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Marketing Research: Planning, Process, Practice

Student resources, multiple choice quizzes.

Try these quizzes to test your understanding.

1. Research analysis is the last critical step in the research process.

2. The final research report where a discussion of findings and limitations is presented is the easiest part for a researcher.

3. Two different researchers may be presented with the same data analysis results and discuss them differently, uncovering alternative insights linked to the research question, each using a different lens.

4. A reliable research is essentially valid, but a valid research is not necessarily reliable.

5. A valid research refers to the degree to which it accurately measures what it intends to measure.

6. Keeping an envisioned original contribution to knowledge in mind, the research report in appearance and content should highlights the outcomes and link back to objectives.

7. A good conclusion chapter should (please select ALL answers that apply) ______.

  • have a structure that brings back what the research set out to do
  • discuss the researcher’s own assumptions and ideas about the topic under study
  • makes logical links between the various parts of the arguments starting from the hypotheses

Answer: A & C 

8. Research implications presented in a study must be either theoretical only or practical only.

9. Good researchers should aim for a perfect research, with no limitations or restrictions.

10. Examples of research limitations include (please select the answer that DOESN’T apply) ______.

  • access to the population of interest
  • the study’s coverage of possible contributory factors
  • the researcher’s poor analysis skills
  • the sampling technique used

11. A good structure outlining an effective research report starts with the ‘Analysis and Results’ section.

12. A good research study can just focus on its key outcomes without highlighting areas for future research.

13. If some of the research questions were not answered or some research objectives could not be achieved, then the final report must explain and reflect on the reasons why this is the case.

14. The importance of being critically reflective in presenting the future research section is that it allows for the advent of new arenas of thought that you or other researchers can develop on.

15. A weak future research section and weak discussion of the research limitations does not make the study fragile/lacking rigour and depth.

16. Once a research specifies a study’s limitations, this discredits all research efforts exerted in it.

17. Reporting research is about presenting the research journey through clear and evidence-based arguments of design, process and outcomes, not just describing it.

18. It is not important to present in every research report the ethical considerations that were anticipated or have ascended in the study.

19. Verbal and visual presentations of research aid in the dissemination of its outcomes and value, and allow for its strengths to be revealed.

20. In oral presentations, the audience expects you as a researcher to present your work in full detail even if they will ask further questions in the follow-up discussion.

Online Library Orientation: Test Your Knowledge: The Research Process (Quiz)

  • Why Information Literacy Matters (Tutorial)
  • The Research Process (Video)
  • Developing a Research Focus (Tutorial)
  • Choosing a Topic (Tutorial)
  • How to Narrow Your Topic (Video)
  • Background Research Tips (Tutorial)
  • Test Your Knowledge: The Research Process (Quiz)
  • Primary & Secondary Research (Video)
  • Primary & Secondary Sources (Video)
  • What Does "Peer Review" Mean? (Video)
  • Types of Sources (Video)
  • Books at MSJC LIbraries
  • eBooks at MSJC Libraries
  • How to Read Scholarly Materials (Video)
  • Test Your Knowledge: Types of Sources (Quiz)
  • Choosing a Database (Video)
  • Test Your Knowledge: Choosing a Database (Quiz)
  • Choosing and Using Keywords (Tutorial)
  • Test Your Knowledge: Choosing and Using Keywords (Quiz)
  • Search Techniques, Part 1 (Tutorial)
  • Search Techniques, Part 2 (Tutorial)
  • Refining Search Results (Video)
  • Test Your Knowledge: Search Techniques (Quiz)
  • What Is Authority? (Video)
  • Evaluating Sources (Video)
  • Evaluating Resources (Tutorial)
  • Choosing the Best Web Source (Tutorial)
  • Introduction to Bias (Video)
  • Types of Bias (Video)
  • Fact Checking (Tutorial)
  • Using Quantitative Data (Video)
  • Evaluating Statistics (Video)
  • Test Your Knowledge: Evaluating Information (Quiz)
  • Synthesizing Information for Academic Writing (Tutorial)
  • Anatomy of a Research Paper (Video)
  • Test Your Knowledge: Synthesizing Information (Quiz)
  • Why Citations Matter (Video)
  • Academic Integrity (Video)
  • Academic Integrity and AI (Tutorial)
  • What Is Plagiarism? (Video)
  • Information Has Value (Tutorial)
  • Copyright (Tutorial)
  • Test Your Knowledge: Information Ethics: Academic Integrity (Quiz)
  • APA Style Citations: 7th edition (Tutorial)
  • MLA 9th Edition Citation Style (Video)
  • MLA 9th Edition Citation Practice (Tutorial)
  • Chicago Style, 17th ed., Books and eBooks Citations (Video)
  • Chicago Style, 17th ed., Journal Citations (Video)
  • Chicago Style, 17th ed., Websites and Social Media Citations (Video)

The Research Process Quiz

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'Research Methods' Practice Quiz Chapter 2

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How to Write a Research Question: Types and Examples 

research quetsion

The first step in any research project is framing the research question. It can be considered the core of any systematic investigation as the research outcomes are tied to asking the right questions. Thus, this primary interrogation point sets the pace for your research as it helps collect relevant and insightful information that ultimately influences your work.   

Typically, the research question guides the stages of inquiry, analysis, and reporting. Depending on the use of quantifiable or quantitative data, research questions are broadly categorized into quantitative or qualitative research questions. Both types of research questions can be used independently or together, considering the overall focus and objectives of your research.  

What is a research question?

A research question is a clear, focused, concise, and arguable question on which your research and writing are centered. 1 It states various aspects of the study, including the population and variables to be studied and the problem the study addresses. These questions also set the boundaries of the study, ensuring cohesion. 

Designing the research question is a dynamic process where the researcher can change or refine the research question as they review related literature and develop a framework for the study. Depending on the scale of your research, the study can include single or multiple research questions. 

A good research question has the following features: 

  • It is relevant to the chosen field of study. 
  • The question posed is arguable and open for debate, requiring synthesizing and analysis of ideas. 
  • It is focused and concisely framed. 
  • A feasible solution is possible within the given practical constraint and timeframe. 

A poorly formulated research question poses several risks. 1   

  • Researchers can adopt an erroneous design. 
  • It can create confusion and hinder the thought process, including developing a clear protocol.  
  • It can jeopardize publication efforts.  
  • It causes difficulty in determining the relevance of the study findings.  
  • It causes difficulty in whether the study fulfils the inclusion criteria for systematic review and meta-analysis. This creates challenges in determining whether additional studies or data collection is needed to answer the question.  
  • Readers may fail to understand the objective of the study. This reduces the likelihood of the study being cited by others. 

Now that you know “What is a research question?”, let’s look at the different types of research questions. 

Types of research questions

Depending on the type of research to be done, research questions can be classified broadly into quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods studies. Knowing the type of research helps determine the best type of research question that reflects the direction and epistemological underpinnings of your research. 

The structure and wording of quantitative 2 and qualitative research 3 questions differ significantly. The quantitative study looks at causal relationships, whereas the qualitative study aims at exploring a phenomenon. 

  • Quantitative research questions:  
  • Seeks to investigate social, familial, or educational experiences or processes in a particular context and/or location.  
  • Answers ‘how,’ ‘what,’ or ‘why’ questions. 
  • Investigates connections, relations, or comparisons between independent and dependent variables. 

Quantitative research questions can be further categorized into descriptive, comparative, and relationship, as explained in the Table below. 

  • Qualitative research questions  

Qualitative research questions are adaptable, non-directional, and more flexible. It concerns broad areas of research or more specific areas of study to discover, explain, or explore a phenomenon. These are further classified as follows: 

  • Mixed-methods studies  

Mixed-methods studies use both quantitative and qualitative research questions to answer your research question. Mixed methods provide a complete picture than standalone quantitative or qualitative research, as it integrates the benefits of both methods. Mixed methods research is often used in multidisciplinary settings and complex situational or societal research, especially in the behavioral, health, and social science fields. 

What makes a good research question

A good research question should be clear and focused to guide your research. It should synthesize multiple sources to present your unique argument, and should ideally be something that you are interested in. But avoid questions that can be answered in a few factual statements. The following are the main attributes of a good research question. 

