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LEADERSHIP – INDIVIDUAL TERM PAPER Leadership – Individual Term Paper Master of Business Administration

by Mohammad Hatta Adam

Free Related PDFs

Hairolnizam Othman

Leadership plays an essential role in the success of managing organisation. The purpose of this paper is to examine the leadership styles of two leaders in managing the two biggest airline companies in Malaysia namely, Malaysia Airlines and AirAsia. The results showed that the strong leadership style and approach by the two have contributed to the success of the mentioned airlines. The transactional and transformational approaches have significantly given impact in managing the organisation in the current competitive business environment. Other leadership constructs such as entrepreneurial, ethical, innovative and creative have emerged from the two key leaders in this study and require further discussion in the future. Furthermore, this study managed to provide some insight and perspective of the qualities much needed by the current leadership scene.

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Effective leadership is essential for the successful management of business organisations. This paper examines the leadership styles of the leaders of Malaysia's two largest airlines - Malaysia Airlines and Air Asia. It was found that the style and approaches of the two leaders have contributed to the success of the aforementioned airlines. The extent to which their approaches have been either transactional or transformational in orientation have significantly impacted on their organisations, operating in a highly competitive business environment. Leadership orientations constructs that are evident in the approaches of the two include entrepreneurial, ethical, innovative and creative. The study provides insights and perspectives about the types of leadership qualities that are needed in the fast evolving airline sector.

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In this global competitive environment, effective leadership style is necessary to reduce the attrition rate. From the effective leadership styles only it is possible to achieve organizational goal productively. Leadership styles affect on the employee performance and productivity. This paper summarizes and analyzes the available literature of leadership styles and effect on different components of Quality of work life.

Leadership styles

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Leveric Ng , John Paolo Rivera

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The Filipino cultural concept of fellow or “kapwa” provides context to the transformational leadership construct based on a mixed methods procedure of a concurrent triangulation strategy. 30 Executive Directors were given questionnaires to complete and afterwards underwent personal interviews to provide the qualitative data required for this study. It can be construed that transformational leadership should arise from culture where values and norms are used to develop transformational leadership behaviors. We argue that Philippine transformational leadership practices are unique because of how Filipinos view fellowship. We provide further understanding of transformational leadership in a Philippine cultural context.

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This research was conducted to identify the emerging leadership style being practiced by successful entrepreneurs and the leadership behavior they frequently applied. Since, leadership style and behavior has a huge influence to the success of the entrepreneur's enterprise. One hundred and fifty (150) successful entrepreneurs was the respondent of this study and they were survey and interviewed about their actual leadership style and practices. The research design was qualitative-descriptive type of research with the use of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X (MLQ 5X) as the survey instrument to collect data regarding leadership styles of successful entrepreneurs. An interview guide questions was likewise utilized for validating the result of the study. An in-depth semi-structured interview was also conducted to 30 entrepreneurs from the 150 respondents. Findings of the study revealed that a successful entrepreneur exhibits a noticeably higher inclination toward transformational leadership and they consistently rated themselves higher in inspirational motivation for their leadership behavior. Therefore, the emerging leadership style of successful entrepreneurs is the transformational leadership and the leadership behavior that they frequently use is the inspirational motivation. Furthermore, the aimed of this study is to explore practices of transformational leadership behavior of successful entrepreneurs from entrepreneur's perspective.

Transformational Leadership: The Emerging Leadership Style of Successful Entrepreneurs

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Leadership and the numerous concepts on leadership styles have been subjects of both study and debate for years. Every leader approaches challenges differently, and his or her personality traits and life experiences greatly influence his or her leadership style and the organizations they lead. Furthermore, leadership is a notion resulting from the interaction between a leader and followers, and not a position or title within the organization. This essay examines some of the contemporary theories of leadership, the leadership qualities and traits necessary to be successful in today's competitive environment, the impact of leadership to the organization, and the importance of moral leadership in today's world.

A Contemporary View of Leadership

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Transformational Leadership.docx


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The Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness Term Paper


As development is one of the key objectives of an organization, managers always strive to achieve this objective. Organizational development is highly dependent on issues like teamwork, management practices, and leadership styles.

Effective leadership helps managers to empower their workforce, and thus increases organizations’ productivity, supports the delivery of service quality, and eventually results in successful development.

Therefore, it is crucial that managers and chief executive officers concerned with management should employ good leadership styles that enhance teamwork and motivation among employees.

According to Iqbal (2013), some of the leadership styles that managers can use include authoritarian, democratic, Laissez-faire, and transformational styles. Outstandingly, it is impossible for managers to employ a single leadership style in management of employees and achieve objectives and goals of the organization.

As a result, leaders need to be competent and innovative so that they can utilize diverse styles of leadership depending on the conditions of organizations. Hence, this paper analyzes the leadership styles that the chief executive officer (CEO) of Hype Travel Agency uses in the management of the organization.

