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Skeletal System

Human skeletal system.

The skeletal system functions as the basic framework of a body and the entire body are built around the hard framework of Skeleton. It is the combination of all the bones and tissues associated with cartilages and joints. Almost all the rigid or solid parts of the body are the main components of the skeletal system. Joints play an important role in the skeletal system as it helps in permitting the different types of movements at different locations. If the skeleton were without joints, then there would be no sign of the movements in the human body.

Human Skeletal System

Skeletal System Anatomy

This skeletal system can be divided into the axial and appendicular systems. In an adult body, it is mainly composed of 206 individual bones which are organized into two main divisions:

Axial skeleton

  • Appendicular skeleton.

The axial skeleton runs along the body’s central axis, therefore it is called the central core of the human body. The axial skeleton is composed of 80 bones and it consists of:

  • Skull Bone – It includes 8 cranial bones, 14 facial bones, 6 auditory ossicles, and the Hyoid Bone
  • The bone of the Thoracic Cage – It includes 25 bones of the thorax- a breastbone and 24 ribs.
  • The bone of the Vertebral column- It includes 24 vertebrae bones, the sacrum bone, and the coccyx bone.

Also check: Function of Parietal Bones

Appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton is composed of 126 bones and it comprises of the-

  • Pelvic girdle
  • Upper Limbs
  • Lower Limbs
  • Shoulder Girdle or the Pectoral

Read more: Parts and Names of Human Skeleton

Skeletal System Physiology

The primary functions of the skeletal system include movement, support, protection production of blood cells , storage of minerals and endocrine regulation.

The primary function of the skeletal system is to provide a solid framework to support and safeguard the human body and its organs. This helps in maintaining the overall shape of the human body.

Also check: Function of Short Bones

The skeletal system also helps to protect our internal organs and other delicate body organs, including the brain, heart, lungs and spinal cord by acting as a buffer. Our cranium (skull) protects our brain and eyes, the ribs protect our heart and lungs and our vertebrae (spine, backbones) protect our spinal cord.

Bones provide the basic structure for muscles to attach themselves onto so that our bodies are able to move. Tendons are tough inelastic bands that attach our muscle to that particular bone.

Also read: Femur Structure and Function

The bone matrix of the skeletal system is mainly involved in storing or preserving different types of essential minerals which are required to facilitate growth and repair of the body cells and tissues. The cell-matrix acts as our calcium bank by storing and releasing calcium ions into the blood cell when required.

Regulation of Endocrine glands

The bone cells present within the skeletal system plays an important role in releasing the synthesized hormones from the respective endocrine glands for the further requirement by the body for different metabolisms . Apart from these functions, the skeletal system also contributes to the regulation of blood sugar.

To learn more about the structure and functions of the skeletal system, visit BYJU’S.

Also check:

  • How Many Bones Does A Human Have?
  • How many bones does a female body have?
  • How many bones are present in the human face?
  • What is the meaning of appendicular skeleton?
  • What is the function of the cranium?

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6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System

Learning objectives.

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

List and describe the functions of the skeletal system

  • Attribute specific functions of the skeletal system to specific components or structures

The skeletal system is the body system composed of bones, cartilages, ligaments and other tissues that perform essential functions for the human body. Bone tissue, or osseous tissue , is a hard, dense connective tissue that forms most of the adult skeleton, the internal support structure of the body. In the areas of the skeleton where whole bones move against each other (for example, joints like the shoulder or between the bones of the spine), cartilages, a semi-rigid form of connective tissue, provide flexibility and smooth surfaces for movement. Additionally, ligaments composed of dense connective tissue surround these joints, tying skeletal elements together (a ligament is the dense connective tissue that connect bones to other bones). Together, they perform the following functions:

skeletal system assignment

Support, Movement, and Protection

Some functions of the skeletal system are more readily observable than others. When you move you can feel how your bones support you, facilitate your movement, and protect the soft organs of your body. Just as the steel beams of a building provide a scaffold to support its weight, the bones and cartilages of your skeletal system compose the scaffold that supports the rest of your body. Without the skeletal system, you would be a limp mass of organs, muscle, and skin. Bones facilitate movement by serving as points of attachment for your muscles. Bones also protect internal organs from injury by covering or surrounding them. For example, your ribs protect your lungs and heart, the bones of your vertebral column (spine) protect your spinal cord, and the bones of your cranium (skull) protect your brain (see Figure 6.1.1 ).

