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  • 07 July 2021

Research managers are essential to a healthy research culture

You have full access to this article via your institution.

Attendees talk and observe posters during the INORMS 2018 Poster Exhibition

A poster session at an international conference for research managers in Edinburgh in 2018. More academic administrators are getting involved with the scholarly side of their subject. Credit: Malcolm Cochrane Photography

In the space of three decades, academic research management has become an attractive career prospect for researchers around the world. Once focused principally on helping academics to manage funding, research managers and administrators (RMAs) are now part of a globally recognized profession that spans the research spectrum. There are some 20,000 RMAs working in universities; most are in high-income countries, but expansion is under way in lower-income nations, particularly in Africa.

The role has evolved as research has become more complex, and this, in turn, is attracting more candidates with research-level qualifications and experience. Today’s managers and administrators need knowledge and experience of open science, equality and diversity, ethics and public engagement — as well as of more conventional areas such as accounting, project management and research policy.

RMA courses and qualifications are now offered by universities and by some of the 20 national and regional professional associations belonging to the International Network of Research Management Societies (INORMS).

research articles on management

‘We’re problem solvers’: research administrators offer guidance to working scientists

But, as we report in this issue , tensions between RMAs and the researchers they work with are not uncommon. There are still those who regard the academic as ‘king’ and the RMA as little more than research support. Meanwhile, at some institutions, university leaders expect RMAs to monitor academics’ performance metrics — such as targets for publishing and research income — which can be stressful for both researchers and managers .

As a result, RMAs and their professional organizations are becoming advocates for responsible research. And they are embracing the academic study of research management and administration. This is helping to establish good practice, as well as professional standards that can be used to hold universities and publishers to account.

For example, members of INORMS are taking a lead in addressing how university league tables might be improved to make them fairer and more transparent . And the UK research managers association, ARMA, has been involved in an independent review on the use of metrics in research evaluation, a project called the Metric Tide. This year also saw the launch by management professionals of the Journal of Research Management and Administration .

These are welcome developments. RMAs are crucial to the research enterprise. Moreover, their involvement in active scholarship is essential to achieving the aims set out above. Researchers and managers must work collegially and respectfully to make the research environment happier and more productive.

Nature 595 , 150 (2021)


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Editorial: Leadership and management in organizations: Perspectives from SMEs and MNCs


Leadership and management are fundamental aspects for the smooth performance, progress, and growth of any organization with respect to its nature and the way it operates (Siyal et al., 2021a ). Every multinational, national, SME, and corporate sector needs effective management and leadership. This allows them to perform smoothly and produce significant output, which leads to growth and development. It is believed that the best leadership and management make remarkable contributions to the growth of institutions and yield remarkable outcomes (Siyal and Peng, 2018 ; Kouzes and Posner, 2023 ). This is due to the increasing recognition of and demand for effective leaders and managers by the corporate sectors, MNCs, and SMEs that are aiming to lead the global market. For this, they need qualified, trained, and committed leaders and managers who can efficiently and effectively lead the team, resources, and market. It is evident that several organizations acknowledge the need for effective leadership and efficient management, but they are still uncertain about the proper management, leadership style, and behaviors that are most effective for the growth and development of the corporate sector, MNCs, and SMEs, along with the development of their human resources (Kelly and Hearld, 2020 ; Siyal et al., 2021b ). Considering all these aspects and conflicting results from the past, the role of leadership and management in the smooth operationalization, growth, and development of the corporate sector, MNC, and SMEs remains unresolved.

This Research Topic focuses on leadership and management in organizations in diverse workplace settings including MNCs and SMEs. The call for papers was published between February 2022 and August 2022, during which the COVID-19 pandemic continued to impact some regions but not others. Scholars and practitioners were invited to submit research articles and brief reports pertaining to leadership and management in organizations, including corporations and SMEs, in the field of organizational psychology to the Frontiers in Psychology journal. In response to this call for papers, a huge number of academicians and practitioners submitted their research. Out of a total of 81 submissions, 18 were accepted and published under this theme. The Research Topic includes studies from diverse cultural and industrial settings, such as academia and industries including MNCs and SMEs, from across the globe. The businesses covered in this Research Topic are enterprises, manufacturers, SMEs, MNCs, educational institutes, logistics SMEs, and government sectors. The submitting authors were from different countries, including the Republic of Korea, China, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi), Oman, Qatar, Serbia, and Poland. The authors came up with new research approaches and methodologies, contributing to the theory and practice in this important emerging research domain of leadership and management.

Xu et al. investigated whether and how differential leadership in SMEs influences subordinate knowledge hiding. They analyzed the underlying mechanisms of chain-mediator–job insecurity and territorial consciousness and the boundary condition–leadership performance expectation. The results indicated that differential leadership plays a potential role in promoting subordinate knowledge hiding through the serial intervening mechanism of job insecurity and territorial consciousness in SMEs. This study contributes to the existing academic literature by empirically analyzing the under-investigated correlation between differential leadership and subordinate knowledge hiding in SMEs and by exploring the underlying mechanisms and boundary condition.

Ding et al. examined the link between an employee's professional identity and their success via the mediating role of critical thinking. They also examined the interaction of an employee's professional commitment and a leader's motivational language by critically analyzing employee success. This study was conducted on Chinese MNCs by use of a time-lagged study design. The results show a positive relation between an employee's professional identity and their success. Furthermore, the critical analysis mediated the link between professional identity and employee success.

Jun et al. examined the impact of supervisors' authentic leadership styles on the turnover of their subordinates in multiple organizations in the Republic of Korea. Their findings generalized the effects of leadership on turnover across different research contexts. Furthermore, they proposed a new mechanism and tested the mediation and moderation of the supervisor-perceived support and organizational identification, which reduces the turnover rate and help organizations to retain their best talents.

Leadership and management in organizations are crucial elements in ensuring the success of both MNCs and SMEs. While MNCs may have more resources and a more formal structure, SMEs often have a more flexible and agile approach to leadership and management. Both MNCs and SMEs can benefit from effective leadership and management practices such as clear communication, setting achievable goals, fostering a positive work culture, and continuously adapting to changing market conditions. Ultimately, the key to success in both types of organizations is having leaders and managers who are able to inspire and motivate their teams to achieve their goals.

In this regard, this Research Topic has introduced this novel research work by scholars and researchers from around the globe, with a focus on leadership and management perspectives and their role in organizations. Thus, the selected Research Topic is very important for the business, industry, management, academic, and economic value of practitioners and academic institutions at all levels, as well as those with country-wide and international offices. This Research Topic has contributed through novel approaches and provide suggestions for the managers and leaders of corporate sectors, MNCs and SMEs, academicians, academic institutions, social scientists, students, policymakers, government and non-government agencies, and other related stakeholders. Similarly, the findings in this Research Topic have suggested that investigating the impact of leadership and management in organizations could influence future research, and further studies could compare the effectiveness of leadership and management in MNCs and SMEs.

Author contributions

The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication.

Conflict of interest

The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

  • Kelly R. J., Hearld L. R. (2020). Burnout and leadership style in behavioral health care: A literature review . J. Behav. Health Serv. Res. 47 , 581–600. 10.1007/s11414-019-09679-z [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Kouzes J. M., Posner B. Z. (2023). The Leadership Challenge: How to Make Extraordinary Things Happen in Organizations . New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. [ Google Scholar ]
  • Siyal S., Peng X. (2018). Does leadership lessen turnover? The moderated mediation effect of leader–member exchange and perspective taking on public servants . J. Public Affairs 18 , e1830. 10.1002/pa.1830 [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Siyal S., Saeed M., Pahi M. H., Solangi R., Xin C. (2021a). They can't treat you well under abusive supervision: investigating the impact of job satisfaction and extrinsic motivation on healthcare employees . Ration. Soc . 33 , 401–423. 10.1177/10434631211033660 [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]
  • Siyal S., Xin C., Umrani W. A., Fatima S., Pal D. (2021b). How do leaders influence innovation and creativity in employees? The mediating role of intrinsic motivation . Adm. Soc. 53 , 1337–1361. 10.1177/0095399721997427 [ CrossRef ] [ Google Scholar ]

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What leaders are saying about costs and growth in 2024.

After spending last year on edge over inflation, market conditions, and the possibility of a recession, corporate leaders feel cautiously optimistic about 2024.

At the same time, C-suite executives are making cost management a top priority to address lingering economic, financial, and geopolitical concerns.

According to new BCG research, executives are initiating enterprise-wide cost campaigns, targeting such functions as manufacturing , supply chain , labor, and marketing and sales .

Cost initiatives may start strong but run into trouble. The vast majority of corporate leaders we surveyed said their cost programs meet or exceed initial savings targets. However, a substantial portion struggle to sustain reductions. Others report that cost cuts hurt business or limit growth.