Leadership Styles of Hype Travel Agency (CEO)

Currently work with Hype Travel Agency, which is an organization that deals with tourism products such as expeditions, nature walks, cruises, and restaurants. The CEO of the company employs authoritarian and democratic styles of leadership in the management of the human resources.

Authoritarian style of leadership is applicable in instances that require directions and guidance on the part of the management. The CEO of Hype Travel Agency holds the belief that human resources perform well under minimal supervision.

Remarkably, leaders who use democratic leadership style believe that employees are capable of steering an organization to achieve its objectives and goals (Hamilton, 2007). Additionally, the CEO encourages the workforce of the agency to strive and achieve organizational goals, objectives, and visions.

The authoritarian leadership style applies only in situations that require the management to provide directions. Human resources sometimes need guidance on issues that concern the management of the agency. Therefore, the CEO issues directions and policies for the workforce to follow in effecting the vision of the agency.

Carroll (2011) states that effective use of authoritarian style of leadership and good communication enhances performance of employees. Thus, the blend created by the leadership style is very efficient and has led to increased production, teamwork, and good interrelationship among employees.

In my opinion, the combination of democratic and authoritarian leadership styles enhances my performance in the workplace. I am able to relate well with my colleagues and work as a team to achieve the objectives and goals of the agency. Therefore, the CEO is very instrumental in the attainment of successful development.

Organizational Structure and Culture

Hype Travel Agency has a practical organizational structure, which defines roles and operations of human resources and the management, details job specifications, and provides fair division of roles among employees.

Definition, specification, and division of employees’ roles and responsibilities enable the management to motivate its workforce, encourage performance, and increase productivity. Moreover, Hype Travel Agency has a very organized communication system that permits the passage of information from employees to management and vice versa.

Garber (2004) explains that a good organizational structure encourages specialization and flexibility of employees, and consequently, promotes coordination and supervision of employees’ performance. The culture of the agency encourages flexibility, supports teamwork, enhances motivation, and facilitates job specialization and interaction in the workplace.

The organizational structure of Hype Travel Agency is very effective in promoting teamwork and good relationship in the organization. Since the structure of the agency is organized and provides a clear distinction of roles that the human resources can undertake, employees have specialized in their duties and developed good organizational culture.

Organizational culture and good relationship among the employees lead to increased performance in various aspects of the organization such as production and delivery of services. Good organizational structure does not only increase consumer satisfaction through delivery of good quality products but also promotes employees’ motivation and communication (Kusluvan, 2003).

In addition, the agency champions for flexibility and good relationship among employees, which are very instrumental in improving teamwork, unity, and cooperation within the company.

Therefore, the approach of the agency towards organizational structure and culture, which encourage the development of corporate culture, improves my ability to acquire advanced relationship skills and build strong teams in the workplace that empower teamwork.

Ethical Conduct and Effective Communication of the CEO of Hype Travel Agency

The CEO of Hype Travel Agency believes in the effectiveness of teamwork among the managers and the employees. According to the CEO, employees have equal opportunities in the development and growth of the organization.

To achieve optimum performance from the employees, the CEO encourages individuals to be innovative and productive in their respective fields by generating novel ideas for the company to utilize. According to Carroll (2011), some of the activities that a leader can exercise include instilling ethical values and encouraging teamwork in an organization.

As a leader, the CEO acts as a role model and practices a number of ethical values such as respect, love, assertiveness, self-control, and hard work. Through the practice of these values, the management and the human resources easily follow and practice the values.

To enhance good communication within the agency, the CEO uses a simple communication system among the managers and the employees.

The simple communication system enables the human resources to relay their opinions, suggestions, and ideas to the management and at the same time facilitates the conveyance of information from the management to the employees.

Since the leadership style practiced in Hype Travel Agency is democratic and partly authoritarian, it promotes openness and good communication among the staff and the management.

Openness and good communication emerge because the democratic style of leadership encourages human resources to present their grievances to the management and creates a platform where employees and management can communicate effectively (Iqbal, 2013).

Consequently, good communication in the organization, effective leadership styles, and good leadership from the CEO motivates employees and make them feel that the agency values and appreciates their efforts.

Best Practices Used in Employee Motivation

Employee motivation is vital in the success of an organization as it ensures that human resources invest maximum efforts in the attainment of the organization’s goals and objectives. It is imperative that leaders motivate their workforce and devise strategies that boost their morale and enthusiasm.

Notably, motivated employees have high levels of confidence and strongly believe in themselves. Therefore, motivation of employees is an important strategy in enhancing productivity and growth of an organization (Garber, 2004).

Confidence and self-esteem are crucial in the delivery of good quality services to consumers as they emanate from courage instilled in employees who believe in their capabilities.