Mineral and Fat Storage, Blood Cell Formation

On a metabolic level, bone tissue performs several critical functions. For one, the bone tissue acts as a reservoir for a number of minerals important to the functioning of the body, especially calcium, and phosphorus. These minerals, incorporated into bone tissue, can be released back into the bloodstream to maintain levels needed to support physiological processes. Calcium ions, for example, are essential for muscle contractions and are involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.

Bones also serve as a site for fat storage and blood cell production. The unique connective tissue that fills the interior of most bones is referred to as bone marrow . There are two types of bone marrow: yellow bone marrow and red bone marrow. Yellow bone marrow contains adipose tissue, and the triglycerides stored in the adipocytes of this tissue can be released to serve as a source of energy for other tissues of the body. Red bone marrow is where the production of blood cells (named hematopoiesis, hemato- = “blood”, -poiesis = “to make”) takes place. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are all produced in the red bone marrow. As we age, the distribution of red and yellow bone marrow changes as seen in the figure ( Figure 6.1.2 ).

skeletal system assignment

Career Connection – Orthopedist

An orthopedist is a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders and injuries related to the musculoskeletal system. Some orthopedic problems can be treated with medications, exercises, braces, and other devices, but others may be best treated with surgery ( Figure 6.1.3 ).

This photo shows a man wearing a black arm brace on his upper arm and forearm. The brace is composed of an L shaped metal piece attached to an adjustable joint and four adjustable straps. The joint occurs at the elbow. One of the metal bars projects proximally from the joint up the forearm towards the shoulder. This bar is secured with two black straps to a foam cuff that wraps around the entire upper arm. The other metal bar projects distally from the joint, down the forearm, to the wrist. This bar is secured by two smaller foam wraps, one wrapping around the middle of the forearm and the other wrapping around the wrist.

While the origin of the word “orthopedics” (ortho- = “straight”; paed- = “child”), literally means “straightening of the child,” orthopedists can have patients who range from pediatric to geriatric. In recent years, orthopedists have even performed prenatal surgery to correct spina bifida, a congenital defect in which the neural canal in the spine of the fetus fails to close completely during embryologic development.

Orthopedists commonly treat bone and joint injuries but they also treat other bone conditions including curvature of the spine. Lateral curvatures (scoliosis) can be severe enough to slip under the shoulder blade (scapula) forcing it up as a hump. Spinal curvatures can also be excessive dorsoventrally (kyphosis) causing a hunch back and thoracic compression. These curvatures often appear in preteens as the result of poor posture, abnormal growth, or indeterminate causes. Mostly, they are readily treated by orthopedists. As people age, accumulated spinal column injuries and diseases like osteoporosis can also lead to curvatures of the spine, hence the stooping you sometimes see in the elderly.

Some orthopedists sub-specialize in sports medicine, which addresses both simple injuries, such as a sprained ankle, and complex injuries, such as a torn rotator cuff in the shoulder. Treatment can range from exercise to surgery.

Section Review

The major functions of the skeletal system are body support, facilitation of movement, protection of internal organs, storage of minerals and fat, and blood cell formation.

Review Questions

Critical thinking questions.

  • Suppose your red bone marrow could not be formed. What functions would your body not be able to perform?
  • Suppose your osseous tissue could not store calcium. What functions would your body not be able to perform?

Answers for Critical Thinking Questions

  • Without red bone marrow, you would not be able to produce blood cells. The red bone marrow is responsible for forming red and white blood cells as well as platelets. Red blood cells transport oxygen to tissues, and remove carbon dioxide. Without red blood cells, your tissues would not be able to produce ATP using oxygen. White blood cells play a role in the immune system fighting off foreign invaders in our body – without white blood cells you would not be able to recover from infection. Platelets are responsible for clotting your blood when a vessel ruptures. Without platelets you would bleed to death and die.
  •  The calcium in osseous tissue provides mineral support to bones. Without this calcium, the bones are not rigid and cannot be supportive. The calcium in osseous tissue is also an important storage site, that can release calcium when needed. Other organ systems rely on this calcium for action (specifically, muscle contraction and neural signaling). Without calcium storage, blood calcium levels change dramatically and affect muscle contraction and neural signaling.

