256 Research Topics on Criminal Justice & Criminology

Are you a law school student studying criminal behavior or forensic science? Or maybe just looking for good criminal justice topics, questions, and hypotheses? Look no further! Custom-writing.org experts offer a load of criminology research topics and titles for every occasion. Criminological theories, types of crime, the role of media in criminology, and more. Our topics will help you prepare for a college-level assignment, debate, or essay writing.

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  • ⚖️ Criminology vs. Criminal Justice
  • 🔬 120 Criminology Research Topics
  • 💂 116 Criminal Justice Research Topics

🔦 What Is Criminology?

👮 what is criminal justice, 🔍 references, ⚖️ criminology vs. criminal justice: topics & fields of study.

Criminology. Criminal justice. The terms are often confused even by the people within the field. Nevertheless, criminal justice and criminology are two different spheres. Therefore, these terms are not interchangeable.

Criminology and criminal justice are indeed related. Say, you are pursuing career opportunities in either of the fields. Then, you need to be able to answer the question: what’s the difference between criminology and criminal justice?

Сriminology studies the anatomy of a crime.

To put it simply, criminology studies the anatomy of a crime. More specifically, it explores the causes, costs, and consequences of it. Criminal justice is different from criminology in the sphere it covers. It is the system established for dealing with crimes: the ways of detection, detention, prosecution, and punishment. In short, think of criminal justice as a part of law enforcement.

This chapter just touched on the differences between criminal justice and criminology. If you wish to learn more about the topic, go to chapters IV, and V. Now is the time to move on to criminology research topics!

🔥 Hot Criminology Research Topics

  • The role of media in criminology.
  • Cultural explanation of crime.
  • Benefits of convict criminology.
  • Main issues of postmodern criminology.
  • Is criminal behavior affected by the politics?
  • How does DAWN collect data?
  • The limitations of crime mapping.
  • Personality traits that trigger criminal behavior.
  • Community deterioration and crime rates.
  • Does experimental criminology affect social policy?

🔬 120 Criminology Research Topics & Ideas

Here are 100 criminology research topics ideas organized by themes.

General Criminology Research Paper Topics

  • Criminology as a social science.
  • Criminology and its public policies.
  • History of criminology.
  • Crime commission: legal and social perspectives .

Criminal Psychology Research Topics

  • What is the nature of criminal behavior?
  • How does the lack of education affect the incarceration rates?
  • Childhood aggression and the impact of divorce
  • The effect of the upbringing on antisocial adult behavior
  • How do gender and cultural background affect one’s attitude towards drug abuse?
  • Forensic psychology and its impact on the legal system
  • What is the role of criminal psychologists?
  • Different types of forensic psychological evaluations
  • What’s the difference between therapeutic and forensic evaluation?
  • Does socioeconomic status impact one’s criminal behavior?

Criminology Research Topics: Theories

  • What crimes are typical for what ages?
  • How does the type of crime correspond with the level of exerted aggression ?
  • What is the connection between citizenship (or lack thereof) and law violation?
  • How does education (or lack thereof) correspond with crime level?
  • Does employment (or lack thereof) correspond with law violation?
  • What is the connection between family status and law violation?
  • Does gender affect on the type of law violation?
  • How does ownership of firearms correspond with law violation?
  • Does immigrant status correlate with law violation?

Crime and Victimization in Criminology.

  • Is there a connection between mental health and law violation?
  • What are the causes of violence in the society?
  • Does the crime rate depend on the neighborhood?
  • How does race correspond with the type of crime?
  • Do religious beliefs correspond with law violation?
  • How does social class correlate with crime rate?
  • What are the reasons for the homeless’ improsonment?
  • How does weather correspond with law violation?

Criminology Topics on Victimization

  • Biological theories of crime: how do biological factors correspond with law violation?
  • Classical criminology: the contemporary take on crime, economics, deterrence, and the rational choice perspective.
  • Convict criminology: what do ex-convicts have to say on the subject?
  • Criminal justice theories: punishment as a deterrent to crime.
  • Critical criminology: debunking false ideas about crime and criminal justice.
  • Cultural criminology: criminality as the product of culture.
  • Cultural transmission theory: how criminal norms are transmitted in social interaction.
  • Deterrence theory: how people don’t commit crimes out of fear of punishment.
  • Rational choice theory: how crime doing is aligned with personal objectives of the perpetrator.
  • Feminist Criminology: how the dominant crime theories exclude women.
  • Labeling and symbolic interaction theories: how minorities and those deviating from social norms tend to be negatively labeled.
  • Life course criminology: how life events affect the actions that humans perform.
  • Psychological theories of crime: criminal behaviour through the lense of an individual’s personality.
  • Routine activities theory: how normal everyday activities affect the tendency to commit a crime.
  • The concept of natural legal crime.
  • Self-control theory: how the lack of individual self-control results in criminal behavior.
  • Social construction of crime: crime doing as social response.
  • Social control theory: how positive socialization corresponds with reduction of criminal violation.
  • Social disorganization theory: how neighbourhood ecological characteristics correspond with crime rates.
  • Social learning theory: how (non)criminal behavior can be acquired by observing and imitating others.
  • Strain theories: how social structures within society pressure citizens to commit crime.
  • Theoretical integration: how two theories are better than one.

Criminology Research and Measurement Topics

  • Citation content analysis (CCA): a framework for gaining knowledge from a variety of media.
  • Crime classification systems: classification of crime according to the severity of punishment.
  • Crime mapping as a way to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns.
  • Reports and statistics of crime: the estimated rate of crime over time. Public surveys.
  • Drug abuse warning network (DAWN): predicting trends in drug misuse.
  • Arrestee drug abuse monitoring (ADAM): drug use among arrestees.
  • Edge ethnography: collecting data undercover in typically closed research settings and groups through rapport development or covert undercover strategy.
  • Experimental criminology: experimental and quasi-experimental research in the advancement of criminological theory.
  • Fieldwork in criminology: street ethnographers and their dilemmas in the field concerning process and outcomes.
  • Program evaluation: collecting and analyzing information to assess the efficiency of projects, policies and programs.
  • Quantitative criminology: how exploratory research questions, inductive reasoning, and an orientation to social context help recognize human subjectivity.

Criminology Topics on Types of Crime

  • Campus crime: the most common crimes on college campuses and ways of preventing them.
  • Child abuse: types, prevalence, risk groups, ways of detection and prevention.
  • Cybercrime: cyber fraud, defamation, hacking, bullying, phishing.
  • Domestic violence: gender, ways of detection and prevention, activism.
  • Domestic violence with disabilities .
  • Elder abuse: types, prevalence, risk groups, ways of detection and prevention.
  • Environmental crime. Natural resource theft: illegal trade in wildlife and timber, poaching, illegal fishing.
  • Environmental crime. Illegal trade in ozone-depleting substances, hazardous waste; pollution of air, water, and soil.
  • Environmental crime: local, regional, national, and transnational level.
  • Environmental crime: climate change crime and corruption.
  • Environmental crime: wildlife harming and exploitation.
  • Hate crime: how prejudice motivates violence.

Types of crime.

  • Homicide: what motivates one person to kill another.
  • Human trafficking : methods of deception, risk groups, ways of detection and prevention.
  • Identity theft: methods, risk groups, ways of detection and prevention.
  • Gambling in America .
  • Juvenile delinquency: risk groups, prevention policies, prosecution and punishment.
  • Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Effects
  • Organizational crime: transnational, national, and local levels. Ways of disrupting the activity of a group.
  • Prostitution: risk groups, different takes on prevention policies, activism.
  • Robbery: risk groups, ways of prevention, prosecution and punishment.
  • Sex offenses: risk groups, types, prevalence, ways of detection and prevention.
  • Terrorism: definition, history, countermeasures .
  • Terrorism: individual and group activity, ways of detection and prevention.
  • Theft and shoplifting : risk groups, ways of detection, prevention policies, prosecution and punishment.
  • Counter-terrorism: constitutional and legislative issues .
  • White-collar crime: types, ways of detection, prevention policies, prosecution and punishment.

Criminology Topics on Racism and Discrimination

  • How systemic bias affects criminal justice?
  • How discriminatory portrayal of minority groups in the media affects criminal justice?
  • Racial profiling: targeting minority groups on the basis of race and ethnicity.
  • Racism and discrimination towards African-Americans .
  • Racial profiling: what are the cons? Are there any pros?
  • How discriminatory is the UK Court System?
  • How discriminatory is the US Court System?

Other Criminology Research Topics

  • Corporate crime: the ruling class criminals.
  • Genetics: illegal research and its dangers.
  • Hate crime: the implications in criminal justice.
  • Serial killers: risk groups, ways of detection and prevention.
  • Serial killers: portrayal in media.
  • Organized crime: how does it affect criminal justice?
  • Crime prevention programs.
  • Street lighting: does it reduce crime?
  • Terrorism prevention technology.
  • Identity theft: risk groups, ways of deception, prevention policies.
  • Due process model: procedural and substantive aspects.
  • Crime control in criminal justice administration.
  • Types of drugs: how do they affect the users?
  • Smart handheld devices: their function for security personnel.
  • Social media: its impact on crime rate.
  • Public health: how does criminal justice affect it?
  • Psychometric examinations: what is their role in criminal justice?
  • National defense in the US.
  • National defense in the UK.
  • Sexual harassment: the role of activism, ways of responding, prevention and prosecution.
  • Substance abuse: military.
  • Criminology and criminal justice jobs: a full list.

🌶️ Hot Criminal Justice Topics

  • The history of modern police.
  • Different types of prison systems.
  • Is situational crime prevention effective?
  • How to prevent wrongful convictions.
  • Challenges faced by crime victims.
  • The advantages of community corrections.
  • How do ethics influence criminal justice?
  • Disadvantages of felony disenfranchisement.
  • Does correctional system in the USA really work?
  • Possible problems of prisoner reentry process.

💂 116 Criminal Justice Research Topics & Questions

Here are some of the most typical and interesting criminal justice issues to dazzle your professor.

  • Prison system: the main problems and the hidden pitfalls.
  • The question of gender: why are there more men who receive capital punishment than women?
  • Kidnapping and ransom: common features, motifs, behavior patterns.
  • Crime prevention: key principles.
  • Firing a gun: what helps professionals understand whether it was deliberate or happened by accident?
  • Cybercrime: the legal perspective.
  • Internet vigilantism: revenge leaks.
  • Hate crime on the Internet: revenge leaks, trolling, defamation.
  • Crime and justice in mass media.
  • Parental abduction laws.
  • Sex offender registry: pros and cons.
  • The deterrence theory and the theory of rational choice: are they relevant in the modern world?
  • Sexual assault in schools and workplaces.
  • Jury selection: how is it performed?
  • Experimental criminology: the latest innovations.

Criminal justice system.

  • Wildlife crime: areas of prevalence, ways of prevention.
  • Felony disenfranchisement laws: when do they apply?
  • The relation between organized crime and corruption.
  • Victim services: what help can a victim of a crime get?
  • Prison rape and violence: the psychological aspect, ways of prevention.
  • Juvenile recidivism: what are the risk groups?
  • Forensic science: role and functions in modern criminal justice.
  • Shoplifting: how to prevent theft?
  • Witness Protection Program: who is eligible and how to protect them.
  • Date rape: what are the ways for the victims to seek legal assistance?
  • Substance abuse and crime: correlation or causation?
  • Identity theft: dangers and consequences in the modern world.
  • Online predators: what laws can be introduced to protect kids? Real-life examples.
  • Civil and criminal cases: how to differentiate?
  • Domestic abuse victims: what laws protect them?
  • Elder abuse: what can be done to prevent it?
  • The strain theory: the unachievable American dream.
  • Concepts of law enforcement: pursuing criminal justice .
  • Ethics and criminal justice: the unethical sides of law enforcement.
  • The top problems to be solved by law enforcement today.
  • Information sharing technology: how has it helped in the fight against terrorism ?
  • Terrorism in perspective: characteristics, causes, control .
  • Serial killers: types.
  • Drug use and youth arrests.
  • Aggressive behavior: how does it correlate with criminal tendencies?
  • Community corrections: are they effective?
  • Sentencing: how does it take place?
  • Punishment types and the established terms.
  • Unwarranted arrest: when is it acceptable?
  • Human trafficking in the modern world.
  • Human trafficking: current state and counteracts .
  • The role of technology in modern forensics.
  • Similarities and differences between homicide, murder, and manslaughter.
  • Types of offenders: classification.
  • Effects of gun control measures in the United States .
  • The role of crime mapping in modern criminal justice.
  • Male crimes vs female crimes: are they different?
  • Prisons: the problems of bad living conditions.
  • Victimization: causes and ways of prevention.
  • Victimology and traditional justice system alternatives .
  • Rape victims: what are their rights?
  • Problem-solving courts: what underlying problems do they address?
  • Mandatory sentencing and the three-strike rule.
  • Have “three-strikes” laws been effective and should they be continued?
  • Criminal courts: what can be learned from their history?
  • Hate crimes: what motivates people to commit them?
  • Youth gangs: what is their danger?
  • Fieldwork: how is it done in criminology?
  • Distributive justice: its place in criminal justice.
  • Capital punishment: what can be learned from history?
  • Humanities and justice in Britain during 18th century .
  • Abolition of capital punishment .
  • Criminals and prisoners’ rights.
  • Crime prevention programs and criminal rehabilitation
  • Campus crime: what laws and precautions are there against it?
  • Criminal trial process: how does it go?
  • Crimes committed on a religious basis: how are they punished?
  • The code of ethics in the Texas department of criminal justice .
  • Comparison between Florida and Maryland’s legislative frameworks .
  • Fraud in the scientific field: how can copyright protect the discoveries of researchers?
  • Prosecution laws: how are they applied in practice?
  • The classification of crime systems.
  • Cyberbullying and cyberstalking: what can parents do to protect their children?
  • Forgery cases in educational institutions, offices, and governmental organizations.
  • Drug courts: how do they work?

Controversial Topics in Criminal Justice

Want your work to be unconventional? Consider choosing one of the controversial topics. You will need to present a number of opposite points of view. Of course, it’s acceptable to choose and promote an opinion that you think stands the best. Just make sure to provide a thorough analysis of all of the viewpoints.

You can also stay impartial and let the reader make up their own mind on the subject. If you decide to support one of the viewpoints, your decision should be objective. Back it up with plenty of evidence, too. Here are some examples of controversial topics that you can explore.

  • Reform vs. punishment: which one offers more benefits?
  • Restorative justice model: is it the best criminal justice tool?
  • The war on drugs: does it really solve the drug problem?
  • Criminal insanity: is it a reason enough for exemption from liability?
  • Juvenile justice system: should it be eliminated?
  • Drug testing on the school ground.
  • Police brutality in the United States .
  • How to better gun control ?
  • Why Gun Control Laws Should be Scrapped .
  • Pornography: is it a type of sexual violence?
  • Whether death penalty can be applied fairly?
  • Jack the Ripper: who was he?
  • The modern justice system: is it racist?
  • A false accusation: how can one protect themselves from it?
  • Concealed weapons: what are the criminal codes of various states?
  • Race and crime: is there a correlation?
  • Registering sex offenders: should this information be in public records?
  • Juvenile delinquency and bad parenting: is there a relation?
  • Assessing juveniles for psychopathy or conduct disorder .
  • Should all new employees be checked for a criminal background?
  • Are delinquency cases higher among immigrant children?
  • Restrictive housing: can it help decongest prisons?
  • Homegrown crimes: is there an effective program against them?
  • Prostitution: the controversy around legalization .
  • Eyewitness testimony: is it really helpful in an investigation?
  • Youthful offenders in boot camps: is this strategy effective?
  • Predictive policing: is it effective?
  • Selective incapacitation: is it an effective policy for reducing crime?
  • Social class and crime: is there a relation?
  • Death penalty: is it effective in crime deterrence?
  • Extradition law: is it fair?
  • Devious interrogations: is deceit acceptable during investigations?
  • Supermax prisons: are they effective or just cruel?
  • Zero tolerance: is it the best policy for crime reduction?
  • Marijuana decriminalization: pros and cons.
  • Marijuana legalization in the US .

