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A descriptive abstract—a summary of someone else’s paper or book—is often required by professors to give you practice in summarizing and responding to sources. Writing a descriptive abstract can be especially trying if you feel as though you are reading material over your head; however, if you understand the goals of a descriptive abstract correctly you can read and write in such a way that the author’s ideas are simplified while being represented fairly.
Style for Descriptive Abstracts
In many courses, a professor will set forth specific guidelines for both form and content of a descriptive abstract. In the absence of such guidelines or to supplement them, follow this advice:
- Include a title and the word "Abstract" as a heading. Include basic bibliographic information about the source after the title (author’s name, title of work, etc.).
- Frequently, a list of key words that will be used appears just underneath the title of the abstract. Consider listing your key words in this way.
- Many professors will expect you to limit a descriptive abstract to a single page, so be certain to write with efficiency in mind—no filler.
- Begin the abstract by providing some condensed background information and a statement of overview or purpose, much like the kind of material an author provides in an introduction and a thesis statement.
- Decide on topics by selecting key information from your source. Use the chapter headings, section headings, conclusions, topic sentences, and key terms from your source to determine the topics.
- Point out relationships among topics, especially via transition words.
- Consider working from an outline to organize and write the abstract.
- Use paragraphing generously to discuss different facets of the topic; do not fear short paragraphs.
- Consider techniques such as enumeration or bulleting of key points for emphasis. However, unless the document becomes very long, you typically do not use section headings in an abstract.
- Use present tense verbs generously, both to describe ideas or events and to present the author’s goals.
- Use the author’s name or the names of other key authors, especially those who represent particular theories, directly in the text. However, you typically do not cite sources in the abstract itself; the reader understands that all of the ideas in a descriptive abstract come from a particular source unless you note otherwise.
- Do not skimp on the conclusion; assert the source’s "bottom line" information, even if that means repeating some of the author’s words.
- Some professors will expect you or allow you to close the descriptive abstract with your own views on the subject or on the author’s treatment of the subject. Explore this option as concretely you can.
- Do not use the abstract as a vehicle of apology for ideas you do not understand; stick to those key ideas that you can represent well.
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How to Write an Abstract for a Research Paper | Examples
What is a research paper abstract?
Research paper abstracts summarize your study quickly and succinctly to journal editors and researchers and prompt them to read further. But with the ubiquity of online publication databases, writing a compelling abstract is even more important today than it was in the days of bound paper manuscripts.
Abstracts exist to “sell” your work, and they could thus be compared to the “executive summary” of a business resume: an official briefing on what is most important about your research. Or the “gist” of your research. With the majority of academic transactions being conducted online, this means that you have even less time to impress readers–and increased competition in terms of other abstracts out there to read.
The APCI (Academic Publishing and Conferences International) notes that there are 12 questions or “points” considered in the selection process for journals and conferences and stresses the importance of having an abstract that ticks all of these boxes. Because it is often the ONLY chance you have to convince readers to keep reading, it is important that you spend time and energy crafting an abstract that faithfully represents the central parts of your study and captivates your audience.
With that in mind, follow these suggestions when structuring and writing your abstract, and learn how exactly to put these ideas into a solid abstract that will captivate your target readers.
Before Writing Your Abstract
How long should an abstract be.
All abstracts are written with the same essential objective: to give a summary of your study. But there are two basic styles of abstract: descriptive and informative . Here is a brief delineation of the two:
Of the two types of abstracts, informative abstracts are much more common, and they are widely used for submission to journals and conferences. Informative abstracts apply to lengthier and more technical research and are common in the sciences, engineering, and psychology, while descriptive abstracts are more likely used in humanities and social science papers. The best method of determining which abstract type you need to use is to follow the instructions for journal submissions and to read as many other published articles in those journals as possible.
Research Abstract Guidelines and Requirements
As any article about research writing will tell you, authors must always closely follow the specific guidelines and requirements indicated in the Guide for Authors section of their target journal’s website. The same kind of adherence to conventions should be applied to journal publications, for consideration at a conference, and even when completing a class assignment.
Each publisher has particular demands when it comes to formatting and structure. Here are some common questions addressed in the journal guidelines:
- Is there a maximum or minimum word/character length?
- What are the style and formatting requirements?
- What is the appropriate abstract type?
- Are there any specific content or organization rules that apply?
There are of course other rules to consider when composing a research paper abstract. But if you follow the stated rules the first time you submit your manuscript, you can avoid your work being thrown in the “circular file” right off the bat.
Identify Your Target Readership
The main purpose of your abstract is to lead researchers to the full text of your research paper. In scientific journals, abstracts let readers decide whether the research discussed is relevant to their own interests or study. Abstracts also help readers understand your main argument quickly. Consider these questions as you write your abstract:
- Are other academics in your field the main target of your study?
- Will your study perhaps be useful to members of the general public?
- Do your study results include the wider implications presented in the abstract?
Outlining and Writing Your Abstract
What to include in an abstract.
Just as your research paper title should cover as much ground as possible in a few short words, your abstract must cover all parts of your study in order to fully explain your paper and research. Because it must accomplish this task in the space of only a few hundred words, it is important not to include ambiguous references or phrases that will confuse the reader or mislead them about the content and objectives of your research. Follow these dos and don’ts when it comes to what kind of writing to include:
- Avoid acronyms or abbreviations since these will need to be explained in order to make sense to the reader, which takes up valuable abstract space. Instead, explain these terms in the Introduction section of the main text.
- Only use references to people or other works if they are well-known. Otherwise, avoid referencing anything outside of your study in the abstract.
- Never include tables, figures, sources, or long quotations in your abstract; you will have plenty of time to present and refer to these in the body of your paper.
Use keywords in your abstract to focus your topic
A vital search tool is the research paper keywords section, which lists the most relevant terms directly underneath the abstract. Think of these keywords as the “tubes” that readers will seek and enter—via queries on databases and search engines—to ultimately land at their destination, which is your paper. Your abstract keywords should thus be words that are commonly used in searches but should also be highly relevant to your work and found in the text of your abstract. Include 5 to 10 important words or short phrases central to your research in both the abstract and the keywords section.