Companies can sustain savings and power growth if they take a holistic approach to cost management, apply resources unlocked from quick wins to fund innovation, and cultivate a culture of continuous improvement.

Download the full report .

Cautious Optimism

Our survey of more than 600 C-suite executives around the world found that fewer are as pessimistic about macroeconomic shifts as they were in 2023.

research articles on management

Sixty-three percent believe their enterprises are prepared to weather additional global shocks. Even more (68%) believe they have enough visibility to make decisions about long-term capital investments. These positive sentiments—along with more abundant available capital, regulatory changes, and other trends—could cause mergers and acquisitions to pick up in coming months.

Corporate leaders aren’t entirely upbeat. They remain concerned about the possible business challenges posed by inflation, rising interest rates, and the potential for recession. They’re also tracking socioeconomic and geopolitical fallout from this year’s general elections in the US, India, and EU and from ongoing conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East.

Making Cost Management a Priority

Lingering uncertainty, the need to reshape operations for the future, and disruptive technologies (such as generative AI) are motivating leaders to put cost management at the top of the to-do list. Corporate leaders’ goal of cutting costs stretched across all the regions we studied—North America, Europe, and Asia—and a variety of industries.

research articles on management

After managing costs, C-suite leaders’ top strategic priorities for 2024 are growth and expansion. How they accomplish both of those goals differs by region. Leaders in North America and Asia aim to grow by increasing product lines. In Europe, leaders are targeting growth by managing prices to counter inflation.

Leaders in the consumer goods and infrastructure and logistics sectors are particularly keen to grow by moving into new territories. Companies that are attracted to Southeast Asia’s status as a vibrant market and manufacturing hub are partially responsible for spurring geographic expansion. But interest in new regional markets is dampened in part by ongoing geopolitical tensions in other parts of the world.

Targeting Cost Efforts

Leaders are launching programs to manage costs in every aspect of their business. However, they said initiatives in manufacturing and supply chains, labor, and marketing and sales are “very important” for maintaining a competitive advantage. To lower manufacturing and supply chain costs, companies can optimize procurement, logistics networks, and distribution and warehousing, and invest in digital lean manufacturing and advanced planning processes.

research articles on management

A Strong Start Doesn’t Always Lead to Lasting Cost Savings

More than eight in ten leaders who launch cost programs reported meeting or surpassing their initial savings goals. But a strong start doesn’t guarantee lasting change. More than a third of the leaders we polled said costs eventually come back, and almost as many reported that cost cuts affect their business or growth.  

research articles on management

C-suite executives told us that cost challenges are exacerbated by the difficulty of finding specialized talent in a tight labor market. Attracting and retaining people with the right skills is the biggest concern of leaders in health care and technology, media, and telecommunications . Cost initiatives are further stymied by disruptions caused by digital and AI.

A Holistic Approach to Cost Management

We know from years of client engagements that cost transformations are hard, and many don’t stick. Leaders improve the likelihood that their transformations will succeed by adopting a holistic approach that goes beyond one-and-done cost takeouts and by establishing a culture of continuous improvement.

research articles on management

Companies can unlock resources through quick wins and reinvest them in areas that drive growth, such as digital and AI, talent advancement, modernized supply chains, and operational excellence. To support change, top leaders must build a culture that supports it. They can do that by engaging people, translating strategies into measurable actions, treating setbacks as opportunities to learn, and provide other leaders in the organization with the support and resources they need to balance cost and growth goals.

Shifting economic trends, evolving geopolitics, and rapidly changing technologies are forcing organizations to evolve. Many are using the circumstances to improve costs. By taking a holistic approach, organizations can unlock funds to invest in strategic priorities that build competitive advantage for the future.


Boston Consulting Group partners with leaders in business and society to tackle their most important challenges and capture their greatest opportunities. BCG was the pioneer in business strategy when it was founded in 1963. Today, we work closely with clients to embrace a transformational approach aimed at benefiting all stakeholders—empowering organizations to grow, build sustainable competitive advantage, and drive positive societal impact.

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The Social Cost of Algorithmic Management

  • Armin Granulo,
  • Sara Caprioli,
  • Christoph Fuchs,
  • Stefano Puntoni

research articles on management

Being managed by algorithms makes coworkers less willing to help each other.

To achieve efficiencies and reduce costs, more and more companies are managing their employees by algorithm. In this article, the authors present some of the first research findings concerning the effects of algorithmic management on workplace dynamics. One important finding is that employees managed by algorithms are less likely than colleagues managed by people to help others. The authors conclude with suggestions for how companies who want to use algorithmic management can mitigate its negative effects.

Algorithms are being deployed to automate managerial tasks in an increasingly wide variety of industries and settings. Amazon, Uber, and UPS, for example, use them to oversee the movements and performance of millions of drivers and warehouse workers, and 7-Eleven, IBM, and Uniqlo use them to track the sales performance of retail workers or assess employee skillsets.

  • AG Armin Granulo is a postdoctoral researcher at the TUM School of Management in Germany. His work explores the impact of modern technology such as artificial intelligence on society, businesses, and the workforce.
  • SC Sara Caprioli is a postdoctoral researcher at the TUM School of Management in Germany. Her work focuses on the effects of creativity and artificial intelligence on human behavior.
  • CF Christoph Fuchs is a professor of marketing at the University of Vienna in Austria. His research is situated at the interface of marketing, technology, and human behavior.
  • SP Stefano Puntoni is the Sebastian S. Kresge professor of marketing at the Wharton School, where he serves as the co-director of AI at Wharton.  

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The Performance Review Problem

As the arcane annual assessment earns a failing grade, employers struggle to create a better system to measure and motivate their workers.

​After an annual review that lasted about 10 minutes, a New Jersey-based account coordinator knew it was time to leave the public relations agency where he had worked for almost a year. 

The 25-year-old, who requested anonymity, asked for the meeting because his boss had not mentioned any formal assessment process, nor had his manager ever critiqued his work. The coordinator says he sat with a trio of senior executives who did not ask him any questions beyond how he would rate himself. He says they ignored his requests for guidance on how to advance at the agency. 

Screen Shot 2023-03-15 at 85749 AM.png

This example also illustrates one of the common failures in performance management: limiting reviews to once or twice a year without having any other meaningful career discussions in between. Nearly half (49 percent) of companies give annual or semiannual reviews, according to a study of 1,000 full-time U.S. employees released late last year by software company Workhuman. 

The only situation that is worse than doing one review per year is doing none at all, experts say. The good news is that only 7 percent of companies are keeping employees in the dark about their performance, and 28 percent of organizations are conducting assessments quarterly, the Workhuman study found.  

A Pervasive Problem

Reviews generally do not work.

That doesn’t mean that more-frequent formal meetings or casual sit-downs between supervisors and their direct reports are solving the performance review quandary, either. Only about 1 in 4 companies in North America (26 percent) said their performance management systems were effective, according to a survey of 837 companies conducted last fall by consulting firm WTW. And only one-third of the organizations said employees felt their efforts were evaluated fairly. 

Meanwhile, a Gallup survey conducted last year found that 95 percent of managers are dissatisfied with their organization’s review system.

The problem is not new, though it is taking on greater importance, experts say. Millennials and members of Generation Z crave feedback and are focused on career development. Meanwhile, the tight labor market has companies searching for ways to keep high-performing employees in the fold. Fewer than 20 percent of employees feel inspired by their reviews, and disengaged employees cost U.S. companies a collective $1.6 trillion a year, according to Gallup.

Lesli Jennings, a senior director at WTW, says part of the issue is that reviews are now so much more than a discussion of past performance. They include conversations about career development, employee experience and compensation. 

“The performance management design itself is not evolving as quickly as the objectives and the purpose that we have set out for what we want it to do,” Jennings says. 

Screen Shot 2023-03-15 at 84340 AM.png

Poor Review Practices

Some argue that means it’s time to completely scrap annual reviews and stop using scales composed of numbers or adjectives to rate employees. 

“Every single human alive today is a horribly unreliable rater of other human beings,” says Marcus Buckingham, head of people and performance research at the Roseland, N.J.-based ADP Research Institute. He says people bring their own backgrounds and personalities to bear in the reviews in what is called the “idiosyncratic rating effect.” He says the ratings managers bestow on others are more a reflection of themselves than of those they’re reviewing.

Buckingham adds that very few positions have quantifiable outcomes that can be considered a measure of competence, talent or success. It’s possible to tally a salesperson’s results or test someone’s knowledge of a computer program, he says, but he’s baffled by attempts to measure attributes such as “leadership potential.”

“I’m going to rate you on a theoretical construct like ‘strategic thinking’? Everybody knows that’s rubbish,” Buckingham says. He adds that performance reviews that offer rankings give “data that’s just bad” and insists that companies rely on data analytics because they don’t trust their managers’ judgment. But instead of working on improving their managers’ skills, he says, they put data systems in place. 