Now that you have looked through the full list of topics, choose wisely. Remember that sometimes it’s best to avoid sensitive topics. Other times, a clever choice of a topic will win you extra points. It doesn’t depend on just the tastes of your professor, of course. You should also take into account how much relevant information there is on the subject. Anyway, the choice of the topic of your research is up to you. Try to find the latest materials and conduct an in-depth analysis of them. Don’t forget to draw a satisfactory conclusion. Writing may take a lot of your time and energy, so plan ahead. Remember to stay hydrated and good luck!

Now, after we looked through the topic collections on criminology and criminal justice, it is time to turn to the specifics in each of the fields. First, let’s talk more extensively about criminology. If you are training to be a criminologist, you will study some things more deeply. They include the behavior patterns of criminals, their backgrounds, and the latest sociological trends in crime.

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In the field of criminology, the specialties are numerous. That’s why it’s difficult to pinpoint one career that represents a typical member of the profession. It all depends on the background of a criminologist, their education, and experience.

Careers possible with a criminology major.

A criminologist may have a number of responsibilities at their position. For example, they might be called forth to investigate a crime scene. Participation in autopsies is unpleasant yet necessary. Interrogation of suspects and subsequent criminal profiling is another essential duty.

Some professionals work solely in research. Others consult government agencies or private security companies. Courts and law firms also cooperate with criminologists. Their job is to provide expert opinion in criminal proceedings. Some of them work in the prison systems in order to oversee the rehabilitation of the convicted.

Regardless of the career specialty , most criminologists are working on profiling and data collection. A criminologist is another word for an analyst. They collect, study, and analyze data on crimes. After conducting the analysis, they provide recommendations and actionable information.

A criminologist seeks to find out the identity of the person who committed the crime. The time point of a crime is also important, as well as the reason for it. There are several areas covered by the analysis of a criminologist. The psychological behavior of the criminal or criminals is closely studied. The socio-economic indicators are taken into account. There are also, of course, the environmental factors that may have facilitated the crime.

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Some high-profile cases require a criminologist to correspond with media and PR managers extensively. Sometimes criminologists write articles and even books about their findings. However, it should be noted that the daily routine of a professional in the field is not so glamorous. Most criminologists do their work alone, without the attention of the public.

The research a criminologist accumulates during their work is extensive. It doesn’t just sit there in a folder on their desk, of course. The collected statistics are used for developing active criminal profiles that are shared with law enforcement agencies. It helps to understand criminal behavior better and to predict it. That’s why a criminologist’s work must be precise and accurate for it to be practical and useful. Also, criminology professionals must have a good grasp of math and statistics.

Thinking of a career in criminology? You will need to, at the very least, graduate from college. There, you’ll master mathematics, statistics, and, of course, criminology. An associate’s degree may get you an entry-level position. But the minimum entry-level requirement is usually the bachelor’s degree. The best positions, though, are left for the professionals with a master’s degree or a PhD.

Just having a degree is not enough. To succeed as a criminologist, you will require all your intelligence, commitment, and the skill of analyzing intricate situations. An aspiration to better the society will go a long way. You will need to exercise your creative, written, and verbal communication skills, too. An analytical mind will land you at an advantage.

Criminology: Research Areas

Times change and the world of crime never ceases to adapt. The nature of criminal transgression is evolving, and so do the ways of prosecution. Criminal detection, investigation, and prevention are constantly advancing. Criminology studies aim to improve the practices implemented in the field.

There are six unified, coordinated, and interrelated areas of expertise. Within each, the professionals are busy turning their mastery into knowledge and action.

Criminology research areas.

The first research area is the newest worry of criminology – cybercrime. The impact of this type of crime is escalating with every passing day. That’s why it’s crucial for the law enforcement professionals to keep up to date with the evolving technology. Cybercrime research is exploring the growing threat of its subject at all levels of society. Cybercrime may impact people on both personal and governmental levels. Cybercrime research investigates the motivation and methodology behind the offenses and finds new ways to react.

The second research area is counter fraud. Crimes that fall under this category include fraud and corruption. The questions that counter fraud research deals with are many. How widely a crime is spread, what method is best to fight it, and the optimal courses of action to protect people and organizations.

The third research area is that of forensics. The contemporary face of justice has been changed by forensic science beyond recognition. Nowadays, it’s much harder for criminals to conceal their activity due to evolved technologies. The research in forensics is utilizing science in the identification of the crime and in its reconstruction. It employs such techniques as DNA recovery, fingerprinting, and forensic interviewing.

What is forensic interviewing? It helps find new ways to gather quality information from witnesses and crime scenes. It also works on developing protocols that ensure the protection of this human data and its correct interpretation by police.

The fourth research area is policing. Police service is facing a lot of pressing issues nowadays due to budget cuts. At the same time, police officers still need to learn, and there are also individual factors that may influence their work.

The fifth research area is penology. It’s tasked with exploring the role of punishment in the criminal justice system. Does punishment aid the rehabilitation of perpetrators, and to what extent? The answer will help link theory to practice and thus shape how criminal justice practitioners work.

The sixth research area is that of missing persons. Before a person goes missing, they may display a certain pattern of behavior. The study of missing persons helps to identify it. The results will determine the handling of such cases.

Now that we know what criminology is, it’s time to talk about criminal justice.

While criminology focuses on the analysis of crime, criminal justice concentrates on societal systems. Its primary concern is with the criminal behavior of the perpetrators. For example, in the USA, there are three branches of the criminal justice system. They are police (aka law enforcement), courts, and corrections. These branches all work together to punish and prevent unlawful behavior. If you take up a career in criminal justice, expect to work in one of these fields.

The most well-known branch of criminal justice is law enforcement. The police force is at the forefront of defense against crime and misdemeanor. They stand against the criminal element in many ways. For instance, they patrol the streets, investigate crimes, and detain suspects. It’s not just the police officers who take these responsibilities upon themselves. There are also US Marshals, ICE, FBI Agents, DEA, and border patrol. Only after the arrest has been made, the perpetrator enters the court system.

The court system is less visible to the public, but still crucial to the criminal justice system. Its main purpose is to determine the suspect’s innocence or guilt. You can work as an attorney, lawyer, bailiff, judge, or another professional of the field. In the court, if you are a suspect, you are innocent until proven guilty. You are also entitled to a fair trial. However, if they do find you guilty, you will receive a sentence. Your punishment will be the job of the corrections system.

The courts determine the nature of the punishment, and the corrections system enforces it. There are three elements of the corrections system: incarceration, probation, and parole. They either punish or rehabilitate the convicts. Want to uptake a career in corrections? You may work as, including, but not limited to: a parole officer, a prison warden, a probation officer, and a guard.

📈 Criminal Justice: Research Areas

The research areas in criminal justice are similar, if not identical, to those of criminology. After all, those are two very closely related fields. The one difference is that criminal justice research has more practical than theoretical applications. But it’s fair to say that theory is the building blocks that practice bases itself on. One is impossible without the other unless the result you want is complete chaos.

So, the question is – what topic to choose for the research paper? Remember that the world of criminal justice is constantly changing. Choosing a subject for research in criminal justice, consider a relevant topic. There are many pressing issues in the field. Exploring them will undoubtedly win you points from your professor. Just make sure to choose a direction that will give you the opportunity to show off both your knowledge and your analytical skills.

Not sure that your original research direction will be appreciated? Then choose one of the standard topics. Something that is widely discussed in the media. And, of course, make sure that you are truly interested in the subject. Otherwise, your disinterest will translate into your writing, which may negatively affect the overall impression. Also, it’s just more enjoyable to work on something that resonates with you.

What can you do with your research paper? Literally anything. Explore the background of the issue. Make predictions. Compare the different takes on the matter. Maybe there are some fresh new discoveries that have been made recently. What does science say about that?

Also, remember to backup all your arguments with quotes and examples from real life. The Internet is the best library and research ground a student could hope for. The main idea of the paper, aka the thesis, must be proven by enough factual material. Otherwise, it’s best to change your research direction.

And, of course, don’t put it all off till the last minute. Make a plan and stick to it. Consistency and clever distribution of effort will take you a long way. Good luck!

🤔 Criminal Justice Research FAQs

Criminological and criminal justice research are the scientific studies of the causes and consequences, extent and control, nature, management, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the social and individual levels.

Criminal justice and criminology are sciences that analyze the occurrence and explore the ways of prevention of illegal acts. Any conducted personal research and investigation should be supported by the implemented analytical methods from academic works that describe the given subject.

There are six interrelated areas of criminology research:

  • Cybercrime research makes law enforcement professionals keep up to date with the evolving technology.
  • Counter fraud research investigates cases of fraud and corruption.
  • Forensics research utilizes science: DNA recovery, fingerprinting, and forensic interviewing.
  • Research in policing investigates individual factors that may influence the work of police officers.
  • Penology explores the role of punishment in the criminal justice system.
  • The study of missing persons helps to identify patterns of victims’ behavior.

There are seven research methods in criminology:

  • Quantitative research methods measure criminological and criminal justice reality by assigning numerical values to concepts to find patterns of correlation, cause and effect.
  • Survey research collects information from a number of persons via their responses to questions.
  • Experimental research assesses cause and effect in two comparison groups.
  • Cross-sectional research studies one group at one point in time.
  • Longitudinal research studies the same group over a period of time.
  • Time-series designs study the same group at successive points in time.
  • Meta-analysis employs quantitative analysis of findings from multiple studies.

The basis of criminological theory is criminological research. It influences the development of social policies and defines criminal justice practice.

Criminological research doesn’t just enable law students to develop analytical and presentational skills. The works of criminal justice professionals, scholars, and government policymakers dictate the way law enforcement operates. The newest ideas born out of research identify corrections and crime prevention, too.

Here is a step-by-step instruction on how to write a criminal justice research paper:

  • Choose a topic
  • Read the materials and take notes
  • Come up with a thesis
  • Create an outline for your work
  • Draft the body
  • Start with a cover page, an abstract, and an intro
  • List the methods you used, and the results you got
  • Include a discussion
  • Sum it up with a conclusion
  • Don’t forget a literature review and appendices
  • Revise, proofread, and edit

The most common types of methodologies in criminal justice research include:

  • Observation of participants.
  • Surveys and interviews.
  • Observation of focus groups.
  • Conducting experiments.
  • Analysis of secondary data and archival study.
  • Mixed (a combination of the above methods).

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  • The Differences Between Criminal Justice and Criminology: Which Degree Is Right for You? (Concordia St. Paul)
  • Corporate Crime: Britannica
  • The Development of Delinquency: NAP
  • Databases for Research & Education: Gale
  • A CS Research Topic Generator: Purdue University
  • A Introduction To The Federal Court System: US Department of Justice
  • Criminal Justice Research Topics: Broward College
  • Research Topics in Criminology: Cambridge Institute of Criminology
  • CRIMINOLOGY: University of Portsmouth
  • Research: Department of Criminology & Criminal Justice, University of Maryland
  • Criminal Justice: RAND
  • Research Methods in Criminal Justice: Penn State University Libraries
  • Research: School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Arizona State University
  • Criminology – Research Guide: Getting started (Penn Libraries)
  • Criminology Research Papers: Academia
  • The History & Development of the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Study.com
  • Criminal Justice: Temple University
  • Criminal Justice: University of North Georgia
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The schools of criminology seems like such a fascinating field — it’s definitely not for the lighthearted though! Here in the Philippines, criminology as a course is highly underrated; hopefully that’ll change!

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Criminal Justice Research Topics for Research Papers

criminal justice assignment help and topics

Immediately someone asks you �what is criminal justice?� law enforcement, victims, the courts, crimes, the law, prison systems, and justice, among others come to mind. Thinly defined, criminal justice refers to a system used by governments to mitigate or prevent the occurrence of crimes within and beyond their jurisdictions. Criminal justice sanctions violators of the law while maintaining peace and the rule of law or order. You must note that different parts of the world have different criminal justice systems.

Research statistics indicate that criminal justice assignments come second after the law or legal studies assignments. Notably, the two are tough and give students a headache to complete.

Writing a criminal justice research paper requires accuracy, keenness, and patience. Besides, you have to use credible scholarly sources to support the facts and ideas in your paper.

However, it is always prudent to first find outstanding and unique criminal justice research topics. This here is the most challenging task that students undertake. Some even fear to construct criminal justice research paper topics. Instead, they will ask themselves, "what topics are there involving criminal justice for a research paper."

This list of potential criminal justice research topics answers the question, "what are some good research paper topics in criminal justice."

In this article, you will find over 100 plus criminal justice research topic ideas. When handing your criminal justice assignment, you can always trust our paper writing help agency for assistance.

Defining Criminal Justice Research Paper

So, what is a criminal justice research paper? You may ask. Criminal justice research papers or writing assignments are taken by law students or those pursuing criminology. They are papers that mostly deal with crime and justice.

With criminal justice studies, students are taught how to identify crime, analyze it, prevent it, and look into different illegal acts. It entails the analysis of legislation, court studies, and examination of various theories of crime and peace.

When writing a criminology research paper, it is paramount that you choose an excellent criminal justice research topic.  However, you must note that a criminal justice research paper topic must take into consideration the heterogeneity of legislations from state to state.

Sometimes, if it is a broad criminal justice paper, going international through exploring different case studies and sources of conflict can always be prudent.

After choosing a good topic, you should come up with a great thesis statement for a research paper. Besides, you should be willing to format the paper and proofread it before submitting it. If it is an argumentative research paper, be sure to indicate the arguments for and against then draw a strong conclusion.

Criminology Topics for Research Paper

  • The portrayal of domestic violence in the media
  • Impacts of domestic violence on children
  • Exploring and critiquing theories of crime
  • Integration of former prisoners into the community
  • Relationship between unemployment and the rise of gangs and crimes in the U.S.
  • How intelligence affects crime rates
  • Impacts of drunk driving on rising accident statistics
  • Online fraud and global banking systems
  • Violence against the homeless
  • Elderly abuse in nursing homes
  • Does capital punishment deter crime?
  • The war on drugs
  • Gun violence in the U.S.
  • Hate Crimes in the United States
  • Police brutality in the US
  • Does crime mapping help prevent crime?
  • Criminal record systems
  • Cyberbullying and cyberstalking: the mediating role of technology.
  • Organized crime and transnational crime
  • The rise of homegrown terrorists
  • The link between organized crime and terrorism.
  • Victimless crimes
  • The social production of crime
  • Predictors of criminal behavior
  • Rates of Recidivism and Race
  • Professional crime and crime within an organization pose special problems for the theories of crime because many of those involved have high social status. Why should this be a problem and how can such crimes explain?
  • When does the use of professional discretion cross ethical boundaries? 