  • Specific: The research question should not be a fishing expedition performed in the hopes that some new information will be found that will benefit the researcher. The central research question should work with your research problem to keep your work focused. If using multiple questions, they should all tie back to the central aim. 
  • Measurable: The research question must be answerable using quantitative and/or qualitative data or from scholarly sources to develop your research question. If such data is impossible to access, it is better to rethink your question. 
  • Attainable: Ensure you have enough time and resources to do all research required to answer your question. If it seems you will not be able to gain access to the data you need, consider narrowing down your question to be more specific. 
  • You have the expertise 
  • You have the equipment and resources 
  • Realistic: Developing your research question should be based on initial reading about your topic. It should focus on addressing a problem or gap in the existing knowledge in your field or discipline. 
  • Based on some sort of rational physics 
  • Can be done in a reasonable time frame 
  • Timely: The research question should contribute to an existing and current debate in your field or in society at large. It should produce knowledge that future researchers or practitioners can later build on. 
  • Novel 
  • Based on current technologies. 
  • Important to answer current problems or concerns. 
  • Lead to new directions. 
  • Important: Your question should have some aspect of originality. Incremental research is as important as exploring disruptive technologies. For example, you can focus on a specific location or explore a new angle. 
  • Meaningful whether the answer is “Yes” or “No.” Closed-ended, yes/no questions are too simple to work as good research questions. Such questions do not provide enough scope for robust investigation and discussion. A good research question requires original data, synthesis of multiple sources, and original interpretation and argumentation before providing an answer. 

Steps for developing a good research question

The importance of research questions cannot be understated. When drafting a research question, use the following frameworks to guide the components of your question to ease the process. 4  

  • Determine the requirements: Before constructing a good research question, set your research requirements. What is the purpose? Is it descriptive, comparative, or explorative research? Determining the research aim will help you choose the most appropriate topic and word your question appropriately. 
  • Select a broad research topic: Identify a broader subject area of interest that requires investigation. Techniques such as brainstorming or concept mapping can help identify relevant connections and themes within a broad research topic. For example, how to learn and help students learn. 
  • Perform preliminary investigation: Preliminary research is needed to obtain up-to-date and relevant knowledge on your topic. It also helps identify issues currently being discussed from which information gaps can be identified. 
  • Narrow your focus: Narrow the scope and focus of your research to a specific niche. This involves focusing on gaps in existing knowledge or recent literature or extending or complementing the findings of existing literature. Another approach involves constructing strong research questions that challenge your views or knowledge of the area of study (Example: Is learning consistent with the existing learning theory and research). 
  • Identify the research problem: Once the research question has been framed, one should evaluate it. This is to realize the importance of the research questions and if there is a need for more revising (Example: How do your beliefs on learning theory and research impact your instructional practices). 

How to write a research question

Those struggling to understand how to write a research question, these simple steps can help you simplify the process of writing a research question. 

Sample Research Questions

The following are some bad and good research question examples 

  • Example 1 
  • Example 2 


  • Thabane, L., Thomas, T., Ye, C., & Paul, J. (2009). Posing the research question: not so simple.  Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d’anesthésie ,  56 (1), 71-79. 
  • Rutberg, S., & Bouikidis, C. D. (2018). Focusing on the fundamentals: A simplistic differentiation between qualitative and quantitative research.  Nephrology Nursing Journal ,  45 (2), 209-213. 
  • Kyngäs, H. (2020). Qualitative research and content analysis.  The application of content analysis in nursing science research , 3-11. 
  • Mattick, K., Johnston, J., & de la Croix, A. (2018). How to… write a good research question.  The clinical teacher ,  15 (2), 104-108. 
  • Fandino, W. (2019). Formulating a good research question: Pearls and pitfalls.  Indian Journal of Anaesthesia ,  63 (8), 611. 
  • Richardson, W. S., Wilson, M. C., Nishikawa, J., & Hayward, R. S. (1995). The well-built clinical question: a key to evidence-based decisions.  ACP journal club ,  123 (3), A12-A13 

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Related Reads:

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Transitive and Intransitive Verbs in the World of Research

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Flocabulary: The Research Process/Works ...

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Flocabulary: The Research Process/Works Cited

research paper process quiz

16 questions

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What's essential when you're deciding on a research topic?

that you like the topic

that there's a website on the topic

that there's a lot of videos on the topic

that no one has heard of the topic

You are doing research in a large library. What source would you not expect to find there?

an encyclopedia

the internet

old letters

journal articles

Which website would be considered the most credible?

one sponsored by a club

one sponsored by a college

one sponsored by a person

one sponsored by a store

Why is it important for you to take notes?

So you can decide if you want to pursue the topic.

So you can memorize facts.

So you can give credit for your own ideas.

So you can organize your paper.

What is an example of a primary source?

an academic journal

What is the purpose of the bibliography?

To define words the reader may not know.

To tell the reader where to find specific ideas in your paper.

To tell where your facts and quotes came from.

To give credit to your librarian for helping you.

Why would you do pre-search?

to evaluate possible research topics

to judge the credibility of sources

to provide a list of sources used

to organize your thoughts

When should you cite a source?

each time you write an idea that is your own

each time you write a fact or idea that's not your own

each time you write a word that a reader may not know

each time you include your own photo or drawing

How do you show that a sentence is a quote from another source?

underline it

put it in boldface

put it in italics

surround it with quotation marks

Which statement is true?

If you quote less than three lines from a book, you don't have to cite it.

If you quote information from the web site, you don't have to cite it.

If you quote information from a print or digital source, you must cite it.

If you cite your opinion in your research paper, you must cite it.

In a works cited, you list

every source that you mentioned in a paper.

only the sources that you found online.

only the books that you used to write a paper.

ideas that you came up with by yourself.

A works cited helps your readers by

explaining why you wrote the paper.

restating the thesis of your paper.

allowing them to use your sources to do their own research.

allowing them to plagiarize your sources in their own papers.

Which of the following should you put in a works cited page if you included them in a paper?

other author's opinions

all of the above

Shelby is citing a book with one author in her works cited. How should she format it?

Title . Author's last name, First name. Publisher, publication date.

Title . Publisher, publication date. Author's last name, First name.

Author's last name, First name. Title . Publisher, publication date.

Author's first name, Last name. Title . Publisher, publication date.

Below is a citation for an book with one author. Identify the publisher.

Naruto, Jaycee. The Moon at Noon. Cylinder, 2009.

The Moon at Noon

Below is a citation for a web article. Identify the name of the article.

Kirkman, Kim. "Revenge of the Spinach." Foodie, 18 Mar., 2014, . Accessed 12 May 2016.

"Revenge of the Spinach."

Kirkman, Kim.

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Research Paper Quiz Questions And Answers!


Have you ever prepared research papers? If you want to check how well you understand the terms, you can take this research paper quiz. With research paper quiz questions and answers, you can check your knowledge and get to learn something, which you were unable to recall during the routine. Read the questions carefully to get all the questions correct with a perfect score. All the best! And, don't forget to share the results on social handles and friends.

If you have good research skills, then when you’re doing research, you should feel a bit like you are:

Solving a mystery.

Designing a puzzle.

Digging in the ground to retrieve something.

Classifying books in a research library.

Rate this question:

What should be your writing persona, when you have finished researching and are writing your paper, ? How should you come across in your paper?

As a student writing for your instructor.

As an instructor writing for students.

As an expert writing for other experts.

As a reporter writing for the general public.

While writing a research paper, your goal is to:

Inform your reader.

Persuade your reader.

Save your reader time.

Motivate your reader to learn more about the subject.

You begin a research paper by stating your research topic. While stating your topic, what punctuation mark should you use? 

A semi-colon.

A question mark.

In academic writing, the square brackets [ ] are used for

To qualify statements.

To add minor comments.

To make insertions in quotations.

To indicate deleted material.

In academic writing, three periods (. . .) are used for?

To imply something that isn’t actually stated.

In your research paper, you must include your research question.

In your introduction.

In your thesis statement in your introduction.

In the first sentence of your introduction.

In the last sentence of your introduction.

What should not be done in your paper’s conclusion?

Summarize your paper’s main point or thesis (since it’s unnecessary).

Introduce a final, strong argument to support your thesis.

State why the results of your research are significant.

Point out where further research on your topic is needed.

Should you quote Wikipedia in your research paper? Experts address this question when they are discussing.