For example, if you are writing a paper on the prevalence of obesity among lower classes that crosses international boundaries, you should include terms like “obesity,” “prevalence,” “international,” “lower classes,” and “cross-cultural.” These are terms that should net a wide array of people interested in your topic of study. Look at our nine rules for choosing keywords for your research paper if you need more input on this.
Research Paper Abstract Structure
As mentioned above, the abstract (especially the informative abstract) acts as a surrogate or synopsis of your research paper, doing almost as much work as the thousands of words that follow it in the body of the main text. In the hard sciences and most social sciences, the abstract includes the following sections and organizational schema.
Each section is quite compact—only a single sentence or two, although there is room for expansion if one element or statement is particularly interesting or compelling. As the abstract is almost always one long paragraph, the individual sections should naturally merge into one another to create a holistic effect. Use the following as a checklist to ensure that you have included all of the necessary content in your abstract.
1) Identify your purpose and motivation
So your research is about rabies in Brazilian squirrels. Why is this important? You should start your abstract by explaining why people should care about this study—why is it significant to your field and perhaps to the wider world? And what is the exact purpose of your study; what are you trying to achieve? Start by answering the following questions:
- What made you decide to do this study or project?
- Why is this study important to your field or to the lay reader?
- Why should someone read your entire article?
In summary, the first section of your abstract should include the importance of the research and its impact on related research fields or on the wider scientific domain.
2) Explain the research problem you are addressing
Stating the research problem that your study addresses is the corollary to why your specific study is important and necessary. For instance, even if the issue of “rabies in Brazilian squirrels” is important, what is the problem—the “missing piece of the puzzle”—that your study helps resolve?
You can combine the problem with the motivation section, but from a perspective of organization and clarity, it is best to separate the two. Here are some precise questions to address:
- What is your research trying to better understand or what problem is it trying to solve?
- What is the scope of your study—does it try to explain something general or specific?
- What is your central claim or argument?
3) Discuss your research approach
Your specific study approach is detailed in the Methods and Materials section . You have already established the importance of the research, your motivation for studying this issue, and the specific problem your paper addresses. Now you need to discuss how you solved or made progress on this problem—how you conducted your research. If your study includes your own work or that of your team, describe that here. If in your paper you reviewed the work of others, explain this here. Did you use analytic models? A simulation? A double-blind study? A case study? You are basically showing the reader the internal engine of your research machine and how it functioned in the study. Be sure to:
- Detail your research—include methods/type of the study, your variables, and the extent of the work
- Briefly present evidence to support your claim
- Highlight your most important sources
4) Briefly summarize your results
Here you will give an overview of the outcome of your study. Avoid using too many vague qualitative terms (e.g, “very,” “small,” or “tremendous”) and try to use at least some quantitative terms (i.e., percentages, figures, numbers). Save your qualitative language for the conclusion statement. Answer questions like these:
- What did your study yield in concrete terms (e.g., trends, figures, correlation between phenomena)?
- How did your results compare to your hypothesis? Was the study successful?
- Where there any highly unexpected outcomes or were they all largely predicted?
5) State your conclusion
In the last section of your abstract, you will give a statement about the implications and limitations of the study . Be sure to connect this statement closely to your results and not the area of study in general. Are the results of this study going to shake up the scientific world? Will they impact how people see “Brazilian squirrels”? Or are the implications minor? Try not to boast about your study or present its impact as too far-reaching, as researchers and journals will tend to be skeptical of bold claims in scientific papers. Answer one of these questions:
- What are the exact effects of these results on my field? On the wider world?
- What other kind of study would yield further solutions to problems?
- What other information is needed to expand knowledge in this area?
After Completing the First Draft of Your Abstract
Revise your abstract.
The abstract, like any piece of academic writing, should be revised before being considered complete. Check it for grammatical and spelling errors and make sure it is formatted properly.
Get feedback from a peer
Getting a fresh set of eyes to review your abstract is a great way to find out whether you’ve summarized your research well. Find a reader who understands research papers but is not an expert in this field or is not affiliated with your study. Ask your reader to summarize what your study is about (including all key points of each section). This should tell you if you have communicated your key points clearly.
In addition to research peers, consider consulting with a professor or even a specialist or generalist writing center consultant about your abstract. Use any resource that helps you see your work from another perspective.
Consider getting professional editing and proofreading
While peer feedback is quite important to ensure the effectiveness of your abstract content, it may be a good idea to find an academic editor to fix mistakes in grammar, spelling, mechanics, style, or formatting. The presence of basic errors in the abstract may not affect your content, but it might dissuade someone from reading your entire study. Wordvice provides English editing services that both correct objective errors and enhance the readability and impact of your work.
Additional Abstract Rules and Guidelines
Write your abstract after completing your paper.
Although the abstract goes at the beginning of your manuscript, it does not merely introduce your research topic (that is the job of the title), but rather summarizes your entire paper. Writing the abstract last will ensure that it is complete and consistent with the findings and statements in your paper.
Keep your content in the correct order
Both questions and answers should be organized in a standard and familiar way to make the content easier for readers to absorb. Ideally, it should mimic the overall format of your essay and the classic “introduction,” “body,” and “conclusion” form, even if the parts are not neatly divided as such.
Write the abstract from scratch
Because the abstract is a self-contained piece of writing viewed separately from the body of the paper, you should write it separately as well. Never copy and paste direct quotes from the paper and avoid paraphrasing sentences in the paper. Using new vocabulary and phrases will keep your abstract interesting and free of redundancies while conserving space.
Don’t include too many details in the abstract
Again, the density of your abstract makes it incompatible with including specific points other than possibly names or locations. You can make references to terms, but do not explain or define them in the abstract. Try to strike a balance between being specific to your study and presenting a relatively broad overview of your work.
If you think your abstract is fine now but you need input on abstract writing or require English editing services (including paper editing ), then head over to the Wordvice academic resources page, where you will find many more articles, for example on writing the Results , Methods , and Discussion sections of your manuscript, on choosing a title for your paper , or on how to finalize your journal submission with a strong cover letter .
What this handout is about
This handout provides definitions and examples of the two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting. Finally, it includes a few examples of abstracts broken down into their component parts.
What is an abstract?
