use BetterTouchTool to trigger other keyboard shortcuts.
- You’re out of function keys to assign actions to: Start using modifier keys like Option and Command with the function keys to double or triple their usage.
Download: BetterTouchTool ($9.99/month, free trial available for first 7 days)
Make the Function Keys More Useful
The function keys on your Mac’s keyboard are an underused resource. We hope we’ve inspired you to use yours more with our instructions and tips for remapping them. And we hope programming your function keys makes using your Mac easier than ever!
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How to Use the F Keys on a Mac
Take advantage of your Mac's function keys
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In This Article
Jump to a Section
Why Use Mac Function Keys?
The function of each f key, how to use the mac function keys, how to enable standard function keys.
- Frequently Asked Questions
What To Know
- To enable standard function keys, go to System Preferences > Keyboard , and enable Use F1, F2, etc. keys as standard...
- Mac function keys are different than function keys on Windows and Linux.
- Each key performs a unique function to control your Mac.
This article explains how to use the function keys on your Mac. Located at the top of your Mac keyboard is a collection of keys that feature an F followed by a number, 1-12. These keys, known as Mac function keys , enable you to change certain settings and reach Mac features quickly, with the press of a couple of keys.
If you've ever used a keyboard shortcut, you know how simple and fast it is. The time it takes to move your hand to your mouse or trackpad and navigate to the action you wish to take is cut short thanks to the shortcut. The function keys work the same exact way, saving you time as you work, surf the internet, or game.
Some apps allow you to customize the function keys to fit your preferences. You can also change your function keys to match your own shortcuts by remapping them. If there's an action you take often using your Mac, the functions key can help.
Do you have a MacBook Pro (15-inch, 2016 and later) or a MacBook Pro (13-inch, 2016, Four Thunderbolt 3 Ports and later)? If so, your physical function keys are replaced by the Touch Bar, which changes automatically based on the apps you're using.
By default, the function keys are ready to use without any other keystrokes. Simply press the key to activate the function you need to perform. The function will automatically activate.
You can also use other shortcuts such as modifier keys to save even more time as you work and play.
However, if you wish to change this, you can use System Preferences to enable standard function keys.
On your Mac, click Launchpad > System Preferences .
From there, click Keyboard , then click Use F1, F2, etc. keys as standard function keys .
Now, you'll need to press the Fn key in the lower left corner of your keyboard plus the corresponding function key to complete an action.
Open the Apple menu and select System Preferences > Keyboard > Keyboard > Modifier Keys . Choose a function key and use the pop-up menu to designate an action for it. If you ever want to change the function keys back to what they were originally, select Restore Defaults .
Press and hold the Function (fn) key on your keyboard to display the function keys in the Touch Bar. Then press the function key you want as it appears in the Touch Bar.
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How to use the F keys on a Mac
When casting your eye over the Mac keyboard, you will notice a line of F keys at the top. Similar to its Windows counterpart, the Mac’s F1-F12 keys give more features and control to the user. Today, we will look at how to use the F keys on a Mac, what each one of them does, and even how to reprogram them to do what you want them to do.
Read more: How to turn on dark mode on a Mac
The F keys on a Mac serve two functions. The first is to use them according to the icon on the key. F1 decreases the screen brightness, while F12 increases the audio volume. However, you can also press one of the F keys and the fn key (function key) together to also carry out that function. That must be enabled in the Mac settings. F keys can also be reprogrammed to do other things.
JUMP TO KEY SECTIONS
- What are they?
- How to use them
- How to change them
What are the F keys on a Mac?
Here is an explanation of what each F key does by default. These are based on the 2020 Macbook Air, running macOS Ventura. Newer Mac models may have different functions for F keys.
- F1 — decreases screen brightness.
- F2 — increases screen brightness.
- F3 — opens and closes Mission Control.
- F4 — opens and closes Spotlight .
- F5 — opens and closes Dictation.
- F6 — enables /disables Do Not Disturb .
- F7 — restarts a music track or jumps to the previous track.
- F8 — plays or pauses a music track or video file.
- F9 — skips a music track or fast forward.
- F10 — mutes the volume.
- F11 — decreases the volume.
- F12 — increases the volume.
However, as we previously indicated, you can also hold down an F key together with the function key (fn) to achieve the same result. But this needs to be enabled first.
Go to System Settings > Keyboard . Click Keyboard Shortcuts .