“Because we don’t educate our managers on how to have some of these conversations, we’ve decided that the solution is to give them really bad ratings systems or really bad categorization systems,” Buckingham says. 

R eviewing the Data

A mong North American employers:

  • More than 9 in 10 (93 percent) cited driving organizational performance as a key objective for performance management, yet less than half (44 percent) said their performance management program is ­meeting that objective.
  • Nearly 3 in 4 (72 percent) said ­supporting the career development of their employees is a primary objective, but only 31 percent said their performance management program was meeting that objective.
  • Less than half (49 percent) agreed that managers at their organization are ­effective at assessing the performance of their direct reports. 
  • Only 1 in 3 indicated that employees feel their performance is evaluated fairly. 
  • Just 1 in 6 (16 percent) reported having altered their performance management approach to align with remote and hybrid work models, which are rapidly becoming more prevalent.

Source: WTW 2022 Performance Reset Survey of 837 organizations worldwide, including 150 North American employers.

Data Lovers

Ratings aren’t likely to disappear anytime soon, however. “Data-driven” has become a rallying cry for companies as they seek to operate more efficiently. Organizations are trying to measure everything from sales to productivity, though such efforts can cause turmoil and hurt some individuals’ careers.

A June 2022 study of nearly 30,000 workers at an unnamed North American retail chain found that women were more likely to receive higher overall ratings than men, though women were ranked lower on “potential.” 

In that study, women were 12 percent more likely to be given the lowest rating for potential, as well as 15 percent and 28 percent less likely to receive the middle and highest potential ratings, respectively, according to the professors who conducted the study, Alan Benson of the University of Minnesota, Danielle Li of MIT and Kelly Shue of Yale. The authors also said women were 14 percent less likely to get promoted than men. “Because potential is not directly observed,” they noted, “these assessments can be highly subjective, leaving room for bias.” 

Screen Shot 2023-03-15 at 85749 AM.png

Birmingham left abruptly one afternoon and did not go in to work the next day, which he says Blizzard interpreted as his resignation. Blizzard did not respond to requests for comment.

Stack ranking became popular in the 1980s after it was embraced by General Electric. Its adoption has waned, though several tech companies continue to use it. Google and Twitter relied on stack ranking to decide who to let go in their recent rounds of layoffs, according to published reports.

Birmingham says that the system can cause anxiety and competition, which can kill team cohesion, and that arbitrary lower ratings adversely affect compensation and promotion potential. These systems can also suggest that a manager is ineffective, he says. “It implies that as managers, we basically have not done our job to hire them and train them appropriately or terminate them if they really aren’t working out.”

Birmingham says he is not opposed to ranking systems but doesn’t think they’re necessary. “I feel like the conversation about how to improve your career, what the expectations are for your job and what it will take to get to the next level are all things you can do without a rating,” he says.

Measurements Matter

Grant Pruitt, president and co-founder of Whitebox Real Estate, does not give any type of rating in his performance reviews, though he believes in using data to track his employees’ performance. “What isn’t measured can’t be managed,” says Pruitt, whose company has about 20 employees in several offices across Texas. 

At the beginning of the year, Whitebox employees set goals with their managers. Discussions are held about what benchmarks are reasonable, and these targets can be changed if there is a meaningful shift in business conditions. Team leaders hold weekly department meetings with their direct reports to discuss what’s happening and track progress. Managers hold quarterly private reviews with individuals to dig deeper into whether they’re meeting their goals and if not, why.

“Was it an achievable goal? Realistic? If it was, then what do we need to do to make sure we don’t miss it the next time?” Pruitt says. Whitebox switched to quarterly reviews about four years ago to address problems earlier and avoid having issues fester, Pruitt adds.

It’s easier to set goals for people in sales than for those in other departments, Pruitt concedes. However, he adds that executives need to brainstorm about targets they can use for other roles. For example, administrative employees can be rated on how quickly and efficiently they handle requests.

Pruitt maintains that the goal system makes it easier to respond when an employee disagrees with their manager about their performance review because there are quantitative measures to examine. The data also helps eliminate any unconscious bias a manager may have and helps ensure that a leader isn’t just giving an employee a good rating because they work out at the same gym or their children go to school together.

“I think that’s really where the numbers and the data are important,” Pruitt says. “The data doesn’t know whose kids play on the same sports team.”

Whitebox employees are also judged on how well they embrace the company’s core values, such as integrity, tenacity and coachability. Some of those values may require more-subjective judgments that can be more important than hitting quantifiable goals. 

Pruitt admits that there were occasions when he looked the other way with a few individuals who were “hitting it out of the park,” even though he believed they lacked integrity. But eventually, he had to let them go and the company lost money.

“They really came back to bite me,” Pruitt says.

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Grades Are Good

Diane Dooley, CHRO of Iselin, N.J.-based World Insurance Associates LLC, also believes establishing quantitative methods to gauge employees’ performance is essential. “We are living in a world of data analytics,” she says. The broker’s roughly 2,000 employees are rated on a scale of 1 to 5.

World Insurance has taken numerous steps to remove bias from reviews. For example, last year the company conducted unconscious-bias training to help managers separate personal feelings from performance reviews. And all people managers convene to go over the reviews they’ve conducted. Dooley says that process gives everyone a chance to discuss why an employee was given a certain rank and to question some decisions. “We want to make sure we’re using the same standards,” she explains.

Currently, World Insurance conducts reviews only once a year because it has been on an acquisition binge and there hasn’t been time to institute a more frequent schedule. That will change eventually, says Dooley, who adds that she wants to introduce department grids that show how an employee’s rank compares to others’ on the team. 

“It’s just a tool that helps the department or the division understand where their people are and how we can help them collectively,” says Dooley, who has used the system at other companies. 

Dooley says she isn’t worried about World Insurance holding reviews only annually, because good managers regularly check in with their employees regardless of how frequently reviews are mandated.

Such conversations can easily fall through the cracks, however. “Managers want to manage the employees, but they get so caught up in the company’s KPIs [key performance indicators] and making sure that they’re doing everything that they need to do,” says Jennifer Currence, SHRM-SCP, CEO of WithIn Leadership, a leadership development and coaching firm in Tampa, Fla. “It’s hard to set aside the time.” 

WTW’s Jennings adds that managers sometimes avoid initiating conversations with employees who are not performing well. Such discussions are often difficult, and managers may not feel equipped to conduct them. 

“Having to address underperformers is hard work,” Jennings says. 

Additionally, experts say, coaching managers to engage in such sensitive discourse can be expensive and time-consuming.

Improve Your Performance Reviews

H ere’s how to make the review process more ­palatable for both managers and their direct reports:

  • Don’t limit conversations to once or twice per year. Every team is different, so leaders should decide what schedule is most appropriate for their departments. However, it’s important to deal with any problems as they arise; don’t let them fester.
  • Set performance goals and expectations at the beginning of the year so employees understand their responsibilities. This helps lend objectivity to the process by introducing measurable targets. However, the goals should be adjusted if there are major changes to the business or an employee’s circumstances. 
  • Explain how each employee’s position, as well as each department, fits into the company’s overall ­strategy. This will help employees understand why their job matters and why it’s important.
  • Simplify the process. There’s no need for a ­double-digit number of steps or numerous
  • questions that require long-winded answers. 
  • Consider a 360-degree approach. Input from employees’ colleagues or from other managers can help give a fuller picture of employees’ capabilities and contributions.
  • Eliminate proximity bias. You may not see some employees as often as others, especially if they work remotely, but that doesn’t mean they’re not working hard. 
  • End recency bias, which is basing a review on an employee’s most recent performance while ignoring earlier efforts. Don’t let recent mistakes overshadow the employee’s other impressive accomplishments.
  • Solicit feedback from employees. Reviews should be a two-way conversation, not a lecture.
  • Train managers to give advice calmly and helpfully. This is especially important when leaders must call out an employee’s subpar performance. 
  • Don’t discuss compensation during reviews. Employees are likely to be so focused on learning about a raise or bonus that they won’t pay much attention to anything else.

Increase Conversations

Finding the right formula for performance reviews is tricky. The company’s size, values, industry and age all play a role. Currence says businesses need to think about the frequency and purpose of these meetings. Some managers may have weekly discussions with their direct reports, but the conversations might center on status updates as opposed to performance. 

“We need to have more regular conversations,” Currence says. “There has to be a happy balance.”

San Jose, Calif.-based software maker Adobe Inc. was a pioneer when it eliminated annual reviews in 2012 after employees said assessments that look backward weren’t useful and managers lamented how time-consuming they were. Instead, Adobe introduced quarterly check-ins and did away with its numerical ratings system, even though the company is “data-driven,” according to Arden Madsen, senior director of talent management.