An abstract is a self-contained, short, and powerful statement that describes a larger work. Components vary according to discipline. An abstract of a social science or scientific work may contain the scope, purpose, results, and contents of the work. An abstract of a humanities work may contain the thesis, background, and conclusion of the larger work. An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract is an original document rather than an excerpted passage.
Why write an abstract?
You may write an abstract for various reasons. The two most important are selection and indexing. Abstracts allow readers who may be interested in a longer work to quickly decide whether it is worth their time to read it. Also, many online databases use abstracts to index larger works. Therefore, abstracts should contain keywords and phrases that allow for easy searching.
Say you are beginning a research project on how Brazilian newspapers helped Brazil’s ultra-liberal president Luiz Ignácio da Silva wrest power from the traditional, conservative power base. A good first place to start your research is to search Dissertation Abstracts International for all dissertations that deal with the interaction between newspapers and politics. “Newspapers and politics” returned 569 hits. A more selective search of “newspapers and Brazil” returned 22 hits. That is still a fair number of dissertations. Titles can sometimes help winnow the field, but many titles are not very descriptive. For example, one dissertation is titled “Rhetoric and Riot in Rio de Janeiro.” It is unclear from the title what this dissertation has to do with newspapers in Brazil. One option would be to download or order the entire dissertation on the chance that it might speak specifically to the topic. A better option is to read the abstract. In this case, the abstract reveals the main focus of the dissertation:
This dissertation examines the role of newspaper editors in the political turmoil and strife that characterized late First Empire Rio de Janeiro (1827-1831). Newspaper editors and their journals helped change the political culture of late First Empire Rio de Janeiro by involving the people in the discussion of state. This change in political culture is apparent in Emperor Pedro I’s gradual loss of control over the mechanisms of power. As the newspapers became more numerous and powerful, the Emperor lost his legitimacy in the eyes of the people. To explore the role of the newspapers in the political events of the late First Empire, this dissertation analyzes all available newspapers published in Rio de Janeiro from 1827 to 1831. Newspapers and their editors were leading forces in the effort to remove power from the hands of the ruling elite and place it under the control of the people. In the process, newspapers helped change how politics operated in the constitutional monarchy of Brazil.
From this abstract you now know that although the dissertation has nothing to do with modern Brazilian politics, it does cover the role of newspapers in changing traditional mechanisms of power. After reading the abstract, you can make an informed judgment about whether the dissertation would be worthwhile to read.
Besides selection, the other main purpose of the abstract is for indexing. Most article databases in the online catalog of the library enable you to search abstracts. This allows for quick retrieval by users and limits the extraneous items recalled by a “full-text” search. However, for an abstract to be useful in an online retrieval system, it must incorporate the key terms that a potential researcher would use to search. For example, if you search Dissertation Abstracts International using the keywords “France” “revolution” and “politics,” the search engine would search through all the abstracts in the database that included those three words. Without an abstract, the search engine would be forced to search titles, which, as we have seen, may not be fruitful, or else search the full text. It’s likely that a lot more than 60 dissertations have been written with those three words somewhere in the body of the entire work. By incorporating keywords into the abstract, the author emphasizes the central topics of the work and gives prospective readers enough information to make an informed judgment about the applicability of the work.
When do people write abstracts?
- when submitting articles to journals, especially online journals
- when applying for research grants
- when writing a book proposal
- when completing the Ph.D. dissertation or M.A. thesis
- when writing a proposal for a conference paper
- when writing a proposal for a book chapter
Most often, the author of the entire work (or prospective work) writes the abstract. However, there are professional abstracting services that hire writers to draft abstracts of other people’s work. In a work with multiple authors, the first author usually writes the abstract. Undergraduates are sometimes asked to draft abstracts of books/articles for classmates who have not read the larger work.
Types of abstracts
There are two types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. They have different aims, so as a consequence they have different components and styles. There is also a third type called critical, but it is rarely used. If you want to find out more about writing a critique or a review of a work, see the UNC Writing Center handout on writing a literature review . If you are unsure which type of abstract you should write, ask your instructor (if the abstract is for a class) or read other abstracts in your field or in the journal where you are submitting your article.
A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the work. It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract describes the work being abstracted. Some people consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short—100 words or less.
The majority of abstracts are informative. While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. A good informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the writer presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the complete article/paper/book. An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract (purpose, methods, scope) but also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author. The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is rarely more than 10% of the length of the entire work. In the case of a longer work, it may be much less.
Here are examples of a descriptive and an informative abstract of this handout on abstracts . Descriptive abstract:
The two most common abstract types—descriptive and informative—are described and examples of each are provided.
Abstracts present the essential elements of a longer work in a short and powerful statement. The purpose of an abstract is to provide prospective readers the opportunity to judge the relevance of the longer work to their projects. Abstracts also include the key terms found in the longer work and the purpose and methods of the research. Authors abstract various longer works, including book proposals, dissertations, and online journal articles. There are two main types of abstracts: descriptive and informative. A descriptive abstract briefly describes the longer work, while an informative abstract presents all the main arguments and important results. This handout provides examples of various types of abstracts and instructions on how to construct one.
Which type should I use?
Your best bet in this case is to ask your instructor or refer to the instructions provided by the publisher. You can also make a guess based on the length allowed; i.e., 100-120 words = descriptive; 250+ words = informative.
How do I write an abstract?
The format of your abstract will depend on the work being abstracted. An abstract of a scientific research paper will contain elements not found in an abstract of a literature article, and vice versa. However, all abstracts share several mandatory components, and there are also some optional parts that you can decide to include or not. When preparing to draft your abstract, keep the following key process elements in mind:
- Reason for writing: What is the importance of the research? Why would a reader be interested in the larger work?
- Problem: What problem does this work attempt to solve? What is the scope of the project? What is the main argument/thesis/claim?
- Methodology: An abstract of a scientific work may include specific models or approaches used in the larger study. Other abstracts may describe the types of evidence used in the research.
- Results: Again, an abstract of a scientific work may include specific data that indicates the results of the project. Other abstracts may discuss the findings in a more general way.
- Implications: What changes should be implemented as a result of the findings of the work? How does this work add to the body of knowledge on the topic?