Some of the best practices that leaders can use in motivating their employees include providing effective leadership, communicating efficiently, and caring about the concerns of employees. Effective implementation of these best practices can greatly improve the levels of employees’ motivation in an organization.

Some of the potential benefits that accrue from the exemplary behavior of leaders who act as role models include increased trust, honesty, industriousness, and loyalty on the part of the employees and management. Trust, honesty, industriousness, and loyalty occur when employees realize that the management is leading by example.

According to Hamilton (2007), encouragement of employee participation and interaction through good communication is a very fine strategy of motivating employees. In addition, good communication facilitates passage of information among the management and the employees, which is essential in addressing challenges that reduce efficiency in organizations.

Good communication can improve the quality of services delivered by organizations for the delivery of information takes place quickly within the expected time. Valuing employees and addressing their concerns is very essential, as it creates a feeling in the minds of employees that the organization believes and appreciates their efforts.

Diversity in the Workplace its Challenges and Benefits

Technological advancements, increased education, and civilization have led to numerous transformations in many organizations. The transformation is dependent on the diversity of employees and consumers. Currently, organizations have become very diverse because they have employees with diverse demographics such as gender, race, and ethnicity.

Owing to the diversity of employees in organizations, leaders are facing challenges like harassment, exclusion, discrimination, stereotypes, and favoritism in the workplace. The main victims of these challenges include women and marginalized individuals from different racial and ethnic groups.

These challenges transpire due to inadequate levels of awareness or misconceptions that the employees nurture concerning their differences in terms of gender, race, or ethnicity. Productivity, quality of products, and motivation decrease if employees experience discrimination and harassment at the workplace (Kusluvan, 2003).

Conversely, smart leaders can use the diversity of employees to improve market share of their respective products and services globally. Since employees usually interact with consumers, their diversity can be helpful in boosting organizations’ quest to meet the diverse needs of consumers.

Effective Business Strategy that Addresses Workplace Diversity Challenges and Issues

Organizations need to develop a business strategy to curb the challenges and issues related to diversity in the workplace. Empowerment of employees on how to appreciate diversities related to gender, race, and ethnicity aids in reducing harassment, discrimination, and other challenges associated with the diversity in the workplace.

Additionally, organizations need to encourage good relationships among their employees and promote teamwork so that employees can understand each other, and consequently, appreciate their differences. Exemplary leadership is paramount since the employees emulate and exercise what their superiors practice.

The structure and culture of organizations should advocate for good relationships and exercise ethical and moral values like love, respect, assertiveness, and self-control. Effective implementation of this strategy helps in curbing the challenges and issues related to diversity in the workplace.

Managers should apply effective leadership styles and use advanced management practices for remarkable development to happen in organizations. Authoritarian, democratic, Laissez-faire, and transformational leaderships are some of the styles that leaders can use in optimizing employees’ performance.

Besides, managers can only optimize organizational performance if employees have interest in their roles and motivation in their duties. Therefore, it is very important that managers motivate their employees and encourage them to work hard.

Technological advancement, increased education, and mobility of human resources have increased diversity in workplaces. It is vital that managers should encourage teamwork and cooperation among employees in workplaces irrespective of their gender, race, and ethnicity.

Carroll, A. (2011). Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management. New York: Cengage Learning.

Garber, P. (2004). 99 Ways to Keep Employees Happy, Satisfied, Motivated and Productive. New York: Business & Legal Reports, Inc.

Hamilton, C. (2007). Communicating for Results: A Guide for Business and the Professions. New York: Cengage Learning.

Iqbal, T. (2013). The Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness. Munich: GRIN Verlag.

Kusluvan, S. (2003). Managing Employee Attitudes and Behaviors in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. New York: Nova Publishers.

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IvyPanda. (2020, February 27). The Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness.

"The Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness." IvyPanda , 27 Feb. 2020,

IvyPanda . (2020) 'The Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness'. 27 February.

IvyPanda . 2020. "The Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness." February 27, 2020.

1. IvyPanda . "The Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness." February 27, 2020.


IvyPanda . "The Impact of Leadership Styles on Organizational Effectiveness." February 27, 2020.

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Leadership Styles Research Paper

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There may be nearly as many different definitions and perspectives about leadership as there are people who study and write about it. As leadership has been a subject of study during the past 40 years, a realization has emerged that a single leadership approach will not be effective in all situations. While this may seem obvious to some, it represents a breakthrough in the way that leadership has characteristically been discussed by researchers, consultants, and trainers. The need to select or develop a leadership approach to meet the needs of an organization and its environment suggests that a critical leadership skill may be the ability to understand what fits of a particular situation. This is particularly true for organizations needing to meet changing social, economic, and technological changes. Understanding the critical aspects of organizational change and having knowledge of alternative leadership models are both necessary to effectively deal with the organizational challenges of the 21st century.