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Adobe’s system has changed over the years as the company grew from about 11,000 employees in 2012 to around 28,000 today. In the beginning, employees were not asked a universal set of questions and the information gathered was not stored in a central place accessible to all. In 2020, Adobe instituted three or four questions that must be asked at each quarterly meeting, one of which is whether the employee has feedback for the manager. Other topics covered depend on the employee, their role and their goals.

Madsen says asking consistent questions and making reviews easily accessible are important, as internal mobility within the company has grown. 

Adobe, like many businesses, separates conversations about performance from discussions about raises and bonuses, even though they’re intertwined. 

“Money is so emotionally charged,” says WithIn Leadership’s Currence. “When we tie performance review conversations with money, we as human beings do not hear anything about performance. We only focus on the money.”    

Theresa Agovino is the workplace editor for SHRM.

Illustrations by Neil Jamieson.

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This paper is in the following e-collection/theme issue:

Published on 16.2.2024 in Vol 26 (2024)

Effectiveness and Feasibility of Telehealth-Based Dietary Interventions Targeting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors of this article:

Author Orcid Image

  • Rupal Trivedi 1 , RDN, MS, PhD   ; 
  • Shaimaa Elshafie 1 , BPharm, MS   ; 
  • Randall Tackett 1 , PhD   ; 
  • Henry Young 1 , PhD   ; 
  • Elisabeth Lilian Pia Sattler 1, 2 , RPh, PhD  

1 Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States

2 Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States

Corresponding Author:

Elisabeth Lilian Pia Sattler, RPh, PhD

Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy

College of Pharmacy

University of Georgia

250 W Green St

United States

Phone: 1 7065421040

Email: [email protected]

Background: Telehealth-based dietary interventions were recommended for cardiovascular disease (CVD) management during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, data regarding their effectiveness and feasibility are limited.

Objective: We aimed to examine (1) the effectiveness of telehealth-based dietary interventions in improving clinical CVD risk factors and (2) the feasibility of these interventions among individuals with CVD.

Methods: To conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 2 investigators searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and databases based on predetermined search terms and included English-language RCTs published between January 2000 and July 2022. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess RCT quality. To evaluate intervention effectiveness, weight, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or blood glucose were compared postintervention in telehealth and usual care (UC) groups. Feasibility was determined through the number of participants retained in intervention and UC groups. Pooled data for each CVD outcome were analyzed using a random effects model. Mean difference (MD), standardized MD, or risk ratio were calculated using R software.

Results: A total of 13 RCTs with 3013 participants were included in the analysis to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of telehealth-based dietary interventions among individuals with CVD. Participants had a mean age of 61.0 (SD 3.7) years, and 18.5% (n=559) were women. Approximately one-third of RCTs were conducted in the United States (n=4, 31%). Included studies used telephone, app, text, audio-visual media, or website-based interventions. Of the 13 included studies, 3 were of high quality, 9 were of moderate quality, and only 1 was of low quality. Pooled estimates showed systolic blood pressure (MD –2.74, 95% CI –4.93 to –0.56) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (standardized MD –0.11, 95% CI –0.19 to –0.03) to be significantly improved among individuals with CVD as a result of telehealth-based dietary interventions compared to UC. No significant difference in effectiveness was detected for weight, BMI, and levels of diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides between telehealth-based dietary interventions and UC among those with CVD. There was no significant difference between the feasibility of telehealth-based dietary interventions versus UC. Significant I 2 indicated moderate to considerable heterogeneity.

Conclusions: Telehealth-based dietary interventions show promise in addressing CVD risk factors.


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) impact 126.9 million American adults and are associated with 5.0 million annual hospitalizations, 874,613 annual deaths, and US $378 billion in medical expenditures in the United States [ 1 ]. CVD diagnoses are adversely impacted by lifestyle-related CVD risk factors [ 2 ]. About 80% of CVD risk in the United States can be attributed to lifestyle factors, including the consumption of an unhealthy diet, smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol use, obesity, uncontrolled levels of blood pressure, total cholesterol, and blood glucose [ 2 ]. Out of these lifestyle-related factors, the consumption of an unhealthy diet contributes to the largest proportion of CVD risk among Americans [ 2 ].

For primary and secondary CVD prevention, clinical guidelines endorse the maintenance of a healthy body weight, engagement in physical activity, smoking cessation, limited alcohol consumption, and a healthy diet [ 3 - 6 ]. Registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN)-led medical nutrition therapy has been shown to successfully improve dietary consumption among individuals with CVD [ 3 , 5 , 6 ]; however, limited access to health care services due to long travel distances and lack of adequate transportation to health care facilities presents significant barriers to obtaining effective medical nutrition therapy, particularly in rural communities [ 7 - 11 ].

Telehealth technologies provide a solution for overcoming these barriers by administering and supporting clinical health care over a long distance [ 12 , 13 ]. Through the use of the internet, videoconferencing, streaming media, electronic health records, and terrestrial and wireless communication tools, a variety of medical conditions have been successfully managed, including CVD [ 14 , 15 ]. Furthermore, the American Society for Preventative Cardiology recommended telehealth technologies for the dissemination of RDN-led medical nutrition therapy among those diagnosed with CVD during the COVID-19 pandemic [ 16 ]. While RDN-led telehealth-based medical nutrition therapy showed great promise in expanding patient care infrastructure during the pandemic, data regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of telehealth services among individuals with CVD are limited [ 16 ]. Previous research used small sample sizes, lacked inclusion of individuals with CVD as the target population, and did not assess telehealth-based dietary interventions [ 17 ]. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of telehealth-based dietary interventions among individuals with CVD.

Study Design

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, guided by the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) 2020 [ 18 ].

Inclusion Criteria

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the English language between January 2000 and July 31, 2022, that compared telehealth-based dietary interventions and usual care (UC) among adults aged ≥18 years with CVD were included in this study. Eligible RCTs involved participants with CVDs, including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, individuals with CVD with a history of cardiac events (myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes, angina, and revascularization), and individuals with CVD with a history of cardiac procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft surgery) [ 19 , 20 ]. Interventions were considered as telehealth-based dietary interventions if diet-related information was conveyed through synchronous or asynchronous points-of-contacts between a patient and a health care professional via medical education systems or information and communications technologies, such as telephones, cellular phones, web-based systems, and video technologies [ 21 , 22 ]. Participants in UC groups received some form of in-person nutritional care as a part of CVD management. If the involvement of nutritional care in UC was not clearly stated in the RCTs’ papers, authors R Trivedi and ELPS contacted the study authors to gain clarity. In the case where authors did not reply with clarification, the corresponding RCT was excluded from this systematic review and meta-analysis. To determine the effectiveness of telehealth-based dietary interventions, clinical CVD risk factors (weight, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, triglycerides, or blood glucose) were assessed in postintervention in telehealth, and compared to UC groups. To determine patient feasibility toward the telehealth-based dietary interventions, the included studies reported the number of participants retained by the RCT in both intervention and UC groups.

Search Strategy

PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and databases were searched using the following key terms and Medical Subject Headings terms: (“diet” or “nutrition” or “nutrition status” or “status, nutrition” or “nutritional science” or “science, nutritional” or “nutrition science” or “science, nutrition”) and (“telehealth” or “telemedicine” or “mobile health” or “health, mobile” or “mhealth” or “telehealth” or “ehealth”) and (“cardiovascular disease” or “cardiovascular diseases” or “disease, cardiovascular” or “diseases, cardiovascular” or “heart disease” or “cardiac disease” or “cardiac disorder” or “heart disorder” or “vascular disease” or “disease, vascular”) and (“rand*”). An experienced librarian reviewed and confirmed this search strategy ( Multimedia Appendix 1 ).

Using the predetermined search string, 2 investigators (R Trivedi and SE) first screened titles and abstracts to determine eligibility independently. Further scrutiny was given to the full text of the selected papers to determine whether eligibility was sustained. The included and excluded records were compared between the 2 investigators, and no unresolved disagreements needed to be reconciled through the input of a third investigator (ELPS).

Data Extraction

Study characteristics manually extracted from each RCT included National Clinical Trial identifier number, first author’s last name, year of publication, cardiovascular condition, interventions and their duration, follow-up durations after intervention initiation, country in which the study took place, location type (urban or rural), and total number of randomized participants. Participant characteristics extracted from each RCT included age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education and income levels. Continuous clinical outcome data included postintervention weight (kg or lbs), BMI (kg/m 2 ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (mmHg), and levels of total cholesterol (mg/dL or mmol/L), LDL cholesterol (mg/dL or mmol/L), HDL cholesterol (mg/dL or mmol/L), triglycerides (mg/dL or mmol/L), or blood glucose (mg/dL or mmol/L) from intervention and UC groups, respectively. The dichotomous feasibility outcome data included the number of participants retained in intervention and UC groups [ 23 - 28 ].