(This list of elements is adapted with permission from Philip Koopman, “How to Write an Abstract.” )
All abstracts include:
- A full citation of the source, preceding the abstract.
- The most important information first.
- The same type and style of language found in the original, including technical language.
- Key words and phrases that quickly identify the content and focus of the work.
- Clear, concise, and powerful language.
Abstracts may include:
- The thesis of the work, usually in the first sentence.
- Background information that places the work in the larger body of literature.
- The same chronological structure as the original work.
How not to write an abstract:
- Do not refer extensively to other works.
- Do not add information not contained in the original work.
- Do not define terms.
If you are abstracting your own writing
When abstracting your own work, it may be difficult to condense a piece of writing that you have agonized over for weeks (or months, or even years) into a 250-word statement. There are some tricks that you could use to make it easier, however.
This technique is commonly used when you are having trouble organizing your own writing. The process involves writing down the main idea of each paragraph on a separate piece of paper– see our short video . For the purposes of writing an abstract, try grouping the main ideas of each section of the paper into a single sentence. Practice grouping ideas using webbing or color coding .
For a scientific paper, you may have sections titled Purpose, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Each one of these sections will be longer than one paragraph, but each is grouped around a central idea. Use reverse outlining to discover the central idea in each section and then distill these ideas into one statement.
Cut and paste:
To create a first draft of an abstract of your own work, you can read through the entire paper and cut and paste sentences that capture key passages. This technique is useful for social science research with findings that cannot be encapsulated by neat numbers or concrete results. A well-written humanities draft will have a clear and direct thesis statement and informative topic sentences for paragraphs or sections. Isolate these sentences in a separate document and work on revising them into a unified paragraph.
If you are abstracting someone else’s writing
When abstracting something you have not written, you cannot summarize key ideas just by cutting and pasting. Instead, you must determine what a prospective reader would want to know about the work. There are a few techniques that will help you in this process:
Identify key terms:
Search through the entire document for key terms that identify the purpose, scope, and methods of the work. Pay close attention to the Introduction (or Purpose) and the Conclusion (or Discussion). These sections should contain all the main ideas and key terms in the paper. When writing the abstract, be sure to incorporate the key terms.
Highlight key phrases and sentences:
Instead of cutting and pasting the actual words, try highlighting sentences or phrases that appear to be central to the work. Then, in a separate document, rewrite the sentences and phrases in your own words.
Don’t look back:
After reading the entire work, put it aside and write a paragraph about the work without referring to it. In the first draft, you may not remember all the key terms or the results, but you will remember what the main point of the work was. Remember not to include any information you did not get from the work being abstracted.
Revise, revise, revise
No matter what type of abstract you are writing, or whether you are abstracting your own work or someone else’s, the most important step in writing an abstract is to revise early and often. When revising, delete all extraneous words and incorporate meaningful and powerful words. The idea is to be as clear and complete as possible in the shortest possible amount of space. The Word Count feature of Microsoft Word can help you keep track of how long your abstract is and help you hit your target length.
Example 1: Humanities abstract
Kenneth Tait Andrews, “‘Freedom is a constant struggle’: The dynamics and consequences of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1984” Ph.D. State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1997 DAI-A 59/02, p. 620, Aug 1998
This dissertation examines the impacts of social movements through a multi-layered study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peak in the early 1960s through the early 1980s. By examining this historically important case, I clarify the process by which movements transform social structures and the constraints movements face when they try to do so. The time period studied includes the expansion of voting rights and gains in black political power, the desegregation of public schools and the emergence of white-flight academies, and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty programs. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitative analysis of county-level data and (2) three case studies. Data have been collected from archives, interviews, newspapers, and published reports. This dissertation challenges the argument that movements are inconsequential. Some view federal agencies, courts, political parties, or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change, but typically these groups acted in response to the leverage brought to bear by the civil rights movement. The Mississippi movement attempted to forge independent structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities and injustices. By propelling change in an array of local institutions, movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi.
Now let’s break down this abstract into its component parts to see how the author has distilled his entire dissertation into a ~200 word abstract.
What the dissertation does This dissertation examines the impacts of social movements through a multi-layered study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peak in the early 1960s through the early 1980s. By examining this historically important case, I clarify the process by which movements transform social structures and the constraints movements face when they try to do so.
How the dissertation does it The time period studied in this dissertation includes the expansion of voting rights and gains in black political power, the desegregation of public schools and the emergence of white-flight academies, and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty programs. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitative analysis of county-level data and (2) three case studies.
What materials are used Data have been collected from archives, interviews, newspapers, and published reports.
Conclusion This dissertation challenges the argument that movements are inconsequential. Some view federal agencies, courts, political parties, or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change, but typically these groups acted in response to movement demands and the leverage brought to bear by the civil rights movement. The Mississippi movement attempted to forge independent structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities and injustices. By propelling change in an array of local institutions, movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi.
Keywords social movements Civil Rights Movement Mississippi voting rights desegregation
Example 2: Science Abstract
Luis Lehner, “Gravitational radiation from black hole spacetimes” Ph.D. University of Pittsburgh, 1998 DAI-B 59/06, p. 2797, Dec 1998
The problem of detecting gravitational radiation is receiving considerable attention with the construction of new detectors in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The theoretical modeling of the wave forms that would be produced in particular systems will expedite the search for and analysis of detected signals. The characteristic formulation of GR is implemented to obtain an algorithm capable of evolving black holes in 3D asymptotically flat spacetimes. Using compactification techniques, future null infinity is included in the evolved region, which enables the unambiguous calculation of the radiation produced by some compact source. A module to calculate the waveforms is constructed and included in the evolution algorithm. This code is shown to be second-order convergent and to handle highly non-linear spacetimes. In particular, we have shown that the code can handle spacetimes whose radiation is equivalent to a galaxy converting its whole mass into gravitational radiation in one second. We further use the characteristic formulation to treat the region close to the singularity in black hole spacetimes. The code carefully excises a region surrounding the singularity and accurately evolves generic black hole spacetimes with apparently unlimited stability.
This science abstract covers much of the same ground as the humanities one, but it asks slightly different questions.
Why do this study The problem of detecting gravitational radiation is receiving considerable attention with the construction of new detectors in the United States, Europe, and Japan. The theoretical modeling of the wave forms that would be produced in particular systems will expedite the search and analysis of the detected signals.