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Starting from this perspective, this research paper first briefly examines major challenges facing contemporary organizations, then reviews a number of alternative ways of looking at leadership in organizations, and finally considers some specific leadership requirements presented by change and globalization, the two largest organizational challenges of this century.

Organizational Challenges

Some management researchers and authors see the 21st century in terms of conflicts between groups with competing interests. For example, some point to the growing gap between affluent and poor groups as a source of continued unrest and possible challenge for organizations. While disparities in wealth have always been present, technological changes have made differences more visible than ever, possibly fueling new levels of unrest (Starbuck, 2005). Other conflicts may exist between organizations and nations, as large for-profit and nonprofit entities extend presence and influence across national boundaries, often tying employees more tightly to the organizations than to their home country. Indeed, the revenues of Fortune 500 companies are larger than numerous national budgets. The influence of these organizations may be further augmented by continued globalization of markets and the outsourcing of work and services in other parts of the world.

The challenge of change and globalization require leadership that can

  • adopt new technologies and alter business processes and employee/manager roles to make effective use of technologies;
  • develop new perspectives about the nature of the business objectives and goals of the organization;
  • develop perspectives about the nature of the calling of the organization and its role in society. Social responsibility is not just an “add-on.” Successful organizations must have a vision for the role and contribution to making the world a better place;
  • make products and services attractive to customers in different cultures; and
  • work effectively with members of different cultures as fellow employees, providers of outsourced services, or as venture partners.

Guiding change may be the ultimate test of a leader, since evidence suggests that few organizations will survive over the long term without it. However, fundamental organizational change is often resisted mightily. Thus, effective leaders in the 21st century need to be aware of alternative approaches to leadership and the implications of these models for different contexts and needs.

Alternative Leadership Models

Personal characteristics.

Systematic research concerned with leadership first focused on the search for individual characteristics that universally differentiated leaders from nonleaders. A large number of personal characteristics were investigated such as gender, height, physical energy, and appearance as well as psychological traits and motives such as authoritarianism, intelligence, need for achievement, and need for power. The dominant part of this literature was published between 1930 and 1950. This work identified several traits that were associated with measures of leader effectiveness, but the findings were seldom replicated in multiple studies. Thus it appeared that there were few, if any, universal traits associated with effective leadership.

In the early 1970s, interest in leadership traits reemerged. For example, people who are good at monitoring their own actions (called high self-monitors) are more responsive to situational cues and may alter their behaviors to meet circumstances. In contrast, low self-monitors are more likely to act consistently across all situations, making their personal characteristics more salient and visible. In addition, individual traits dispositions may be less visible and important predictors of leadership effectiveness in highly constraining “strong” situations. Individual dispositions are more likely to predict leadership in “weaker” situations. Strong situations are cases that are highly formalized and governed by well-established role expectations, norms, rules, policies, and procedures—such as the military. In these cases, there is less opportunity for individual traits to have an effect. Traits are more predictive of a leader’s behavior in select situations. Thus, an individual who is disposed toward aggressiveness is more likely to behave in an aggressive manner in situations in which others disagree with or threaten the individual. In other words, the tendency to be aggressive becomes significant only under aggression-arousing conditions. In other situations, individuals with an aggressive disposition are not likely to behave more aggressively than others.

Achievement-motivated individuals set challenging goals, assume personal responsibility for goal accomplishment, are highly persistent in the pursuit of goals, take calculated risks to achieve goals, and actively collect and use information for feedback. High-achievement motivated individuals also engage in a high degree of self-regulatory behavior. However, in management positions at middle or higher levels, managerial effectiveness often depends on the extent to which managers delegate effectively and motivate and coordinate others. High-achievement motivated managers are strongly inclined to be personally involved in performing the work of their organization and are reluctant to delegate authority and responsibility. Thus, achievement motivation has been found to be positively related to the effectiveness of leaders of small task-oriented groups and leaders of relatively small entrepreneurial firms, but negatively related to the effectiveness of middle- and high-level managers in large organizations or in political situations.

Unless constrained by a disposition to use power in a constructive manner, power-motivated managers will exercise power in an impetuously aggressive manner for self-aggrandizing purposes to the detriment of their subordinates and organizations. Accordingly, individuals who have a high concern for the moral exercise of power will use power in an altruistic and collectively oriented manner, behave ethically, and be concerned about the consequences of their actions on others. A leader who exhibits a combination of high power motivation and high regard for the moral exercise of power generates follower trust and respect. On the other hand, high-affiliation motivated managers may be reluctant to give negative feedback to subordinates even when required, or to discipline subordinates for ethical transgressions or violations of organizational policies.