Risk of Bias

Study quality was determined independently by R Trivedi and SE through the Cochrane risk of bias tool, assessing randomization, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and personnel, blinding of outcome assessment, incomplete or selective reporting, and external sources of bias [ 29 ]. The decision on the RCTs’ overall quality was based on the number of unmet or insufficiently described criteria and the following thresholds: more than 3 (low quality), 2-3 (moderate quality), and less than 2 (high quality). All conflicts were resolved through discussion by the 2 investigators, and no further input was required by ELPS as a third investigator.

Analytic Plan

Pooled data for each outcome was assessed using a random effects model. Data for continuous variables were assessed either as weighted mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) using the inverse-variance model while our dichotomous variable was assessed as a risk ratio using the Mantel-Haenszel (DerSimonian-Laird method) model to account for the variations among studies. An MD was calculated when outcomes were reported in a uniform measurement scale and SMD was calculated when nonuniform measurement scales were used. Since participants from the included studies were assigned to intervention and UC groups at random, baseline characteristics of participants between groups of each study were assumed to be similar. Therefore, no analysis was conducted to detect differences between the intervention and the UC groups at baseline. Visual inspection of the forest plots and the statistically measured I 2 determined the heterogeneity among the analyzed studies. The level of heterogeneity was based on the following I 2 thresholds: up to 29.99% (low), 30%-59.99% (moderate), 60%-74.99% (substantial), and 75%-100% (considerable). A sensitivity analysis was performed if significant heterogeneity was detected through analysis and the outcome involved more than 7 RCTs, ensuring that the I 2 estimate was reliable and not overestimated by a small number of studies analyzed [ 30 ]. The sensitivity analysis was performed based on the type of telehealth intervention and the follow-up duration after intervention initiation. Further assessment to determine the source of heterogeneity included influence analysis. Influence analysis, or “leave-one-out” approach, assesses between-study heterogeneity by quantifying the influence of any one RCT on the overall summary estimate that is calculated in a meta-analysis, which is beneficial in identifying potential sources of error or bias introduced by an RCT [ 31 - 33 ]. Visual inspection of the funnel plot and the statistical Egger test were used to assess publication bias for outcomes with more than 10 RCTs to ensure adequate power for the test [ 29 ]. All analyses were conducted using the meta and metafor packages in R (version 4.2.2; R Foundation for Statistical Computing) with a P ≤.05 (95% CI) set as a statistically significant level.

Literature Search Results

Our search string initially returned 230 records from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and databases. Out of the 230 records, 61 were duplicates and the remaining 169 records’ titles and abstracts were initially screened. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 145 records were excluded from this study. A total of 24 RCTs’ reports were further assessed for eligibility, out of which 11 RCTs were excluded in secondary screening. Of these excluded RCTs, 4 included non-CVD participants, 5 did not report any primary outcomes of interest, and 2 did not incorporate an eligible UC. Based on the screening completed, a total of 13 RCTs were included in this study ( Figure 1 ).

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Study Characteristics

A summary of the study and participant characteristics of the included 13 RCTs [ 34 - 46 ] are shown in Multimedia Appendix 2 [ 34 - 46 ]. A total of 3013 participants were analyzed in this study. The mean age was 61.0 (SD 3.7) years and 18.5% (n=559) were women. Cardiovascular conditions in the included studies were a “general CVD diagnosis” (n=3), hypertension (n=3), individuals with CVD who experienced cardiac events (ie, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes, angina, and revascularization, n=3), individuals with CVD who underwent cardiac procedures (ie, percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft surgery, n=2), heart failure (n=1), and coronary heart disease (n=1). The trial locations included United States (n=4), Europe (n=4: Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, and Sweden), New Zealand (n=2), Australia (n=1), Korea (n=1), and Japan (n=1). Except for 1 trial [ 38 ], all RCTs took place in an urban setting. Intervention durations ranged from 4 weeks to 48 weeks. Follow-up durations after intervention initiation varied from 4 weeks (n=1), 6 weeks (n=1), 8 weeks (n=1), 12 weeks (n=2), 16 weeks (n=1), 24 weeks (n=4), 40 weeks (n=1), 48 weeks (n=1), to 48-56 weeks (n=1). The types of telehealth-based dietary interventions were based on apps (n=7), text messaging (n=3), telephone calls (n=1), web interaction (n=1), and an audio-visual media device (n=1). Of note, few RCTs included in this study involved RDNs in the dissemination of the telehealth-based dietary interventions (n=4) and UC (n=1).

The quality of the included RCTs, assessed based on the Cochrane risk of bias tool [ 29 ], is presented in Table 1 . Out of the 13 included studies, 3 were assessed to be of high overall quality, while 9 were of moderate quality, and only 1 was of low quality. The majority of RCTs did not mask their participants; however, the absence of masking outcome assessors and unclear description of allocation concealment additionally contributed to the moderate and low assessments of overall quality.

a Low risk of bias.

b High risk of bias.

c Moderate risk of bias.


A summary of the pooled estimates for all outcomes is reported in Table 2 . Telehealth-based dietary interventions significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (MD –2.74, 95% CI –4.93 to –0.56) and LDL cholesterol (SMD –0.11, 95% CI –0.19 to –0.03) when compared to UC among individuals with CVD. The pooled estimates for weight (SMD –0.15, 95% CI –0.34 to 0.04), BMI (MD –0.01, 95% CI –1.70 to 1.68), diastolic blood pressure (MD –1.29, 95% CI –2.85 to 0.28), and levels for total cholesterol (SMD –0.10, 95% CI –0.28 to 0.08), HDL (SMD –0.10, 95% CI –0.22 to 0.01), and triglycerides (SMD –0.07, 95% CI –0.32 to 0.18) showed no significant difference among individuals with CVD who received telehealth-based dietary interventions versus UC. The forest plots and pooled estimate results for individual clinical outcomes are presented in Figures 2 - 9 . The feasibility of intervention groups of the included RCTs did not significantly differ from UC groups (risk ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.02), as shown in Figure 10 , indicating similar feasibility between the 2 groups.

a Values for n not provided for I 2 percentages.

b SMD: standardized mean difference.

c IV: inverse-variance model.

d MD: mean difference.

e LDL: low-density lipoprotein.

f HDL: high-density lipoprotein.

g RR: risk ratio.

h M-H: Mantel-Haenszel model.

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Funnel plot and the Egger statistic were assessed only for the feasibility outcome because its analysis included more than 10 RCTs, which ensured adequate power to test for publication bias [ 29 ]. Visual symmetry was noted in the funnel plot for the outcome, indicating no significant evidence for publication bias, as shown in Multimedia Appendix 3 . This result was confirmed by the 1-tailed Egger regression test estimate for the feasibility outcome (t 11 =0.51, P =.62).

Sensitivity Analyses

Sensitivity analyses were conducted for the systolic blood pressure and the feasibility (ie, feasibility) outcomes to investigate the significant heterogeneity detected. These outcomes were deemed appropriate for further assessment because they involved more than 7 RCTs, ensuring that the I 2 estimate was reliable and unbiased by the small number of studies analyzed [ 30 ]. The results for the sensitivity analyses on intervention type and follow-up duration after intervention initiation are shown in Multimedia Appendix 4 [ 34 - 37 , 39 - 43 , 45 ], Multimedia Appendix 5 [ 34 - 37 , 39 - 43 , 45 ], Multimedia Appendix 6 [ 34 - 46 ], and Multimedia Appendix 7 [ 34 - 46 ]. App-based (MD –1.33, 95% CI –4.41 to 1.74) and text-based (MD –3.44, 95% CI –8.61 to 1.72) interventions did not show any significant difference between telehealth-based dietary interventions and UC for systolic blood pressure ( Multimedia Appendix 4 [ 34 - 37 , 39 - 43 , 45 ]). The RCTs that involved app-based interventions were nonsignificantly homogeneous ( I 2 =0%, P =.91); however, RCTs with text-based interventions had significant and considerable heterogeneity ( I 2 =89%, P <.01; Multimedia Appendix 4 [ 34 - 37 , 39 - 43 , 45 ]). The RCTs with a 24-week follow-up duration after intervention initiation showed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure when compared to UC (MD –3.53, 95% CI –7.05 to –0.01) but they had significant and considerable heterogeneity ( I 2 =85%, P <.01; Multimedia Appendix 5 [ 34 - 37 , 39 - 43 , 45 ]).

The sensitivity analyses for the feasibility outcome consistently showed no significant difference between telehealth-based dietary interventions and UC groups ( Multimedia Appendices 6 [ 34 - 46 ] and 7 [ 34 - 46 ]). The RCTs involving app-based interventions had insignificant and low heterogeneity ( I 2 =14%, P =.33), while RCTs with text-based interventions demonstrated significant and considerable heterogeneity ( I 2 =78%, P =.01; Multimedia Appendix 6 [ 34 - 46 ]). Within the feasibility outcome, RCTs with a 12-week follow-up duration after intervention initiation were insignificantly homogeneous ( I 2 =0%, P =.86), while RCTs with a 24-week follow-up duration showed significant and considerable heterogeneity ( I 2 =74%, P <.01; Multimedia Appendix 7 [ 34 - 46 ]).