This work, Anatomy & Physiology, is adapted from Anatomy & Physiology by OpenStax , licensed under CC BY . This edition, with revised content and artwork, is licensed under CC BY-SA except where otherwise noted.

Images, from Anatomy & Physiology by OpenStax , are licensed under CC BY except where otherwise noted.

Access the original for free at https://openstax.org/books/anatomy-and-physiology/pages/1-introduction .

Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2019 by Lindsay M. Biga, Staci Bronson, Sierra Dawson, Amy Harwell, Robin Hopkins, Joel Kaufmann, Mike LeMaster, Philip Matern, Katie Morrison-Graham, Kristen Oja, Devon Quick, Jon Runyeon, OSU OERU, and OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Human Anatomy Worksheets and Study Guides

Human Anatomy Worksheets

This is a collection of free human anatomy worksheets. The completed worksheets make great study guides for learning bones, muscles, organ systems, etc. The worksheets come in a variety of formats for downloading and printing. In most cases, the PDF worksheets print the best. But, you may prefer to work online with Google Slides or print the PNG images.

Do you need a particular worksheet, but don’t see it? Ideas for worksheet topics you want covered are welcome!

Human Anatomy Worksheets

These worksheets cover major organs and organ systems.

Anatomy of the Heart Worksheet

Label the Heart

Label the parts of the human heart.

[ Google Apps worksheet ][ worksheet PDF ][ worksheet PNG ][ answers PNG ]

Anatomy of the Eye Worksheet

Label the Eye

Label the parts of the eye.

[ Google Apps worksheet ][ worksheet PDF ][ answers PDF ][ worksheet PNG ]

Types of Blood Cells Worksheet

Types of Blood Cells

Identify the types of blood cells.

[ worksheet Google Apps ][ worksheet PDF ][ worksheet PNG ][ answers PNG ]

The Main Anterior Muscles Worksheet

Label the Muscles

Label the major anterior muscles.

[ worksheet PDF ][ worksheet PNG ][ answers PNG ]

Anatomy of the ear worksheet

Label the Ear

Label the human ear.

[ Google Apps worksheet ][ Worksheet PDF ][ Worksheet PNG ][ Answers PNG ]

Anatomy of the Lungs Worksheet

Label the Lungs

Identify the parts of the lungs.

Anatomy of a Kidney Worksheet

Label the Kidney

Label the parts of the kidney.

Anatomy of the Liver Worksheet

Label the Liver

Identify the anatomy of the liver.

Anatomy of the Large Intestine Worksheet

Label the Large Intestine

Label the parts of the large intestine.

Anatomy of the Stomach Worksheet

Label the Stomach

Label the human stomach.

[ Google Apps worksheet ] [Worksheet PDF ][ Worksheet PNG ][ Answers PNG ]

External Nose Anatomy Worksheet

External Nose Anatomy

Identify the parts of the nose.

[ Worksheet PDF ][ Worksheet Google Apps ][ Worksheet PNG ][ Answers PNG ]

Anatomy of the Nose Worksheet

Parts of the Nose

Here’s another way of identifying nose anatomy.

The Skeletal System Worksheet

Label Bones of the Skeleton

Identify major bones of the skeleton.

[ Google Apps worksheet ][ worksheet PDF ][ answers PDF ][ worksheet PNG ][ answers PNG ]

Anatomy of a Lymph Node - Worksheet

Label the Lymph Node

Label the lymph node.

Anatomy of a Skull Worksheet

Label the Human Skull

[ worksheet PDF ][ worksheet Google Apps ][ worksheet PNG ][ answers PNG ]

Advanced Anatomy of a Skull Worksheet

Label the Skull (Advanced)

Anatomy of of the Brain Worksheet

Label the Parts of the Brain

Identify parts of a human brain.

Lobes of the Brain Worksheet

Label the Lobes of the Brain

Identify the different lobes of the brain.

Anatomical Directions of the Brain Worksheet

Brain Anatomical Sections

Explore anatomical sections using a human brain as a reference.

Arteries of the Brain Worksheet

Arteries of the Brain

Identify major brain arteries.

Anatomy of the Pancreas Worksheet

Label the Pancreas

Label the parts of the human pancreas.

Anatomy of the Spleen Worksheet

Label the Spleen

Label spleen anatomy.