Digital publishing vs. print publishing

Wiki technology

Information literacy

When you are assessing the strength of research arguments and evidence, which of the following factors should you ignore?



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Title: automated unit test improvement using large language models at meta.

Abstract: This paper describes Meta's TestGen-LLM tool, which uses LLMs to automatically improve existing human-written tests. TestGen-LLM verifies that its generated test classes successfully clear a set of filters that assure measurable improvement over the original test suite, thereby eliminating problems due to LLM hallucination. We describe the deployment of TestGen-LLM at Meta test-a-thons for the Instagram and Facebook platforms. In an evaluation on Reels and Stories products for Instagram, 75% of TestGen-LLM's test cases built correctly, 57% passed reliably, and 25% increased coverage. During Meta's Instagram and Facebook test-a-thons, it improved 11.5% of all classes to which it was applied, with 73% of its recommendations being accepted for production deployment by Meta software engineers. We believe this is the first report on industrial scale deployment of LLM-generated code backed by such assurances of code improvement.

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How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide

A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.

Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate.

This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.

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Table of contents

Understand the assignment, choose a research paper topic, conduct preliminary research, develop a thesis statement, create a research paper outline, write a first draft of the research paper, write the introduction, write a compelling body of text, write the conclusion, the second draft, the revision process, research paper checklist, free lecture slides.

Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you. Before you start, make sure you thoroughly understanding the assignment task sheet:

  • Read it carefully, looking for anything confusing you might need to clarify with your professor.
  • Identify the assignment goal, deadline, length specifications, formatting, and submission method.
  • Make a bulleted list of the key points, then go back and cross completed items off as you’re writing.

Carefully consider your timeframe and word limit: be realistic, and plan enough time to research, write, and edit.

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research paper process quiz

There are many ways to generate an idea for a research paper, from brainstorming with pen and paper to talking it through with a fellow student or professor.

You can try free writing, which involves taking a broad topic and writing continuously for two or three minutes to identify absolutely anything relevant that could be interesting.

You can also gain inspiration from other research. The discussion or recommendations sections of research papers often include ideas for other specific topics that require further examination.

Once you have a broad subject area, narrow it down to choose a topic that interests you, m eets the criteria of your assignment, and i s possible to research. Aim for ideas that are both original and specific:

  • A paper following the chronology of World War II would not be original or specific enough.
  • A paper on the experience of Danish citizens living close to the German border during World War II would be specific and could be original enough.

Note any discussions that seem important to the topic, and try to find an issue that you can focus your paper around. Use a variety of sources , including journals, books, and reliable websites, to ensure you do not miss anything glaring.

Do not only verify the ideas you have in mind, but look for sources that contradict your point of view.

  • Is there anything people seem to overlook in the sources you research?
  • Are there any heated debates you can address?
  • Do you have a unique take on your topic?
  • Have there been some recent developments that build on the extant research?

In this stage, you might find it helpful to formulate some research questions to help guide you. To write research questions, try to finish the following sentence: “I want to know how/what/why…”

A thesis statement is a statement of your central argument — it establishes the purpose and position of your paper. If you started with a research question, the thesis statement should answer it. It should also show what evidence and reasoning you’ll use to support that answer.

The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.

You will probably revise and refine the thesis statement as you do more research, but it can serve as a guide throughout the writing process. Every paragraph should aim to support and develop this central claim.

A research paper outline is essentially a list of the key topics, arguments, and evidence you want to include, divided into sections with headings so that you know roughly what the paper will look like before you start writing.

A structure outline can help make the writing process much more efficient, so it’s worth dedicating some time to create one.

Your first draft won’t be perfect — you can polish later on. Your priorities at this stage are as follows:

  • Maintaining forward momentum — write now, perfect later.
  • Paying attention to clear organization and logical ordering of paragraphs and sentences, which will help when you come to the second draft.
  • Expressing your ideas as clearly as possible, so you know what you were trying to say when you come back to the text.

You do not need to start by writing the introduction. Begin where it feels most natural for you — some prefer to finish the most difficult sections first, while others choose to start with the easiest part. If you created an outline, use it as a map while you work.

Do not delete large sections of text. If you begin to dislike something you have written or find it doesn’t quite fit, move it to a different document, but don’t lose it completely — you never know if it might come in useful later.

Paragraph structure

Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of research papers. Each one should focus on a single claim or idea that helps to establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.

Example paragraph

George Orwell’s 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language” has had an enduring impact on thought about the relationship between politics and language. This impact is particularly obvious in light of the various critical review articles that have recently referenced the essay. For example, consider Mark Falcoff’s 2009 article in The National Review Online, “The Perversion of Language; or, Orwell Revisited,” in which he analyzes several common words (“activist,” “civil-rights leader,” “diversity,” and more). Falcoff’s close analysis of the ambiguity built into political language intentionally mirrors Orwell’s own point-by-point analysis of the political language of his day. Even 63 years after its publication, Orwell’s essay is emulated by contemporary thinkers.

Citing sources

It’s also important to keep track of citations at this stage to avoid accidental plagiarism . Each time you use a source, make sure to take note of where the information came from.

You can use our free citation generators to automatically create citations and save your reference list as you go.

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The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you’ll build your arguments.

What? Be specific about the topic of the paper, introduce the background, and define key terms or concepts.

Why? This is the most important, but also the most difficult, part of the introduction. Try to provide brief answers to the following questions: What new material or insight are you offering? What important issues does your essay help define or answer?

How? To let the reader know what to expect from the rest of the paper, the introduction should include a “map” of what will be discussed, briefly presenting the key elements of the paper in chronological order.

The major struggle faced by most writers is how to organize the information presented in the paper, which is one reason an outline is so useful. However, remember that the outline is only a guide and, when writing, you can be flexible with the order in which the information and arguments are presented.

One way to stay on track is to use your thesis statement and topic sentences . Check:

  • topic sentences against the thesis statement;
  • topic sentences against each other, for similarities and logical ordering;
  • and each sentence against the topic sentence of that paragraph.

Be aware of paragraphs that seem to cover the same things. If two paragraphs discuss something similar, they must approach that topic in different ways. Aim to create smooth transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections.

The research paper conclusion is designed to help your reader out of the paper’s argument, giving them a sense of finality.

Trace the course of the paper, emphasizing how it all comes together to prove your thesis statement. Give the paper a sense of finality by making sure the reader understands how you’ve settled the issues raised in the introduction.

You might also discuss the more general consequences of the argument, outline what the paper offers to future students of the topic, and suggest any questions the paper’s argument raises but cannot or does not try to answer.

You should not :

  • Offer new arguments or essential information
  • Take up any more space than necessary
  • Begin with stock phrases that signal you are ending the paper (e.g. “In conclusion”)

There are four main considerations when it comes to the second draft.

  • Check how your vision of the paper lines up with the first draft and, more importantly, that your paper still answers the assignment.
  • Identify any assumptions that might require (more substantial) justification, keeping your reader’s perspective foremost in mind. Remove these points if you cannot substantiate them further.
  • Be open to rearranging your ideas. Check whether any sections feel out of place and whether your ideas could be better organized.
  • If you find that old ideas do not fit as well as you anticipated, you should cut them out or condense them. You might also find that new and well-suited ideas occurred to you during the writing of the first draft — now is the time to make them part of the paper.

The goal during the revision and proofreading process is to ensure you have completed all the necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible. You can speed up the proofreading process by using the AI proofreader .

Global concerns

  • Confirm that your paper completes every task specified in your assignment sheet.
  • Check for logical organization and flow of paragraphs.
  • Check paragraphs against the introduction and thesis statement.

Fine-grained details

Check the content of each paragraph, making sure that:

  • each sentence helps support the topic sentence.
  • no unnecessary or irrelevant information is present.
  • all technical terms your audience might not know are identified.

Next, think about sentence structure , grammatical errors, and formatting . Check that you have correctly used transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas. Look for typos, cut unnecessary words, and check for consistency in aspects such as heading formatting and spellings .

Finally, you need to make sure your paper is correctly formatted according to the rules of the citation style you are using. For example, you might need to include an MLA heading  or create an APA title page .

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Checklist: Research paper

I have followed all instructions in the assignment sheet.