To be effective, charismatic leaders must mobilize a critical mass of followers in the interest of the leader’s vision; thus they need to have high-power motivation. These leaders will almost inevitably be resisted and criticized; they need to be relatively insensitive to such criticism and, thus, must have lower affiliation motivation. Finally, to maintain their position, charismatic leaders must advocate a vision of a better future for the collective (social system or organization) and for followers. They must not exercise leadership in the interest of self-aggrandizement. According to charismatic theory, the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leaders will be associated with leaders’ sense of social responsibility and collective interests rather than with self-interest. Thus, for successful leadership, the power motive needs to be higher than the affiliation motive. When the self-aggrandizing tendency usually associated with high-power motivation is inhibited by a high concern for morally responsible exercise of power (or social influence), individuals are predicted to engage in the exercise of power in an effective and socially desirable manner. This combination has been found to predict managerial effectiveness in formal organizations at middle and higher organizational levels, in nontechnical functions, as well as in small entrepreneurial organizations.

Leader Behaviors

The guiding assumption of the behavioral perspective on leadership was that some leader behaviors seem to work well regardless of the leader’s traits. These behaviors could be discovered by either observing leaders in action or by asking subordinates about the behavior of their immediate superiors. The behavioral leadership theories include several models, the major ones are as follows:

  • The path-goal theory suggests that a leader’s success is determined by his or her ability to provide followers with direction (the path) to follow to achieve performance goals. The theory assumes that followers must be able to make relatively confident and accurate estimates of probabilities of goal accomplishment (performance) and receipt of rewards after such accomplishment. When there is uncertainty with respect to effort requirements, goals, or extrinsic rewards, or when followers or leaders are under a substantial amount of stress, the rational processes suggested by path-goal theory may not hold.
  • Hersey and Blanchard (1982) suggested four leadership styles: telling, selling, participating, and delegating, each appropriate for certain kinds of situations defined by subordinates’ “maturity” levels. That is, the prescribed leadership style is contingent on follower maturity, defined as “the degree to which followers are ready and willing to tackle the task facing the group.” This is represented by a life cycle model, analogous to a parent-child relationship where the parent gradually relinquishes control as the child matures.
  • Transactional and transformational leadership models cover a range of possible relationships between leaders and followers. The transactional leader-follower relationship is based on an exchange model, where the follower makes contributions in anticipation of, or in response to, rewards, support, and various accommodations from the leader. Typical transactional leadership behaviors are the clarification of task requirements and specification of contingent rewards.
  • Transformational leadership involves behaviors designed to develop followers’ strong personal identification with the leader and a shared vision of the future. These results in followers’ attitudes and behaviors that go above and beyond those linked to an exchange of rewards or compliance. Transformational leaders activate the higher order needs of followers, getting subordinates to think and act for the sake of the organization, often by making these employees more aware of the importance and interdependence of their efforts. Transformational leadership behaviors include:
  • intellectual stimulation (helping followers think about problems in new ways);
  • inspirational motivation (communicating images of what the followers can do);
  • individualized consideration (giving personalized feedback for development); and
  • idealized influence (having charismatic appeal to followers).

Although transactional and transformational leadership approaches seem to be conceptually distinct, several studies have examined the question of whether subordinates can tell the difference. Some studies have found that subordinates seem to differentiate transactional and transformational behaviors on the part of their leaders, where others have found that subordinates may not distinguish between the two concepts.

  • As with trait research, models of leadership behaviors seemed to make little distinction among the specific role demands of leaders, the context in which they functioned, or differences in dispositions of leaders or followers. In response to this omission, contingency theory suggests that a leader’s task versus relationship behaviors combine with “situational control” to predict leader success. Situational control is the degree to which the leader can control and influence the group process. In general, studies have found that task-motivated leaders perform best in situations of high and low control while relationship-motivated leaders perform best in moderate control situations.
  • Cognitive resource theory focuses on the effects of leader intelligence and experience, and the amount of stress present in the situation. One of the most important findings from studies of this perspective is that under different stress levels, leader and follower intelligence and experience levels have different relationships with performance. That is, when subordinates report high job- or boss-related stress, bright people perform worse than dull people. When job- or boss-related stress is low, more experienced individuals perform worse than less experienced individuals. This implies that under conditions of high stress, a highly intelligent person should rely on experience, rather than intelligence, to be effective. Intelligence and experience, thus, interfere with each other. While counterintuitive, these results have been empirically supported in a number of studies.

Cognitive resource theory has also helped to answer the leadership puzzle of when it is more effective to be participative with followers, and when it is more effective to be directive. Leader intelligence cannot contribute to group performance unless the leader tells the group what to do, and the group members listen to the leader and do what they are told to do. When the leader has little control over the behavior of followers and leader-follower relationships are troublesome, neither directive nor participative leader-ship will be effective, because followers will neither listen to the leader, nor do what they are told to do. When leader intelligence is lacking in low-stress conditions or leader experience is lacking in high-stress conditions, directive leadership will be ineffective. Further, when leader-follower relationships are good and stress is low, participative leadership will work best when group members are more intelligent than their leader. That is, relationships being good, the leader will listen to the followers.