Controversial Criminal Justice Research Paper Topics

  • Limited Rights of police officers.
  • Causes of college or campus violence.
  • The use of body cameras in law enforcement.
  • Ethics of different crime punishments.
  • Racial biases in investigations in the US.
  • Connecting Crime and Modern Music like Hip Hop and Rock.
  • Legal codes used in America
  • Sexual exploitation by media personalities and the rich in America
  • Gun violence and prevention policies
  • Criminal justice reforms in the US.
  • Youth offenders and Bootcamps
  • Detention of immigrants in squalid conditions.
  • Abuse of power by criminal justice practitioners
  • Zero tolerance policy and crime rates
  • Drugs, human, and arms trafficking in the contemporary world
  • Prostitution and human trafficking
  • A wave of financial crimes and their connection to terrorism.
  • Private prisons
  • Prison labor
  • Prison-industrial complex
  • Criminalization of poverty
  • Medical marijuana and crime rates.
  • The Rise of Punitive Criminal Justice Policy in the United States.
  • Race and politics of criminal justice.

International Law Assignment Topics

  • International criminal law treaties.
  • The role of Interpol in fighting international crime.
  • Amnesty international and criminal justice systems.
  • Women and international criminal law.
  • Controversial decisions made by the ICC, ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia), and the ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda).
  • Child soldiers in Africa. A case of Sudan, Somalia, and Congo.
  • Blood minerals
  • Methods used in drug trafficking
  • Famous and notorious arms trafficking routes globally
  • International offenders
  • The global fight against corruption and socio-economic crimes
  • Human rights violations in Sudan or Uganda.
  • Transnational crimes and international laws.
  • International criminal tribunals.
  • Human right violations during wars
  • The role of the International Criminal Court
  • Crimes against humanities
  •  How may English law and social policy impact upon the lives of those who come into contact with services?

Related Read: L ist of social issues to research.

Reasonable Criminology Research Topics

  • Juvenile delinquency treatment program in a community of choice
  • Crime Victim processing
  • Importance of recognizing the signs of stalking
  • Criminal definition of stalking in your jurisdiction
  • Offender processing
  • Stricter laws and gun possession
  • Strategies to reduce economic crimes
  • Gender bias in investigations
  • Criminal Justice reforms
  • Juvenile detention procedures
  • Incarcerated parents and crime
  • Digital Storytelling as a Crime Prevention Initiative for High-Risk Communities

Related: Interesting research paper topics.

Criminal Justice Research Topics (Crime and Communities)

  • Civilian review boards
  • Gang identities
  • Prison architecture and construction
  • Community policing and crime
  • Policing protest
  • Criminalizing activism and protest
  • Juvenile justice
  • Criminalization and disaster
  • Reentry of prisoners
  • The families of prisoners
  • Forensics and investigations
  • Parole and probation and crime
  • Child protection services
  • Legalization of sex work would decrease the number of violent sexual crimes
  • Selection of jury
  • Women in prison
  • Criminalization of the youth of color
  • Censorship and surveillance
  • Racial discrimination among prisoners
  • Racial discrimination during arrests
  • Discrimination during the negotiation process
  • Immigrants and rates of crime and incarceration
  • The profile of famous American prisoners
  • Rap music and the connection between crime and gangs
  • Restorative justice processes and procedures
  • Child abduction cases
  • Social control theory
  • Crime control theories
  • Victimization theories
  • Social learning methods
  • Transitional justice
  • Methods of interrogations
  • Attorney honesty and the rule of law
  • White-collar crime
  • Nigerian Nationals and Online Fraud
  • Mandatory sentencing
  • Jury nullification
  • Wrongful convictions
  • DUI policies
  • Identity theft and digital media
  • Legacy of Rodney King
  • Forensic processing of crime scenes
  • Overcriminalization and decriminalization in the USA
  • Planted evidence
  • Men's rea and Actus rea
  • Intellectual property laws
  • Preventing football hooliganism
  • False confessions
  • Explain why both communications and decision-making are important within law enforcement organizations.

More Criminology and Criminal Justice Research Topics and Ideas

Below are some of the most exciting and good topics for your criminal justice paper. We have also included some questions that can give you topic ideas for your papers.

  • The school-prison pipeline
  • The challenges of the prison system
  • Sustaining prison populations
  • Key principles of crime prevention
  • Use of criminalistics to narrow down to specific crime suspects
  • Role of interprofessional collaboration in corruption and fraud investigation
  • Steps of investigating a crime scene
  • Role of secondary crime scenes in corroborating witness accounts
  • Legal perspectives of cybercrime
  • Revenge leaks, trolling, and defamation as serious internet crimes
  • Internet vigilantism
  • Long-term effects of school suspensions on adult crime
  • Impacts of domestic violence on crime
  • Role of mass media in fighting crime
  • Problem-Oriented Policing vs. Community Oriented Policing
  • Understanding criminal behavior through Differential Association Theory
  • The perspective of Foucault and Becker on Crime and Punishment
  • Governmentality and the problem of crime
  • Governmentalization of the State and Criminal Law
  • Legal and Social perspectives of crime commission
  • Recent innovations in experimental criminology
  • Benefits and challenges of sex offender registry
  • The process of jury selection
  • Zero-tolerance policies and the school to prison pipeline
  • Role of probability and statistics in criminology
  • Sexual assault in schools and workplaces
  • Sexual predation among the clergy
  • Are the theory of rational choice and deterrence theory relevant today?
  • Understanding crime of passion
  • Main components of the criminal justice system
  • Preventing wildlife crime
  • Role of forensic science in wildlife crimes
  • Understanding felony disenfranchisement laws
  • Prison violence and rape
  • Link between substance abuse and crime
  • Mertons Anomie theory in explaining crime
  • Identity theft in the digital age
  • How online predators identify their victims
  • Role and functions of forensic science in the modern criminal justice system
  • Terrorism in perspective: control, characteristics, and causes
  • Types of serial killers
  • Building an offender profile
  • Alternative sentencing for juveniles
  • Types of punishments in criminal justice system
  • Information sharing technology and collaboration in fight against terrorism
  • Role of national security bodies
  • Role of technology in modern forensics
  • Problems that law enforcement solves today
  • Understanding similarities and differences: manslaughter, murder, and homicide
  • Effects of gun control strategies in America
  • Role of the president in the criminal justice system
  • Classifying the type of offenders
  • Crime mapping in the contemporary world
  • Rights and privileges of rape victims
  • Three-strike rule and mandatory sentencing
  • How hate crime develops
  • Challenges of street gangs
  • Modus operandi of youth gangs
  • How fieldwork is done in criminology
  • The place of distributive justice in criminal justice
  • The effectiveness of three-strike laws
  • Problem-solving courts: structure, operations, and functions
  • Abolition of capital punishment
  • Link between religion and crime
  • How to prevent campus crime
  • Criminal trial process
  • Role of code of ethics for criminal justice departments
  • Florida and Maryland legislative frameworks
  • Role of code of ethics for Texas department of criminal justice
  • Copyright and discoveries of researchers
  • Role of intellectual property rights in preventing fraud in the scientific field
  • How prosecution laws are applied
  • Cyberstalking and cyberbullying: Role of parents and teachers
  • Detecting and preventing forgery cases in educational institutions, government agencies, and workplaces
  • How drug courts operate
  • Classification of crime systems
  • Countries with the best criminal justice systems
  • Countries with the lowest crime rates
  • Role of expert witnesses in criminal trials
  • Is pornography a form of sexual violence?
  • Criminal codes in various states for concealed weapons
  • Correlation between race and crime
  • Role of racial discrimination in criminal justice
  • Registry of sexual offenders should be made public
  • Helicopter parenting and juvenile delinquency
  • Employees should be checked for a criminal background
  • Should and employee be informed about their background checks?
  • Drug testing when employing law enforcement officers
  • Immigrant children and delinquency
  • Can restrictive housing help decongest prisons?
  • How to combat homegrown crimes
  • Effectiveness of predictive policing
  • Is selective incapacitation an effective crime management policy?
  • Role of social class in crime
  • Can death penalty deter crime?
  • Is extradition law fair?
  • Devious interrogation: are they valid?
  • Effectiveness of the REID interrogation technique
  • The effectiveness of the PEACE interrogation technique
  • Kinesic interview and terrorist suspects
  • Supermax prisons
  • Pros and cons of decriminalization of marijuana
  • Legalization of marijuana in the United States
  • How crime thrives in Mexico and columbia
  • Link between prostitution and community policing
  • Use of predictive policing to fight and prevent crime
  • Link between housing and crime
  • Can neighbourhood influence criminal behavior?
  • Is having youthful offenders in boot camps an effective strategy?
  • Understanding the motivations of Jack, the Reaper
  • Is the modern criminal justice racist?
  • Reliability of eyewitness testimony
  • Methods to combat international drug trafficking rings
  • Crime commission during emergencies
  • Gender disparity in the criminal justice system
  • Impacts of solitary confinement
  • The efficacy of the drug courts
  • Impacts of prison to children of the incarcerated parents
  • Relationship between people and the police in America
  • Understanding the challenges of the elderly in prison
  • Strategies for truth and reconciliation
  • Transnational crime: motivations and prevention
  • Role of international cooperation in criminal justice
  • Globalization and trends in crime
  • The theology of crime, punishment, and redemption
  • Therapeutic jurisprudence
  • Role of the religious authorities and the clergy in fighting crime
  • Cults, religious extremism, and crime
  • Role and impacts of NGOs in crime prevention
  • Community crime prevention strategies
  • Effective community policing strategies
  • Causes of urban insecurity
  • Professionalization of criminal justice
  • Fear of crime and crime
  • Restorative justice: what is it?
  • Victim assistance
  • Media construction of criminals and crime
  • Indigenous justice: is it effective?
  • Trafficking in protected species
  • How organized criminals operate
  • Elderly victimization
  • Understanding property crime
  • Profiling sex crimes
  • Gangs and organized crimes
  • Detecting environmental crimes
  • Role of crime and Terrorism in National & International Decisions & Interventions
  • Citation and content analysis in criminology
  • Edge ethnography in criminology studies
  • DAWN and ADAM programs
  • Wrongful convictions in the USA
  • Exploring careers in Forensic Science or Criminology
  • Role of crime scene investigations

Criminology Research topics and Ideas

  • History of criminology
  • Legal and social perspectives of crime commission
  • Public policies and criminology
  • Criminology is a social science
  • The link between crime and age
  • The link between criminal behavior and immigrant status
  • Ownership of firearms and law violations
  • Exerted aggression and chances of crime commission
  • Impacts of educational level on white-collar crime
  • Is football hooliganism a crime?
  • Social status and crime
  • Citizenship and crime
  • Why so many homeless people commit crimes
  • Sources of violence in society
  • The link between mental health and law violation
  • Is marijuana to blame for criminal behavior
  • Budget management in criminal justice organizations
  • Hiring and training officers
  • Affirmative action policies in criminal justice agencies
  • Diversity in policing/criminal justice organizations
  • Management and labor union relations in criminal justice organizations
  • Promotion in criminal justice organizations
  • Officer and staff recruitment
  • Internal investigations in criminal justice organizations
  • Impact of excessive use of force on criminal justice organizations
  • Diversity in criminal justice organizations
  • Usage of less-than-lethal force in law enforcement
  • Use of undercover officers
  • Gender issues in criminal justice management (hiring, promotion, discrimination, etc.)
  • Impact of Homeland Security and federal funding on state and local criminal justice organizations
  • Retirement age in criminal justice agencies
  • Staffing issues in prisons
  • Prison overcrowding and its impact on staffing
  • Educational opportunities for criminal justice personnel
  • Understaffing of juvenile system and its impact on children
  • Usage of alternatives to incarceration
  • Workplace stress in criminal justice organizations
  • Use of conductive energy devices by police
  • The problem with rank in criminal justice organizations

Criminology Topic Ideas based on Criminology Theories

  • Using theoretical integration to explain crime
  • Social learning theory and criminal behavior
  • How the structures within society pressure citizens to commit a crime
  • Impacts of social media policing on crime
  • The social construction of crime
  • Neighborhood ecological characteristics correspond with crime rates
  • Criminal behavior as a social response
  • Wrongful convictions and racism in law enforcement
  • How life events can affect the criminal behavior of individuals
  • Understanding criminal behavior from the psychological perspective
  • Using routine activities theory to explain the propensity to commit a crime
  • Dominant crime theories exclude women
  • Criminal behavior can be influenced through social interactions
  • Vandalism of public infrastructure: Causes, consequences, and remedies
  • Corruption in sports: The role of law enforcement
  • Impacts of mass violence on society
  • Victimization of vulnerable populations
  • Biological and classic theories of crime
  • Labeling and symbolic interaction theories
  • Social control theory and crime�
  • Strain theories and crime
  • Psychological theories of crime
  • Life-course criminology
  • Classical criminology theories
  • Cultural transmission theory and criminal behavior
  • Feminist criminology
  • Convict criminology
  • Critical criminology
  • Rational choice theory and deterrence
  • Crime classification systems

Topic Ideas based on Types of Crime

  • Causes and consequences of property crimes
  • Public order crimes
  • Blue-collar crimes
  • White-collar crimes in the corporate world
  • Transnational organized crimes
  • High tech crimes in the digital era
  • How the internet facilitates human and drug trafficking
  • Hubs for human trafficking
  • Human trafficking in China and India
  • Causes and consequences of robbery with violence
  • Causes and consequences of sex tourism
  • Identifying and shielding terrorism

We are hopeful that with these criminal justice research topic ideas, you will come up with the best criminal justice research paper topic. Our professional writers created the list through an internal topic suggestion contest.

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158 Criminology Essay Topics

🏆 best essay topics on criminology, 👍 good criminology research topics & essay examples, 🌶️ hot criminology ideas to write about, 🎓 most interesting criminology research titles, 💡 simple criminology essay ideas, ❓ criminology research questions.

  • Criminology Discipline and Theories The discipline of criminology helps to understand why individuals commit particular crimes. This essay will examine routine activities theory and situation choice theory and their relation to crime.
  • The American Psychological Association: Forensic Field Forensic psychologists are commonly invited to provide expert consultation and share their observations that might be useful to the judicial system.
  • Experimental Psychology and Forensic Psychology Psychology is a powerful field of study aimed at addressing a wide range of human problems. The field can be divided into two specialties. These include experimental and forensic psychology.
  • Forensic Psychology: Important Issues Forensic psychologists consider that task of determining insanity extremely difficult. There is a difference between insanity as a psychological condition and a legal concept.
  • Chapter 8 of “Criminology Today” by F. Schmalleger According to social process theories, criminal behavior that an individual acquires remains lifelong because it is strengthened by the same social issues that have caused it.
  • Chapter 9 of “Criminology Today” by Schmalleger According to the conflict perspective, conflicts can never be resolved since they are essential in social life. Social order rests on law, which is controlled by the powerful.
  • Frank Hagan’s Textbook “Introduction to Criminology” Throughout the chapters, Frank Hagan deliberately made reference to positivism criminological theory as such, which was largely discredited.