The Digestive System Worksheet

Label the Digestive System

Identify parts of the human digestive system.

The Respiratory System Worksheet

Label the Respiratory System

Label the respiratory system.

Anatomy of a Neuron Worksheet

Parts of a Neuron

Identify parts of a neuron.

Lip Anatomy Worksheet

Label the Lips

Label human lips.

Anatomy of the Skin Worksheet

Label the Skin

Label layers and structures in skin.

The Circulatory System Worksheet

Label the Circulatory System

Label the circulatory system.

The Excretory System Worksheet

The Urinary Tract

[ Worksheet PDF ][ Worksheet Google Apps ][ Worksheet PNG ][ Answer Key PNG ]

Anatomy of the Bladder Worksheet

The Bladder

Female Reproductive System Anatomy Worksheet

The Female Reproductive System

The Teeth Worksheet

Label Human Teeth

Identifying Body Organs Worksheet

Identify Organs #1

Identify Organ Systems by Organ Worksheet 1 Worksheet

Identify Organ Systems #1

Identifying Body Organs Worksheet 2

Identify Organs #2

Identify Organ Systems by Organ Worksheet 2

Identify Organ Systems #2

  • Diagram of the Human Eye [ JPG ]

Human Anatomy Worksheets Terms of Use

You are welcome to print these resources for personal or classroom use. They may be used as handouts or posters. They may  not  be posted elsewhere online, sold, or used on products for sale.

This page doesn’t include all of the assets on the Science Notes site. If there’s a table or worksheet you need but don’t see, just let us know. The same goes if you need a different file format.

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2.5: Lab Exercise 6- The Skeletal System—Microscopic and Gross Anatomy of Bones

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Lab Summary: In this lab, you will explore the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy and physiology of bones and their tissues. You will also review functions of some key accessory structures of the skeletal system, including the locations and functions of ligaments, tendons, hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage.

Your objectives for this lab are:

  • Differentiate between the appendicular and axial skeleton in terms of function and bones included in each division
  • List examples of long, short, sesamoid, irregular, and flat bones
  • Compact/cancellous bone
  • Spongy bone/trabecular bone o Epiphysis
  • Medullary cavity
  • Red bone marrow
  • Yellow bone marrow
  • Articular cartilage
  • Epiphyseal line
  • Sharpey’s fibers o Osteon
  • Spongy bone/trabecular bone o Medullary cavity
  • Explain bone.

the effects of acid and heat on the molecular composition and macroscopic structure of a long

  • Identify the locations and functions of hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage
  • Identify the tissues that composes tendons and ligaments
  • Identify the locations and functions of tendons and ligaments

Background Information

Bone, or osseous tissue, is a hard, dense connective tissue that forms most of the adult skeleton. In the areas of the skeleton where bones move (for example, the ribcage and joints), cartilage, a semi-rigid form of connective tissue, provides flexibility and smooth surfaces for movement. The skeletal system is composed of bones, ligaments, and cartilages that enable it to perform several critical functions for the human body including supporting the body, facilitating movement, protecting internal organs, producing blood cells, and storing and releasing minerals and fat.

Activity 6.1: Major Divisions of the Skeleton & Classifications of Bones

For adults, there are 206 bones in the skeleton. Younger individuals have higher numbers of bones because some bones fuse together during childhood and adolescence to form an adult bone. The skeleton is subdivided into two major divisions—the axial and appendicular.

The axial skeleton, consisting of the 80 bones of the skull vertebral column, and thoracic cage, forms the vertical, central axis of the body (Figure 6.1). It serves to protect the brain, spinal cord, heart, and lungs. It also serves as the attachment site for muscles that move the head, neck, and back, and for muscles that act across the shoulder and hip joints to move their corresponding limbs.

The appendicular skeleton includes all 126 bones of the upper and lower limbs, plus the bones that attach each limb to the axial skeleton (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)). These bones are divided into two groups: the bones that are located within the limbs themselves, and the girdle bones that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton. The bones of the shoulder region form the pectoral girdle, which anchors the upper limb to the thoracic cage of the axial skeleton. The lower limb is attached to the vertebral column by the pelvic girdle.

Behaviorism_1.gif

Classification of Bone Shapes The 206 bones that compose the adult skeleton are divided into five categories based on their shapes (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)). Their shapes and their functions are related such that each categorical shape of bone has a distinct function.

