Parts of a Research Paper
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- 1. PARTS OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
- 2. TITLE PAGE The following information needs to be on the title page: • The title (and possibly the subtitle) of your research paper • First name and surname of the author(s) • Date of completion
- 3. ABSTRACT • An abstract presents a brief summary of your research. • The aim of the abstract is to briefly provide the reader with the most important information from the entire text. • An abstract never contains new information.
- 4. INTRODUCTION • The first part of your research paper is your introduction. • This is where you provide an introduction to the topic of your thesis: you give the context in terms of content of the research project.
- 5. AREA OF FOCUS • The significance of the study will mainly focus on the question “Who will benefit from the study?”. • This section will state the contribution of your study and the usefulness of your study in the society.
- 6. RELATED LITERATURE • In this part you must get your data and information from any books, magazines, and news papers. You must label your published material with local or foreign. • 1. Must be also organized to cover specific problems. • 2. Must take all the evidences about the problem with the author’s experiences. • 3. As much as possible, get the latest published materials. Avoid old published materials. • 4. It must be related to your topic. If not, do not get it. • 5. On the last part of this part you must have a statement how this old published material helps the researcher in their current study and relate it to your study.
- 7. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • The problem must be reflected to your title or the readers must know your problem by just simply reading your topic. • The problem must not be answerable by yes or no and must be arranged in the flow of your documentation or study.
- 8. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION • Data may be analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively depending on the level of measurement and the number of dimensions and variables of the study. • Analyze in depth to give meaning to the data presented in the data presented in the table. Avoid table reading. • State statistical descriptions in declarative sentences, e.g. in the studies involving:
- 9. INTERPRETATION OF DATA • Establish interconnection between and among data • Check for indicators whether hypothesis/es is/are supported or not by findings. • Link the present findings with the previous literature. • Use parallel observations with contemporary events to give credence presented in the introduction.
- 10. ACTION PLAN • This describes the problem, research design, and the findings (answer to the questions raised). The recommended format is the paragraph form instead of the enumeration form. • For each of the problems, present: – The salient findings, – The results of the hypothesis tested
- 11. RECOMMENDATIONS • They should be based on the findings and conclusion of the study. • Recommendations may be specific or general or both. They may include suggestions for further studies. • They should be in non-technical language. • They should be feasible, workable, flexible, doable, adaptable.
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Understanding the Parts of a Research Paper
Published by Naomi Webb Modified over 8 years ago
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Major Parts of a Research Paper - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Major Parts of a Research Paper
Watch this presentation to write each part of a research paper correctly – powerpoint ppt presentation.
- Reference List
- The first part of the research paper is one of the most important because the outline is given there.
- Three major parts are included in great introductions background to the issue or goal of the research the outline of the paper, basically you describe the order which you will use for achieving the goal of work description of your own position on the subject or issue. The length of the parts varies from paper to paper and usually established by the writer.
- This is supposed to be the easiest part because the method of the research is already established.
- Explain your methods in detail so the reader will be aware of the scientific aspect of the research.
- In case when you are writing a survey, be sure to include questionnaire in the appendix of your paper.
- The results considered to be very variable and depend on the outcome of the research by the student.
- If the paper deals with numerical data, it should be represented in this section.
- The student needs to give the results in detail in this case.
- On the other hand, qualitative research should have more thorough discussion of the issue in the results.
- Explanation of the results of the research as well as personal thoughts is represented in this part.
- The key here is to address every point separately and give clear information about the problem.
- Also the writer should remember that the points must be directly connected to the main idea of the paper in order to be successful.
- Final part refers to the findings of the paper and builds up conclusions about the thesis statement.
- The size of the part depends on the length of the main part but usually consists of several paragraphs.
- Some people think that the conclusion is the main part of research paper because it reveals the importance of the research as well as recommends new ways of resolving the problem or issue.
- This is where the sources of the information are documented.
- Without them the paper is not complete because you have to identify where the information was taken from.
- If you need any help with completing your research paper, you can always take ours
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How to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper?
Academic presentations could be based on research in progress, unfinished work or the full drafts of a research paper. An academic presentation is a sort of like an advertisement for the paper than an attempt to present all the information in the paper. You need to focus on what is important, highlighting the bold outcomes and results is the key here. The below format is a very basic design showing you how to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper:
- Introduction (1 slide)
- Research Questions/Hypotheses (1 slide)
- Literature Review/Theory (1 slide)
- Methods & Data Collection (1 slide)
- Data Presentation/Findings (3-5 slides)
- Conclusion (1 slide)
Obviously, this is just a general guideline. It is however important that you focus on your findings, future implication of your work and limitation since it is the potential for future research. During a presentation method and data collection sections should be kept short. Though, this all depends on the nature of the work.
To create a presentation from a full-length paper or article, you can pull out the most important parts of the article, based on the above list or based on the subheadings in your own article.
For the introduction, you can use the same compelling introduction you use in your paper. In the PowerPoint presentation, it is a good idea to find a picture that describes the aim of your research. Visuals are considered very effective tools for keeping the audience interested and for conveying a point.
Your next slide should contain your research questions mentioned in your introduction as well.