My introduction presents my topic in an engaging way and provides necessary background information.

My introduction presents a clear, focused research problem and/or thesis statement .

My paper is logically organized using paragraphs and (if relevant) section headings .

Each paragraph is clearly focused on one central idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .

Each paragraph is relevant to my research problem or thesis statement.

I have used appropriate transitions  to clarify the connections between sections, paragraphs, and sentences.

My conclusion provides a concise answer to the research question or emphasizes how the thesis has been supported.

My conclusion shows how my research has contributed to knowledge or understanding of my topic.

My conclusion does not present any new points or information essential to my argument.

I have provided an in-text citation every time I refer to ideas or information from a source.

I have included a reference list at the end of my paper, consistently formatted according to a specific citation style .

I have thoroughly revised my paper and addressed any feedback from my professor or supervisor.

I have followed all formatting guidelines (page numbers, headers, spacing, etc.).

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Read our research on: Immigration & Migration | Podcasts | Election 2024

Regions & Countries

How americans view the situation at the u.s.-mexico border, its causes and consequences, 80% say the u.s. government is doing a bad job handling the migrant influx.

research paper process quiz

Pew Research Center conducted this study to understand the public’s views about the large number of migrants seeking to enter the U.S. at the border with Mexico. For this analysis, we surveyed 5,140 adults from Jan. 16-21, 2024. Everyone who took part in this survey is a member of the Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP), an online survey panel that is recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses. This way nearly all U.S. adults have a chance of selection. The survey is weighted to be representative of the U.S. adult population by gender, race, ethnicity, partisan affiliation, education and other categories. Read more about the ATP’s methodology .

Here are the questions used for the report and its methodology .

The growing number of migrants seeking entry into the United States at its border with Mexico has strained government resources, divided Congress and emerged as a contentious issue in the 2024 presidential campaign .

Chart shows Why do Americans think there is an influx of migrants to the United States?

Americans overwhelmingly fault the government for how it has handled the migrant situation. Beyond that, however, there are deep differences – over why the migrants are coming to the U.S., proposals for addressing the situation, and even whether it should be described as a “crisis.”

Factors behind the migrant influx

Economic factors – either poor conditions in migrants’ home countries or better economic opportunities in the United States – are widely viewed as major reasons for the migrant influx.

About seven-in-ten Americans (71%), including majorities in both parties, cite better economic opportunities in the U.S. as a major reason.

There are wider partisan differences over other factors.

About two-thirds of Americans (65%) say violence in migrants’ home countries is a major reason for why a large number of immigrants have come to the border.

Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents are 30 percentage points more likely than Republicans and Republican leaners to cite this as a major reason (79% vs. 49%).

By contrast, 76% of Republicans say the belief that U.S. immigration policies will make it easy to stay in the country once they arrive is a major factor. About half as many Democrats (39%) say the same.

For more on Americans’ views of these and other reasons, visit Chapter 2.

How serious is the situation at the border?

A sizable majority of Americans (78%) say the large number of migrants seeking to enter this country at the U.S.-Mexico border is eithera crisis (45%) or a major problem (32%), according to the Pew Research Center survey, conducted Jan. 16-21, 2024, among 5,140 adults.

Related: Migrant encounters at the U.S.-Mexico border hit a record high at the end of 2023 .

Chart shows Border situation viewed as a ‘crisis’ by most Republicans; Democrats are more likely to call it a ‘problem’

  • Republicans are much more likely than Democrats to describe the situation as a “crisis”: 70% of Republicans say this, compared with just 22% of Democrats.
  • Democrats mostly view the situation as a major problem (44%) or minor problem (26%) for the U.S. Very few Democrats (7%) say it is not a problem.

In an open-ended question , respondents voice their concerns about the migrant influx. They point to numerous issues, including worries about how the migrants are cared for and general problems with the immigration system.

Yet two concerns come up most frequently:

  • 22% point to the economic burdens associated with the migrant influx, including the strains migrants place on social services and other government resources.
  • 22% also cite security concerns. Many of these responses focus on crime (10%), terrorism (10%) and drugs (3%).

When asked specifically about the impact of the migrant influx on crime in the United States, a majority of Americans (57%) say the large number of migrants seeking to enter the country leads to more crime. Fewer (39%) say this does not have much of an impact on crime in this country.

Republicans (85%) overwhelmingly say the migrant surge leads to increased crime in the U.S. A far smaller share of Democrats (31%) say the same; 63% of Democrats instead say it does not have much of an impact.

Government widely criticized for its handling of migrant influx

For the past several years, the federal government has gotten low ratings for its handling of the situation at the U.S.-Mexico border. (Note: The wording of this question has been modified modestly to reflect circumstances at the time).

Chart shows Only about a quarter of Democrats and even fewer Republicans say the government has done a good job dealing with large number of migrants at the border

However, the current ratings are extraordinarily low.

Just 18% say the U.S. government is doing a good job dealing with the large number of migrants at the border, while 80% say it is doing a bad job, including 45% who say it is doing a very bad job.

  • Republicans’ views are overwhelmingly negative (89% say it’s doing a bad job), as they have been since Joe Biden became president.
  • 73% of Democrats also give the government negative ratings, the highest share recorded during Biden’s presidency.

For more on Americans’ evaluations of the situation, visit Chapter 1 .

Which policies could improve the border situation?

There is no single policy proposal, among the nine included on the survey, that majorities of both Republicans and Democrats say would improve the situation at the U.S.-Mexico border. There are areas of relative agreement, however.

A 60% majority of Americans say that increasing the number of immigration judges and staff in order to make decisions on asylum more quickly would make the situation better. Only 11% say it would make things worse, while 14% think it would not make much difference.

Nearly as many (56%) say creating more opportunities for people to legally immigrate to the U.S. would make the situation better.

Chart shows Most Democrats and nearly half of Republicans say boosting resources for quicker decisions on asylum cases would improve situation at Mexico border

Majorities of Democrats say each of these proposals would make the border situation better.

Republicans are less positive than are Democrats; still, about 40% or more of Republicans say each would improve the situation, while far fewer say they would make things worse.

Opinions on other proposals are more polarized. For example, a 56% majority of Democrats say that adding resources to provide safe and sanitary conditions for migrants arriving in the U.S. would be a positive step forward.

Republicans not only are far less likely than Democrats to view this proposal positively, but far more say it would make the situation worse (43%) than better (17%).

Chart shows Wide partisan gaps in views of expanding border wall, providing ‘safe and sanitary conditions’ for migrants

Building or expanding a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border was among the most divisive policies of Donald Trump’s presidency. In 2019, 82% of Republicans favored expanding the border wall , compared with just 6% of Democrats.

Today, 72% of Republicans say substantially expanding the wall along the U.S. border with Mexico would make the situation better. Just 15% of Democrats concur, with most saying either it would not make much of a difference (47%) or it would make things worse (24%).

For more on Americans’ reactions to policy proposals, visit Chapter 3 .

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Table of contents, fast facts on how greeks see migrants as greece-turkey border crisis deepens, americans’ immigration policy priorities: divisions between – and within – the two parties, from the archives: in ’60s, americans gave thumbs-up to immigration law that changed the nation, around the world, more say immigrants are a strength than a burden, latinos have become less likely to say there are too many immigrants in u.s., most popular.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .

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Clinical Research Coordinator

  • Madison, Wisconsin
  • Staff-Full Time
  • Opening at: Feb 21 2024 at 11:50 CST
  • Closing at: Mar 6 2024 at 23:55 CST

Job Summary:

The Clinical Research Coordinator (CRC) I/II position is within the Department of Medicine (DOM), in the School of Medicine and Public Health. This position will help to advance basic and translational research in sepsis, lung injury, and lung transplantation, and support several investigators within the Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. The CRC will identify and consent patients, then collect and process specimens for biorepositories in the Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. We will collect patients' blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue to understand sepsis and lung diseases. This role will require careful coordination of procedures that occur throughout UW Health Hospital, necessitating effective communication with clinical teams, patients, their health care agents, and researchers. Additional responsibilities will include processing specimens in the lab, maintaining detailed records for all specimens in the biorepositories, tracking specimens that are shared with other labs, and ensuring compliance with appropriate guidelines. The CRC will also be expected to participate in weekly lab meetings for further mentorship and coordination. Attention to detail and excellent time management and organizational skills will be critical to the success of this position. The incumbent is expected to follow the policies, procedures, guidelines for excellence and professionalism established by the Department of Medicine, SMPH Clinical Trials Institute and the University of Wisconsin. Additionally, this position will ensure that all clinical research activities adhere to Federal, State, and University policies, procedures, and requirements.