Long Bones A long bone is one that is cylindrical and is longer than it is wide. Long bones are found in the arms (humerus, ulna, radius) and legs (femur, tibia, fibula), as well as in the fingers (metacarpals, phalanges) and toes (metatarsals, phalanges). Long bones function as levers; they move when muscles contract.

Short Bones A short bone is one that is cube-like in shape, being approximately equal in length, width, and thickness. The only short bones in the human skeleton are in the carpals of the wrists and the tarsals of the ankles. Short bones provide stability and support as well as some limited motion.

Flat Bones The term “flat bone” is somewhat of a misnomer because, although a flat bone is typically thin, it is also often curved. Examples include the cranial (skull) bones, the scapulae (shoulder blades), the sternum (breastbone), and the ribs. Flat bones serve as points of attachment for muscles and often protect internal organs.

Irregular Bones An irregular bone is one that does not have any easily characterized shape and therefore does not fit any other classification. These bones tend to have more complex shapes, like the vertebrae that support the spinal cord and protect it from compressive forces. Many facial bones, particularly the ones containing sinuses, are classified as irregular bones.

Sesamoid Bones A sesamoid bone is a small, round bone that, as the name suggests, is shaped like a sesame seed. These bones form in tendons (the sheaths of tissue that connect bones to muscles) where a great deal of pressure is generated in a joint. Sesamoid bones protect tendons by helping them overcome compressive forces. Sesamoid bones vary in number and placement from person to person but are typically found in tendons associated with the feet, hands, and knees. The patellae (singular = patella) are the only sesamoid bones found in common with every person.

Behaviorism_1.gif

Procedure for Activity 6.1:  Classifications of Bones

1. Obtain a skeleton from your lab kit or the classroom lab supplies.  Use the information above and your skeleton to fill in the “Classification of Bone Shape” and “Is this an axial or appendicular bone?” columns for each bone listed on the left in the table  below.

                 Note if you are doing this lab remotely,

  • you can use Complete Anatomy (if you have a student subscription; you are not required to purchase a subscription if you are doing this lab with RVCC), or
  • you can a picture, such as this one:  https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/courses-images-archive-read-only/wp content/uploads/sites/18/2014/07/19181404/801_Appendicular_Skeleton.jpg

Activity 6.2: Gross Anatomy of Long Bones

The structure of a long bone allows for the best visualization of all of the parts of a bone (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)). A long bone has two major parts: the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The diaphysis is the tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of the bone which are called epiphyses. The hollow region in the diaphysis is called the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow marrow in adults. The walls of the diaphysis are composed of dense and hard compact bone.

Behaviorism_1.gif

The medullary cavity has a delicate membranous lining called the endosteum (end- = “inside”; oste- = “bone”), where bone growth, repair, and remodeling occur. The outer surface of the bone is covered with a fibrous membrane called the periosteum (peri- = “around” or “surrounding”). The periosteum contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels that nourish compact bone. Tendons and ligaments also attach to bones at the periosteum. The periosteum covers the entire outer surface except where the epiphyses meet other bones to form joints (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)). In this region, the epiphyses are covered with articular cartilage, a thin layer of cartilage that reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber.

Flat bones, like those of the cranium, consist of a layer of diploë (spongy bone), lined on either side by a layer of compact bone (Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\)). The two layers of compact bone and the interior spongy bone work together to protect the internal organs. If the outer layer of a cranial bone fractures, the brain is still protected by the intact inner layer.

Behaviorism_1.gif

Procedure for Activity 6.2: Gross Anatomy of Long Bones

  • Obtain a model or preserved specimen* of a long bone that has been cut longitudinally.
  •  *Alternately, you can use cracked poultry bones that have been softened by during the bone broth making process.
  • Review the function of each part listed in Step 2 of this procedure.

Activity 6.3: Microscopic Anatomy of Long Bones

Bone contains a relatively small number of cells entrenched in a crystallized matrix of collagen fibers and inorganic salt crystals. These salt crystals form when calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate combine to create hydroxyapatite, which incorporates other inorganic salts like magnesium hydroxide, fluoride, and sulfate as it crystallizes, or calcifies, on the collagen fibers. The hydroxyapatite crystals give bones their hardness and strength, while the collagen fibers give them flexibility so that they are not brittle. Although bone cells compose a small amount of the bone volume, they are crucial to the function of bones. Four types of cells are found within bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts (Figure \(\PageIndex{5}\)).