What the study does The characteristic formulation of GR is implemented to obtain an algorithm capable of evolving black holes in 3D asymptotically flat spacetimes. Using compactification techniques, future null infinity is included in the evolved region, which enables the unambiguous calculation of the radiation produced by some compact source. A module to calculate the waveforms is constructed and included in the evolution algorithm.
Results This code is shown to be second-order convergent and to handle highly non-linear spacetimes. In particular, we have shown that the code can handle spacetimes whose radiation is equivalent to a galaxy converting its whole mass into gravitational radiation in one second. We further use the characteristic formulation to treat the region close to the singularity in black hole spacetimes. The code carefully excises a region surrounding the singularity and accurately evolves generic black hole spacetimes with apparently unlimited stability.
Keywords gravitational radiation (GR) spacetimes black holes
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Belcher, Wendy Laura. 2009. Writing Your Journal Article in Twelve Weeks: A Guide to Academic Publishing Success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.
Kilborn, Judith. 1998. “Writing Abstracts.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated October 20, 1998. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/bizwrite/abstracts.html .
Koopman, Philip. 1997. “How to Write an Abstract.” Carnegie Mellon University. October 1997. http://users.ece.cmu.edu/~koopman/essays/abstract.html .
Lancaster, F.W. 2003. Indexing And Abstracting in Theory and Practice , 3rd ed. London: Facet Publishing.
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Role of an Abstract in Research Paper With Examples
Why does one write an abstract? What is so intriguing about writing an abstract in research paper after writing a full length research paper? How do research paper abstracts or summaries help a researcher during research publishing? These are the most common and frequently pondered upon questions that early career researchers search answers for over the internet!
Table of Contents
What does Abstract mean in Research?
In Research, abstract is “a well-developed single paragraph which is approximately 250 words in length”. Furthermore, it is single-spaced single spaced. Abstract outlines all the parts of the paper briefly. Although the abstract is placed in the beginning of the research paper immediately after research title , the abstract is the last thing a researcher writes.
Why Is an Abstract Necessary in Research Paper?
Abstract is a concise academic text that –
- Helps the potential reader get the relevance of your research study for their own research
- Communicates your key findings for those who have time constraints in reading your paper
- And helps rank the article on search engines based on the keywords on academic databases.
Purpose of Writing an Abstract in Research
Abstracts are required for –
- Submission of articles to journals
- Application for research grants
- Completion and submission of thesis
- Submission of proposals for conference papers.
Aspects Included in an Abstract
The format of your abstract depends on the field of research, in which you are working. However, all abstracts broadly cover the following sections:
Reason for Writing
One can start with the importance of conducting their research study. Furthermore, you could start with a broader research question and address why would the reader be interested in that particular research question.
You could mention what problem the research study chooses to address. Moreover, you could elaborate about the scope of the project, the main argument, brief about thesis objective or what the study claims.
Furthermore, you could mention a line or two about what approach and specific models the research study uses in the scientific work. Some research studies may discuss the evidences in throughout the paper, so instead of writing about methodologies you could mention the types of evidence used in the research.
The scientific research aims to get the specific data that indicates the results of the project. Therefore, you could mention the results and discuss the findings in a broader and general way.
Finally, you could discuss how the research work contributes to the scientific society and adds knowledge on the topic. Also, you could specify if your findings or inferences could help future research and researchers.
Types of Abstracts
Based on the abstract content —, 1. descriptive.
This abstract in research paper is usually short (50-100 words). These abstracts have common sections, such as –
- Focus of research
- Overview of the study.
This type of research does not include detailed presentation of results and only mention results through a phrase without contributing numerical or statistical data . Descriptive abstracts guide readers on the nature of contents of the article.
This abstract gives the essence of what the report is about and it is usually about 200 words. These abstracts have common sections, such as –
- Aim or purpose
This abstract provides an accurate data on the contents of the work, especially on the results section.
Based on the writing format —
This type of abstract has a paragraph for each section: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Conclusion. Also, structured abstracts are often required for informative abstracts.
A semi-structured abstract is written in only one paragraph, wherein each sentence corresponds to a section. Furthermore, all the sections mentioned in the structured abstract are present in the semi-structured abstract.
In a non-structured abstract there are no divisions between each section. The sentences are included in a single paragraph. This type of presentation is ideal for descriptive abstracts.
Examples of Abstracts
Abstract example 1: clinical research.
Neutralization of Omicron BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3 SARS-CoV-2 by 3 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine
Abstract: The newly emerged Omicron SARS-CoV-2 has several distinct sublineages including BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3. BA.1 accounts for the initial surge and is being replaced by BA.2, whereas BA.3 is at a low prevalence at this time. Here we report the neutralization of BNT162b2-vaccinated sera (collected 1 month after dose 3) against the three Omicron sublineages. To facilitate the neutralization testing, we have engineered the complete BA.1, BA.2, or BA.3 spike into an mNeonGreen USA-WA1/2020 SARS-CoV-2. All BNT162b2-vaccinated sera neutralize USA-WA1/2020, BA.1-, BA.2-, and BA.3-spike SARS-CoV-2s with titers of >20; the neutralization geometric mean titers (GMTs) against the four viruses are 1211, 336, 300, and 190, respectively. Thus, the BA.1-, BA.2-, and BA.3-spike SARS-CoV-2s are 3.6-, 4.0-, and 6.4-fold less efficiently neutralized than the USA-WA1/2020, respectively. Our data have implications in vaccine strategy and understanding the biology of Omicron sublineages.