Fiedler (1996) recommends a two-step process of (a) recruiting and selecting individuals with required intellectual abilities, experience, and job-relevant knowledge, and (b) enabling leaders to work under conditions that allow them to make effective use of the cognitive resources for which they were hired. For inherently stressful tasks such as firefighting or combat performance, overlearning is recommended. For stressful jobs that require both experience and intelligence, such as directing air traffic from control towers, overlearning and stress-reduction procedures as well as training in coping with stress are recommended.

Leader-Follower Exchange

While the models just discussed tend to describe relationships of leaders with groups of followers, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory suggests that leadership can best be described in terms of the development of the dyadic relationship between a leader and a subordinate. One distinguishing feature of LMX theory is its focus on an individual leader-follower relationship, as opposed to behavior or traits of either followers or leaders. This view suggests that the quality of “mature” superior-subordinate relationships would be more predictive of positive organizational outcomes than “average” traits or behaviors of leaders. The differences in dyadic relationships of followers with the same leader suggest that there may be in-groups and out-groups of followers. LMX may be a better indication of the nature of the superior-subordinate relationship than the performance of followers relative to objectives. Contextual variables also may come into play as high levels of time pressure in a work setting seem to encourage supervisors to form uniformly high LMX relationships with the subordinates in their units. Thinking through the LMX process does help explain some phenomena that are readily observed in organizations. For example, consider the following:

  • For several possible reasons, subordinates and superiors may develop high-quality LMX. The reasons could include demographic or perceived similarity, familiarity, liking, reputation of subordinates, social reciprocity, subordinates’ ability level, and/or prior performance.
  • Superiors then express positive attitudes such as trust and respect toward these subordinates. Superiors also express that they expect a high level of mutual support and loyalty. These communications convey expectations of follower loyalty, commitment, mutual obligation, and possibly mutual liking and may induce a Pygmalion effect. That is, leaders grow to like selected subordinates who demonstrate loyalty, commitment, and possibly higher performance and subsequently give these followers higher performance ratings.
  • These ratings in turn influence the subordinate’s reputation, become a matter of record, and may be used for future selection, development, and promotion decisions. Thus, subordinates with a history of high-performance ratings become promoted to higher level positions.

The downside of this process is possible adverse implications for the development and career advancement of subordinates who are not demographically similar, familiar, and well liked. The previous scenario describes a naturally occurring process and does not necessarily imply biased treatment of minorities, although it can describe a process by which discrimination can occur. In that respect, the LMX process may be one through which leaders must be conscientious of fair treatment in reward allocations, even though it is human nature to like some subordinates better than others.

Having discussed a range of alternative ways of considering, describing, and evaluating leadership, we now turn to consideration of the specific aspects or leadership required for the challenges of globalization and organizational change in the 21st century.

Globalization: Leadership Across Cultures

The recently published results of the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study present information about how leadership may be viewed by persons from 62 different cultures. This study proceeded from the perspective that the way in which a leader’s characteristics and behaviors are interpreted is strongly influenced by a person’s cultural background. Thus, the attributes that are seen as characteristic or prototypical for leaders may also strongly vary in different cultures. It is important to realize that most of the research on leadership during the past half century was conducted in the United States, in Canada, and in Western Europe. Thus, one of the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the applicability of leadership models previously discussed is a model’s flexibility in accommodating alternative cultural perspectives.

The GLOBE study identified both universally endorsed leadership attributes, as well as the leadership features that seem to be endorsed only in selected cultures. Contributing to outstanding leadership in all cultures were several attributes reflecting integrity. Thus, a leader who is viewed as trustworthy, just, and honest is positively regarded in nearly all cultures. Also, an outstanding leader has other attributes reflecting charismatic, inspirational, and visionary leadership. A leader who embodies these universally endorsed attributes is encouraging, positive, motivational, and dynamic and builds confidence and has foresight. A universally endorsed leader is also a team builder, a good

communicator and coordinator, achieves excellence, and is decisive, intelligent, and a win-win problem solver. Leader attributes that are universally viewed as impediments to outstanding leadership include being a loner, being uncooperative, ruthless, nonexplicit, irritable, and dictatorial.