Bone Cells Osteogenic cells are undifferentiated with high mitotic activity; they are the only bone cells that divide. Immature osteogenic cells are found in the deep layers of the periosteum and the marrow. They differentiate and develop into osteoblasts. Osteoblasts are responsible for forming new bone matrix and are found in the growing portions of bone, including the periosteum and endosteum. Moreover, the activation of these cells requires several vitamins include vitamins K2, C, and D to name a few. Osteoblasts, which do not divide, synthesize and secrete the collagen matrix and calcium salts. As the secreted matrix surrounding the osteoblast calcifies under the influence of alkaline phosphatase enzyme, the osteoblast becomes trapped within it; as a result, it changes in structure and becomes an osteocyte, the primary cell of mature bone and the most common type of bone cell. Each osteocyte is located in a space called a lacuna and is surrounded by bone tissue. Osteocytes maintain the mineral concentration of the matrix via the secretion of enzymes. Like osteoblasts, osteocytes lack mitotic activity. They can communicate with each other and receive nutrients via long cytoplasmic processes that extend through canaliculi (singular = canaliculus), channels within the bone matrix.

The dynamic nature of bone means that new tissue is constantly formed, and old, injured, or unnecessary bone is dissolved for repair or for calcium release. The cell responsible for bone resorption, or breakdown, is the osteoclast. They are found on bone surfaces, are multinucleated, and originate from monocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells, not from osteogenic cells. Osteoclasts are continually breaking down old bone, while osteoblasts are continually forming new bone. The ongoing balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is responsible for the constant but subtle reshaping of bone.

Behaviorism_1.gif

Compact/ Cancellous Bone Compact bone is the denser, stronger of the two types of bone tissue (Figure \(\PageIndex{6}\)). It is constructed to withstand compressive forces. It can be found under the periosteum and in the diaphysis of long bones, where it provides support and protection. The microscopic structural unit of compact bone is called an osteon, or Haversian system. Each osteon is composed of concentric rings of calcified matrix called lamellae (singular = lamella). Running down the center of each osteon is the central canal which contains blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels. These vessels and nerves branch off at right angles through a perforating canal to extend to the periosteum and endosteum. Osteocytes are located inside spaces called lacunae (singular = lacuna), found at the borders of adjacent lamellae. As described above, canaliculi connect with the canaliculi of other lacunae and eventually with the central canal. This system allows nutrients to be transported to osteocytes and wastes to be removed from them.

Behaviorism_1.gif

Spongy/Trabecular/Lamellar Bone Like compact bone, spongy bone, also known as trabecular or lamellar bone, contains osteocytes housed in lacunae, but they are not usually arranged in concentric circles. Instead, the lacunae and osteocytes are found in a latticelike network of matrix spikes called trabeculae (singular = trabecula) (Figure \(\PageIndex{7}\)). The trabeculae may appear to be a random network, but each trabecula forms along lines of stress to provide strength, by enabling support for shifts in weight distribution or dissipation of forces applied to the bone. to the bone. The spaces of the trabeculated network provide balance to the dense and heavy compact bone by making bones lighter so that muscles can move them more easily. In addition, the spaces in some spongy bones contain red marrow, protected by the trabeculae, where blood cell production (hematopoiesis) occurs.

Behaviorism_1.gif

Procedure for Activity 6.3: Microscopic Anatomy of Long Bones in Models

  • Obtain a model showing the microscopic anatomy of a long bone.
  • In the bone(s), locate Central canal, Lacuna(e), Canaliculi, Osteocytes, Lamella(e), Trabeculae, Sharpey’s fibers, Osteon, Compact/cancellous bone, Spongy /trabecular bone, Medullary cavity, Red bone marrow, Periosteum, Endosteum.
  • Obtain a slide of osseous tissue. You are going to revisit this slide (originally seen in lab exercise 5) with the new knowledge you have learned in this lab.
  • In the bone(s), locate Central canal, Lacuna(e), Canaliculi, Osteocytes, Lamella(e).

Part 3: (You are welcomed to touch the bones. You must wear goggles and use a fresh pair of gloves for each group of bones that you touch.)