Type of Abstract: Informative and non-structured
Abstract Example 2: Material Science and Chemistry
Breaking the nanoparticle’s dispersible limit via rotatable surface ligands
Abstract: Achieving versatile dispersion of nanoparticles in a broad range of solvents (e.g., water, oil, and biofluids) without repeatedly recourse to chemical modifications are desirable in optoelectronic devices, self-assembly, sensing, and biomedical fields. However, such a target is limited by the strategies used to decorate nanoparticle’s surface properties, leading to a narrow range of solvents for existing nanoparticles. Here we report a concept to break the nanoparticle’s dispersible limit via electrochemically anchoring surface ligands capable of sensing the surrounding liquid medium and rotating to adapt to it, immediately forming stable dispersions in a wide range of solvents (polar and nonpolar, biofluids, etc.). Moreover, the smart nanoparticles can be continuously electrodeposited in the electrolyte, overcoming the electrode surface-confined low throughput limitation of conventional electrodeposition methods. The anomalous dispersive property of the smart Ag nanoparticles enables them to resist bacteria secreted species-induced aggregation and the structural similarity of the surface ligands to that of the bacterial membrane assists them to enter the bacteria, leading to high antibacterial activity. The simple but massive fabrication process and the enhanced dispersion properties offer great application opportunities to the smart nanoparticles in diverse fields.
Type of Abstract: Descriptive and non-structured
Abstract Example 3: Clinical Toxicology
Evaluation of dexmedetomidine therapy for sedation in patients with toxicological events at an academic medical center
Introduction: Although clinical use of dexmedetomidine (DEX), an alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist, has increased, its role in patients admitted to intensive care units secondary to toxicological sequelae has not been well established.
Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe clinical and adverse effects observed in poisoned patients receiving DEX for sedation.
Methods: This was an observational case series with retrospective chart review of poisoned patients who received DEX for sedation at an academic medical center. The primary endpoint was incidence of adverse effects of DEX therapy including bradycardia, hypotension, seizures, and arrhythmias. For comparison, vital signs were collected hourly for the 5 h preceding the DEX therapy and every hour during DEX therapy until the therapy ended. Additional endpoints included therapy duration; time within target Richmond Agitation Sedation Score (RASS); and concomitant sedation, analgesia, and vasopressor requirements.
Results: Twenty-two patients were included. Median initial and median DEX infusion rates were similar to the commonly used rates for sedation. Median heart rate was lower during the therapy (82 vs. 93 beats/minute, p < 0.05). Median systolic blood pressure before and during therapy was similar (111 vs. 109 mmHg, p = 0.745). Five patients experienced an adverse effect per study definitions during therapy. No additional adverse effects were noted. Median time within target RASS and duration of therapy was 6.5 and 44.5 h, respectively. Seventeen patients (77%) had concomitant use of other sedation and/or analgesia with four (23%) of these patients requiring additional agents after DEX initiation. Seven patients (32%) had concomitant vasopressor support with four (57%) of these patients requiring vasopressor support after DEX initiation.
Conclusion: Common adverse effects of DEX were noted in this study. The requirement for vasopressor support during therapy warrants further investigation into the safety of DEX in poisoned patients. Larger, comparative studies need to be performed before the use of DEX can be routinely recommended in poisoned patients.
Keywords: Adverse effects; Alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist; Overdose; Safety.
Type of Abstract: Informative and structured .
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AN ABSTRACT IN DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
by Barnabas Bekele
The purpose of this article is to present relevant concepts on one of the most important part of research paper, an abstract. The article summarizes what an abstract is, the elements an abstract contains and its peculiar relevance in research. Moreover, the article explicates the layout and formats to be followed in compiling an abstract irrespective of the research kind being conducted. Thus, the intention of the article is to help graduate and novice researchers to know the values, formats and components of an abstract. The work is also valuable for other concerned readers as well.
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Research is a crucial tool for leading man towards achieving progress, findings new facts, new concepts and discovering truths which leads to better ways of doing things. In the other words, “research is a diligent search, studious inquiry, investigation, experiment or collection of information, interpretation of facts, revision of existing theories and laws aimed at discovery of new facts and findings” (Adams al.,2007,P.20). Research Begins when researchers discover real world problems and try to answer those problems with the required mechanisms, tools and methods. Therefore, research methods have gained acceptance in all branches of science and disciplines which seek to find the answer for research questions in scientific manner (Ibid). It is believed, if a research does not follow any methodology, it may produce false results. There are different types of research for different disciplines and each discipline is associated with the particular scientific tools. Social sciences are one of those branches of sciences that follow its own research methods, methodologies and tools. Research method in social sciences is a vast topic. This is due to the fact that Social sciences include a great number of disciplines namely; Political Science, International Relations, Sociology, Economics, Anthropology, Social Capital, Education, Management, History, Psychology and so forth. Within each discipline researchers apply different methods and methodologies. The most frequently used methods are laboratory experiments, comparative politics, inferential analysis, descriptive analysis, exploratory research, Analytical Research and Predictive Research. Despite differences in disciplines and methods used in research, most disciplines in social sciences share same features and use same language for interpretation and reporting of their results (Walliman, 2011). It also happens that researchers use different methodologies for the similar type of problem of a discipline, it is as a result of limiting factors such as; cost, time, availability of tools, literature, access to publications and a country’s own peculiarities and circumstances (Adams et al.,2007). Descriptive research is one of the most commonly used type of researches in social sciences. A descriptive research aims to describe a phenomena the ways it is, for example, describing social systems or relationships between events (Adams et al., 2007). This paper attempts to introduce descriptive analysis; its advantages, disadvantages an example of Descriptive Analysis and conclusion. The next section introduces Descriptive Analysis.
José Mario Ochoa-Pachas
2021, Academia Letters
Rui Pedro Paiva
Roberto Díaz Reza
2018, Impact Analysis of Total Productive Maintenance
This study aims to identify the structure of abstract paragraphs of research paper written by the students, to identify the components of abstracts research paper written by the students and to know the language use in abstract research paper written by the students. The methodology used in this study was descriptive qualitative. The subject in this study was the abstracts of 50 students of Economy and Islamic Business Faculty IAIN Surakarta that done the final assignments. The approach of the research by analyzing the abstract of the students used theories of Cindy and Lewiston in analyzing the structure of abstract paragraphs and the components of abstract, and used the theory of Jacobs in analyzing the language use of abstract. The results of this study showed; (1) the dominants structure of abstract paragraphs written by the students in 3 paragraphs that was 88%, (2) the dominant components of abstracts written by the students; purpose, methods, result, and keywords (PMRK) by 34...