  • Criminology Today by Frank Schmalleger This paper discusses the first chapter from the book Criminology Today by Schmalleger that tells about the basic topics and defines the basic term.
  • Linguistics and Law: Forensic Letters This paper review articles The Multi-Genre Analysis of Barrister’s Opinion by Hafner and Professional Citation Practices in Child Maltreatment Forensic Letters by Schryer et al.
  • Chapter 10 of “Criminological Theory” by Lilly et al. This paper elaborates on the problem of feminism and criminology. The paper addresses chapter 10 of the book “Criminological Theory” by Lilly et al. as the source material.
  • “Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences”: Evaluation The criminal law system works in such a way that all offenses are stopped, and corresponding penalties provided by the law are implemented.
  • “Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences” the Book by Lilly, J., Cullen, F., & Ball, R. Criminological Theory addresses not only the evolving and expanding topic of trends in criminological thought but also tries to achieve a level of explanation.
  • Classical and Positivist Schools of Criminology General and specific deterrence use the threat of negative consequences for illegal acts to reduce crime rates.
  • Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences The theory of social control seems logical and valid despite controversies and the diversity of theoretical approaches to the reasons of crime.
  • Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. The Notion of Criminality and Crime The exploration of the notion of criminality and crime is essential for the prevention and management thereof.
  • How the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights Were Influenced by the Classical School of Criminology? In the United States Constitution and bill of rights, many of the fundamental rights used by the citizens originate from classical criminology.
  • Criminology as a Science: Cause and Effect Criminology is a study of the nature and degree of the problem of crime in society. For years criminologists have been trying to unravel criminal behavior.
  • Criminological Theories Assessment and Personal Criminological Theory This essay aims to briefly cover the various criminological theories in vogue and offer the author’s own assessment as to which theory deserves greater credibility.
  • Criminology: Femininity and the Upsurge of Ladettes In recent years, women in highly industrialized countries are drinking more and behaving more badly than men. These women are called ladettes.
  • Criminology and Victimology: Victim Stereotypes in Criminal Justice The paper shall look at this matter in relation to female perpetrated violence as well as male experiences of sexual violence and racial minority victims.
  • Correlational Design in Forensic Psychology Correlational designs are actively used in forensic psychology research in order to determine the meaningful relations between different types of variables.
  • Forensic Psychology in the Correctional Subspecialty Psychological professionals have the role of ensuring that the released convicts have gathered enough knowledge and understanding for them to fit in the society.
  • Legal Insanity in Criminology In America, defendants are said to be legally insane if they suffer from cognitive disorder or lack the capabilities to abstain from criminal behaviors.
  • Statistical Significance and Effect Size in Forensic Psychology Nee and Farman evaluated the effectiveness of using dialectical behavior therapy for treating borderline personality disorder in the UK female prisons.
  • Violence Potential Assessment in Forensic Psychiatric Institutions This paper aims to discuss the ways of predicting violence in forensic psychiatric institutions while focusing on the review of the recent research in the field.
  • Forensic Psychology: Subspecialties and Roles Of my specific interests have been basically two subspecialties of forensic psychology. These include correctional psychology as well as police psychology.
  • Forensic Psychology: Graham v. Florida and Sullivan v. Florida The question in the two cases Graham v. Florida and Sullivan v. Florida was juvenile sentencing. The offenders claimed their life prison sentences for rape and robbery.
  • The Role of Forensic Psychology in the Investigation Confidentiality is an essential feature of a therapeutic bond. Forensic psychologists are bound by a code of ethics to safeguard clients’ information.
  • Labeling Theory and Critical Criminology: Sociological Research Sociologists are researching offense and deviance to gain more knowledge about the motivations and attitudes of people involved applying theories of criminology based on sociology.
  • Juvenile Forensic Psychology: Contemporary Concern The present juvenile forensic psychology system has many pitfalls that have compromised the wellbeing and development of the young offenders admitted within these institutions.
  • Forensic Psychology Practice Standards for Inmates It is vital for the inmates to have frequent access to psychological assessments because the majority of the inmates end up with psychological problems.
  • Criminology: The Social Control Theory For criminologists, the social control theory means that an effective approach to reducing crime might be to change not individuals but their social contexts.
  • Feminism and Criminology in the Modern Justice System Feminist research is a promising method for studying the psychography of crime, motivation, and the introduction of women’s experience in the field of forensic science.
  • Criminology: Four Types of Evidence There are basically four types of evidence. Every piece of evidence should be analyzed several times throughout the actual investigation by following all the required steps.
  • Postmodern Criminology: The Violence of the Language According to Arrigo (2019), postmodern criminology recognizes the specific value of language as a non-neutral, politically charged instrument of communication.
  • Contemporary Theories in Criminology This paper discusses three methods of measuring crimes, Classical School of criminology and its impacts on the US criminology, and the causes of crime – individuality and society.
  • Analysis of Forensic Psychology Practice The important feature of the whole sphere of forensic psychology practice is the ability to testify in court, reformulating psychological findings into the legal language, etc
  • Criminological Conflict Theory by Sykes Sykes identified three important elements, which he used to elucidate the criminological conflict theory. Sykes highlighted the existence of profound skepticism towards any theory.
  • Green Criminology: Environmental Harm in the Niger Delta This essay analyzes environmental harm in the Niger Delta, Nigeria using the Green Criminological analysis of victimization and offenders.
  • Three Case Briefs in Criminology This paper gives three case briefs in criminology. Cases are “Macomber v. Dillman Case”, “Isbell v. Brighton Area Schools Case”, and “Wilen v. Falkenstein Case”.
  • The Due Process: Criminology The due process clause has been a very essential clause to the ordinary citizens since it is a means of assurance that every freeman has the freedom to enjoy his rights.
  • Criminology: About Corporate Fraud This article focuses on fraud: professional fraud and its types, accounting fraud, and conflicts of interest are considered.
  • Criminology: USA Patriot Act Overview The Act strengthens and gives more authority to the federal agencies over individual privacy and secrecy of information.
  • Criminological Theory: Crime Theories and Criminal Behavior Criminal behavior is a type of behavior of a person who commits a crime. It is interesting to know what drives people to commit crimes and how to control these intentions.
  • The Rise of Criminological Conflict Theory Three key factors that explain the emergence of conflict theory are the influence of the Vietnam War, the rise of the counterculture, and anti-discrimination movements.
  • Forensic Psychology and Criminal Profiling The paper seeks to explore insight into the nature of criminal investigative psychology and a comprehensive evaluation of the practice in solving crime.
  • Forensic Science: Psychological Analysis Human behavior can be evaluated by studying the functioning of the human mind. This is important information in crime profiling among other operations in forensic psychology.
  • Extinction Rebellion: A Criminological Assessment The paper aims at exploring whether Extinction Rebellion protestors are criminals using the narrative criminology framework, transgression theory, and green criminology theory.
  • Are Marxist Criminologists Right to See Crime Control as Class Control? Marxist criminology is comparable to functionalist theories, which lay emphasis on the production of continuity and stability in any society.
  • Criminology: The Aboriginal Crisis The aboriginal people have been living under confinement, in the reserves for a long time. These laws are still under a lot of legal constraints.
  • Integrity as a Key Value: Criminology and War Integrity is included in the list of the LEADERSHIP values, which exist to direct military servicemembers toward appropriate conduct.
  • Theories That Explain Criminal Activities and Criminology Academicians have come up with theories that explain why people engage in crime. The theories are classified which may be psychological, biological, or sociological.
  • Marxist Criminological Paradigm The essence of the Marxist criminological paradigm consists of overthrowing the bourgeoisie, as a ruling class, and establishing the so-called dictatorship of the proletariat.
  • Sexual Assault: Criminology This paper discusses an act of sexual assault. The paper gives the definition of rape, social, personal, and psychosocial factors.
  • Broken Window Theory In Criminology In criminology, the broken window theory is often used to describe how bringing order into society can help to reduce crime.
  • Overview of the Theories of Criminology Criminology refers to a body that focuses on crime as a social phenomenon. Criminologists adopt several behavioral and social sciences and methods of understanding crime.
  • Forensic Science: Killing of JonBenet Ramsey Forensic science uses chemistry to make an analysis of poisons and drugs, physics to carry out investigations on accidents and biology to conduct DNA profiling.
  • Use of Statistics in Criminal Justice and Criminology The paper discusses statistics in criminal justice and criminology. It is an organized collection of information about social processes and aspects.
  • Robert Merton’s Strain Theory in Criminology Robert Merton’s strain theory explains the link between crime and adverse social conditions and how the former may be precipitated by the latter.
  • “Introduction to Criminology” Book by Hagan In “Introduction to criminology”, Hagan explains survey research and uses it to investigate essential questions that the criminal justice system faces.
  • Hernando Washington Case. Criminology The history of humanity has seen multiple cases of extreme violence, and such instances can hardly ever be justified by any factors.
  • The Use of Statistics in Criminal Justice and Criminology This paper discusses small-sample confidence intervals for means and confidence intervals with proportions and percentages in criminal justice and criminology.
  • Feminist Perspectives’ Contribution to Criminology The principles of gender inclusivity, equality, and cultural implications bear fundamental roles in the development of criminology perspectives.
  • Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice Dispersion is important as it is not enough to merely know the measures of central tendency to make assumptions about a distribution.
  • Variance Analysis in Criminal Justice and Criminology The paper states that there are several limitations associated with the ANOVA technique. It may be not suitable against a specific hypothesis.
  • Criminology: The Peace-Making Model The purpose of this article is to consider the peacekeeping model in criminology as an alternative to the criminal justice system to solve the problem of a growing crime rate.
  • Chapter 7 of Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice Chapter 7 of Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice analyzes populations, sampling distributions, and the sample related to criminal-justice statistics and criminology.
  • Ethical Issues in Forensic Psychology Psychologists face many moral dilemmas in law due to the field’s nature because they are responsible for deciding people’s fates, which puts pressure on them.
  • Researching Environmental Criminology Environmental criminology is the study of crime and criminality in connection with specific places and with how individuals and organizations form their activities in space.
  • Criminological Theories on Community-Based Rehabilitation This research study seeks to enhance the collection of integral analysis of human behavior and legal framework that boosts the quality of information for rehabilitation.
  • Theories of Crime in Forensic Psychology Forensic psychology as a discipline has become closely correlated with the broad theories of crime that aim at defining the reasons behind the offender’s decision to act.
  • Forensic Psychology and Its Essential Feature in the Modern World The essay defines the origins of forensic psychology, analyzes its role in various fields and spheres, and identifies its essential feature in the modern world.
  • Stabbing Cases in London in Relation to Durkheim’s Criminological Theory The two main questions about criminal and deviant acts are what constitutes such an act and whether it should be punished.
  • Criminology: Legal Rights Afforded to the Accused The essay discusses the police actions of arrest and the main features of the arrangement process. The case of John Doe shows criminal procedure specifics.
  • Researching of Emerging Technologies in Criminology This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of computer technology for crime investigation and law enforcement and concludes that the former outweighs the latter.
  • Criminology and Impact of Automation Technology The sole objective of this study is to determine to what extent automation is embraced by law agencies and authorities to solve crimes with a faster and more accurate technique.
  • Incorporating Criminological Theories Into Policymaking Criminological theories, primarily behavioral and social learning, are pivotal to the policymaking process. They provide insights into certain situations.
  • Full-Service Crime Laboratory: Forensic Science Forensic scientists study and analyze evidence from crime scenes and other locations to produce objective results that can aid in the investigation and prosecution of criminals.
  • Transnational Crime and Global Criminology: Definitional, Typological, and Contextual Conundrums
  • Rational Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology
  • Comparing Cultures and Crime: Challenges, Prospects, and Problems for a Global Criminology
  • The Distinction Between Conflict and Radical Criminology
  • How the Study of Political Extremism Has Reshaped Criminology
  • Contribution of Positivist Criminology to the Understanding of the Causes of Crime
  • Overcoming the Neglect of Social Process in Cross‐National and Comparative Criminology
  • The Development of Criminology: From Traditional to Contemporary Views on Crime and Its Causation
  • Racism, Ethnicity, and Criminology: Developing Minority Perspectives
  • Activist Criminology: Criminologists’ Responsibility to Advocate for Social and Legal Justice
  • The Challenges of Doing Criminology in the Big Data Era: Towards a Digital and Data-Driven Approach
  • Radical Criminology and Marxism: A Fallible Relationship
  • Ontological Shift in Classical Criminology: Engagement With the New Sciences
  • Hot Spots of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities and the Criminology of Place
  • The Criminology of Genocide: The Death and Rape of Darfur
  • Future Applications of Big Data in Environmental Criminology
  • Overcoming the Crisis in Critical Criminology: Toward a Grounded Labeling Theory
  • Toward an Analytical Criminology: The Micro-Macro Problem, Causal Mechanisms, and Public Policy
  • The Utility of the Deviant Case in the Development of Criminological Theory
  • In Search of a Critical Mass: Do Black Lives Matter in Criminology?
  • Crime and Criminology in the Eye of the Novelist: Trends in the 19th Century Literature
  • Income Inequality and Homicide Rates: Cross-National Data and Criminological Theories
  • Women & Crime: The Failure of Traditional Theories and the Rise of Feminist Criminology
  • Criminology Studies: How Fear of Crime Affects Punitive Attitudes
  • Recent Developments in Criminological Theory: Toward Disciplinary Diversity and Theoretical Integration
  • Critical Criminology: The Critique of Domination, Inequality, and Injustice
  • Anti-racism in Criminology: An Oxymoron?
  • Heredity or Milieu: The Foundations of Modern European Criminological Theory
  • Classical and Contemporary Criminological Theory in Understanding Young People’s Drug Use
  • Theories of Action in Criminology: Learning Theory and Rational Choice Approaches
  • Criminalization or Instrumentalism: New Trends in the Field of Border Criminology
  • Eco-Justice and the Moral Fissures of Green Criminology
  • The Impact of Criminological Theory on Community Corrections Practice
  • Feminism and Critical Criminology: Confronting Genealogies
  • Learning From Criminals: Active Offender Research for Criminology
  • Offending Patterns in Developmental and Life-Course Criminology
  • Big Data and Criminology From an AI Perspective
  • Psychological and Criminological Factors Associated With Desistance From Violence
  • Connecting Criminology and Sociology of Health & Illness
  • Assessment of the Current Status and Future Directions in Criminology
  • Using Basic Neurobiological Measures in Criminological Research
  • Green Criminology: Capitalism, Green Crime & Justice, and Environmental Destruction
  • The Foundation and Re‐Emergence of Classical Thought in Criminological Theory
  • Conservation Criminology, Environmental Crime, and Risk: An Application to Climate Change
  • Feminist and Queer Criminology: A Vital Place for Theorizing LGBTQ Youth
  • Criminological Fiction: What Is It Good For?
  • Investigating the Applicability of Macro-Level Criminology Theory to Terrorism
  • Criminological Theory in Understanding of Cybercrime Offending and Victimization
  • The Nurture Versus Biosocial Debate in Criminology
  • Developmental Theories and Criminometric Methods in Modern Criminology
  • How Does Criminology Cooperate With Other Disciplines to Solve Crimes?
  • Is Criminology a Social or Behavioral Science?
  • How Does the Study of Criminology Relate to the Detection or Deterrence of Fraud?
  • What Are the Types of Norms in Criminology?
  • How Do Criminology Schools Differ?
  • What Is Criminological Research?
  • How Important Is the Role of Punishment in Neoclassical Criminology?
  • What Is the Life Course Theory of Criminology?
  • Who Is the Father of Modern Criminology?
  • What Did Early Criminology Focus On?
  • What Is the Difference Between Classical and Positivist Schools of Criminology?
  • Why Is Personal Identification Necessary for Criminology?
  • What Is the Difference Between Criminology and Applied Criminology?
  • What Is Evidence-Based Criminology?
  • Are Criminology and Criminal Justice the Same?
  • Who Rejected the Doctrine of Free Will in Criminology?
  • What Are the Fundamental Propositions of Feminist Criminology?
  • Is There a Difference Between Criminology and Victimology?
  • What Is the Bell Curve in Criminology?
  • Why Do People Commit Crimes, According to Criminology?
  • What Is the Difference Between Criminology and Criminal Psychology?
  • What Is Contemporary Criminology?
  • How Do Criminological Theories Relate to White Collar Crime?
  • What Are the Main Features and Concepts of Classical Criminology?
  • What Is the Positivist School of Criminology?
  • Who Are the Forerunners of Classical Thought in Criminology?
  • What Role Does Attachment Theory Play in Criminology?
  • Why Do Sociological Criminology Theories Help With Our Understanding of Crimes?
  • How Is Victimization Used in Criminology?
  • What Is Albert Cohen’s Theory of Subculture Formation in Criminology?
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TOP-5 Criminology Research Topics

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60+ Criminal Justice Research Topics 2023

research paper topics related to criminology

Criminal Justice Research Paper: Definition

Whether you've been assigned crime research topics by your professor or you simply enjoy exploring exciting topics in criminology, we guarantee you'll read through this article in one fell swoop. Not only will you find out some intriguing criminal justice research topics, but you will also learn the meaning behind the criminal justice system, the purpose of writing about the concept, and, finally, learn some tricks and tips for creating such a paper.