Institutional statement on diversity:.

Diversity is a source of strength, creativity, and innovation for UW-Madison. We value the contributions of each person and respect the profound ways their identity, culture, background, experience, status, abilities, and opinion enrich the university community. We commit ourselves to the pursuit of excellence in teaching, research, outreach, and diversity as inextricably linked goals. The University of Wisconsin-Madison fulfills its public mission by creating a welcoming and inclusive community for people from every background - people who as students, faculty, and staff serve Wisconsin and the world. For more information on diversity and inclusion on campus, please visit: Diversity and Inclusion

Preferred Bachelor's Degree or equivalent experience 


Preferred: - One or more years of experience working in a clinical health setting and/or work experience in a clinical or translational research environment - Experience in coordinating clinical research studies from various departments and sources. - Experience in approaching patients, describing procedures, and conducting informed consent. - Demonstrated experience in scheduling, coordinating, and conducting visits and study meetings. - Experience with manual chart review/ data collection from the electronic health record. - Experience with research data collection and management; including use of REDCap data collection software. Candidates should have the ability to interact with patients or surrogates and researchers independently using initiative and good judgment, the ability to listen, understand and communicate information and ideas effectively in writing, over the phone or in person, and the ability to work independently or collaboratively, and manage multiple projects despite interruptions, while closely tracking details and looking for ways to improve processes. Meticulous record-keeping and data management are crucial aspects of this role, requiring a keen attention to detail to ensure accuracy and precision. Candidates must have excellent time management skills. They will also be expected to uphold the highest standards of research integrity and ethical behavior, and demonstrate a commitment to conducting research in accordance with institutional guidelines and industry best practices.

Full Time: 100% It is anticipated this position requires work be performed in-person, onsite, at a designated campus work location.

Appointment Type, Duration:


Minimum $45,000 ANNUAL (12 months) Depending on Qualifications The starting salary for the position is $45,000 at the CRC I level or $50,000 at the CRC II level. Both salaries are negotiable based on experience and qualifications. Employees in this position can expect to receive benefits such as generous vacation, holidays, and sick leave; competitive insurances and savings accounts; retirement benefits. Benefits information can be found at ( ).

Additional Information:

Applicants for this position will be considered for the titles listed in this posting. The title is determined by the experience and qualifications of the finalist. The selected applicant will be responsible for ensuring eligibility for employment in the United States on or before the effective date of the appointment. University sponsorship is not available for this position. UW-Madison cannot employ F-1 OPT STEM Extension participants. This position has been identified as a position of trust with access to vulnerable populations. The selected candidate will be required to pass an initial caregiver check to be eligible for employment under the Wisconsin Caregiver Law and every four years. Occasional weekend coverage may be required.

How to Apply:

To apply for this position, please click on the "Apply Now" button. You will be asked to upload a current resume/CV and a cover letter briefly describing your qualifications and experience. You will also be asked to provide contact information for three (3) references, including your current/most recent supervisor during the application process. References will not be contacted without prior notice.

Emily Zentz [email protected] 608-265-3399 Relay Access (WTRS): 7-1-1. See RELAY_SERVICE for further information.

Official Title:

Clin Res Coord I(RE015) or Clin Res Coord II(RE016)



Employment Class:

Academic Staff-Renewable

Job Number:

The university of wisconsin-madison is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer..

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Reproductive rights in America

Research at the heart of a federal case against the abortion pill has been retracted.

Selena Simmons-Duffin

Selena Simmons-Duffin

research paper process quiz

The Supreme Court will hear the case against the abortion pill mifepristone on March 26. It's part of a two-drug regimen with misoprostol for abortions in the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. Anna Moneymaker/Getty Images hide caption

The Supreme Court will hear the case against the abortion pill mifepristone on March 26. It's part of a two-drug regimen with misoprostol for abortions in the first 10 weeks of pregnancy.

A scientific paper that raised concerns about the safety of the abortion pill mifepristone was retracted by its publisher this week. The study was cited three times by a federal judge who ruled against mifepristone last spring. That case, which could limit access to mifepristone throughout the country, will soon be heard in the Supreme Court.

The now retracted study used Medicaid claims data to track E.R. visits by patients in the month after having an abortion. The study found a much higher rate of complications than similar studies that have examined abortion safety.

Sage, the publisher of the journal, retracted the study on Monday along with two other papers, explaining in a statement that "expert reviewers found that the studies demonstrate a lack of scientific rigor that invalidates or renders unreliable the authors' conclusions."

It also noted that most of the authors on the paper worked for the Charlotte Lozier Institute, the research arm of anti-abortion lobbying group Susan B. Anthony Pro-Life America, and that one of the original peer reviewers had also worked for the Lozier Institute.

The Sage journal, Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology , published all three research articles, which are still available online along with the retraction notice. In an email to NPR, a spokesperson for Sage wrote that the process leading to the retractions "was thorough, fair, and careful."

The lead author on the paper, James Studnicki, fiercely defends his work. "Sage is targeting us because we have been successful for a long period of time," he says on a video posted online this week . He asserts that the retraction has "nothing to do with real science and has everything to do with a political assassination of science."

He says that because the study's findings have been cited in legal cases like the one challenging the abortion pill, "we have become visible – people are quoting us. And for that reason, we are dangerous, and for that reason, they want to cancel our work," Studnicki says in the video.

In an email to NPR, a spokesperson for the Charlotte Lozier Institute said that they "will be taking appropriate legal action."

Role in abortion pill legal case

Anti-abortion rights groups, including a group of doctors, sued the federal Food and Drug Administration in 2022 over the approval of mifepristone, which is part of a two-drug regimen used in most medication abortions. The pill has been on the market for over 20 years, and is used in more than half abortions nationally. The FDA stands by its research that finds adverse events from mifepristone are extremely rare.

Judge Matthew Kacsmaryk, the district court judge who initially ruled on the case, pointed to the now-retracted study to support the idea that the anti-abortion rights physicians suing the FDA had the right to do so. "The associations' members have standing because they allege adverse events from chemical abortion drugs can overwhelm the medical system and place 'enormous pressure and stress' on doctors during emergencies and complications," he wrote in his decision, citing Studnicki. He ruled that mifepristone should be pulled from the market nationwide, although his decision never took effect.

research paper process quiz

Matthew Kacsmaryk at his confirmation hearing for the federal bench in 2017. AP hide caption

Matthew Kacsmaryk at his confirmation hearing for the federal bench in 2017.

Kacsmaryk is a Trump appointee who was a vocal abortion opponent before becoming a federal judge.

"I don't think he would view the retraction as delegitimizing the research," says Mary Ziegler , a law professor and expert on the legal history of abortion at U.C. Davis. "There's been so much polarization about what the reality of abortion is on the right that I'm not sure how much a retraction would affect his reasoning."

Ziegler also doubts the retractions will alter much in the Supreme Court case, given its conservative majority. "We've already seen, when it comes to abortion, that the court has a propensity to look at the views of experts that support the results it wants," she says. The decision that overturned Roe v. Wade is an example, she says. "The majority [opinion] relied pretty much exclusively on scholars with some ties to pro-life activism and didn't really cite anybody else even or really even acknowledge that there was a majority scholarly position or even that there was meaningful disagreement on the subject."

In the mifepristone case, "there's a lot of supposition and speculation" in the argument about who has standing to sue, she explains. "There's a probability that people will take mifepristone and then there's a probability that they'll get complications and then there's a probability that they'll get treatment in the E.R. and then there's a probability that they'll encounter physicians with certain objections to mifepristone. So the question is, if this [retraction] knocks out one leg of the stool, does that somehow affect how the court is going to view standing? I imagine not."

It's impossible to know who will win the Supreme Court case, but Ziegler thinks that this retraction probably won't sway the outcome either way. "If the court is skeptical of standing because of all these aforementioned weaknesses, this is just more fuel to that fire," she says. "It's not as if this were an airtight case for standing and this was a potentially game-changing development."