  • Go to the designated area in the lab to observe raw bones, baked bones and bones soaked in acid.
  • Observe the raw bones as a baseline for comparison to the baked bones and bones soaked in acid.
  • Compare the visual and physical characteristics of the three sets of bones. Make notes about the differences below. Then answer questions a and b below.

a. Rickets disease is a childhood disease in which bones do not properly mineralize (do not form calcium phosphate properly). This is often due to deficiencies in vitamin D. The vitamin D deficiency will also lead to deficiencies in calcium. The lack of mineralization can often lead to the bowing or bending of bones, especially those in the legs when the child starts to stand and bear weight. Given this information and your observations of the three sets of bones, explain which set of bones you think most closely represents what happens to bones in Rickets disease.

b. Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by osteopenia and lower than normal bone density, often due to a lack of calcium or vitamin D. This results in bones that are more likely to fracture. Given this information and your observations of the three sets of bones, explain which set of bones you think most closely represents what happens to bones in osteoporosis.

Additional Learning Resources:

  • Watch this video to learn about key structures found in a long bone for Activities 1 and 2:    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vwN22f6AI6g&feature=youtu.be
  • Watch this video to learn about microscopic structures found in compact bone for Activity 3:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUvZ_XHsi50&feature=youtu.be
  • https://www.purposegames.com/game/compact-bone-model-review-game
  • https://www.purposegames.com/game/structure-of-compact-bone-quiz
  • https://www.purposegames.com/game/bone-section-model-quiz

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7.1: Case Study- Your Support System

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  • Suzanne Wakim & Mandeep Grewal
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Case Study: A Pain in the Foot

Amari loves wearing high heels when they go out at night, like the stiletto heels shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) . Amari uses gender-neutral pronouns, such as they, them, and their. They know high heels are not the most practical shoes, but they like how they look. Lately, Amari has been experiencing pain in the balls of their feet—the area just behind the toes. Even when they trade heels for comfortable sneakers, it still hurts when they stand or walk.

high heels

What could be going on? Amari searches online to try to find some answers. They find a reputable source for foot pain information—a website from a professional organization of physicians that peer reviews the content by experts in the field. There, Amari reads about a condition called metatarsalgia, which produces pain in the ball of the foot that sounds very similar to what they are experiencing.

Amari learns that a common cause of metatarsalgia is the wearing of high heels because they push the foot into an abnormal position. This results in excessive pressure being placed onto the ball of the foot. Looking at the photograph above, you can imagine how much of the body weight is focused on the ball of the foot because of the shape of the high heels. If they were not wearing high heels, the weight would be more evenly distributed across the foot.

As they read more about the hazards of high heels, Amari learns that heels can also cause foot deformities such as hammertoes and bunions, small cracks in the bone called stress fractures, and may even contribute to the development of osteoarthritis of the knees at an early age.

These conditions caused by high heels are all problems of the skeletal system, which includes bones and connective tissues that hold bones together and cushion them at joints such as the knee. The skeletal system supports the body’s weight and protects internal organs, but as you will learn as you read this chapter, it also carries out a variety of other important physiological functions.

At the end of the chapter, you will find out why high heels can cause these skeletal system problems and the steps Amari takes to recover from their foot pain and prevent long-term injury.

Chapter Overview: Skeletal System

In this chapter, you will learn about the structure, functions, growth, repair, and disorders of the skeletal system. Specifically, you will learn about:

  • The components of the skeletal system, which include bones, ligaments, and cartilage.
  • The functions of the skeletal system, which include supporting and giving shape to the body, protecting internal organs, facilitating movement, producing blood cells, helping maintain homeostasis, and producing endocrine hormones.
  • The organization and functions of the two main divisions of the skeletal system: the axial skeletal system, which includes the skull, spine, and rib cage; and the appendicular skeletal system, which includes the limbs and girdles that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton.
  • The tissues and cells that make up bones and their specific functions, including making new bone, breaking down bone, producing blood cells, and regulating mineral homeostasis.
  • The different types of bones in the skeletal system, based on shape and location.
  • How bones grow, remodel, and repair themselves.
  • The different types of joints between bones, where they are located, and the ways in which they allow different types of movement depending on their structure.
  • The causes, risk factors, and treatments for the two most common disorders of the skeletal system: osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

As you read this chapter, think about the following questions:

  • Amari suspects they have a condition called metatarsalgia. This term is related to the term “metatarsals.” What are metatarsals, where are they located, and how do you think they are related to metatarsalgia?
  • High heels can cause stress fractures, which are small cracks in the bone that usually appear after repeated mechanical stress, instead of after a significant acute injury. What other condition described in this chapter involves a similar process?
  • What are bunions and osteoarthritis of the knee? Why do you think they can be caused by wearing high heels?