Perhaps most informative are examples collected by the GLOBE researchers as to how different leadership approaches may be enacted in different cultural settings. Some examples are as follows:

  • Charisma—The term “charisma” invokes ambivalence in several countries. For instance, in Mexico, charisma is seen as a mixed blessing. Negative evaluations of charisma are also found in several other countries. For instance, some fear that people may lose their balance and perspective due to the focus on achievement created by charismatic leaders. Followers might willingly exploit themselves—with negative consequences for their health and quality of life—in the service of the organization’s mission.
  • Communication—Communication of a leader’s vision is often associated with powerful rhetoric. However, there are different ways to communicate a vision. For example, a vision in China is normally expressed in a nonaggressive manner, possibly due to the influences of Confucian values (e.g., kindness, benevolence) that make people wary of leaders making pompous speeches without engaging in specific action. In India, bold, assertive leadership styles are generally preferred to quiet and nurturing styles.
  • Egalitarianism—In countries such as the Netherlands and Australia, a high value is placed on egalitarianism, and this is reflected in remarks by Dutch CEOs such as “ideas need acceptance, otherwise they will not be realized” and “consensus is an important prerequisite to realize goals.” In the Netherlands, participative leadership can be seen as a component of transformational leadership. In both the Netherlands and Australia, there is a tendency to denigrate high achievers. This is sometimes referred to as the “tall poppy syndrome” (to cut down the tall poppy that absorbs the sun while depriving the shorter poppies of exposure to the sun). Australian leaders are expected to inspire high levels of performance, but must do so without giving the impression of charisma or of not being anything more than “a mate.” The leader being “one of the boys” was one of the typically Australian leadership dimensions that reflect the high value placed on egalitarianism.
  • Compassion in leadership—A Mexican entrepreneur who was considered brilliant, humorous, enthusiastic, and a good speaker involved himself in the private lives of his employees because of his perceived role in meeting their personal needs and expectations of him. For example, when informed that a secretary’s husband was going into the hospital for an operation, the leader called the doctor and discussed the matter with the doctor to make sure that the operation was legitimate. A Chinese manager may have high respect for his boss because “he does real things” such as visiting an employee’s sick family member and telling the employee to stay at the hospital rather then appearing at work.

These examples provide some insight into the cultural differences that leaders in organizations involved in the global, “flat-world” economy must be ready to consider in their choice of actions.

Alternative Approaches To Leadership Of Organizational Change

The classic role of managers in an organization is to establish and enforce the use of policies, procedures, and methods that reduce uncertainty in organizational outputs and outcomes. Indeed, the bureaucratic routines adopted by organizations increase predictability, reduce uncertainty within organizations, and “get everyone on the same page.” However, the need for organizational change is often rooted in threats or uncertainties. These threats may be due to poor firm performance or trends that suggest the organization is vulnerable to loss of market share, competitive advantages, or critical resources. Some studies of change suggest that organizations may experience periods of equilibrium where patterns of behavior are stable. In periods of equilibrium, any changes made by the organization may be incremental and aimed at better aligning and maintaining the current congruence among system components. These have also been described as “first-level” changes, which do not alter organizational relationships, but are aimed at incremental improvement within the existing structure and task design.

Strategic organizational changes raise questions about the organization’s purpose and identity and have been described as second-level changes. These are often interventions that involve reorganization and/or major alteration of one or more selected subsystems. Third-level changes are organizationwide efforts that involve altering the beliefs, values, and interrelationships of all subsystems of the organization. Second- and third-level changes are most frequently undertaken as planned changes. In planned changes, managers seek involvement and commitment of organizational members in planning and specifying the nature of the changes. Employee “buy-in” is sought in part to mitigate resistance and reduce process losses. The underlying assumption in planned change is that organizational inertia needs to be disturbed by deliberate efforts to change aspects of an organization.

The type of change appropriate for an organization depends on both business complexity and sociotechnical uncertainty. Business complexity includes the extent of differentiation of the organization, organization size and geographical dispersion, interdependencies among functions, number of products and services offered, and diversity of technologies employed. Greater complexity increases the number of stakeholders who must be involved in a change and the range of consequences that must be anticipated. Sociotechnical uncertainty is defined as the extent to which there are clearly known ways to approach problems and established procedures and job roles. Higher levels of sociotechnical uncertainty imply that outcomes are less certain. When complexity and sociotechnical uncertainties are greater, firms may be more likely to engage in planned changes. Planned organizational changes have had the most consistent effects on organizational work settings, including coordination and control of work, reward system, social interactions, organizational culture, and technology. Planned interventions also significantly impacted individual employee behavior (including job performance, effort, open communication, collaboration, and organizational citizenship behaviors,) and organizational outcomes (including profits, market share, market position, productivity, rates of turnover, absenteeism, and grievances).

The most effective leadership approaches for change have involved behaviors directed at (a) framing change (establishing starting points for change; designing and managing the change journey for employees, and communicating guiding principles) and (b) building capacity (creating individual and organizational capacities for different job roles; communicating and creating connections among functions and the related changes). Organizations tended to adopt emergent change approaches only after completing a process of planned change. Centrally directed changes based on assumptions of linearity (the “freeze—mobilize—re-freeze” model) are least likely to succeed. Studies have also found that visible management support and commitment, realistic schedules, adequate resources, employee participation, high levels of communication, agreement on the business need for the change, and reward systems that support change all contribute to successful change implementation. The factors negatively affecting change include inconsistent actions by key managers, unrealistic expectations, lack of meaningful employee participation, poor communication, unclear purpose for change, and lack of clear responsibility for decisions.

