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A Modular End-to-End Framework for Secure Firmware Updates on Embedded Systems
Firmware refers to device read-only resident code which includes microcode and macro-instruction-level routines. For Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices without an operating system, firmware includes all the necessary instructions on how such embedded systems operate and communicate. Thus, firmware updates are essential parts of device functionality. They provide the ability to patch vulnerabilities, address operational issues, and improve device reliability and performance during the lifetime of the system. This process, however, is often exploited by attackers in order to inject malicious firmware code into the embedded device. In this article, we present a framework for secure firmware updates on embedded systems. This approach is based on hardware primitives and cryptographic modules, and it can be deployed in environments where communication channels might be insecure. The implementation of the framework is flexible, as it can be adapted in regards to the IoT device’s available hardware resources and constraints. Our security analysis shows that our framework is resilient to a variety of attack vectors. The experimental setup demonstrates the feasibility of the approach. By implementing a variety of test cases on FPGA, we demonstrate the adaptability and performance of the framework. Experiments indicate that the update procedure for a 1183-kB firmware image could be achieved, in a secure manner, under 1.73 seconds.
Computer development based embedded systems in precision agriculture: tools and application
Low-power on-chip implementation of enhanced svm algorithm for sensors fusion-based activity classification in lightweighted edge devices.
Smart homes assist users by providing convenient services from activity classification with the help of machine learning (ML) technology. However, most of the conventional high-performance ML algorithms require relatively high power consumption and memory usage due to their complex structure. Moreover, previous studies on lightweight ML/DL models for human activity classification still require relatively high resources for extremely resource-limited embedded systems; thus, they are inapplicable for smart homes’ embedded system environments. Therefore, in this study, we propose a low-power, memory-efficient, high-speed ML algorithm for smart home activity data classification suitable for an extremely resource-constrained environment. We propose a method for comprehending smart home activity data as image data, hence using the MNIST dataset as a substitute for real-world activity data. The proposed ML algorithm consists of three parts: data preprocessing, training, and classification. In data preprocessing, training data of the same label are grouped into further detailed clusters. The training process generates hyperplanes by accumulating and thresholding from each cluster of preprocessed data. Finally, the classification process classifies input data by calculating the similarity between the input data and each hyperplane using the bitwise-operation-based error function. We verified our algorithm on `Raspberry Pi 3’ and `STM32 Discovery board’ embedded systems by loading trained hyperplanes and performing classification on 1000 training data. Compared to a linear support vector machine implemented from Tensorflow Lite, the proposed algorithm improved memory usage to 15.41%, power consumption to 41.7%, performance up to 50.4%, and power per accuracy to 39.2%. Moreover, compared to a convolutional neural network model, the proposed model improved memory usage to 15.41%, power consumption to 61.17%, performance to 57.6%, and power per accuracy to 55.4%.
Getting Started with Secure Embedded Systems
Design principles for embedded systems, cyense: cyclic energy-aware scheduling for energy-harvested embedded systems, embedded systems software development, esqumo an embedded software quality model.
Embedded systems are increasingly used in our daily life due to their importance. They are computer platforms consisting of hardware and software. They run specific tasks to realize functional and non functional requirements. Several specific quality attributes were identified as relevant to the embedded system domain. However, the existent general quality models do not address clearly these specific quality attributes. Hence, the proposition of quality models which address the relevant quality attributes of embedded systems needs more attention and investigation. The major goal of this paper is to propose a new quality model (called ESQuMo for Embedded Software Quality Model) which provides a better understanding of quality in the context of embedded software. Besides, it focuses the light on the relevant attributes of the embedded software and addresses clearly the importance of these attributes. In fact, ESQuMo is based on the well-established ISO/IEC 25010 standard quality model.
Embedded Systems and Architectures
Embedded systems and application areas in engineering, export citation format, share document.
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Research Topics in Embedded Systems for PhD
The amalgamation of software and hardware in a computer system is called an embedded system. The signal processors, microprocessors, and ...
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The amalgamation of software and hardware in a computer system is called an embedded system. The signal processors, microprocessors, and digital signal processors are functioning through the embedded systems. In addition, flexibility, scalability, energy, dependability, efficiency, and precision are some of the notable features of embedded systems. Let’s start this article with the significant research areas of embedded systems to derive the recent research topics in embedded systems for PhD.