Attributions

  • High heels by Agnali via Pixabay license
  • Text adapted from Human Biology by CK-12 licensed CC BY-NC 3.0
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Germany’s Beloved Dachshund Could Be Threatened Under Breeding Bill

The bill would strengthen laws around dog breeding, but Germany’s kennel club worries that the legislation could lead to bans on several breeds.

A brown and white Dachshund with a red scarf around its neck is led across a street with a leash by a person wearing jeans and a green coat.

By Derrick Bryson Taylor

Dachshunds, the German dog breed known for their distinctive long bodies and short legs, face an uncertain future if proposed changes to an animal protection law are approved, Germany’s kennel club said.

A draft of the bill, from the German Ministry of Food and Agriculture, was published in February and aims to combat “torture breeding,” or breeding to produce animals with characteristics that will cause them to suffer, and to regulate the online trade of animals.

However, the draft contains requirements that could end the breeding of certain dogs, such as the dachshund, according to a statement from the V.D.H., Germany’s kennel club.

The bill lists various disease characteristics, like anomalies of the skeletal system, that would be outlawed. That could be interpreted as a ban on breeding animals with any significant size deviation from the “original wolf type,” the V.D.H. said.

The restrictions could be applied to the leg length of dachshunds. The breeding of beagles, Jack Russell terriers and miniature schnauzers could also be affected, as well as of dogs with short noses, like the English bulldog, French bulldog and pug.

“Some of the disease characteristics listed in the draft law are too vague and undefined,” Leif Kopernik, the chief executive of the V.D.H., said in a statement on Thursday. “Whether too small or too large, if the Animal Welfare Act were to be implemented in its current form, many popular and healthy dog breeds could be banned from breeding.”

Mr. Kopernik said that the V.D.H. was calling for a clear and scientific catalog of disease characteristics that would provide legal certainty and more effectively combat torture breeding.

A spokesman for the Ministry of Agriculture and Food said that the draft was in an early stage and was likely to be modified by the German parliament.

“The issue at hand pertains to the characteristics stemming from breeding for deformity and the overall welfare of animals, not, as erroneously asserted, to a blanket prohibition targeting specific breeds,” the spokesman said.

The bill’s purpose, he said, was to complement established regulations governing breeding for deformity, which were introduced in 1986 and further enhanced in 2013, by appending an incomplete list of potential symptoms indicative of breeding for deformity, such as blindness, deafness, or dental abnormalities.

“The focal point remains on averting breeding endeavors involving animals showcasing traits liable to cause anguish or distress,” he said.

Much of the discussion around the proposed changes has focused on Germany’s beloved dachshund, often called “dackel” by Germans, which has long been a national symbol. The breed’s history dates back several hundred years, when it was developed for digging and clawing into underground dens to hunt for badgers, according to the American Kennel Club.

Dachshunds have sharp teeth and claws, both of which come in handy when hunting. Today, the dogs are known for their sausage-like shapes, their cleverness and their tough attitudes.

Sandra Karthäuser, who has been breeding rough-haired dachshunds for 13 years in Münster, about 40 miles east of Germany’s border with the Netherlands, said on Thursday that it was incomprehensible that officials were now starting to regulate the breed.

“Because there is no evidence that the dog is somehow ill due to its exterior,” she said of dachshunds. “Otherwise, it wouldn’t be able to survive the hunt.”

Ms. Karthäuser acknowledged that certain breed lines might be predisposed to herniated discs and other conditions.

“But to ban the whole breed because of this, that doesn’t make sense to me,” she said. “Then you can also ban labradors” because some suffer from hip dysplasia, she added, along with other breeds that might suffer from debilitating diseases and ailments.

Tatiana Firsova contributed reporting from Germany.

Derrick Bryson Taylor is a general assignment reporter. He previously worked at The New York Post’s PageSix.com and Essence magazine. More about Derrick Bryson Taylor

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