Influence Analysis

An influence analysis was conducted to determine whether any particular RCT impacted the heterogeneity for the systolic blood pressure and the feasibility outcomes, as shown in Multimedia Appendices 8 [ 34 - 37 , 39 - 43 , 45 ] and 9 [ 34 - 46 ]. The results for the systolic blood pressure outcome confirmed that the RCT by Chow et al [ 35 ] was the main source of heterogeneity. After omitting this RCT from the analysis, the MD summary estimate still showed telehealth-based dietary interventions to reduce systolic blood pressure significantly more than UC (MD –1.94, 95% CI –3.31 to –0.58); however, the I 2 percent of this outcome dropped from 64.4% (substantial heterogeneity) to 0% (low heterogeneity; Multimedia Appendix 8 [ 34 - 37 , 39 - 43 , 45 ]).

For the feasibility outcome, no single RCT was determined to be drastically different from the others in that its omission from analysis would reduce the outcome’s moderate heterogeneity to the low category ( Multimedia Appendix 9 [ 34 - 46 ]).

Principal Findings

To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of telehealth-based dietary interventions among individuals with CVD. Our study showed that telehealth-based dietary interventions improved levels of systolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol when compared to UC. We further found no significant difference between telehealth-based dietary interventions and UC in improving weight, BMI, levels of diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides among individuals with CVD. There was no significant difference in feasibility between telehealth-based dietary interventions and UC.

Our finding of a positive clinical effect of telehealth-based dietary interventions on LDL cholesterol levels was in contrast to a previous meta-analysis conducted by Kelly et al [ 47 ] that found no significant differences in LDL cholesterol when comparing the effectiveness of telehealth-based dietary interventions to UC in changing dietary habits among chronic disease patients. However, our results of telehealth interventions improving systolic blood pressure compared to UC were confirmed by a meta-analysis by Kelly et al [ 47 ]. Plausible explanations for the clinical effectiveness of telehealth-based dietary interventions observed in our study are rooted in the unique benefits that telehealth-based technologies provide in modifying health behaviors. Telephone-based dietary telehealth interventions likely motivated participants through easily accessible, monthly scheduled, individually tailored counseling sessions, aimed to improve multiple components of their diet (ie, the intake of sodium, fat, fruit, and vegetables) [ 34 ]. According to Bandura’s social cognitive theory (SCT), a motivated attitude can lead an individual to carry out healthy behaviors [ 48 ]. Telehealth-based dietary interventions that involved text messages were significantly more effective than UC in improving systolic blood pressure levels, possibly as a result of increasing and reinforcing participants’ knowledge of healthy behaviors through receipt of regular messages, which may impact an individual’s self-efficacy, and thereby leading to healthy behaviors per the SCT [ 36 , 48 ]. An RCT by Dale et al [ 36 ], which was included in our analysis, aimed to determine the effectiveness of a text message-based cardiac rehabilitation intervention among adults with coronary heart disease. Through the intervention in this trial, participants received recommendations to improve lifestyle behaviors, including diet [ 36 ]. Adherence to the recommendations and clinical biomarkers were measured as the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively [ 36 ]. The number of text messages sent to participants in the RCT’s intervention arm was reduced from the first 12 weeks (7 messages per week) to the last 12 weeks (5 messages per week) of the study period [ 36 ]. As the number of text messages from the study team decreased per week, participants may have relapsed into unhealthy dietary behaviors [ 36 ]. This suggests a need for sustained implementation of telehealth-based dietary interventions as a continued source of knowledge and support of self-efficacy for participants’ healthy behaviors and their clinical benefits. However, future research should confirm whether effectiveness is sustained if intervention durations are prolonged. Furthermore, findings from an RCT included in our study assessed the effectiveness and feasibility of a telehealth-based weight management intervention with cardiac rehabilitation in reducing the weight of overweight and obese individuals with CVD postcardiac procedure when compared to those who only received cardiac rehabilitation [ 38 ]. This RCT showed that participants who received nutritional intervention through an audio-visual media device in addition to cardiac rehabilitation had higher scores of perceived self-efficacy, knowledge, and skills in CVD self-management during follow-up than those who only received cardiac rehabilitation [ 38 ]. Greater self-efficacy, knowledge, and skill are all known constructs of the SCT, shown to help participants improve their health behaviors [ 48 ]. Lastly, a telehealth-based dietary intervention that involved smartphone apps provided notifications on heart-healthy alternatives to participants at the time of eating in a restaurant or purchasing food at a grocery store [ 41 ]. Such real-time app notifications provided participants with tailored nutritional information during critical decision-making time, which may be a key to the clinical benefits of telehealth-based dietary interventions observed in our study [ 41 ]. Various types of app-based interventions have been implemented through telehealth in the included RCTs that engage participants in different frequencies and timings during the day and target different constructs of behaviors, all aiming to improve cardiovascular health outcomes. For example, some app-based telehealth interventions may provide clinical benefits among individuals with CVD because they require participants to enter their food consumption into the app daily, which may improve motivation toward adhering to a heart-healthy diet [ 44 , 48 ]. According to the SCT, improved motivation can increase skills toward health behaviors by increasing participants’ capacity for forethought and goal setting [ 48 ].

While all included RCTs provided a nutritional component to participants (UC and telehealth intervention groups), the benefits of the telehealth-based dietary intervention over UC may imply the need for improved access to and standard of nutritional care for individuals diagnosed with CVD [ 34 - 46 ]. Participants enrolled in usual cardiac rehabilitation postcardiac events and procedures were provided with weekly educational sessions for at least 2 weeks, and nutrition was only 1 out of several other topics covered [ 36 , 38 , 44 , 45 ]. Once cardiac rehabilitation was complete, participants were typically not followed up by the rehabilitation unit, which indicates that nutrition was likely a very small component of the overall rehabilitation care given to the participants [ 44 ]. Other forms of UC involved regular outpatient clinic visits where participants received disease-specific pharmacological treatment, evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors, and general feedback on improving their lifestyle habits [ 35 , 37 , 40 , 43 , 46 ]. In some of the included RCTs, UC simply implied that participants received nutritional and disease-specific advice at 1 time point only (baseline) [ 34 ]. In one of the included RCTs, participants in the UC group received only a postal copy of publicly available booklets from the British Heart Foundation focused on reducing salt intake, titled “Cut Down on Salt” or “Taking Control of Salt” [ 42 ]. Apart from 1 RCT, where an RDN provided nutritional counseling to participants in the UC group [ 39 ], nutritionally trained health care professionals may not have been consistently involved in the dissemination of nutritional care in UC groups of the included RCTs.

While most included RCTs did not clearly state that they involved RDNs to disseminate the nutritional component to participants in intervention and UC groups, there is strong evidence suggesting that patients referred to RDNs have significant improvements in their clinical CVD risk factor outcomes [ 49 - 52 ]. According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, RDNs are increasingly using telehealth services in their clinical practice [ 53 ]. A qualitative study of 200 RDNs reported that medical nutrition therapy delivered through telehealth services positively impacted patient outcomes [ 54 ]. Previous studies suggest that telehealth services enable RDNs to better understand their patients’ nutritional habits since they were able to observe and discuss patients’ home environment more efficiently than in the clinical setting [ 54 , 55 ]. Furthermore, telehealth services may allow RDNs to facilitate group visits with a patient to involve their family members more conveniently during dietary education sessions, which has been shown to improve patient adherence to dietary advice and attendance to medical nutrition therapy appointments with RDNs [ 54 , 55 ].

Despite the benefits of telehealth-based dietary interventions on clinical CVD risk factors, some policy and patient-based barriers may prevent the implementation of telehealth use in clinical practice. First, each state has its own policies and license requirements for telehealth-based dietary practices in the clinical setting [ 53 ]. This may create inconsistencies in nutritional care provided to individuals with CVD nationwide. Therefore, more research showing the clinical benefits of telehealth-based dietary interventions is needed to demonstrate their effectiveness to policymakers in an attempt to standardize policies and strengthen dietetics practices across the United States [ 53 ]. Additionally, RDNs may not be able to use telehealth services to communicate with specific patients who have a limited understanding of communication technologies [ 53 ]. This patient-related barrier must be considered by RDNs on a case-by-case basis before engaging in virtual care.