First, let's ease your understanding of criminal justice which primarily attempts to ensure the peaceful coexistence of the civil population through law regulations and judicial studies. Basically, criminal justice is often thought of as a discipline that teaches people how to stop, examine, and evaluate criminal behavior. With this in mind, most college students studying criminal law and justice have to deal with a pile of assignments on criminal cases.

Our expert essay writers suggest that you may be required to study specific situations or even provide your own solutions for a criminology research paper. Additionally, your writing should be based on applicable laws to back up your claims. So, the process of writing a criminal justice research paper usually involves a thorough understanding of the selected problem.

With that said, let's move to our next point, clarifying the purpose of writing about criminal justice issues and finding out more together!

Purpose of Writing Criminal Justice Topics

You might be asking yourself - 'why should I write about criminal justice topics?'; and that's a fair point. Out of myriads of research paper topics, especially if you're not studying law or civil and criminal cases, what's the purpose of conducting criminal investigations? Well, we've got some valid points in response to your inquiry below.

Why Write about Criminal Justice

  • It's fun and interesting - Criminal justice is an ever-changing discipline with many fascinating areas to research. During the writing process, you get to come across some interesting cases. For example, you can identify the correlation between mental health and violent activities, research crime prevention methods, examine how the international criminal court has helped reduce crimes globally, etc. Such topics are enjoyable to write about since you are prompted to use your imagination and come up with answers.
  • You get to explore and solve a mystery - There are several unresolved issues in criminal justice. When you write a research paper, you get to unravel these puzzles. Put another way, you want to address questions that you and others, including law enforcement, have about various topics. ‍
  • It reveals your deeper intelligence - You create research papers to inform the rest of the world about what you've uncovered about a criminal justice topic. While doing so, it promotes critical and creative thinking. So, you're encouraged to think out of the box and unleash your true intelligence. For example, you may need to communicate your opinions and comments with important lawmakers on the problem of the death sentence or child abuse to help them in their decision-making process. So, writing on criminology topics is a great way to show others how intelligent you really are.

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How to Write Criminal Justice Thesis Papers?

It takes careful consideration of several factors to transform your brainstormed collection of notes into a finished research paper. Even though not every criminology topic is the same, the writing structure more or less follows similar techniques. So here we prepared a few key aspects to remember while crafting your criminology topics for research:

Criminal Justice

  • Select a Criminal Justice Topic

First things first, the universal answer to your question - ' how to start a research paper ?' is this: you must carefully select a research topic. Given our limited scope and discipline, picking the criminal justice research paper topics becomes even more vital. Your research goal is to find an issue, analyze it, and provide solutions. This suggests that your topic must be related to your study objectives. Also, while choosing a topic, don't set any restrictions. Create a classification system for your research question that will enable you to group it into a wider range of subtopics.

  • Explore Existing Theories on Criminology Topics

Like any social science conception, criminal justice theories offer helpful resources for explaining social processes and human behavior. Moreover, they provide crucial insights that influence real-world applications and guide policy. However, in terms of the origins and effects of crime and criminal conduct, criminal justice comprises a number of unique theoretical interpretations. So, get familiar with different existing theories for carefully developing your research topics criminology.

  • Conduct Research on Criminal Justice Topics

While exploring your criminal justice topic for research paper, you'll probably combine primary and secondary sources. Books, journals, periodicals, news pieces, and interviews are a few examples. Make sure you only choose those that are reliable and knowledgeable. In contrast to essays or term papers, a research paper needs concrete proof. You must be aware that your viewpoint will only be considered relevant if it is backed up by evidence.

  • Organize Research Findings on Criminology Topics

Your task is not complete until you have arranged and structured the results in your article. Then, you may choose to revise your criminal justice paper topics or conduct more research to obtain proof that validates your stance, depending on what you believe to be appropriate. Additionally, you will need to assess the data you have gathered to see if it supports your theory.

  • Develop Your Criminal Justice Research Paper

After completing the steps above for your criminal justice research paper, you are now prepared to combine the research findings and thoughtful evaluation in your first draft. Develop your criminology paper topics using the facts and justifications presented by academics in earlier research. Never fail to give due credit to all sources from which you have drawn inspiration. And always remember to use a correct citation format for research paper by following the accepted guidelines.

Criminal Justice Paper Outline

Let's briefly explain the criminal justice paper outline for you to stay on the right writing track:

  • The Introduction - After defining criminology research topics, the introduction is the very first section. It covers the broad context of the issue, the research question, objectives, the study's aim, and the thesis statement.
  • The Body - The main body is the most important part of your paper as it combines your critical examination and discussion on the topics for criminal justice paper. You must summarize and explain the results of several prior empirical research in the literature review section. Try to demonstrate how academics debate and counter-dispute the research problem. The techniques for data collecting and the participants in the research design are described in the methodology section. The results of your study are included in the findings sections. Be sure to mention any findings you made from both primary sources and the literature review. Finally, the discussion covers an analysis of the findings as well as their implications.
  • The conclusion - Along with the conclusion, incorporate a recommendation section that reviews the study problem and the thesis statement and highlights the findings before suggesting the next step.

Topics for Criminal Justice Paper

After going through the fundamentals of drafting a solid paper, let's explore some fascinating criminal justice topics for research paper. The list prepared by our coursework writing service is limitless, and we promise you'll find inspiration for your upcoming writing assignment right off the bat.

List of Criminology Research Topics

Let's start with the general research topics in criminology that sparks instant interest in your reader's mind:

  • Investigating and evaluating crime theories
  • How IQ influences crime rates
  • Does the death penalty prevent crime?
  • American police brutality
  • Cyberstalking and cyberbullying: how technology may act as a mediator
  • The relationship between terrorism and organized crime
  • When does exercising professional judgment go beyond the bounds of ethics?
  • Effects of drunk driving on growing accident rates
  • The significance of identifying stalking characteristics
  • Techniques for lowering economic crimes
  • Gender prejudice in investigations
  • Procedures for detaining children
  • The difficulties with the jail system
  • Important guidelines for preventing crime
  • Investigation procedures at crime scenes
  • Long-term implications of school suspensions on adult crime
  • Crime effects of domestic violence
  • The function of media in preventing crime
  • New developments in experimental criminology
  • Wildlife crimes and the role of forensic science

List of Realistic Crime Research Topics

Continuing with our criminological research topics, here you'll find some more realistic research topics for criminology that are relatable to current global issues in our society.

  • Why are homeless people's crime rates high?
  • Social standing and criminal activity
  • History of criminology
  • The relationship between criminal conduct and immigration status
  • The connection between age and criminality
  • Crimes against humanity
  • International laws and cross-border crimes
  • Human rights abuse during armed conflict
  • The connection between mental illness and criminal behavior
  • Global efforts to combat corruption and socio economic crimes

List of Basic Criminal Justice Topics

Moving on, here is a list of basic criminal justice topics. Consider how much information there is about the pertinent issue. In any case, it is entirely up to you to select your study topics in criminal justice. Therefore, look for the most recent materials and analyze them thoroughly.

  • Abduction and ransom: recurring traits, motifs, and behaviors
  • Media coverage of crime and justice
  • How is jury selection carried out?
  • The function of forensic science in contemporary criminal justice
  • Who is eligible for the witness protection program, and how may they be protected?
  • Identity theft in the current world: risks and repercussions
  • Criminal justice ethics: the unethical aspects of law enforcement
  • The main issues that law enforcement must address today
  • Are community corrections successful?
  • Crime mapping function in contemporary criminal justice
  • Issues with poor living conditions in prisons
  • What fundamental issues are resolved by problem-solving courts?
  • What can be learned about criminal courts from their past?
  • The role of distributive justice in criminal justice
  • What happens during a criminal trial?
  • How are prosecution laws used in reality?
  • Incidents of forgery in workplaces, government agencies, and educational institutions.
  • The mechanisms for categorizing crimes
  • How are crimes committed with a religious motive punished?
  • What regulations and security measures are in place to combat campus crime?

List of Criminal Justice Topics on Racial Discrimination

Now let's get more specific with the criminal justice topics for research papers. Here we'll distinguish the prompts by racial discrimination aspects:

  • What are the drawbacks of racial profiling? Are there any advantages?
  • Using racial and ethnic profiling to target minority communities
  • How can institutional prejudice impact criminal justice?
  • How does the unfair representation of minority groups in the media impact the criminal justice system?
  • How biased is the US legal system?
  • Racism and prejudice against African-Americans
  • Conflicts of Race on College Campuses
  • History of Punishment and Slavery

List of Crime Research Topics (Crime Types)

Last but not least, look at the topics for criminal justice research paper broken down by distinct sorts of crime:

  • White-collar offenses in the workplace
  • Worldwide organized crime
  • How people and drug trafficking are made easier by the internet
  • The centers of human trafficking
  • The reasons for property crimes
  • Public order offenses
  • Blue-collar offenses
  • Indian and Chinese human trafficking
  • Violence-related robberies: causes and effects
  • Recognizing and defending against terrorism
  • High-tech crimes in the digital age

Final Thoughts on Criminal Justice Research Papers

Now that we've reached the finish, we'd like to remind you that research topics for criminal justice should always adhere to ethical standards. So do your best to be sensitive and courteous while writing, even when discussing touchy subjects.

Meanwhile, you can always buy essays online handled by a native English speaker. Our writing service is the finest if you need a custom research paper . Let us compose your piece from the beginning and make it the highest-rated paper this semester!

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Sociology Research Topics: Key Considerations and Ideas

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Criminal Justice


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Criminal justice research topics.

This collection provides overviews of   nearly 100 key criminal justice research topics comprising traditional criminology and its more modern interdisciplinary outgrowths. These topics are divided into six thematic parts:

  • Criminology
  • Correlates of Crime
  • Criminology Theories
  • Crime Research
  • Types of Crime
  • Criminal Justice System

Criminology and Criminal Justice Research Topics

Research topics in criminology:.

  • Criminology as Social Science .
  • Criminology and Public Policy .
  • History of Criminology .

Research Topics in Crime and Victimization:

  • Age and Crime .
  • Aggression and Crime .
  • Citizenship and Crime .
  • Education and Crime .
  • Employment and Crime .
  • Families and Crime .
  • Gender and Crime .
  • Guns and Crime .
  • Immigration and Crime .
  • Intelligence and Crime .
  • Mental Illness and Crime .
  • Neighborhoods and Crime .
  • Peers and Crime .
  • Race and Crime .
  • Religion and Crime .
  • Social Class and Crime .
  • Victimization .
  • Weather and Crime .

Research Topics in Criminology Theories:

  • Biological Theori es.
  • Classical Criminology .
  • Convict Criminology .
  • Criminal Justice Theories .
  • Critical Criminology .
  • Cultural Criminology .
  • Cultural Transmission Theory .
  • Deterrence and Rational Choice Theory .
  • Feminist Criminology .
  • Labeling and Symbolic Interaction Theories .
  • Life Course Criminology .
  • Psychological Theories of Crime .
  • Routine Activities Theory .
  • Self-Control Theory .
  • Social Construction of Crime .
  • Social Control Theory .
  • Social Disorganization Theory .
  • Social Learning Theory .
  • Strain Theories .
  • Theoretical Integration.

Research Topics in Criminology Research and Measurement:

  • Citation and Content Analysis .
  • Crime Classification Systems .
  • Crime Mapping .
  • Crime Reports and Statistics .
  • Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) and Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) .
  • Edge Ethnography .
  • Experimental Criminology .
  • Fieldwork in Criminology .
  • Program Evaluation .
  • Quantitative Criminology .

Research Topics in Types of Crime:

  • Campus Crime .
  • Child Abuse .
  • Cybercrime .
  • Domestic Violence .
  • Elder Abuse .
  • Environmental Crime .
  • Hate Crime .
  • Human Trafficking .
  • Identity Theft .
  • Juvenile Delinquency .
  • Organizational Crime .
  • Prostitution .
  • Sex Offenses .
  • Terrorism .
  • Theft and Shoplifting .
  • White-Collar Crime .
  • Wildlife Crime .

Research Topics in Criminal Justice System:

  • Capital Punishment .
  • Community Corrections .
  • Crime Prevention .
  • Criminal Courts .
  • Criminal Justice Ethics .
  • Criminal Law .
  • Criminal Specialization .
  • Drug Courts .
  • Drugs and the Criminal Justice System .
  • Felon Disenfranchisement .
  • Forensic Science .
  • Juvenile Court .
  • Juvenile Justice .
  • Mass Media, Crime, and Justice .
  • Offender Classification .
  • Offender Reentry .
  • Police–Community Relations .
  • Prison System .
  • Problem-Solving Courts .
  • Public Health and Criminal Justice .
  • Racial Profiling .
  • Restorative Justice .
  • Sentencing .
  • The Police .
  • Victim Services .
  • Wrongful Convictions .
  • Youth Gangs .

Because just listing suggestions for criminal justice research topics will be of limited value we have included short topical overviews and suggestions for narrowing those topics and divided them into 6 parts as in the list above. If you’re interested in some topic in the list follow the links below for more information.

Example   criminal justice research papers   on these topics have been designed to serve as sources of model papers for most criminological topics. These research papers were written by several well-known discipline figures and emerging younger scholars who provide authoritative overviews coupled with insightful discussion that will quickly familiarize researchers and students alike with fundamental and detailed information for each criminal justice topic.

This collection begins by defining the discipline of criminology and observing its historical development (Part I: Criminology ). The various social (e.g., poverty, neighborhood, and peer/family influences), personal (e.g., intelligence, mental illness), and demographic (e.g., age, race, gender, and immigration) realities that cause, confound, and mitigate crime and crime control are featured in   Part II: Correlates of Crime . The research papers in this section consider each correlate’s impact, both independently and in a broader social ecological context. The sociological origins of theoretical criminology are observed across several research papers that stress classical, environmental, and cultural influences on crime and highlight peer group, social support, and learning processes. Examination of these criminological theory research papers quickly confirms the aforementioned interdisciplinary nature of the field, with research papers presenting biological, psychological, and biosocial explanations and solutions for crime (Part III: Criminology Theories ).

Part IV: Criminology Research provides example research papers on various quantitative and qualitative designs and techniques employed in criminology research. Comparison of the purposes and application of these research methods across various criminal justice topics illustrates the role of criminologists as social scientists engaged in research enterprises wherein single studies fluctuate in focus along a pure–applied research continuum. This section also addresses the measurement of crimes with attention to major crime reporting and recording systems.

Having established a theoretical–methodological symmetry as the scientific foundation of criminology, and increasingly the field of criminal justice,   Part V: Types of Crime   considers a wide range of criminal offenses. Each research paper in this section thoroughly defines its focal offense and considers the related theories that frame practices and policies used to address various leading violent, property, and morality crimes. These research papers also present and critically evaluate the varying level of empirical evidence, that is, research confirmation, for competing theoretical explanations and criminal justice system response alternatives that are conventionally identified as best practices.