Then, spend no more than a minute contextualizing your research questions and project within the literature. Don’t make the mistake of spending too much time reviewing what others have written about your topic. You just want to illustrate the fact that your work contributes to existing research in the field. People don’t come to conferences to hear literature reviews, they want new information and mind-blowing findings. They want to see the real implications of the findings to the global challenges at hand. The concrete practical solutions.
Think about the questions people might have such as: what data set did you use? How many interviews did you carry out? How many months of participant observation did you complete? What is the timeframe for the data? The geographical observations. Give just enough information to validate your findings for the methodology section.
You should be able to go through all of the above in the first five minutes so that you can spend as much of your time as possible sharing the rich detail of your own data and analyses. If you have ethnographic data, you can tell one story from the field for each point you want to make. For statistical data, you can present a table with findings for each finding you wish to highlight. For interview data, you can use one interview quotes for each theme you plan to highlight.
Once you bold out the significant findings, you can leave a minute or two for your conclusion. Again make sure you use visuals, story format, case studies, quotes, even videos to explain your result to make it very appealing to the audience.
As you make each slide, remember to put a few words as possible on each slide, and place an image on each slide to convey your points visually.
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Components of the Research Report
Nov 16, 2014
1.26k likes | 6.17k Views
Components of the Research Report. Session 4 C507 Scientific Writing. Research Report. Also called an original data report Most frequent type of scientific paper. The Conventional Format. Readers expect to read about your research in the sequence in which the research developed:
- research paper
- research question
- research findings
- methods general comments
- original data report
Components of the Research Report Session 4 C507 Scientific Writing
Research Report • Also called an original data report • Most frequent type of scientific paper
The Conventional Format • Readers expect to read about your research in the sequence in which the research developed: • What question you set out to answer • How you sought the answer • What was found • What your answer is • A research paper gives information in 4 steps
Step 1 • The question to be answered can be either an hypothesis to be tested or a problem to be resolved
Step 2 • How the answer was sought includes the steps taken to test the hypothesis or to resolve the problem
Step 3 • What was found includes the relevant data from your study, supporting evidence from other papers, and counter-evidence that had to be assessed.
Step 4 • The answer to the question is whether the hypothesis was supported or theproblem was resolved and, if resolved, with what solution.
The Usual Sequence • (Abstract and Key Terms) • Introduction • Methods • Results • Discussion • Conclusion • (References)
The Abstract • We will devote an entire session to this so will leave it for now, except to say that today a Structured Abstract is used.
The Introduction • Tell the reader why the research was started • Do not explain what can be found in any textbook in the field
The Introduction • Do not elaborate on terms used in the title of the paper • Make clear what question the research was designed to answer
The Introduction • Most authors close an Introduction with a statement of purpose. • Some may include a short summary of the study design • Some may also close the Introduction a short statement of the research findings- do not do this
Methods • What did you do? • The reader will want to know exactly what you did; repeatability is the key concept here.
Methods- Organization • Study design is selected (after the hypothesis is stated) • The subjects to be studied are defined • Interventions (such as treatments are decided on in detail
Methods- Organization • Measurements and other observations to be made are specified, including the methods • Statistical procedures for assessment of data are selected
Study Design • Those that are well known need be specified by title only • Those that are unusual but have been described should have a citation to the source • New designs should be described in detail
Subjects • Characterize subjects as fully as possible • Ethical controls should be noted as well • Informed consent • IRB approval
Intervention/Treatment • Describe the intervention fully • Control • Experimental
Measurements and Other Observations • Standard methods for laboratory or other procedures need to be identified only by name and citation • Variations from these should be described in enough detail to enable duplication by another person • Unpublished methods must be described in detail and evidence they have been validated presented.
Statistical Analysis • Specify the analysis
Methods- General Comments • You can always use subheadings in this section, ie: • Study Design • Subjects • Experimental Protocol • Statistical Analysis
Results • Describe your evidence as efficiently as possible • Numerical data should be presented in tables of graphs • The text usually will present no more than group differences
Discussion • The first need is to give the answer to your research question • Evidence from other papers may not be the only evidence you have to present in the Discussion; there may be counter-evidence to be presented and assessed.
The Discussion • According to Robert Day (How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper), a Discussion should: • Try to present the principles, relationships, and generalizations shown by the Results. (Keep in mind that you discuss; you do not recapitulate the Results). • Point out any exceptions or any lack of correlation, and define unsettled points
The Discussion • According to Day (Continued): • Show how your results and interpretations agree or contrast with previously published work • Don’t be shy; discuss the theoretical implications of your work, as well as any possible practical applications
The Discussion • And more from Day: • State your conclusion, as clearly as possible • Summarize your evidence for each conclusion. Or, as the wise old scientist will tell you, “Never assume anything except a 4% mortgage.” • In simple terms, the primary purpose of the Discussion is to show the relationship among observed facts
The Discussion • Too often, the significance of the results is not discussed or addressed adequately. • End the Discussion with a short summary or conclusion regarding the significance of the work
The Conclusion • “The research paper is based on principles of critical argument. In the research you are reporting, you have raised a question, gathered evidence bearing on the question, and produced an answer. Therefore, the content of your paper should include all the elements needed for clear and fair argument…
The Conclusion • (Cont)”…and its structure should be built on the natural sequence of question, evidence, and answer fitted into a format that reproduces the sequence of steps in the research.”
The Conclusion • This summarizes your findings and your thoughts as to the importance of the work you did.
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