Oral arguments for the case, Alliance for Hippocratic Medicine v. FDA , are scheduled for March 26 at the Supreme Court. A decision is expected by summer. Mifepristone remains available while the legal process continues.

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Innovation in Action: Frequently Asked Questions About Our New Book Ordering Solution Mosaic

Illustration of a word cloud shaped like a lightbulb, surrounded by mosaic tiles, with the Mosaic logo in the middle.

Libraries have long served as bastions of knowledge, providing communities with access to an extensive array of resources.Yet, in an era marked by technological advancement and shifting user expectations, the traditional methods of book procurement in libraries are in need of an upgrade. Recognizing this challenge, the GOBI Library Solutions team embarked on a mission to reimagine the process, leveraging cutting-edge technology to streamline and enhance the way libraries acquire books with the creation of our new book acquisition solution Mosaic.

As we move closer to the beta launch of this innovative solution, we understand the importance of clarity and transparency. Below, we've compiled a list of frequently asked questions to provide libraries with a deeper understanding of Mosaic's development process, launch timing, and present and forthcoming features and functionalities.

What is the purpose of this new book ordering platform?

Our platform aims to streamline the book acquisition process for academic libraries. It will facilitate efficient cataloging, ordering, and tracking of books, ensuring that libraries can easily access and manage the resources they need to support their communities while also supporting key library workflows.

How were librarians involved in the development of Mosaic?

The foundation of Mosaic was conceived through three iterative, user-informed design phases. We worked with our library and consortium Innovation Partners to better understand their needs and pain points. Our Partners have provided their ongoing input via regular meetings with our user research team and are currently acting as beta partners supporting the development of Mosaic. Learn more about our Partners.

When will Mosaic be available to libraries?

The beta launch of Mosaic will only be available to select libraries in the spring of 2024. If your library is interested in being an early adopter of the platform, we advise you to work with your GOBI or EBSCO representative to better understand how the beta release of Mosaic would meet your library's unique needs.

What features will the beta launch of the platform offer?

The beta launch of the Mosaic platform will offer a range of features tailored to meet the specific needs of libraries, including:

  • Individual title e-book ordering
  • Intuitive workflow with rapid fulfillment
  • Modern user interface
  • Accurate and up-to-date title metadata
  • Customer-specific pricing and title availability

What is the range and diversity of books available on the platform?

Users can access e-book metadata and offerings from our beta supplier partners including EBSCO, Taylor and Francis, IGI Global, and JSTOR with content across these providers visible in a single work level view within the new storefront.

How frequently will new publishers be added to the platform?

Additional e-book suppliers will be added incrementally to Mosaic, based on popularity and readiness to integrate.

Will Mosaic replace GOBI and EBSCOhost Collection Manager (ECM)?

As the Mosaic platform matures and reaches its full potential, our intention is to gradually phase out GOBI and ECM in favor of the newer, more modern solution. This process will take time and the transition will be conducted with careful consideration, ensuring minimal disruption to operations while maximizing the benefits of the upgraded platform.

Will GOBI and Mosaic run independently of each other?

As we develop Mosaic, there will be a period where libraries will need to use both platforms independently. This is because the new platform is still under development, and we want to ensure a smooth transition.

Can libraries track the status of their orders in Mosaic?

Yes, our platform provides real-time order tracking, allowing libraries to monitor the status of their orders from placement to delivery. Libraries can also receive notifications and alerts regarding order updates and shipment details.

Is technical support available for libraries using the platform?

Absolutely, we offer comprehensive technical support to assist libraries in implementing and utilizing our platform effectively. Our dedicated customer service team is available to address any questions, concerns, or technical issues that may arise. As early adopters are onboarded, they will be provided with a support liaison.

What are the next steps for libraries selected as early adopters?

Libraries selected as early adopters will have the chance to attend an early adopter kickoff webinar to learn more about Mosaic, meet other early adopters and view a live demonstration before they are asked to use the new platform. We will provide ongoing assistance and training throughout the process to ensure a positive experience and smooth transition.

What enhancements or new features are planned for future versions of the platform?

Following the initial release of Mosaic, we will start development on the following enhancements:

  • Expanded order and invoice history to include holdings and de-duplication services
  • ILS integration for ordering and invoicing and access to library data
  • Expanded roles to include different levels of permissions and authority, supporting selector workflows
  • Enhanced search functionality, faceting/filtering, e-book access metadata, and additional e-book platforms. 
  • Print book catalog integration and fulfillment with related services

How will feedback from the beta launch inform the development roadmap moving forward?

Launching the beta version of Mosaic isn't the end of the development cycle but rather a stepping stone towards refinement. As we've mentioned above, this is an iterative process, and we will work with our early adopters to gather insights and feedback that will shape the future trajectory of the platform. We will continuously release updates and improvements based on the insights gained from the beta phase, fostering a cycle of improvement.

How can libraries stay informed about the development of Mosaic?

Follow the EBSCO blog to learn about Mosaic developments as well as current news, library resources, product releases, events, librarianship, workflow, technology and more. Libraries can also sign up for the GOBI 60 Second Update monthly newsletter that provides a quick overview of the latest news, events, product updates, and trends relevant to GOBI and libraries in general.

We hope this FAQ provides clarity and answers questions about Mosaic, our new book ordering platform for libraries. Should you have any further inquiries or need more information, please contact your GOBI or EBSCO representative. You can also request more information here.

Stay tuned as we unravel the intricacies of innovation and collaboration behind the scenes of Mosaic, charting a course towards a brighter future for libraries and their communities.

Ready to learn more?

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Our next-generation model: Gemini 1.5

Feb 15, 2024

The model delivers dramatically enhanced performance, with a breakthrough in long-context understanding across modalities.


A note from Google and Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai:

Last week, we rolled out our most capable model, Gemini 1.0 Ultra, and took a significant step forward in making Google products more helpful, starting with Gemini Advanced . Today, developers and Cloud customers can begin building with 1.0 Ultra too — with our Gemini API in AI Studio and in Vertex AI .

Our teams continue pushing the frontiers of our latest models with safety at the core. They are making rapid progress. In fact, we’re ready to introduce the next generation: Gemini 1.5. It shows dramatic improvements across a number of dimensions and 1.5 Pro achieves comparable quality to 1.0 Ultra, while using less compute.

This new generation also delivers a breakthrough in long-context understanding. We’ve been able to significantly increase the amount of information our models can process — running up to 1 million tokens consistently, achieving the longest context window of any large-scale foundation model yet.

Longer context windows show us the promise of what is possible. They will enable entirely new capabilities and help developers build much more useful models and applications. We’re excited to offer a limited preview of this experimental feature to developers and enterprise customers. Demis shares more on capabilities, safety and availability below.

Introducing Gemini 1.5

By Demis Hassabis, CEO of Google DeepMind, on behalf of the Gemini team

This is an exciting time for AI. New advances in the field have the potential to make AI more helpful for billions of people over the coming years. Since introducing Gemini 1.0 , we’ve been testing, refining and enhancing its capabilities.

Today, we’re announcing our next-generation model: Gemini 1.5.

Gemini 1.5 delivers dramatically enhanced performance. It represents a step change in our approach, building upon research and engineering innovations across nearly every part of our foundation model development and infrastructure. This includes making Gemini 1.5 more efficient to train and serve, with a new Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) architecture.

The first Gemini 1.5 model we’re releasing for early testing is Gemini 1.5 Pro. It’s a mid-size multimodal model, optimized for scaling across a wide-range of tasks, and performs at a similar level to 1.0 Ultra , our largest model to date. It also introduces a breakthrough experimental feature in long-context understanding.

Gemini 1.5 Pro comes with a standard 128,000 token context window. But starting today, a limited group of developers and enterprise customers can try it with a context window of up to 1 million tokens via AI Studio and Vertex AI in private preview.

As we roll out the full 1 million token context window, we’re actively working on optimizations to improve latency, reduce computational requirements and enhance the user experience. We’re excited for people to try this breakthrough capability, and we share more details on future availability below.

These continued advances in our next-generation models will open up new possibilities for people, developers and enterprises to create, discover and build using AI.

Context lengths of leading foundation models

Highly efficient architecture

Gemini 1.5 is built upon our leading research on Transformer and MoE architecture. While a traditional Transformer functions as one large neural network, MoE models are divided into smaller "expert” neural networks.