Ostensibly, an accurate and thorough social science knowledge base stands to render social betterment in terms of reduced crime and victimization through the development of research–based practices. This science–practitioner relationship is featured, advocated, and critiqued in the research papers of the final section,   Part VI: Criminal Justice System . Here, the central components of criminal justice research paper topics (law enforcement, courts, and corrections) are presented from a criminology–criminal justice outlook that increasingly purports to leverage theory and research (in particular, program evaluation results) toward realizing criminal justice and related social policy objectives. Beyond the main system, several research papers consider the role and effectiveness of several popular justice system and wrap-around component initiatives (e.g., specialty courts, restorative justice, and victim services).

See also: Domestic Violence Research Topics and School Violence Research Topics .

Check 35 Best Criminology Research Topics

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Crime as a phenomenon exists throughout the existence of mankind, while the criminology as a science appeared only more than a century ago. There are many questions that humanity should answer in the nearest future. If you have lost in these variety of questions, you can take as a basis the following criminal justice research paper topics.

  • Criminal statistics and the study of crime in certain state.
  • Murders and domestic violence. Statistics.
  • Terrorism as a global threat and as an instrument of world politics.
  • Fingerprints and it’s meaning in investigation.
  • Crimes in the sphere of computer information: criminological analysis of the offender’s identity.
  • The concept and characteristics of crime among juvenile and youth.
  • Preventive activities of investigative agency in the process of detection and investigation of crimes.
  • The ethical basics of police activities in a modern society.
  • Identity of the perpetrator and the formation features of deviant behavior.
  • Criminological forecasting and planning in crime control.
  • The factors of suicide and problems of statistics.
  • Social and psychological features of juvenile delinquency.
  • Identity of criminal: concept and typology.
  • Criminality among women: characteristics and prevention.
  • Domestic crime and methods of it prevention.
  • Criminological problems preventing robbery.
  • Stages and methods of criminology research.
  • Victims and social consequences of crimes.
  • The interaction of inspector with the of investigative agency during preliminary investigation.
  • Urgent questions about crime control on the current stage.
  • Graphology and handwriting expertise.
  • The motivation of criminal behavior. Criminal subculture.
  • Characterization of crimes connected with rape.
  • Inspection tactics of the crime scene.
  • Anthropological approaches in studying a criminal.
  • Classification of criminals and it’s meaning in the process of investigation.
  • Psychopathic signs and personality traits of criminals with psychiatric abnormalities.
  • Organized crime on the example of American mafia.
  • Current problems of juvenile punishment.
  • Personality deformations of juvenile offenders. Types and causes of personality deformations.
  • Latent crime. Methods of detecting hidden crimes. Factors contributing the appearance of latent crimes.
  • Why people commit crimes. Causes of criminality.
  • Serial crimes. Jack the Ripper, Sweeney Todd and others.
  • Lust murders. Hidden mechanisms and possibilities of prevention.
  • The world practice: prevention of child pornography.
N.B. These criminology research topics  may seem easy to write, if you know the theme. But if you have troubles to write the assignment, you left too little time to research the topic and write an essay, try our  MyPaperforMe.com ! We write unique and perfect essays on any topic in a really short time. Your headache is over now, just fill in the form on this page.

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Criminology Research Paper Topics

Criminology research paper topics cover a broad range of issues related to crime and criminal behavior. As a student of criminology, it can be challenging to select a research paper topic that is both interesting and relevant to your field of study. This page from iResearchNet offers a comprehensive list of criminology research paper topics, organized into 10 categories, with expert advice on how to choose the best topic and write a successful research paper. In addition, the page highlights the writing services offered by iResearchNet, providing students with the opportunity to order a custom criminology research paper on any topic of their choice.

Criminology Research Topics Guide

Criminology is a complex and interdisciplinary field that encompasses the study of crime, criminal behavior, and the criminal justice system. Students pursuing a degree in criminology are often tasked with writing research papers on a variety of topics within this field. However, with the multitude of topics available, choosing the right one can be a daunting task.

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Criminology Research Paper Topics

Choosing the right topic is crucial to the success of any research paper. By selecting a topic that is both interesting and relevant, students can engage in a more meaningful and productive research process. In this page, we will discuss various strategies for choosing a topic, such as considering personal interests, consulting with instructors or librarians, and conducting preliminary research. We will also provide tips on how to develop a strong thesis statement and organize one’s research notes effectively. Ultimately, our goal is to equip students with the tools and resources needed to produce high-quality research papers that demonstrate a deep understanding of the field of criminology.

100 Criminology Research Paper Topics

Theoretical Perspectives in Criminology

  • Classical criminology
  • Biological theories of crime
  • Psychological theories of crime
  • Social disorganization theory
  • Strain theory
  • Labeling theory
  • Social learning theory
  • Critical criminology
  • Feminist criminology
  • Cultural criminology

Crime Types and Patterns

  • Sexual offenses
  • Drug offenses
  • Organized crime
  • White-collar crime
  • Hate crimes

Criminological Research Methods

  • Survey research
  • Experimentation
  • Case studies
  • Content analysis
  • Ethnography
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Meta-analysis
  • Secondary data analysis
  • Network analysis
  • Comparative research

Correlates of Crime

  • Poverty and economic factors
  • Race and ethnicity
  • Gender and crime
  • Family structure and dynamics
  • Education and crime
  • Employment and crime
  • Social capital and crime
  • Neighborhood factors
  • Peer influence and deviance
  • Substance abuse and addiction

Criminal Justice System

  • Police organization and management
  • Policing strategies and tactics
  • Courts and the criminal justice process
  • Sentencing and punishment
  • Corrections and rehabilitation
  • Community-based corrections
  • Probation and parole
  • Juvenile justice system
  • Mental health and the criminal justice system
  • Victimology and victim services

Crime Prevention and Control

  • Community policing
  • Crime prevention through environmental design
  • Crime prevention programs and policies
  • Situational crime prevention
  • Early intervention and prevention for youth
  • Restorative justice programs
  • Technology and crime prevention
  • Gun control policies
  • Terrorism and counterterrorism strategies
  • Human trafficking and exploitation

Criminal Justice Ethics and Professionalism

  • Police use of force and accountability
  • Police discretion and decision-making
  • Ethical dilemmas in the courtroom
  • Confidentiality and privacy in the criminal justice system
  • Bias and discrimination in the criminal justice system
  • Professionalism and integrity in corrections
  • Ethics in forensic science
  • The role of media in criminal justice ethics
  • Corruption in law enforcement
  • The ethics of punishment

Historical and Comparative Criminology

  • The history of criminal justice systems
  • Cross-cultural comparisons of crime and justice
  • Historical perspectives on punishment
  • The evolution of policing and law enforcement
  • The history of prisons and corrections
  • Colonialism and its impact on crime and justice
  • Comparative analyses of legal systems
  • Transnational crime and criminal justice cooperation
  • International criminal law
  • Globalization and crime

Special Topics in Criminology

  • Mental illness and crime
  • Immigration and crime
  • Race, crime, and social justice
  • Climate change and environmental crime
  • LGBTQ+ issues in criminology
  • Disruptive technology and crime
  • School violence and prevention
  • The impact of COVID-19 on crime and justice
  • Animal cruelty and animal rights in criminology
  • The role of religion in crime and justice

Choosing a Criminology Research Paper Topic

Choosing a research paper topic in criminology can be a daunting task, as the field encompasses a wide range of topics and perspectives. However, with careful consideration and planning, selecting a topic can become a manageable and even enjoyable process. Here are some expert tips on how to choose a criminology research paper topic:

  • Understand the assignment requirements and guidelines : Before selecting a topic, make sure you understand the specific requirements and guidelines provided by your instructor. This can include the length of the paper, the research methods required, and the formatting and citation style to be used.
  • Consider your personal interests and passions : Choosing a topic that you are personally interested in can make the research and writing process much more enjoyable and engaging. Think about your personal experiences, hobbies, or areas of expertise that could inspire a relevant and interesting topic.
  • Look for current and relevant topics in the field : Stay up-to-date with current events and trends in the field of criminology by following relevant news outlets and academic journals. This can help you identify relevant and timely topics that are of interest to both you and your audience.
  • Focus on a specific aspect or issue within a broader topic : Narrowing down a broad topic can help you focus your research and analysis, making it more manageable and effective. For example, instead of researching “crime prevention,” you could focus on a specific method or strategy, such as community policing.
  • Conduct preliminary research to ensure there is enough information available : Before committing to a topic, conduct some preliminary research to ensure there is enough information available to support your thesis statement and arguments. This can include reviewing academic journals, news articles, and other relevant sources.
  • Consult with your instructor or a librarian for topic suggestions and resources : If you’re struggling to identify a relevant and engaging topic, don’t hesitate to consult with your instructor or a librarian for suggestions and resources. They may be able to provide valuable insight and guidance that can help you find the perfect topic for your research paper.
  • Stay organized and keep track of sources and notes : As you conduct research and develop your ideas, make sure to stay organized and keep track of sources and notes. This can help you avoid plagiarism and ensure that you have all the necessary information to support your arguments and analysis.
  • Narrow down your topic and develop a thesis statement : Once you’ve identified a broad topic of interest, narrow it down and develop a clear and concise thesis statement that outlines the focus and purpose of your research paper.
  • Brainstorm and outline your paper before writing : Before diving into writing your research paper, take some time to brainstorm and outline your ideas. This can help you organize your thoughts and ensure that you’re addressing all the necessary points and arguments.
  • Revise and edit your paper multiple times before submitting : After completing your first draft, make sure to revise and edit your research paper multiple times to ensure that it’s clear, concise, and error-free. This can help you improve the quality of your work and ensure that you’re presenting your ideas in the best possible light.

Choosing a topic for your criminology research paper requires careful consideration of your personal interests, the assignment guidelines, and the available resources. Take the time to conduct thorough research, organize your notes, and develop a strong thesis statement. Remember to use clear and concise language throughout your paper and support your arguments with evidence from credible sources. If you need additional assistance, iResearchNet offers expert writing services with experienced writers who can provide customized solutions to fit your specific needs and requirements. With proper research, organization, and writing skills, you can successfully tackle any criminology research paper topic and produce high-quality work that meets your academic goals.

How to Write a Criminology Research Paper

Writing a criminology research paper can be a challenging task, but with proper preparation and attention to detail, it can be a rewarding experience. The following tips can help guide you through the process of writing a successful criminology research paper.

  • Choose a topic and develop a thesis statement : Start by selecting a topic that is of interest to you and aligns with the requirements of the assignment. Once you have a topic, develop a thesis statement that outlines the main argument or point you will be making in your paper.
  • Conduct thorough research and gather reliable sources : Use a variety of sources, including academic journals, books, and reputable online sources, to gather information about your topic. Make sure to evaluate the credibility of your sources and take detailed notes as you conduct your research.
  • Organize your notes and create an outline : Once you have gathered your research, organize your notes and create an outline that will guide your writing. This will help you stay focused and ensure that you cover all the necessary points in your paper.
  • Write an introduction that provides background information and introduces the thesis : The introduction should provide context for your paper and introduce the main argument or point you will be making.
  • Use clear and concise language throughout the paper : Make sure to write in a clear and concise manner, avoiding overly technical language and jargon.
  • Support your arguments with evidence and examples from your research : Use evidence from your research to support your arguments and provide examples that help illustrate your points.
  • Write a strong conclusion that summarizes your findings and reinforces your thesis : The conclusion should summarize the main points of your paper and reinforce the thesis statement.
  • Edit and revise your paper for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors : Make sure to thoroughly edit and revise your paper for errors in grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
  • Properly cite your sources using the appropriate citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) : Make sure to properly cite all of your sources using the appropriate citation style to avoid plagiarism and give credit to the authors of the works you have used in your research.

By following these tips, you can write a successful criminology research paper that effectively communicates your research and arguments.

iResearchNet Writing Services for Criminology Research Papers

iResearchNet is a leading provider of custom writing services for students in need of assistance with their criminology research papers. Our team of expert writers holds degrees in criminology and related fields, and are experienced in producing high-quality, original research papers tailored to your specific needs and requirements. With our writing services, you can rest assured that your paper will be written to the highest academic standards and delivered on time.

Features of our writing services include:

  • Expert degree-holding writers : Our team of writers consists of experts in the field of criminology, with advanced degrees and years of experience in writing and research.
  • Custom written works : All of our papers are written from scratch and tailored to your specific needs and requirements.
  • In-depth research : Our writers conduct thorough and comprehensive research using credible sources, ensuring that your paper is well-supported and based on the latest research in the field.
  • Custom formatting : We can format your paper in the citation style of your choice, including APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, and Harvard.
  • Top quality : Our writers are committed to producing top-quality work that meets the highest academic standards.
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Criminology offers a diverse and complex range of research paper topics that require careful consideration and planning to produce a successful paper. Students must choose a topic that is relevant, interesting, and manageable within the given assignment guidelines. Proper research, organization, and writing skills are necessary for crafting a high-quality criminology research paper that effectively addresses the chosen topic.

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Criminal Justice Research Topics: 250+ Ideas to Write About

Criminal justice research paper topics

Table of contents

If you landed on this blog, chances are you are looking for engaging criminal justice research paper topics. This intricate field is brimming with potential subjects, yet not all of them lend themselves to effective research. So, how to navigate this sea of possibilities, you would ask. Fear not, as our dedicated online essay writer team has done all the heavy lifting for you. Check out these criminal justice topics for a research paper, each providing a different perspective.

What Are Criminal Justice Research Topics?

Criminal justice is the branch of law that focuses on punishing those who break the law and preventing others from doing so. It consists of criminal and civil justice systems, which are responsible for investigating, prosecuting, and resolving legal disputes.

With this in mind, criminal justice research topics can include a wide variety of both theoretical and empirical aspects ranging from crime prevention strategies to prison reform. Some other examples of criminal justice topics include types of crime, corrections and rehabilitation, law enforcement and policing, social control theories, sentencing policies, and more.

Characteristics of Good Criminal Justice Research Paper Topics

Beginning your study without a properly selected criminal justice topic can steer you off course. For this reason, you should consider topics that satisfy the following criteria:

  • Relevance Do some research to determine if your topic is timely and relevant to the field of criminal justice.
  • Engagement You should select not only easy research paper topics for criminal justice, but also those that you find interesting.
  • Scope Make sure your topic is not too broad or narrow for the scope of your project.
  • Accessibility Ensure you can find enough reliable sources for research and support your thesis.
  • Debate Is the criminal justice topic for research papers controversial or open for discussion? This can make a paper much more meaningful.

How to Choose a Criminal Justice Research Topic?

Once you understand the criteria for great criminology topics for research, it’s time to consider potential ideas. Follow these steps to get you on the right track:

  • Understand your interests Start by identifying your interests within criminology. Reflect on the courses, lectures, or readings that sparked your curiosity.
  • Identify current issues Stay up-to-date with recent developments in the field. Read scholarly articles, news reports, and policy papers to recognize burning topics.
  • Polish Narrow down your selection by researching what’s already been completed in the field.
  • Investigate Research each of your refined topics in criminal justice to determine whether there is enough reliable data. Can you access necessary records, reports, or subjects for investigation?
  • Finalize your topic After considering the above factors, make your final choice.

Remember that you can always rely on our professional online research paper writers . We have experts holding a Ph.D. degree in law and having a solid track record in writing academic works on different criminology research paper topics.

List of Top Criminal Justice Research Topics

Below we have curated a list of current criminological research topics, each unique as a fingerprint. Our paper writers did their best to tailor this assortment to unique research needs. Every topic on this list allows us to delve deeper into the many faces of criminal justice, whether it's a question about modern technology's role or an investigation into longstanding procedures.