Research Areas in Embedded Systems
- Intelligent and solar-operated robot
- Metal detector
- Pc-based bomb detector
- Heat controller
- Rain detector
- LCD thermometer
- Voice dialer for phone
- The speed limit of the vehicle
- Driverless car
- Gas leak detection
- Train accident alert
- Gesture control
- Anti-sleep alarm
- Auto door open
- Fridge door alarm
- Digital calendar
- Biomedical monitoring system
- Embedded-based auto lift
- Fingerprint car ignition system
At this moment, let us take a look at the list of research algorithms in this field of embedded systems. In addition to that, the research scholars have to go through and finalize the research fields before getting into the selection of research topics in embedded systems for PhD because the algorithms also have to place the research topic in a short note.
Algorithms in Embedded Systems
- The tasks in RMS are scheduled through the static priority which is determined using the duration. In addition, it guarantees time restraints capable of 70% CPU load
- In this process LLF, the tasks are scheduled through the order of laxity and it is not functioning in the soft real-time applications, it has to compete with the applications that are in higher priority
- It is denoted as the dynamic scheduling algorithm which is used in real-time operating systems. Along with that, it is accomplished to assign priority to the process which has the earliest deadline. The process of EDF is functioning over the tasks which are scheduled by the order of the deadline
For your quick reference, our technical experts in the embedded system have highlighted the list of substantial research ideas in the embedded system for your PhD topic selection. More than that, our research experts are ready to implement the scholar’s research ideas. So, discover the innovations with our better guidance.
Latest Interesting Research Ideas in Embedded Systems
- Communication propagation and antenna
- Embedded systems and secure applications
- Cognitive science
- Signal processing applications
- Water level controller
- PLC-based intruder information sharing
- Land rover robot
- Traffic signal auto stop
- Ultrasonic and voice-based walking for blind
- Multi-channel fire alarm
- GPRS-based industrial monitoring
- GSM-based ECG tele-alert system
- Data acquisition system
- Power failure indicator
Are you guys requiring the research topics in embedded systems for PhD with the discussion and to shape your research knowledge? Then you can approach our research experts at any time. The following is about the list of significant research topics that occurred in the contemporary research platform and it is used to select the project titles based on an embedded system.
Research Topics in Embedded Systems for PhD Scholars
- Representation of embedded system with the Petri synthesis property preservation
- Controlling the time nonlinear systems through the embedded systems
- Analysis, application, and modeling
- Nonvolatile data memory with a real-time embedded system
- PCP water injection system design
- Parallel heterogeneous system applications
- Deep neural networks and voice recognition
- Distinct stair recognition system and ultrasonic device frequency
- LPWAN is used while monitoring the coastal waves
- Power harvesting for smart sensor networks in monitoring water distribution system
- Accelerometer-based gesture recognition for wheelchair direction control
- Bedside patient monitoring with wireless sensor networks
- 4-GHz energy-efficient transmitter for wireless medical applications
- Automatic docking system for recharging home surveillance robots
- Hybrid RFID-GPS-based terminal system in vehicular communications
- RF fingerprinting physical objects for anti-counterfeiting applications
- Authenticated and access control system for the device using smart card technology
- Hazardous gas detecting method applied in coal mine detection robot
- Posture allocations and activities by a shoe-based wearable sensor
- Development of an ES for secure wireless data communication
- A microcontroller-based intelligent traffic controller system
- Monitoring and controlling of requirements for cultivation
The following is about the list of research applications based on the embedded system research field it is beneficial for research scholars to find the finest PhD research work through the provided list and these are highlighted by our experienced research professionals in embedded systems.
Applications in Embedded Systems
- Artificial intelligence and robotics
- Telephones, satellite, and radio communications
- Text interfaces
- Military control bases
- Firing of missiles
- Patient monitoring
- Heart treatments
- Radiation therapy
- Space station control
- Spaceship launch and monitoring
We provide complete research assistance in the research field based on embedded systems for research scholars. On that note, the research scholars have to know about the components that are used in their selected research area. Thus, we have enlisted the components based on the embedded system for your quick reference to implement research topics in embedded systems for PhD.
Components in Embedded Systems
- The power supply is considered the significant component to provide power to the embedded system circuit. In addition, the embedded system requires a 5 V supply that ranges from 1.8 to 3.3. V
- 32-bit processor
- 16-bit processor
- 8-bit processor
- Several microcontrollers are utilized in the embedded system and the memory is the representation of the microcontroller itself. It includes two significant types as
- RAM is denoted as the volatile type of memory and it is used to store the data for a temporary period in the memory while switching off the system, the data will be lost from the memory
- It is denoted as the code memory and it is deployed to store the program when the system is switched on the embedded system fetch code from ROM memory
- The input is used in the embedded system where it is needed to interact with the system. The processors are used in the embedded system based on input and output. In addition, the proper configuration is required for using the input and output ports. In the embedded system there are fixed input and output ports to connect the devices only with the specified ports and P0, P1, P2, and more are examples of input and output ports
- The type of interface which is deployed to communicate with other types of embedded systems is called a communication port. When the small-scale application includes the embedded system and communication ports can be deployed in the form of a microcontroller and it includes the serial protocols used to send data from one system board to another system board
- The timer and counter are utilized in the embedded system and the programming is done in such a way that delay can be generating the embedded system. The delay period can be decided through the functions of the crystal oscillator and system frequency
- The application is used for embedded systems with the competition of hardware components. For instance, temperature sensor applications are requiring the temperature sensors to measure the temperature
Up to now, we have discussed some forceful research components that are used in an embedded system which every research scholar prerequisites to be aware of while selecting their research topics in an embedded system for PhD. Without any delay, let’s discuss research problems in the research field based on the embedded system in the following.