Depending on the type of input given, MoE models learn to selectively activate only the most relevant expert pathways in its neural network. This specialization massively enhances the model’s efficiency. Google has been an early adopter and pioneer of the MoE technique for deep learning through research such as Sparsely-Gated MoE , GShard-Transformer , Switch-Transformer, M4 and more.

Our latest innovations in model architecture allow Gemini 1.5 to learn complex tasks more quickly and maintain quality, while being more efficient to train and serve. These efficiencies are helping our teams iterate, train and deliver more advanced versions of Gemini faster than ever before, and we’re working on further optimizations.

Greater context, more helpful capabilities

An AI model’s “context window” is made up of tokens, which are the building blocks used for processing information. Tokens can be entire parts or subsections of words, images, videos, audio or code. The bigger a model’s context window, the more information it can take in and process in a given prompt — making its output more consistent, relevant and useful.

Through a series of machine learning innovations, we’ve increased 1.5 Pro’s context window capacity far beyond the original 32,000 tokens for Gemini 1.0. We can now run up to 1 million tokens in production.

This means 1.5 Pro can process vast amounts of information in one go — including 1 hour of video, 11 hours of audio, codebases with over 30,000 lines of code or over 700,000 words. In our research, we’ve also successfully tested up to 10 million tokens.

Complex reasoning about vast amounts of information

1.5 Pro can seamlessly analyze, classify and summarize large amounts of content within a given prompt. For example, when given the 402-page transcripts from Apollo 11’s mission to the moon, it can reason about conversations, events and details found across the document.

Reasoning across a 402-page transcript: Gemini 1.5 Pro Demo

Gemini 1.5 Pro can understand, reason about and identify curious details in the 402-page transcripts from Apollo 11’s mission to the moon.

Better understanding and reasoning across modalities

1.5 Pro can perform highly-sophisticated understanding and reasoning tasks for different modalities, including video. For instance, when given a 44-minute silent Buster Keaton movie , the model can accurately analyze various plot points and events, and even reason about small details in the movie that could easily be missed.

Multimodal prompting with a 44-minute movie: Gemini 1.5 Pro Demo

Gemini 1.5 Pro can identify a scene in a 44-minute silent Buster Keaton movie when given a simple line drawing as reference material for a real-life object.

Relevant problem-solving with longer blocks of code

1.5 Pro can perform more relevant problem-solving tasks across longer blocks of code. When given a prompt with more than 100,000 lines of code, it can better reason across examples, suggest helpful modifications and give explanations about how different parts of the code works.

Problem solving across 100,633 lines of code | Gemini 1.5 Pro Demo

Gemini 1.5 Pro can reason across 100,000 lines of code giving helpful solutions, modifications and explanations.

Enhanced performance

When tested on a comprehensive panel of text, code, image, audio and video evaluations, 1.5 Pro outperforms 1.0 Pro on 87% of the benchmarks used for developing our large language models (LLMs). And when compared to 1.0 Ultra on the same benchmarks, it performs at a broadly similar level.

Gemini 1.5 Pro maintains high levels of performance even as its context window increases. In the Needle In A Haystack (NIAH) evaluation, where a small piece of text containing a particular fact or statement is purposely placed within a long block of text, 1.5 Pro found the embedded text 99% of the time, in blocks of data as long as 1 million tokens.

Gemini 1.5 Pro also shows impressive “in-context learning” skills, meaning that it can learn a new skill from information given in a long prompt, without needing additional fine-tuning. We tested this skill on the Machine Translation from One Book (MTOB) benchmark, which shows how well the model learns from information it’s never seen before. When given a grammar manual for Kalamang , a language with fewer than 200 speakers worldwide, the model learns to translate English to Kalamang at a similar level to a person learning from the same content.

As 1.5 Pro’s long context window is the first of its kind among large-scale models, we’re continuously developing new evaluations and benchmarks for testing its novel capabilities.

For more details, see our Gemini 1.5 Pro technical report .

Extensive ethics and safety testing

In line with our AI Principles and robust safety policies, we’re ensuring our models undergo extensive ethics and safety tests. We then integrate these research learnings into our governance processes and model development and evaluations to continuously improve our AI systems.

Since introducing 1.0 Ultra in December, our teams have continued refining the model, making it safer for a wider release. We’ve also conducted novel research on safety risks and developed red-teaming techniques to test for a range of potential harms.

In advance of releasing 1.5 Pro, we've taken the same approach to responsible deployment as we did for our Gemini 1.0 models, conducting extensive evaluations across areas including content safety and representational harms, and will continue to expand this testing. Beyond this, we’re developing further tests that account for the novel long-context capabilities of 1.5 Pro.

Build and experiment with Gemini models

We’re committed to bringing each new generation of Gemini models to billions of people, developers and enterprises around the world responsibly.

Starting today, we’re offering a limited preview of 1.5 Pro to developers and enterprise customers via AI Studio and Vertex AI . Read more about this on our Google for Developers blog and Google Cloud blog .

We’ll introduce 1.5 Pro with a standard 128,000 token context window when the model is ready for a wider release. Coming soon, we plan to introduce pricing tiers that start at the standard 128,000 context window and scale up to 1 million tokens, as we improve the model.

Early testers can try the 1 million token context window at no cost during the testing period, though they should expect longer latency times with this experimental feature. Significant improvements in speed are also on the horizon.

Developers interested in testing 1.5 Pro can sign up now in AI Studio, while enterprise customers can reach out to their Vertex AI account team.

Learn more about Gemini’s capabilities and see how it works .

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Gemini 1.5: Our next-generation model, now available for Private Preview in Google AI Studio

February 15, 2024

research paper process quiz

Last week, we released Gemini 1.0 Ultra in Gemini Advanced. You can try it out now by signing up for a Gemini Advanced subscription . The 1.0 Ultra model, accessible via the Gemini API, has seen a lot of interest and continues to roll out to select developers and partners in Google AI Studio .

Today, we’re also excited to introduce our next-generation Gemini 1.5 model , which uses a new Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) approach to improve efficiency. It routes your request to a group of smaller "expert” neural networks so responses are faster and higher quality.

Developers can sign up for our Private Preview of Gemini 1.5 Pro , our mid-sized multimodal model optimized for scaling across a wide-range of tasks. The model features a new, experimental 1 million token context window, and will be available to try out in  Google AI Studio . Google AI Studio is the fastest way to build with Gemini models and enables developers to easily integrate the Gemini API in their applications. It’s available in 38 languages across 180+ countries and territories .

1,000,000 tokens: Unlocking new use cases for developers

Before today, the largest context window in the world for a publicly available large language model was 200,000 tokens. We’ve been able to significantly increase this — running up to 1 million tokens consistently, achieving the longest context window of any large-scale foundation model. Gemini 1.5 Pro will come with a 128,000 token context window by default, but today’s Private Preview will have access to the experimental 1 million token context window.

We’re excited about the new possibilities that larger context windows enable. You can directly upload large PDFs, code repositories, or even lengthy videos as prompts in Google AI Studio. Gemini 1.5 Pro will then reason across modalities and output text.

Upload multiple files and ask questions We’ve added the ability for developers to upload multiple files, like PDFs, and ask questions in Google AI Studio. The larger context window allows the model to take in more information — making the output more consistent, relevant and useful. With this 1 million token context window, we’ve been able to load in over 700,000 words of text in one go. Gemini 1.5 Pro can find and reason from particular quotes across the Apollo 11 PDF transcript. 
[Video sped up for demo purposes]
Query an entire code repository The large context window also enables a deep analysis of an entire codebase, helping Gemini models grasp complex relationships, patterns, and understanding of code. A developer could upload a new codebase directly from their computer or via Google Drive, and use the model to onboard quickly and gain an understanding of the code. Gemini 1.5 Pro can help developers boost productivity when learning a new codebase.  
Add a full length video Gemini 1.5 Pro can also reason across up to 1 hour of video. When you attach a video, Google AI Studio breaks it down into thousands of frames (without audio), and then you can perform highly sophisticated reasoning and problem-solving tasks since the Gemini models are multimodal. Gemini 1.5 Pro can perform reasoning and problem-solving tasks across video and other visual inputs.  