  • Analyzing the influence of social media on modern crime reporting.
  • Investigating the role of body cameras in policing: Are they legit tools or privacy invaders?
  • How mandatory sentencing laws contribute to the issue of prison overcrowding.
  • Are we ready for cybercrime, the invisible threat of our era?
  • Understanding the root causes of hate crimes and potential preventive measures.
  • Delving into recidivism rates to evaluate the success of rehabilitation programs.
  • Significant role of forensic science in contemporary law enforcement.
  • Re-evaluating the ethics of the death penalty in today's society.
  • Is community policing a passing trend or a lasting solution?
  • Should victimless crimes fall under the purview of the criminal justice system?
  • How domestic violence laws affect family structures.
  • Probing into racial profiling practices in law enforcement.
  • Juvenile justice system: a struggle between rehabilitation and punishment.
  • Eyewitness testimony: A reliable source of evidence or a roll of the dice?
  • Can restorative justice be an effective alternative to traditional criminal justice methods?

Good Criminal Justice Research Topics

As any seasoned expert would confirm, the foundation of a good investigation, or in our case, a study, is built on a robust subject. Our team has scoured the scene and discovered ten topics, each as unique as a detective's case and rich with resources for a comprehensive study. Ranging from law enforcement techniques to judicial practices, these topics are versatile, offering you a broad spectrum to explore.

  • Developing strategies to prevent and prosecute human trafficking.
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of drug courts in managing substance abuse offenders.
  • Crafting successful crime prevention strategies for high crime neighborhoods.
  • Gun control laws and rates of violent crime: Correlational study .
  • How does socioeconomic status influence criminal behavior?
  • The interplay between drug abuse and criminal activity.
  • Decoding the effectiveness of parole systems: are they working as intended?
  • Is immigration tied to crime rates? A fresh look.
  • The impact of disparities in legal representation on judicial outcomes.
  • The use of lie detector tests in law enforcement: are they beneficial or problematic?
  • The influence of the #MeToo movement on the evolution of sexual assault laws.
  • Why is crisis intervention training critical for today's police officers?
  • Does the 'Three Strikes' law deter crime? An empirical investigation.
  • The role of mass media in shaping public perception of crime.
  • Why is victim advocacy important in the criminal justice system?

Easy Criminal Justice Research Topics

If you are a novice researcher, the range of topics might seem intimidating. Don’t worry — here we present criminal justice paper topics that will provide an easy start for your study.

  • How law enforcement plays a role in ensuring community safety?
  • Delving into the workings of the juvenile justice system.
  • Fine line between privacy and security in modern surveillance practices.
  • What happens when drug use is decriminalized? An in-depth study.
  • What are some parameters of police brutality?
  • White-collar crime and its ripple effects on the economy.
  • An exploration of the psychological factors driving criminal behavior.
  • Challenges faced in rehabilitating prisoners: A comprehensive review.
  • How does education contribute to crime prevention strategies?
  • Is the bail system fair? An analysis.
  • How do crime-themed TV shows influence public perception of the criminal justice system?
  • What are some implications of overpopulation in prisons?
  • Unmasking cybercrime: Its impact on individuals and businesses.
  • Domestic violence: Understanding its causes, consequences, and potential solutions.
  • How is social media reshaping modern law enforcement practices?

General Criminal Justice Research Topics

Tackling a criminal justice research paper is never an easy feat. To help you make this process smoother, here are some common topics for a criminal justice paper. Feel free to make them your own or explore these ideas further.

  • How do socioeconomic factors influence crime rates?
  • A comprehensive review of alternative sentencing methods.
  • The impact of media bias on public perception of crime.
  • Analyzing the causes and effects of wrongful convictions.
  • How does neighborhood environment contribute to crime rates?
  • The pros and cons of private prisons: An objective analysis.
  • The role of victim advocacy in the criminal justice system.
  • Examining the trend of cyberbullying and its legal consequences.
  • What influences jurors' decisions? An exploration.
  • The efficacy of gun control laws in reducing violent crime.
  • A comparative study of criminal justice systems across the world.
  • Uncovering the impact of organized crime on society.
  • The evolution of women's role in law enforcement.
  • Human rights issues within the criminal justice system.
  • Modern surveillance techniques.

Interesting Criminal Justice Research Paper Topics

Are you looking for something more unconventional? Don’t worry, we have you covered. Here are some interesting criminal justice topics for research papers that your professors will surely appreciate.

  • Psychology of serial killers: nature vs. nurture.
  • How can artificial intelligence help in predicting and preventing crime?
  • Unmasking the dark web: Its influence on cybercrime rates.
  • How forensic science has revolutionized crime-solving.
  • The impact of drug decriminalization on crime rates: A case study .
  • Analyzing the true effectiveness of crime profiling in solving cases.
  • How does prison architecture influence inmate behavior and rehabilitation?
  • The role of cryptocurrency in facilitating online crime.
  • True crime podcasts and their impact on public perception of criminal justice.
  • The impact of climate change on crime rates.
  • Examining the intersection between immigration law and criminal justice.
  • The role of cultural factors in shaping crime rates globally.
  • How social media is used in solving crimes: An exploration.
  • How can virtual reality technology be used for training in law enforcement?
  • Crime and justice in dystopian literature: Its implications on society.

Controversial Criminal Justice Research Topics

While the field of criminal justice holds a vast array of researchable areas, it's often in controversy where the most thought-provoking discussions arise. To spark your creative juices, here are some debatable topics for a criminal justice research paper.

  • Ethical dilemmas of entrapment in law enforcement.
  • Is racial profiling a necessary evil or an unfair practice?
  • Potential consequences of full-scale drug legalization.
  • Using torture in interrogations: An ethical necessity or a grave misstep?
  • Solitary confinement: An effective deterrent or a practice of inhumanity?
  • Where does the debate stand on stricter gun control laws?
  • Analyzing implications of mass surveillance on personal privacy.
  • Restorative justice versus retributive justice: Which proves to be more effective?
  • Controversy surrounding the privatization of prisons.
  • How does socioeconomic status play a role in sentencing?
  • Implications and effects of sentencing minors as adults.
  • Dissecting the controversial practice of criminal profiling.
  • Police militarization: A necessary protection or an instance of excessive force?
  • What are the effects of false accusations on public trust in law enforcement?
  • Is it ethical to use lie detectors and voice stress analysis for criminal investigations?

>> Read more: Law Research Paper Topics

Unique Criminal Justice Research Topics Ideas

Are you all set to write your paper but can’t seem to find an authentic topic? Look no further — here are some unique criminal justice topics to write about.

  • Graffiti: Is it vandalism or expression?
  • The role of body language in lie detection.
  • What is the impact of parental incarceration on child development?
  • How do video games influence youth criminal behavior?
  • Crime in space: Who holds legal jurisdiction and how is law enforcement managed extraterrestrially?
  • Understanding the role of cryptocurrency in money laundering.
  • How does social media influence jury bias?
  • Fashion and crime: How does clothing play a role in criminal identification?
  • Evaluating the impact of Covid-19 on domestic violence rates.
  • What has caused the rise of eco-terrorism and what are its consequences?
  • How does pop culture influence youth criminal behavior?
  • Examining the impact of virtual reality on the future of law enforcement training.
  • Animal rights and criminal justice: What laws and ethical questions need exploration?
  • Has dark tourism had an impact on crime rates in famous crime sites?
  • What are some implications of overcrowding and overpopulation in prisons?

Criminology Research Topics

Criminology, the scientific study of crime, criminal behavior, and the law, presents a world of fascinating subjects ripe for exploration. From analyzing the psychology behind criminal acts to examining the social factors influencing crime rates, criminology research offers multiple issues for consideration. Scroll down to find the best research topics for criminology.

Criminology Research Topics Based on Theories

Theories offer a backbone to any field of study, and criminology is no exception. They help to explain why crimes occur and what factors contribute to them. With a theoretical framework , we can dissect the complexities of crime from a fresh, intriguing perspective. Below you can find criminal law research topics grounded in theories.

  • Exploring the impact of the Broken Windows Theory on modern law enforcement.
  • How does Social Learning Theory apply to cybercrime?
  • Understanding the influence of Labeling Theory on youth crime rates.
  • Application of Rational Choice Theory to drug use.
  • Why do people obey the law? An exploration of Social Control Theory.
  • How does gender influence crime?
  • The intersection of Routine Activity Theory and domestic burglary.
  • Biosocial Theory and the nature vs nurture debate in criminology.
  • How does Cultural Criminology influence hate crimes?
  • Class and crime: A perspective from Marxist Criminology.
  • Unpacking the influence of Social Disorganization Theory on community crime rates.
  • Is serial killing explained by General Strain Theory?
  • Differential Association Theory: a pathway to understanding gang violence.
  • What role does Neutralization Theory play in juvenile delinquency?
  • Does the Deterrence Theory hold true? Does fear of punishment prevent crime?

Criminology Research and Measurement Topics

Equipped with advanced data collection methods, a criminologist can use quantitative research to measure the impact of various criminological phenomena. Here are some interesting criminal justice topics for exploring law through exploration and measurement.

  • Evaluating the accuracy of crime rate statistics.
  • How effective are crime prediction models?
  • Understanding crime patterns using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
  • Data analytics in modern crime investigation.
  • How do victim surveys contribute to our understanding of crime?
  • What are some implications of the dark figure of crime on criminology research?
  • Quantitative methods for analyzing juvenile crime trends.
  • Measuring the effectiveness of community policing strategies.
  • How does measurement error impact crime statistics?
  • Evaluating the reliability and validity of self-report crime surveys.
  • Understanding domestic violence through qualitative research methods .
  • The use of longitudinal studies in crime causation research.
  • Using artificial intelligence to predict crime hotspots.
  • The role of ethnographic studies in understanding gang culture.
  • The impact of biased sampling on crime research findings.

Best Criminal Justice Research Topics and Ideas

Сriminal justice essay topics offer a wide range of potential areas for investigation. To help you find an appropriate issue to write about, we have compiled some of the best criminal justice essay topics and paper ideas. All suggestions below are organized into separate subjects for easier navigation.

International Criminal Justice Research Paper Topics

As our world becomes more interconnected, understanding the complexities of international criminal justice is paramount. The pursuit of justice without borders is not just a theoretical exercise; it's a call to shape a fairer society on a global scale. We've curated a list of compelling international criminal justice topics to write a paper on.

  • How effective are International Criminal Courts?
  • Exploring the challenges of transnational crime in the age of globalization.
  • The role of the United Nations in maintaining international law and order.
  • Genocide and crimes against humanity: How effective is the international response?
  • What are some legal and ethical implications of drone warfare?
  • The impact of international law on combating terrorism.
  • Cross-border data privacy and international criminal justice.
  • Evolution and effectiveness of international humanitarian law.
  • How does international law address state-sponsored terrorism?
  • International maritime law and piracy: How effective are the current measures?
  • Evaluating the role of the International Criminal Court in the prosecution of war crimes.
  • Evolution and impact of international laws on human trafficking.
  • Analyzing international laws concerning the use of nuclear weapons.
  • The extradition process: Challenges and implications for international criminal justice.
  • International laws governing cyber warfare.

Criminal Justice Research Paper Topics on Society

How does law shape and get shaped by societal norms and attitudes? That's what we aim to explore in this section. We've compiled a list of good research topics for criminal justice, each one illuminating the link between law and society.

  • How does media representation affect public perception of crime?
  • Societal impacts of prison overcrowding.
  • How does education level influence criminal behavior?
  • Does socioeconomic status influence judicial outcomes?
  • How do societal attitudes towards drugs shape drug laws?
  • The role of community support in offender rehabilitation.
  • Social consequences of racial profiling.
  • Does neighborhood environment influence youth criminal behavior?
  • How does social stigma impact ex-convicts' reintegration into society?
  • What is the social impact of zero-tolerance policies in schools?
  • How does society perceive and react to "victimless crimes"?
  • Social repercussions of wrongful convictions.
  • How do social media platforms contribute to or prevent crime?
  • Effects of implementing restorative justice.
  • How does media bias influence public opinion on criminal justice?

>> Learn more: Sociology Research Topics

Research Topics in Criminal Justice System

In this section, we will investigate the criminal justice system and its various facets. Explore these research topics for criminal justice to gain a better understanding of how the law system works.

  • Analyzing the role of police discretion in modern policing.
  • The impact of plea bargaining on the criminal justice system.
  • How has gentrification impacted crime rates?
  • What role does prison system play in perpetuating social inequality?
  • How does the school-to-prison pipeline affect youth?
  • Are crime rates influenced by climate change?
  • The opioid crisis: What is its effect on the criminal justice system?
  • How effective are sex offender registries?
  • Are predictive analytics a viable tool for police departments?
  • What is the justice system's response to online hate crimes?
  • Do DNA databases pose a threat to privacy and civil liberties?
  • The role of the criminal justice system in addressing homelessness.
  • How is virtual reality changing forensic investigations?
  • How is the aging inmate population affecting the prison system?
  • Is blockchain technology a viable solution for crime prevention?

Criminal Justice Research Topics on Types of Crime

This section focuses on the various types of crime and criminal behavior. Get to know the key issues concerning different categories of crime with these suggested criminal justice topics for an essay and research paper.

  • The rise of cybercrime: causes, impacts, and responses.
  • A comprehensive study of hate crimes in the 21st century.
  • Evolution of organized crime: From prohibition to cyber syndicates.
  • Human trafficking: Examining modern-day slave trades.
  • Domestic violence: Hidden costs and societal impacts.
  • Understanding the trends and impacts of drug-related crimes.
  • An examination of terrorism in the post-9/11 era.
  • Corporate crimes: Analysis of impacts and regulatory measures.
  • Wildlife crimes and their impact on biodiversity.
  • Cyberbullying: Understanding its psychological effects and legal repercussions.
  • What drives the high rates of recidivism in property crimes?
  • Identity theft in the digital age: Impacts and preventive measures.
  • Intellectual property crimes: How are they impacting innovation?
  • Psychology behind serial killings.
  • Financial crimes in the era of cryptocurrencies.

>> Read more: Psychology Research Topics

Criminal Justice Research Topics About Court Cases

This section highlights some of the most significant court cases in criminal justice history. Pick any one of these criminal justice topics to research a legal precedent or event.

  • Analysis of court cases that have influenced capital punishment policies.
  • A review of major court cases that transformed juvenile justice.
  • Analysis of court cases addressing the rights of crime victims.
  • Roe v. Wade and its implications for abortion law in the US.
  • Miranda v Arizona: A landmark decision that redefined police interrogations.
  • Gideon v Wainwright: The landmark case that guaranteed the right to counsel.
  • Engle v Vitale: Examining effects of this important school prayer ruling.
  • The trial of Socrates and its influence on philosophical thought.
  • Schenck v United States: Exploring free speech rights during wartime.
  • Marbury v Madison: Analyzing impacts of judicial review on US law.
  • Katz v US: Exploring the Fourth Amendment's protection of privacy.
  • The impact of Brown v Board of Education on civil rights in America.
  • United States v Nixon: Examining the president's right to executive privilege.
  • Examining legal implications of Terry v Ohio and stop-and-frisk policies.
  • Griswold v Connecticut: Analyzing the effects of a birth control ruling.

Criminal Justice Research Topics on Racism & Discrimination

Below we offer to explore the complex relationship between racism and criminal justice. Select any of these trending ideas for criminal justice research papers and essays.