Research Challenges in Embedded Systems
- DRM vs usability
- Creating the required latent process
- Moore’s law
- Future vs legacy
- Emerging behavior
- Heterogeneous vendors
Below, our research professionals have enlisted the research questions that are asked by the research scholars to develop their research projects in the embedded system along with the appropriate answers.
People Asked Questions
What are the top research fields in embedded systems.
- Cyber security embedded system
- Embedded IoT application
- Embedded network design
- Embedded applications
- Embedded Linux system
- Microcontroller firmware
What are the different types of embedded systems?
- Mobile phones
- Digital camera
- Home security systems
- ATM machine
- Card swipe machine
- MP3 players
- Microwave ovens
- Traffic control system
- Military usage in the defense sector
- Medical usage in the health sector
What is a new technology in embedded systems?
- Cloud connectivity
- Embedded security
- Augmented reality and virtual reality
- Artificial intelligence
- Deep learning
What is the simulation tools used in embedded system?
What is the programming languages used in embedded system, what are the topics in embedded systems.
- Wireless meter for consumer utility
- An ultrasonic parking guidance system
- Iris-based door opening and closing
- Fault location in underground power networks
- Embedded-based calibration of the proximity sensor
- Accident prevention using eye blink
- Earthquake analyzer and reporter
- AC motor speed monitoring and control through telephone
- Bus information alert for the blind using Zigbee
What are the real-time examples in embedded systems?
- Medical Equipment
- Electronic Calculators
- Industrial machines
- Laser Printer
- Digital phones
- Washing Machine
- Digital watches
To this end, the research scholars can trust us for your PhD work and we shape your innovative research thoughts with proper research implementation by using the required simulation tools, protocols, algorithms, etc. Our research experts have years of experience in this research platform and also from research topics in embedded systems for PhD to paper publication too. We are strong in all the research fields in embedded systems and we are being learned through the fundamentals till the growth and now. Finally, the research scholars will acquire the finest result when you join hands with us. As well as, we teach you an easy way to acquire the finest research knowledge to shine in your research career.
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Design Automation for Embedded Systems
An International Journal
- Addresses the systematic design of embedded systems
- Focuses on tools, methodologies and architectures, including HW/SW co-design, simulation and modeling approaches, synthesis techniques, architectures, and design exploration
- Meets the need for a truly multidisciplinary system design journal
- Reinaldo A. Bergamaschi
Issue 3, September 2023
Special issue with selected papers from 2020 brazilian symposium on computer engineering (sbesc 2020).
- Ivan Müller
- Content type: EditorialNotes
- Published: 20 June 2023
- Pages: 1 - 2
Hardware-accelerated service-oriented communication for AUTOSAR platforms
- Abdelrahman Elbahnihy
- M. Watheq El-Kharashi
- Content type: OriginalPaper
- Published: 13 June 2023
- Pages: 191 - 216
Efficient placement and migration policies for an STT-RAM based hybrid L1 cache for intermittently powered systems
- SatyaJaswanth Badri
- Mukesh Saini
- Neeraj Goel
- Published: 05 May 2023
Accelerated and optimized covariance descriptor for pedestrian detection in self-driving cars
Authors (first, second and last of 5).
- Nesrine Abid
- Ahmed. C. Ammari
- Medhat Awadalla
- Published: 28 April 2023
- Pages: 139 - 163
A high-speed reusable quantized hardware accelerator design for CNN on constrained edge device
- Rama Muni Reddy Yanamala
- Muralidhar Pullakandam
- Published: 26 April 2023
- Pages: 165 - 189
Sbesc embedded systems 2021.
A Special Issue for selected papers from the 2021 Brazilian Symposium on Computer Engineering.
SBESC Embedded Systems 2022
A Special Issue for selected papers from the 2022 Brazilian Symposium on Computer Engineering.
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