More ways for developers to build with Gemini models

In addition to bringing you the latest model innovations, we’re also making it easier for you to build with Gemini:

Easy tuning. Provide a set of examples, and you can customize Gemini for your specific needs in minutes from inside Google AI Studio. This feature rolls out in the next few days. 
New developer surfaces . Integrate the Gemini API to build new AI-powered features today with new Firebase Extensions , across your development workspace in Project IDX , or with our newly released Google AI Dart SDK . 
Lower pricing for Gemini 1.0 Pro . We’re also updating the 1.0 Pro model, which offers a good balance of cost and performance for many AI tasks. Today’s stable version is priced 50% less for text inputs and 25% less for outputs than previously announced. The upcoming pay-as-you-go plans for AI Studio are coming soon.

Since December, developers of all sizes have been building with Gemini models, and we’re excited to turn cutting edge research into early developer products in Google AI Studio . Expect some latency in this preview version due to the experimental nature of the large context window feature, but we’re excited to start a phased rollout as we continue to fine-tune the model and get your feedback. We hope you enjoy experimenting with it early on, like we have.

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5 Questions with Research and Development Engineer Katie Payne

Katie Payne poses at lab - 5 Questions with Research and Development Engineer Katie Payne - College of Natural Resources News NC State University

Katie Payne graduated in 2013 with a bachelor’s degree in paper science and engineering and chemical engineering. She now works as a staff scientist with Solenis ‘ R&D Process Technology & Engineering Group in Wilmington, Delaware.

While at NC State, Payne was a member of the student chapter of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, the University Scholars Program and Delta Delta Delta. She participated in a one-year paper science study abroad program in Jyvaskyla, Finland and Munich, Germany.

We recently spoke with Payne to learn more about her passion for paper science and engineering and how the College of Natural Resources prepared her for her career. Check out the Q&A below.

What does a typical day in your job look like?

I am typically splitting my time each day between 1-2 different projects for Solenis, where I am either working on a new innovation, improving internal lab procedures or troubleshooting plant or customer questions. This work involves a mix of work in our pilot plant at our research center, in offsite trials at customer sites or other pilot plants, in the lab or through meetings and/or email communications. My level of involvement in these projects varies constantly based on company and customer needs and priorities.

I also spend additional time, outside of my official role with Solenis, participating in Solenis’ sustainability task force and leading our newly created local chapter of Solenis Emerging Leaders, a group that helps newer Solenis employees to network and gain leadership skills.

What inspired you to study paper science and engineering?

I was very fortunate to receive a scholarship from NC State to study paper science and engineering. I enjoyed math and sciences in grade school so I wanted to work toward a career where I used those disciplines and studying paper science allowed me to do that. My focus in studying paper science and engineering and joining the pulp and paper industry was, and still is, to make contributions toward making the industry more sustainable so that it can provide quality, affordable products to customers while minimizing its environmental footprint.

What impact are you making through your position?

Fortunately, in my role as a scientist at Solenis, I work on some very exciting and innovative projects. Some of these different projects have the potential to provide more environmentally-friendly alternatives to industry standards and/or create different capabilities within the industry – and that is the kind of work that I am proud of.

I also have focused on creating positive social impacts within Solenis by developing a local group that allows new or younger Solenis employees to meet face-to-face and learn about each other’s roles and responsibilities plus get leadership advice. My intention for this group is to help people feel connected to each other and to better understand how they fit into the broader organization. It also allows them to learn about different career paths within Solenis and how others have navigated their careers.

How did the college prepare you for your current position?

The College of Natural Resources provided challenges – a new environment, new people, new concepts, tough coursework – and I was able to successfully overcome them. This gave me confidence that I could be adaptable and learn what I needed to solve problems and meet goals. This is crucial for the role that I am in. I need to be able to solve some tough problems, and I need the confidence to know that I can do it if I work hard and focus on achieving my goal.

What advice do you have for current College of Natural Resources students?

Vary your exposure to different subjects, people and opportunities while you are at NC State. There are so many opportunities there that you can take advantage of that will be harder to come by in the future. I was able to enjoy multiple international trips and study abroad opportunities, attend programs offered by the Honors Program, make friends and so much more. I am very grateful that I took advantage of all those opportunities when I did. 

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  1. The Process Of Research Quiz!

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  2. Quiz The Research Process

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  1. Steps in Research Process: Quickest & Easiest Explanation (UGC NET)

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  6. The Research Process


  1. Multiple Choice Quizzes

    Try these quizzes to test your understanding. 1. Research analysis is the last critical step in the research process. True False 2. The final research report where a discussion of findings and limitations is presented is the easiest part for a researcher. True False 3.

  2. Test Your Knowledge: The Research Process (Quiz)

    Online Library Orientation: Test Your Knowledge: The Research Process (Quiz) Start Here; Module 1: Getting Started with Research Toggle Dropdown. ... Anatomy of a Research Paper (Video) Test Your Knowledge: Synthesizing Information (Quiz) Module 6: Citations and Academic Integrity Toggle Dropdown.

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    All research questions should be: Focused on a single problem or issue Researchable using primary and/or secondary sources Feasible to answer within the timeframe and practical constraints Specific enough to answer thoroughly Complex enough to develop the answer over the space of a paper or thesis

  4. 10 Research Question Examples to Guide your Research Project

    10 Research Question Examples to Guide your Research Project Published on October 30, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on October 19, 2023. The research question is one of the most important parts of your research paper, thesis or dissertation. It's important to spend some time assessing and refining your question before you get started.

  5. Research Process Quiz Flashcards

    Research Process Quiz What are the first three steps of the research process? Click the card to flip 👆 Identify topic, organize prior knowledge, and gather background info Click the card to flip 👆 1 / 7 Flashcards Learn Test Match Q-Chat Created by Emily_Johnson483 Students also viewed INQR Quiz 3 10 terms GoCleCavs Preview

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    10 steps Terms in this set (10) Step 1 of Research Process select a topic Step 2 of Research Process Find and print reliable sources Step 3 of Research Process Create Bibliography in MLA format step 4 of research process read and highlight Step 5 of Research Process Make Notecard (Topic, Source, PG number, Paper info) Step 6 of the research process

  7. A Beginner's Guide to Starting the Research Process

    Step 1: Choose your topic Step 2: Identify a problem Step 3: Formulate research questions Step 4: Create a research design Step 5: Write a research proposal Other interesting articles Step 1: Choose your topic First you have to come up with some ideas. Your thesis or dissertation topic can start out very broad.

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  9. 'Research Methods' Practice Quiz Chapter 2

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    What is a research question? A research question is a clear, focused, concise, and arguable question on which your research and writing are centered. 1 It states various aspects of the study, including the population and variables to be studied and the problem the study addresses.

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  14. 80 Research Quizzes, Questions, Answers & Trivia

    In simple terms, research means searching for knowledge and truth. John W. Creswell once said, "Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue." ... you can take this research paper quiz. With research paper quiz questions and answers, you can check your knowledge and get ...

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  16. [2402.09171] Automated Unit Test Improvement using Large Language

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  19. INQR 101 Quiz: Sources and the Research Process Flashcards

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  20. Clinical Research Coordinator

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  23. Introducing Gemini 1.5, Google's next-generation AI model

    Gemini 1.5 delivers dramatically enhanced performance. It represents a step change in our approach, building upon research and engineering innovations across nearly every part of our foundation model development and infrastructure. This includes making Gemini 1.5 more efficient to train and serve, with a new Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) architecture.

  24. Gemini 1.5: Our next-generation model, now available for Private

    Posted by Jaclyn Konzelmann and Wiktor Gworek - Google Labs. Last week, we released Gemini 1.0 Ultra in Gemini Advanced. You can try it out now by signing up for a Gemini Advanced subscription.The 1.0 Ultra model, accessible via the Gemini API, has seen a lot of interest and continues to roll out to select developers and partners in Google AI Studio.

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  26. 5 Questions with Research and Development Engineer Katie Payne

    Katie Payne graduated in 2013 with a bachelor's degree in paper science and engineering and chemical engineering. She now works as a staff scientist with Solenis' R&D Process Technology & Engineering Group in Wilmington, Delaware.. While at NC State, Payne was a member of the student chapter of the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, the University Scholars Program and ...

  27. Research Paper Process Quiz

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