  • The intersection of race and capital punishment.
  • An analysis of racial disparities in sentencing.
  • How do racial biases influence jury selection?
  • The impact of "stop and frisk" policies on communities of color.
  • Is there racial discrimination in the bail system?
  • Immigration enforcement and allegations of racial profiling.
  • Racial disparities in the juvenile justice system.
  • The influence of racial bias in death penalty cases.
  • Race and the war on drugs.
  • Racial discrimination in the implementation of three strikes laws.
  • Impact of police brutality on racial minorities.
  • Racism and its influence on probation decisions.
  • Ethnic disparities in the enforcement of hate crime legislation.
  • The relationship between neighborhood racial composition and police use of force.
  • Racial bias in risk assessment tools.

Research Topics in Criminal Justice for Ph.D.

If you are searching for PhD-level topics related to criminal justice, go no further. Choose any of the following criminal justice research proposal topics for your doctoral dissertation or thesis project.

  • Rehabilitation programs for incarcerated veterans.
  • Cyber forensics: New frontiers in solving crime.
  • An exploration of crime among the elderly population: Hidden statistics.
  • The impact of evolving technologies on intellectual property crime.
  • Impact of climate change on global crime patterns: An empirical analysis.
  • Criminology of anonymous cybercrime.
  • Understanding crime among indigenous populations: A comparative study.
  • An evaluation of crime reporting systems in smart cities.
  • The role of public transportation design in crime occurrence.
  • Cybercrime legislation across different jurisdictions.
  • Migration and crime: A quantitative study.
  • Complexities of dealing with organized crime syndicates.
  • Economic globalization and transnational crime patterns.
  • Correlation between drug abuse and crime rates: Longitudinal study.
  • Ethical implications of predictive policing.

Criminal Justice Research Questions

If you need to come up with a research question for criminal justice, here are a few ideas. These criminal justice issue topics can come in handy for both college students and university graduates.

  • How does technology within law enforcement agencies impact crime rates?
  • How effective are neighborhood watch programs in deterring crime?
  • What is the impact of drug decriminalization on crime rates?
  • What factors influence the success rate of exonerations?
  • How does the portrayal of law enforcement in the media influence public trust?
  • What is the effect of witness protection programs on successful prosecution rates?
  • How do the conditions of solitary confinement affect prisoner mental health?
  • How has the rise of online black markets changed the face of organized crime?
  • What role does family structure play in juvenile delinquency?
  • What is the impact of victim advocacy programs on the judicial process?
  • How have recent changes in immigration policy impacted crime rates?
  • What effect do right-to-carry laws have on violent crime rates?
  • How have digital forensics evolved to combat cybercrime?
  • To what extent does the militarization of police influence community relations?
  • How has the legalization of marijuana impacted crime rates in various states?

Bottom Line on Criminology Research Topics

We did our best to provide you with worthwhile ideas and topics to research in criminal justice. Whether you prefer to focus on psychological, sociological, legal, or organizational aspects of crime and justice, there are plenty of great research questions to choose from. Be sure to double-check any topic with your instructor before beginning your assignment. Likewise, you can consult with our experts to receive professional college paper writing service .

With our professional research and term paper help , you'll find relief from academic pressure, and receive high-quality work that ticks all your professor's boxes. Let us take care of the hard work so you can focus on what matters most to you.


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What is a research paper in criminal justice, basic criminal justice research topics, controversial criminal justice research topics, criminal justice research topics to provoke debate, criminology research topics, criminal justice system research topics, international crimes research topics, racism and discrimination criminal justice research topics, court cases research topics, crime and victimization research topics, criminology theories research topics, reasonable criminology research topics.

The best way to gain more data or information is via research. Research is an important tool that can be used in the subject one is studying and criminal justice research paper topics. A paper in criminal justice is comprehensive writing by scholars to argue for a situation, usually criminal. This paper is different from other types of research papers It requires an investigation of case studies and real-life situations. Many research paper topics on criminal justice can help students write their essays.

Research on criminal justice helps students and professionals alike to gain an in-depth understanding of the field. It also helps government officials who work in law enforcement, discipline, and crime prevention to do their job well.

In-depth study or research on criminal justice helps bridge the rift between the existing practice within the profession. The progression in recent knowledge.

Criminal justice research enables students to become critical thinkers. This makes them evaluate policies based on evidence and facts.

Criminal justice research topic ideas also inspire scholars to challenge intrinsic prejudice. Also, assumptions by cross-checking data objectively. Students may not always have the time to write their research papers by themselves. This can be due to loads of other assignments and impending deadlines. They can easily buy a research paper for their coursework in such situations. This article looks at many paper topics in criminal justice.

Here is a list of captivating and provoking criminal justice research proposal topics that students can work on. PapersOwl experts can help with choosing the best topic and writing a stunning paper.

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When it comes to choosing research topics , students can easily run out of ideas. These are easy criminal justice research topics for college students.

  • How reliable is eyewitness testimony? Should eyewitness statements be allowed in court? Who should be considered an eyewitness?
  • The relationship between police and people of different races. Does the media present police violence against people of colour appropriately?
  • Methods for preventing international drug trafficking. How should law enforcement agencies handle trafficking cases? What should be the punishment for drug trafficking?
  • Crime during emergencies. Do public emergencies give room for criminal activities?
  • Gender disparity in the criminal justice system. How can both genders be treated fairly? To what extent can gender equality be exercised?
  • Solitary confinement. What is the impact of solitary confinement on prisoners?
  • The efficiency of drug courts. Do drug courts help or hurt addicts?
  • Domestic violence. Why are women more likely to be victims? What should happen to minors of abusive parents?
  • Capital punishment. Is capital punishment a violation of human rights? What crimes deserve capital punishment?
  • Bail. What criminal offenses should be granted bail? What is the maximum that can be charged as bail?

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Certain topics lead to controversies in the field. Controversial topics should be able to lead to extensive discussions on the situation. Students who have a tough time choosing a topic can find research papers for sale online. Some controversial criminal justice topics include:

  • Cyberbullying. Where should the line be drawn between freedom of speech and cyberbullying?
  • Jail structures. Why and how should female jails differ from male ones? What are the dangers of mixed prisons?
  • Hate crime. What is the history of hate crime in the United States of America? How severe should the punishment for hate crimes be?
  • Serial killers. Should serial killers be tried as mentally unstable? Should serial killers be charged with capital punishment?
  • Juvenile crimes. Should minors be sent to jail? Should minors be charged with the death penalty? Is an 18-year-old an adult?
  • Pornography. Can pornography be considered sexual abuse? Can porn sites be sued for pop-up pornographic images and ads?
  • Police shootings. In what situations are the police allowed to shoot? What is the punishment for shooting an innocent person?
  • Carrying concealed weapons. Should there be punishment for carrying weapons? What is considered self-defence?
  • Murder and homicide. What is the difference between murder and homicide? Should the punishment for murder and homicide be equal?
  • Reform vs. punishment: which one has more benefits?

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There are research topics for criminal justice topic ideas that lead to debate and analysis. Such topics make sense from different angles, depending on your perspective. Examples of topics that spring debates are:

  • Self-defense. Where to draw the line between self-defense and premeditated crime. Should there be a punishment for self-defense?
  • Prostitution. Should prostitution be considered a crime? Should there be a minimum wage for prostitutes?
  • Stalking. Should stalking be considered a violation of human rights? Should stalking punishable by the law?
  • Child abuse. What is the line between discipline and child abuse? Should the state take minors away from abusive parents?
  • Sexual abuse. Should BDSM be considered sexual abuse? Can sexual abuse occur between a married couple?
  • The impact of prison on children of incarcerated individuals. Who cares for the children of incarcerated people? How does foster and kinship care affect these children?
  • Media. To what extent should the media show domestic violence?
  • Drunk driving is a serious offense. What should be the penalty for driving when inebriated? Should an intoxicated driver be charged with first-degree murder in the event of a tragic accident?
  • Body camera. Is the use of body cams by the police an intrusion of privacy?
  • Homicide and murder. Is homicide murder?

Criminology topic ideas will help students understand crime theories better. Below are topics are drawn from different areas of criminology.

  • What have ex-convicts to say about criminology for convicts? Is the state prepared to assist ex-convicts who have completed their sentences?
  • Is punishment a deterrence to crime in criminal justice theory?
  • False conceptions about crime and criminal justice are debunked through media criminology. Fake news and how to handle it.
  • Criminality is a result of culture, according to cultural criminology. What kinds of cultural traditions are compatible with criminal behaviour?
  • According to cultural transmission theory, how are criminal norms conveyed in social contact?
  • Does fear of penalty deter individuals from committing crimes? Is that anything that should be taken into account in a court of law?
  • The rational choice theory explains how the perpetrator's personal goals are connected with their criminal behaviour.
  • How prevalent criminal theories marginalize women, according to feminist criminology.
  • Minorities and people who deviate from social norms are negatively branded.
  • Life-course criminology is the study of how events in one's life influence criminal behaviour.

This criminal justice research topic enables students to investigate the judicial system and evaluate the current policies. Some of these criminal justice research questions include:

  • Firing gun: how to determine whether it was deliberate or happened by accident? On what grounds should the police fire a gun.
  • Cybercrime: what is the legal perspective of cybercrime? Is cyberbullying a cybercrime?
  • Internet vigilantism: can revenge leaks be considered a criminal offence.
  • Hate crime on the Internet: what are the policies against revenge leaks, trolling, and defamation?
  • Crime and justice in mass media. How does the media influence the system?
  • Kidnapping and ransom: what are common features and behaviour patterns?
  • Sex offender registry: what are the pros and cons?
  • The theories of deterrence rational choice: are they relevant in the modern justice system?
  • Sexual assault. What is the punishment for sexual assault in schools and workplaces?
  • Jury selection: how is it performed? What is the requirement for selecting members?

If you're struggling to find the time or resources to complete a research paper in criminal justice, paying someone to write your research paper may seem like a viable option. However, it's important to ensure that the service you use is reputable and trustworthy, as it's essential to know the research paper will be written in a professional and reliable way. Doing research on the service provider to make sure they have experience in the field is highly recommended before making a decision.

This criminal justice research topic has to do with domestic criminal laws and international crimes. Here are examples of international crimes topics for criminal justice research.

  • International Criminal Court (ICC): The role of the ICC in the fight against crimes against humanity.
  • International intervention. Define and analyze the effectiveness of intervention with examples.
  • War crimes. How are other states tried for committing a crime against humanity in another state?
  • Plea bargaining in international criminal law.
  • International justice and peace. How can countries and international organizations make the world more just and peaceful? How should international organizations intervene in countries' situations?
  • International justice and human rights violations. What is a just society in the global context?
  • International criminal law. What are the history, source, and objectives of international criminal laws?
  • Feminism. A feminist's point of view of international criminal laws.
  • Child soldiers in Africa. Discuss the facts, history, and why they become soldiers at that age.
  • International criminal laws treaties. Research various international criminal laws treaties and tell your reader what they entail.

The issues of racism and discrimination are still prevalent in society. The following topics can be researched to investigate the situation appropriately.

  • Systemic bias. How does it affect criminal justice as well as the system?
  • Minority groups. How is criminal justice affected by the discriminatory depiction of minorities in the media?
  • Racial profiling: how minority groups are targeted based on ethnicity and race.
  • African-Americans: how are racism and discrimination more towards them?
  • Racial profiling: The disadvantages.
  • The UK Court System. Is the UK court system discriminatory?
  • The US Court System. Is the US court system discriminatory?
  • Class Discrimination. What is societal class discrimination?
  • Does the crime rate depend on the neighbourhood?
  • Corporate crime: who constitutes the ruling class? What are corporate crimes?

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There are common criminal cases that are tried in court. Some topics about include:

  • What is the difference between civil and criminal cases?
  • Felony: when do disenfranchisement laws apply?
  • Are organized crime and corruption the same thing?
  • Victim services: can crime victims get any help?
  • Prison rape and violence: how can sexual and domestic violence be prevented in prison?
  • Forensics: how effective is forensics science in modern criminal justice.
  • Shoplifting: how serious are shoplifting cases?
  • Protection Program: who is eligible, and what type of protection is offered?
  • Date rape: what type of legal assistance is available to victims?
  • Substance use, abuse, and crime: does one cause a trigger for the other?

Crime And victimization are captivating aspects of criminology. Several research and surveys have been done better to understand this field over the last few years. Below are some intriguing crime and victimization research topics for college students to consider.

  • Crime and victimization among ethnic minorities: this paper will take an interesting look into how minor ethnicities experience crime and victimization in society.
  • The victimization of females in the workplace: researchers explore the treatment of females in an especially male-dominated workspace and how it affects them.
  • Political opposition: how the oppositions are victimized. Political oppositions in many countries are seen as threats by the ruling powers.
  • Criminal victimization of the elderly - the elderly are mostly defenseless and, as a result, the targets of criminals.
  • Victimization on campus - how college students are victimized on campus.
  • Victimization in prisons and correctional facilities - are inmates subject to harassment and various form of physical abuse?
  • Racial profiling and victimization - is racial profiling a thing? How does it affect the individuals of the race?
  • Domestic violence: the victimization of romantic partners physically or emotionally.
  • Sexual harassment and stalking.
  • Cyberbullying, cybercrime, and victimization.

Several criminology theories exist. This research covers how these theories are interpreted, used, and discovered. Some topics that cover this include:

  • Theoretical integration of criminology theories - two criminology theories are better than one and how they can be integrated.
  • Biological theory; how biological factors affect crime - Are some individuals more predisposed to cringe than others, and do biological factors play an important role.
  • Deterrence theory: crime and the fear of punishment - are crimes with severe punishments less rampant than those with less punishment; how the freezer of punishment deters crime.
  • Theory of rational choice - people restore to criminal behaviour because it is the best option.
  • Advancement of criminology theories - how knowledge of criminal theories could be furthered.
  • Social theory: how good socialization affects crime - are people around criminals predisposed to crime?
  • How criminal behaviours are learned through observation: social learning theory: are criminal behaviours learned through observation of criminals or not?
  • Self-control theory: how effective self-control affects crime rate - are individuals with better self-control less likely to be involved in crime? Is crime a resume of a lack of self-control?
  • Theory of Routine activities- do daily routines affect criminal behaviours.
  • Ownership of arms. Is this regarded as a law violation?

Other reasonable criminology topics for students to explore are:

  • Criminology as a social science - how criminology Is a social science because it deals with social science issues.
  • Implications of hate crime: hate crime and how it affects the victims and society. Are the punishments effective in deterring hate crimes?
  • Tracing the roots of criminology from ancient times - a history of criminology.
  • Of crimes among age groups: how criminal behaviours vary among ages.
  • Effects of childhood upbringing on the crime rate in society - does a child's upbringing affect the crime rate in society? Are criminals a result of a bad childhood upbringing?
  • The Portrayal of Serial killers in media - how serial killers are portrayed in the media and how it affects serial killers.
  • Crime vs punishment - how punishment relates to crime and its deterrence.
  • How does society affect drug abuse - is society to be blamed for drug abuse?
  • Literacy vs Illiteracy and its effect on criminal behaviour: does literacy or Illiteracy affect criminals? Are literates less likely to commit crimes than illiterates?
  • Gender bias in investigations. Does one gender receive better judgment than the other?

There are quite a number of areas you can conduct research in criminal justice. You may choose to focus on one particular area, or even multiple areas, depending on your research paper's requirements. You will, however, need to ensure you do sufficient research for your work to be relevant. To make the research process easier, you can enlist the help of a professional writing service to write a research paper for you . They can provide you with the necessary resources and expertise to ensure that your paper is well-researched and accurate.

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