2006, Nurse education today
2014, The International Journal of Humanities
The significance of research article (RA) abstract as a key academic genre has recently motivated analysts to focus on this neglected area. Considering a summary function for abstracts, most genre researchers have adopted the conventionally proposed Introduction- Method- Results- Discussion (or Conclusion) (IMRD) model for analysis. However, the problems reported, especially for Results and Discussion sections, question the vitality of such accounts and prompt further scrutiny. Moreover, in spite of claims about disciplinary and cultural variations which can affect communication within and across discourse communities, sufficient contrastive studies which address the Iranian academics' need to communicate with and participate efficiently in the international discourse communities are scarce. Inspired by English for Specific/Academic Purposes tradition of genre analysis, this paper tries to fill these gaps presenting a comparative generic analysis of soft sciences abstracts to se...
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Richard Baskas, Ed.D. Candidate
Ambikanandan R Misra
A well-written research article is quintessential for the innovative work to be appreciated and receiving a good number of citations. But writing a good research article is not an art. With due care and understanding the focus requirements can help a researcher to present his work with high scientific impact. The seeds of a research article are in the primary research or discovery by a researcher, which once communicated and peer reviewed takes the form of a publication and triggers further scientific pursuits in future. Before beginning to draft a research manuscript, it is important to decide upon the journal a researcher wants to publish his work in. The draft can be then prepared according to its format requirements. But a standard flow of information in any article is as follows: abstract followed by introduction, details of materials and methods and then results leading to discussion and conclusion and ending up with acknowledgments and references. A research report is an objectively written piece where no personal anecdotes are included. The research article should not be written in first person and it should be attempted that there are least number of grammatical mistakes or mis-spellings in the article. The choice of words may also affect the impact or curiosity generated from the article, fancy words are better avoided and words reflecting knowledge like define, ABSTRACT OR SUMMARY The article begins with the abstract, which is summary of the research work. It is a concise and focused representation of research work indicating the aim of the study, the methods used, results and major findings as a conclusion from the studies. It ends with the implications for future. The abstract gives a first-hand impression of the impending article to the reader and needs to be written precisely and with clarity. The researchers should refrain from writing extended background or methodology. Few keywords may be given at the end of abstract representing the field of significance of the article and will help future researchers in searching for appropriate references. Abstract is a must for every article and missing information or too much description are the common errors. The abstract must follow – introduction – purpose – methodology – results – conclusion – future implication format.
2006, Acta Paulista de Enfermagem
Kerwin A. Livingstone
This general analysis of an empirical research article focuses on an entire structural analysis of the article, highlighting the importance of having all the required components of an empirical article. The analysis of the methodological aspects of the selected article appears in another Doctoral assignment of mine (Analysis of the Methodological Aspects of an Empirical Research Article).
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IJMRE Journal , Almighty C . Tabuena
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Preserving and improving the quality of human life is the main objective of the research process. There is a need to look at the teaching of research methods in this situation, as equipping students with these research literacy skills leads to increase individual research performance, especially on the demonstrative and preliminary steps in writing the literature review. Therefore, this research paper takes lead in research education to help students develop and maintain research skills using the research abstracts as a way to prepare and write the literature review on the research writing process. In this circumstance, this research article aimed to select relevant literature, synthesize information from relevant literature, use the research abstract in selecting related literature and studies, and present a written review of related literature. It is very important to understand research from the perspective of researchers, from its nature to the important guidelines, as well as the research process itself. In preparing the research abstracts for the literature review and writing the literature review itself, demonstrative processes are recommended to ensure consistency and efficiency in doing research. In this process, the research abstract tabular outline will help the students in organizing the references and establish the important details in writing the literature review. It will also identify what to be included in the literature review and what to be disposed of in reading and analyzing different resources and references. This research abstract form in tabular outline for research reading might help students in preparing and writing the literature review in the research writing process as it is beneficial to them to promote and sustain research endeavors.
2013, The Cyprus Journal of Sciences
Carrying out a research paper is concerned to be a simple task. However, in practice it is far more complicated. The most important factor is for the researcher to know the main principles of the research process. It is vital to identify the research methods progression, the meaning and purpose of the research to be carried out, by the formulation of hypothesis, aims and questions, the use of methodology-both quantitative and qualitative-their characteristics and suitability when utilized, and the need of sampling and ethical considerations. By the use of theoretical framework, the current research paper firstly discusses and analyses the principles of bringing about a research paper, and most importantly it emphasizes the advantages and disadvantages of research methodology.
In every research article there is always presented an abstract of scientific paper. It is sometimes poorly written, often lack significant information. This article provides detailed suggestions with examples for writing the background, purposes, methods, result findings, and conclusions sections of a structured abstract. The purpose of this paper is to find out whether the writers can make a structured abstract and apply the five-move model.The method is toanalyze10 research articles of appliedlinguistics articles and 10 social articles.Each participant is analyzed whetherhe / she has the structured based on a five-move model of each discipline.It is qualitative and descriptive in nature. The result from applied linguistics corpusshows that only 2 out of ten participants apply the complete five-move model. From the social corpusonly one of the total participants applies the model. The rest of the participants from both disciplines cannot make a structured abstract, since they do n...
Note: These model answers are a depiction of important points which an examinee must have to mention to secure high marks in particular question. The length of the answer may vary as per the examinee's understanding, interpretation and his/her ability to comprehend the content.
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International Journal of English Language and Translation Studies
Earlier studies have assigned significant roles to research article abstracts for the purpose of informing the reader about the content of the article by compressing the most important findings in its writing. It also allows the reader to decide whether to read the entire article or not (Martin, 2003). Therefore, writing a research article abstract needs an initial focus on textual and rhetorical features that constitute an efficacious research article abstract. One of the textual features is Theme (Gosden, 1992). Theme is defined as an element, which serves as the point of departure of the message in a clause and plays a major role in text organization. It helps a text to be communicated and understood clearly (Halliday, 1994). This study aims to investigate the Theme types and patterns used in 120 research article abstracts from the disciplines of Applied Linguistics, Economics, Agriculture and Applied Physics. The gathered data were analyzed based on Halliday's (1994) model of Thematic organization and Eggins' (2004) model of Thematic progression. The results revealed disciplinary differences, which generally lead to specificity of selection of the Theme types and patterns used in the writing of the research article abstract.