Click Function Keys and toggle the green button to enable the feature. Remember to click the green Done button to save your changes.
What’s the advantage of doing this? From now on, to use the standard F key features, you must hold down the function key first. This means that if you press an F key without the function key, you can make it do something else entirely.
By default, most of the F keys don’t do anything else, so you need to remap them to specific tasks. We’ll look at that in a minute.
If you want to use the standard functions on an F key (decrease brightness or volume, activate Spotlight, etc), then you don’t need to set up anything else. It works immediately as advertised. Just press the key and watch it do its thing.
How to change the F key functions on a Mac
If you have set the standard F key features to only work with the function key, then you can remap the F keys to do something else without the function key.
To do this, go back to System Settings > Keyboard > Keyboard Shortcuts . Here, you will see various Mac features along with the ability to assign a keyboard shortcut to them.
Let’s say we want to assign one of the F keys to Show Notification Center .
- Tick the box next to the feature to activate it.
- Click the keyboard shortcut area to the right.
- Tap the F key you want to use. If it is available, it will auto-fill. If the F key is being used by another app, it will throw up an error message and tell you to choose another one.
- Click Done to save your F key choice.
Now try it out. F1 without the function key will open the Notification Center. F1 with the function key will lower the screen brightness.
Read more: What is Keychain Access on macOS?
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How to toggle between Fn and function F-keys on Mac?
I've found this annoying problem where if I press function keys they don't perform as expected. F12 opens up Chrome's inspector while F11 just hides windows to show desktop.
The only way I can click to say change brightness is to click the FN key.
What is causing this and how do I change it back to standard function key functionality? And what causes it in the first place?
- Does this answer your question? How to use Function keys as standard key in one app only? – Saaru Lindestøkke Dec 2, 2022 at 9:09
- @SaaruLindestøkke - it's not a great dupe match, though I'm surprised I can't find a better one at the moment. I'll drop in an answer & if we find a good one later we can always close it against that. – Tetsujin Dec 2, 2022 at 9:20
- Yes, I see that it's not a very good match. I referenced that question as it also refers to a question over at Apple.SE, but the answer on this question is maybe a better fit? – Saaru Lindestøkke Dec 2, 2022 at 9:25
- @SaaruLindestøkke - all useful, but tbh, I think it might be OK to leave this one as a standalone 'how do i switch it over, just the once?'. Simple Q, simple A. the others have now populated the sidebar, for deeper interest. I guess we'll have to see what others think. [I'm easy either way, really:) – Tetsujin Dec 2, 2022 at 9:34
- I'm using Monterey and it just keeps switching. Can't find the option to switch back to normal functionality System Settings for me has caused all sorts of trouble. – elksie5000 Dec 2, 2022 at 9:38
4 Answers 4
You can set which way this behaves in System Prefs > Keyboard > Keyboard 'Use F1, F2, etc. keys as standard function keys'
Whichever way you choose, holding Fn/F-key will activate the opposite mode temporarily.
This pref pane has changed appearance slightly over the years, but the functionality remains the same up to Monterey, but it has moved in Ventura.
from Apple KB
macOS Ventura Choose Apple menu > System Settings. Click Keyboard in the sidebar. Click the Keyboard Shortcuts button on the right. Click Function Keys in the sidebar. Turn on "Use F1, F2, etc. keys as standard function keys".
- I'm using Monterey and that doesn't appear under System Settings > keyboard. – elksie5000 Dec 2, 2022 at 9:36
- It's in just the same place on Monterey - i.stack.imgur.com/KArk1.png Ventura may have changed things, but I don't have that yet on any of the Macs here. – Tetsujin Dec 2, 2022 at 9:39
- Answer updated with Ventura changes – Tetsujin Dec 2, 2022 at 10:47
- Once I worked it, it worked. Well done done Sir. – elksie5000 Dec 2, 2022 at 13:19
On a Macally keyboard I've found that holding Fn and pressing Esc will "lock" the fn key allowing me to use the Function keys by default. Without this, even having set the "Use F1, F2 keys etc..." it wasn't working without holding the Fn key. Locking it worked like a charm.
MAC OS Ventura 13.3.1 (Chrome)
Cmd + Shift + F
Above command will toggle the task-bar. Coming from a Windows OS, this was the combination I was looking for to mimic Fn + F11 .
As well as enabling the "Use F1, F2, etc" option, you may also want to un-bind the F11 key from the "Show Desktop" feature.
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