Our study is not without limitations. First, the included RCTs did not consistently provide participant demographic information on race, and levels of education and income, which limits our understanding of participant characteristics and the potential impact they may have on the overall results. Next, a majority of the included RCTs were of moderate overall quality, which may have impacted the overall results of our study. While we did not assess the certainty of evidence through the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations) approach, we were able to assess the quality of each RCT using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, analyze publication bias when appropriate, and evaluate heterogeneity in the meta-analysis results to determine any source of bias. The included RCTs did not provide adequate data to analyze the effectiveness of telehealth-based dietary intervention on improving blood glucose levels or hemoglobin A 1C . While one of the assessed outcomes involved 13 RCTs, most other clinical CVD risk factor outcomes only involved 3-7 RCTs, which limited our analysis of heterogeneity and publication bias. Additionally, our sensitivity analysis was limited by the few number of RCTs available for each type of telehealth-based dietary intervention and the length of follow-up duration after intervention initiation. Therefore, more RCTs are needed to build a stronger evidence base on the effectiveness of different types of telehealth-based dietary interventions and for various follow-up durations to confirm our results. While we were able to determine that the RCT by Chow et al [ 35 ] was the source of heterogeneity for the systolic blood pressure outcome, this was less clear for the feasibility outcome. Nonetheless, our study contributes valuable knowledge on the effectiveness and feasibility of telehealth-based dietary interventions among individuals with CVD using robust meta-analysis techniques.


Telehealth-based dietary interventions significantly improved systolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol when compared to UC among individuals with CVD. Future updates on this meta-analysis are needed to evaluate data from an increased number of RCTs for each type of telehealth intervention and follow-up duration in individuals with CVD.


None declared. No funding was received for this study, and there is no other financial information to disclose.

Data Availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the tables and figures of this published paper.

Authors' Contributions

R Trivedi and ELPS conceptualized the research questions, designed this study, interpreted the results, and wrote the original version of this paper. R Trivedi extracted the data and SE repeated extraction to confirm the results. R Trivedi managed and analyzed the data. SE, R Tackett, and HY interpreted the results and contributed to the discussion. All authors reviewed and commented on subsequent drafts of this paper, and approved the final version of this paper for publication. No generative AI was used in any portion of this paper.

Conflicts of Interest

None declared.

Search strategy.

Characteristics of the included randomized controlled trials.

Funnel plot of risk ratio for feasibility.

Forest plot of mean differences in systolic blood pressure levels for telehealth-based dietary intervention (Int) and usual care (UC) groups by intervention type.

Forest plot of mean differences in systolic blood pressure levels for telehealth-based dietary intervention (Int) and usual care (UC) groups by follow-up duration after intervention initiation.

Forest plot of risk ratio (RR) for feasibility by intervention type.

Forest plot of risk ratio (RR) for feasibility by follow-up duration after intervention initiation.

Influence analysis of mean differences (MD) for systolic blood pressure levels.

Influence analysis of risk ratio (RR) for feasibility.

PRISMA 2020 checklist.

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Edited by T de Azevedo Cardoso; submitted 01.06.23; peer-reviewed by M Rozga; comments to author 29.06.23; revised version received 17.08.23; accepted 24.11.23; published 16.02.24

©Rupal Trivedi, Shaimaa Elshafie, Randall Tackett, Henry Young, Elisabeth Lilian Pia Sattler. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 16.02.2024.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

Top Digital Asset Management Best Practices Companies

Top 7 Companies Dominating the Global Digital Asset Management Best Practices Market Landscape

  • Posted on 12 Feb 2024

Global Digital Asset Management Best Practices Market

Mediabeacon, Inc., Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation, Celum GmbH, Acquia, Inc., Bynder, OpenText Corporation, and Adobe Inc., among others, are the major players in the global digital asset management best practices market. 

The global digital asset management best practices market reached a value of about USD 5.77 billion in 2023. The market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 17% in the forecast period of 2024-2032. As per the analysis by Expert Market Research, the market is expected to be driven by the rapid technological advancements and increased penetration of digitisation and mobility in businesses.

Digital Asset Management (DAM) is a strategic tool implemented by organisations to efficiently store, organise, share, edit, and manage a diverse range of digital assets. These assets encompass images, audio, videos, graphics, metadata, brand guidelines, and access management. A DAM system provides various advantages, including a centralised media library, version control, unlimited cloud storage, robust asset security, and user access management. In the realm of DAM, adhering to established best practices is crucial for both initial setup and continuous system maintenance, ensuring a successful and sustainable approach.

Global Digital Asset Management Best Practices Market

The rise of the internet, widespread adoption of communication protocols, increased use of Internet of Things (IoT), and a growing need for efficient data management are key factors propelling the global digital asset management best practices market growth.

As companies embrace greater digitisation and flexibility, digital asset management providers are intensifying their efforts to meet consumer demands. Organisations are now implementing robust quality assessment processes to quantify the financial benefits derived from digital asset management implementation, thereby contributing to the market's growth.

In February 2022, the China Mobile Communications Association's metaverse council, the nation's inaugural metaverse industry group, partnered strategically with Asia Digital Bank. The alliance aimed to jointly explore the evolving digital finance and trade ecosystem within the metaverse era. The focus extended to fostering cooperation in the digital economy's advancement, particularly with countries along the Belt and Road Initiative routes. The collaboration also sought to interconnect China's economy with the global digital landscape through blockchain technology, facilitating the issuance and trading of high-quality assets globally.

Top 7 Digital Asset Management Best Practices in the World:

Mediabeacon, inc..

MediaBeacon, a leader in Digital Asset Management (DAM), is dedicated to providing comprehensive solutions for the digital asset lifecycle. As a pivotal component in the marketing technology stack, DAM, part of Esko, empowers teams for globally consistent and efficient campaign delivery. With a focus on all industries, MediaBeacon's DAM facilitates the creation, storage, management, distribution, and analysis of diverse digital assets. For nearly three decades, their commitment to innovation has positioned them as a go-to solution for robust asset management, workflow optimisation, and analytics, ensuring clients can bring their vision to a global audience seamlessly.

Cognizant Technology Solutions Corporation

Cognizant (Nasdaq-100: CTSH) is a trailblazer in modernising businesses, offering technology solutions that empower clients to adapt, innovate processes, and enhance customer experiences in dynamic world. With a history spanning 25 years, the company originated as a technology development arm of The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation, later becoming an independent entity in 1996. Cognizant collaborates with global market leaders, leveraging its expertise to help established companies evolve and thrive. The company focuses on digitisation, process automation, and technology infrastructure modernisation to ensure clients remain beloved brands in today's ever-evolving technology landscape. With a global workforce of 346,600 employees, Cognizant has achieved a total revenue of USD 19.4 billion.

CELUM believes that effective product presentation is crucial in the digital commerce era, and they address this challenge through their Content Supply Management Platform. With nearly 150 employees, CELUM is dedicated to assisting clients in creating, approving, managing, and delivering compelling product experiences across channels. The company's innovative approach and startup mentality, combined with sustainability values, contribute to its success. CELUM's headquarters in Linz, Austria, reflects modern work principles and eco-friendly architecture. 

Acquia, Inc.

Acquia, an open-source digital experience company, empowers leading brands to innovate and create impactful customer experiences. Built around Drupal, Acquia's software and services enable enterprises to build, operate, and optimize websites and apps. Their product suite includes Acquia Cloud, Site Studio, Edge CDN, and more. Trusted by over 4,000 organisations, including Warner Music Group and Stanford University, Acquia facilitates content, community, and commerce solutions. Acquia DAM, part of the Digital Experience Platform, provides flexible asset management for brands globally.

Bynder, a leader in SaaS DAM, empowers brands to deliver exceptional content experiences globally. With a deeply integrated DAM platform, Bynder transforms asset creation, management, and distribution, conquering the complexity of proliferating content. Over a decade, Bynder has grown into a global business, serving 1.7 million users across 4,000+ brands, including 20% of Fortune 500 companies. With 550+ employees (Byndies) globally, Bynder's DAM expertise pool ensures success for brands like Spotify, Puma, and Five Guys, fostering innovation and customer delight.

OpenText Corporation

OpenText, a global leader in information management, assists companies in securely managing, governing, and exchanging information worldwide. From small to large organisations, OpenText addresses digital business challenges, offering a complete information management platform. Trusted by 98 of the top 100 global companies, 40 of the 50 largest supply chains, and over 120,000 customers in 180 countries, OpenText facilitates seamless data and content flow through business processes. With USD 9 trillion+ in annual commerce on their network, OpenText ensures confidence in tackling complex digital transformation programs.

Adobe Inc. (NASDAQ: ADBE)

Adobe, the global leader in digital media and marketing solutions, enables individuals and brands worldwide to bring digital creations to life and deliver engaging experiences. With a 40-year history of innovation, Adobe's creative, marketing, and document solutions cater to diverse users, from emerging artists to global brands. Leveraging Adobe Sensei technology, the company provides intelligent capabilities in its applications, enhancing efficiency in creation and collaboration. The introduction of creative generative AI models, like Adobe Sensei GenAI, further empowers marketing and customer experience workflows within Adobe Experience Cloud.