MD Ashikur Rahman
Dr. Waqar Un Nisa Faizi
Systematic analysis and interpretation of collected data for a research study: A practical methodological framework for writing research report
s Summarize it An abstract is a summary of a body of information. Sometimes, abstracts are in fact called summaries—sometimes, executive summaries or executive abstracts. The business and scientific worlds define different types of abstracts according to their needs. If you are taking a technical writing course based on this online textbook, your technical report (depending on your instructor) may use two types: the descriptive abstract and the informative abstract. Descriptive Abstracts The descriptive abstract provides a description of the report's main topic and purpose as well an overview of its contents. As you can see from the example, it is very short—usually a brief oneor two-sentence paragraph. In this report design, it appears on the title page. You may have noticed something similar to this type of abstract at the beginning of journal articles. In this type of abstract, you don't summarize any of the facts or conclusions of the report. The descriptive abstract doe...
Jurnal Pendidikan: Teori, Penelitian, dan Pengembangan
2016, Scientific and Technical Information Processing
The general view of descriptive research as a lower level form of inquiry has in¯uenced some researchers conducting qualitative research to claim methods they are really not using and not to claim the method they are using: namely, qualitative description. Qualitative descriptive studies have as their goal a comprehensive summary of events in the everyday terms of those events. Researchers conducting qualitative descriptive studies stay close to their data and to the surface of words and events. Qualitative descriptive designs typically are an eclectic but reasonable combination of sampling, and data collection, analysis, and representation techniques. Qualitative descriptive study is the method of choice when straight descriptions of phenomena are desired.
2018, Athens Institute of Education and Research
Teaching to write an abstract is an integral part of ESP language curriculum at the Department of Languages, Philosophical Faculty, Comenius University. The aim of the article was to describe the process and methodology in teaching how to write an informative abstract. Through analysing theoretical background, appropriate vocabulary and grammar for abstract writing were suggested. Samples of student work were analysed in order to point out frequent and common mistakes. Consistent practice and instruction is necessary for the students to master writing an informative abstract. Key words: abstract, teaching abstract, abstract writing, academic vocabulary, tenses, ESP
This paper discusses the importance of conceptualisation in quantitative research. It explains in simple terms what conceptualisation entails, and indicates where and how the researcher should apply the techniques of conceptualisation. The paper has been prompted by the recurring challenges higher degree students and early career researchers face in enabling the readers of their research reports (dissertations or theses) to gain a common understanding of what they have written about. Problems with this have caused some dissertations or theses to be rejected for reporting on something other than what the candidate purports to have studied. In this paper, conceptualisation is examined as a multi-dimensional concept, starting with the process of forming concepts that describe the identified research problem, and proceeding to the derivation of agreed-on meanings of concepts, as well as the operationalisation of study variables, in order to avoid ambiguity and misinterpretation in a res...
2018, Mahmud Alhushori
The data of this research are the utterances the English teacher produced during the classroom interaction in English lesson at Marketing Class 2 of SMK Negeri 1 Surakarta. The utterances of the English teacher are mostly mixtures of Indonesian, Javanese and English is spoken in some portion, especially when she explains and delivers the materials. The use of mixture language is also used in the interaction between English teacher and students in learning process. English is spoken in greeting in the early class. The types of the English teacher utterances are found in the English classroom interaction in the form of declarative, imperative and interrogative. The English teacher's utterances are produced in different situations such as when she greets the class to open the lesson, ("Good morning everybody, how are you today?"), or when she gives command to her students; such as when she gives command her students to speak louder ("Seng banter to!"), or when she tries to remind the students to keep focus in the lesson ("Jonathan ? Rame dewe ?"). Moreover, each utterance produced by the English teacher has its own context which is identified from the contexts and purposes. The total number of the data is 535 utterances that were taken from the classroom interaction in English lesson in three meetings. The researcher analyzes 20 data representing five types of speech act proposed by Searle. The data analysis will cover only four types; representatives, directives, commisives, and expressives. Each datum has a code, i.e. Datum01/1/DEC which means the first datum is collected from the first meeting and the utterance belongs to declarative types.
In this study an attempt has been made to answer the questions " What are Research and its types? " What is difference between research paper and article? What is difference between project report, thesis and dissertation? A systematic literature review is undertaken giving an overview of its processes and principles. Research' is a particular type of investigation. It is impossible to do research without having a problem, which is required to be resolved, or a question, which needs to be answered but it is difficult for scholars to select and write topic, statement of purpose and thesis, so the solutions of these are given in this article. The definition and evolution of the approach are described, including the various kinds of research being used today. The research procedure and its nature have been discussed from different scholars' point of view. This article also seeks to organize the scattered knowledge at one point to get research scholars equipped with the latest knowledge. Finally, this study has revealed that research is purposeful and solution-oriented investigation which needs every step properly written. Guidelines given in this study are very clear to help the student to complete their article thesis and dissertation so researchers are advised to follow the guidelines to write quality thesis.
Researching journal articles will be important to the graduate student. This paper will analyze a published journal article.
Mee Jay Domingo
2021, TESOL International Journal
Problems regarding the what and how of abstract writing have always been the perennial concern of graduate students. Although there is an abundance of international studies in this area, only a few were conducted in the Philippines. Particularly, nobody has attempted to do genre analysis in the context of abstract writing in the locale of the study. Thus, abstract writing among graduate students in the university following an institutional standard is still a challenge. Realizing the importance of addressing this concern, the researchers examined the language structure and rhetorical pattern of the graduate theses and dissertations of the MMSU Graduate School. Specifically, it identified the moves and move patterns reflected in the abstracts. It also described their linguistic features such as verb tense, sentence structure, and point of view. The study used the descriptive research design to determine the standard pattern used by MMSU graduate students in writing their abstracts. Specifically, it used the Genre-based Approach and Hyland’s Framework for Abstract Analysis (2000). The analyses made on the samples found variations in the moves, move patterns, and linguistic features reflected in the abstracts. Based on the findings, the MMSU-GS is encouraged to create a guideline that standardizes the move to be included and move patterns to follow in writing an abstract. Also, the school is encouraged to formulate a guideline that shall foster consistency in the use of tense of the verbs, sentence structure, and point of view in writing the abstracts.
2011, Engineering Economics
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