*At Expert Market Research, we strive to always give you current and accurate information. The numbers depicted in the description are indicative and may differ from the actual numbers in the final EMR report.

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  1. Journal of Management Research

    research articles on management

  2. (PDF) RETRACTED ARTICLE: Research on strategic human resource

    research articles on management

  3. (PDF) Management Research Review Article information

    research articles on management

  4. Essay on Time Management

    research articles on management

  5. (PDF) A review of human resources management research: The past 10

    research articles on management

  6. (PDF) Project Management Principles Applied in Academic Research Projects

    research articles on management


  1. Choosing a Research Topic

  2. What is research

  3. The Academic Research Process

  4. Individual Research

  5. What is Research??

  6. Introduction to Research


  1. Management Articles, Research, & Case Studies

    02 Jan 2024 What Do You Think? Do Boomerang CEOs Get a Bad Rap? by James Heskett Several companies have brought back formerly successful CEOs in hopes of breathing new life into their organizations—with mixed results. But are we even measuring the boomerang CEOs' performance properly? asks James Heskett. Open for comment; 1 Comment posted.

  2. Journal of Management: Sage Journals

    Journal of Management SUBMIT PAPER Journal of Management (JOM) peer-reviewed and published bi-monthly, is committed to publishing scholarly empirical and theoretical research articles that have a high impact on the management field as a whole. JOM covers domains … | View full journal description

  3. Theory, explanation, and understanding in management research

    This article argues that alternative avenues for management research exist. JEL CLASSIFICATION: M10 Introduction A common and long-established practice of leading management journals is that they require that authors make a theoretical contribution ( Boer et al., 2015 ).

  4. Strategic Management: Current Issues and Future Directions

    Taken together, these articles suggest a number of fruitful future research directions in strategic management research. This experience has reaffirmed our underlying belief that strategic management research will continue to unfold in ways that enrich our understanding of organizations and capabilities in various contexts.

  5. Management Research Review

    13/09/2022. Management Research Review (MRR) publishes high-quality quantitative and qualitative research in the field of general management with a viewpoint to emphasize executive and managerial practice implications. ISSN: 2040-8269.

  6. Management Research that Makes a Difference: Broadening the Meaning of

    Management Research that Makes a Difference: Broadening the Meaning of Impact by Wickert et al. The world as we know it is undergoing dramatic transformations. For many years, we have been living in a period of constant turmoil - what some have termed non-ergodic change - with one grand challenge or crisis following and compounding the next.

  7. Most Read and Cited 2020

    MOST CITED. Katherine C. Kellogg, Melissa A. Valentine, Angele Christin. Algorithms at Work: The New Contested Terrain of Control. John M. Amis, Johanna Mair, Kamal A. Munir. The Organizational Reproduction of Inequality. Andrew Shipilov, Annabelle Gawer. Integrating Research on Interorganizational Networks and Ecosystems. John Joseph, Vibha Gaba.

  8. Management Practices & Processes: Articles, Research, & Case Studies on

    New research on management practices and processes from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including successful employee-suggestion programs, the rise of the functional manager, and how and why management practices differ in style and quality across nations, organizations, and industries. Page 1 of 29 Results → 14 Dec 2021 Op-Ed

  9. Business management

    5 Ways Managers Sabotage the Hiring Process Organizational Development Digital Article Marina Glazman We all have blind spots. Here's how to keep them from undermining your recruitment efforts....

  10. Management Style: Articles, Research, & Case Studies on Management

    New research on management style from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including why dominating leaders can be poor team leaders, the benefits of 'no surprises management', and why introverts are the best leaders for proactive employees. Page 1 of 13 Results 01 Nov 2021 Op-Ed Team Success Starts with the Individual—and with Love

  11. Full article: Organizational strategy and its implications for

    Her research interests include the history of war (1914 to date), political movements, and international relations during wartime. She was a research fellow of the Institute for the Study of War and Strategy where she worked on the SARIRF-funded project: A Strategy Bridge from International Relations to Management Studies.

  12. What Is Management Research Actually Good For?

    Gerald F. Davis. May 28, 2015. San Jose, California, is home to one of the most peculiar structures ever built: the Winchester Mystery House, a 160-room Victorian mansion that includes 40 bedrooms ...

  13. Articles

    Organizational Behavior. Sales. Service Management. Social Enterprise. Strategy. Many of my students specifically mentioned this article as a 'key takeaway' from the class. Review of "Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail". Best article that clarifies how sustainability can be embedded in strategy. Review of "Creating Shared Value".

  14. The determinants of organizational change management success

    Several studies have highlighted that most organizational change initiatives fail, with an estimated failure rate of 60-70%. 1, 5, 6 High failure rate raises the sustained concern and interest about the factors that can decrease failure and increase the success of organizational change. 7 Researchers and consultancy firms have developed several ...

  15. Leadership and Management Are One and the Same

    This topic was debated live at the 2016 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Interim Meeting in Tampa, Florida, in a session titled, "Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) Debate #3: Leading and Managing are One and the Same.". This article represents the pro position affirming the statement.

  16. Does time management work? A meta-analysis

    We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the impact of time management on performance and well-being. Results show that time management is moderately related to job performance, academic achievement, and wellbeing. Time management also shows a moderate, negative relationship with distress. Interestingly, individual differences and contextual ...

  17. Research managers are essential to a healthy research culture

    Moreover, their involvement in active scholarship is essential to achieving the aims set out above. Researchers and managers must work collegially and respectfully to make the research environment ...

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility Research: An Ongoing and Worthwhile

    We "tell the story" of corporate social responsibility (CSR) research by presenting a curated Collection of 19 articles published from 1973 through 2022 in all Academy of Management journals: Academy of Management Annals, Academy of Management Discoveries, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Learning and Education, Academy of Management Perspectives, and Academy of ...

  19. Editorial: Leadership and management in organizations: Perspectives

    The authors came up with new research approaches and methodologies, contributing to the theory and practice in this important emerging research domain of leadership and management. Xu et al. investigated whether and how differential leadership in SMEs influences subordinate knowledge hiding. They analyzed the underlying mechanisms of chain ...

  20. What Leaders Are Saying About Costs and Growth in 2024

    At the same time, C-suite executives are making cost management a top priority to address lingering economic, financial, and geopolitical concerns. According to new BCG research, executives are initiating enterprise-wide cost campaigns, targeting such functions as manufacturing, supply chain, labor, and marketing and sales.

  21. Business or Company Management: Articles, Research, & Case Studies on

    New research on business or company management from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including the relationship between corporate purpose and financial performance, the downsides of self-interest on businesses, government, and the economy, and advice for new CEOs. Page 1 of 17 Results 02 Jan 2024 What Do You Think?

  22. The Social Cost of Algorithmic Management

    In this article, the authors present some of the first research findings concerning the effects of algorithmic management on workplace dynamics. One important finding is that employees managed by ...

  23. Journal of Management

    Sarah E. Henry. Jacob M. Whitney. Preview abstract. Restricted access Research article First published September 3, 2023 pp. 412-447. xml GET ACCESS. Table of contents for Journal of Management, 50, 1, Jan 01, 2024.

  24. The Performance Review Problem

    A mong North American employers:. More than 9 in 10 (93 percent) cited driving organizational performance as a key objective for performance management, yet less than half (44 percent) said their ...

  25. Journal of Medical Internet Research

    Background: Telehealth-based dietary interventions were recommended for cardiovascular disease (CVD) management during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, data regarding their effectiveness and feasibility are limited. Objective: We aimed to examine (1) the effectiveness of telehealth-based dietary interventions in improving clinical CVD risk factors and (2) the feasibility of these interventions ...

  26. Top Digital Asset Management Best Practices Companies Worldwide

    The global digital asset management best practices market reached a value of about USD 5.77 billion in 2023. The market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 17% in the forecast period of 2024-2032.

  27. A Systematic Review of Human Resource Management Systems and Their

    Strategic human resource management (SHRM) research increasingly focuses on the performance effects of human resource (HR) systems rather than individual HR practices (Combs, Liu, Hall, & Ketchen, 2006).Researchers tend to agree that the focus should be on systems because employees are simultaneously exposed to an interrelated set of HR practices rather than single practices one at a time, and ...

  28. Knowledge Management: Articles, Research, & Case Studies on Knowledge

    Knowledge Management New research on knowledge management from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including strategies for capturing, organizing, and sharing the intellectual assets of an organization. Page 1 of 40 Results → 23 Jun 2023 HBS Case This Company Lets Employees Take Charge—Even with Life and Death Decisions by Annelena Lobb

  29. Morgan Stanley Is Laying Off Several Hundred in Wealth-Management

    Morgan Stanley plans to cut several hundred jobs in its wealth-management division as new Chief Executive Ted Pick seeks to rein in costs in an area that is critical to the Wall Street firm's ...