In general, successful change seems to require greater levels of collaboration among different levels and functions within an organization. However, significant organizational changes may involve some loss by individuals within the organization. For example, employees may be asked to take on new roles that they may perceive as being less important than old roles. Change implementation may vary in its impact on different job levels and types, where employees in jobs over which the employee had more control may be more ready for organizational change and willing to participate in redesign tasks while workers who may be less engaged in their jobs may be less willing to participate in redesign activities. Productivity may drop during periods of significant organizational change because stability and routines are disrupted. Successful implementation of planned changes may require the establishment of a separate process within the organization that combines key factors for change. Other studies have directed attention to (a) willingness and ability of “change makers”—on multiple levels to take on responsibility for changes; (b) the extent of the organization’s infrastructure to facilitate change; and (c) the availability of sufficient resources to undertake the changes. Change capacity may be related to the extent that the organization has decentralized structures and communication processes in place to facilitate communication and clarification of the intentions and details of changes.

A growing realization is that the inertia within managerial cognition plays a large role in the successful design, planning, and implementation of organizational changes. For example, second- and third-level changes involve changing schema used by managers when thinking about an organization. Thus, successful design and implementation of significant planned changes requires leaders to identify the underlying assumptions they use to interpret and make sense of the organizational world. Well-developed interpretive schemes that have previously provided order and meaning to the workplace may now hinder a management team’s visualization of alternatives and limit the consideration of new approaches. Strategic changes are most often successful when substantial changes have taken place in the cognitions of top managers. Often declining organizational performance triggered these changes in cognitions, possibly because declines in performance were salient and demanded corrective actions. The cognitive “road map” including the knowledge structures, beliefs, and causal beliefs of the managerial group in the organization largely determines the way in which an organization’s external environment is interpreted. When organizations put mechanisms into place to increase information use, managers are more likely to interpret strategic issues in a positive frame. When managers attribute declining performance to internal characteristics or causes, they are more likely to initiate and undertake strategic changes.

Successful change may depend on leaders developing the capacity to live with and tolerate ambiguity. This includes remaining content with less-than-complete knowledge, resisting the impulse to react to pressures that may be associated with uncertainties encountered in planning and carrying out change (French, 2001). Effective change management requires leaders to be in touch with what is actually happening as opposed to what was planned. When managers and employees cannot tolerate the impact of un-certainties, the coping process may be to “disperse” or race into actions such as breaking problems into manageable bits so that the problems or uncertainties seem to be more bearable. In these instances, individuals and groups close off information, seeking to move in a direction that involves the practiced actions and ways of looking at organizational and operational problems.

Two psychological biases can affect leadership during organizational change. The first, prospect bias, predicts that decision makers are risk averse when performance is perceived to be good and risk seeking when performance has been poor. In other words, managers in firms with poor performance may be motivated to take greater risks than those in more healthy firms. In contrast, the threat-rigidity bias suggests that poor performance promotes risk-averse responses, because threats arouse stress and anxiety in decision makers. The threat-rigidity perspective predicts that managerial anxiety may cause decision makers to narrow their range of attention and restrict information seeking and processing. This restricts alternatives to those consistent with conservative and well-learned interpretive frames. While prospect theory predicts a proactive solution to unfavorable conditions, threat rigidity suggests the continuance of existing strategic orientations. Examples of threat-rigidity bias in leadership of change include focusing on short-term fixes while not attending sufficiently to strategic changes; increased centralization of authority within the organization; downsizing by exiting lines of business and liquidating or divesting subunits; and increasing the relative presence of top managers with legal, financial, or accounting expertise as opposed to marketing, research and development (R&D), and production backgrounds. These overarching decision biases may reflect embedded patterns of managerial cognition that can threaten stakeholder interest in organizations facing the need to change.

Other major cognitive biases may influence managers’ perceptions of the need for organizational change and the type of changes that may be effective for the organization. The possible cognitive traps include the following:

  • Failure to consider possible consequences. In making complex choices, people often simplify the decision by ignoring possible outcomes or consequences that would otherwise complicate the choice. There is a tendency to reduce the set of possible consequences or outcomes to make the decision more manageable.
  • Limiting the range of stakeholders. When there is a tendency to restrict the analysis of a policy’s consequences to one or two groups of visible stakeholders, decisions may be blind-sided by unanticipated consequences to an altogether different group.
  • Discounting the future. The consequences that managers must face tomorrow are more compelling than those occurring next week or next year. Failing to cope with the temporal distribution of consequences exposes executives and boards to accusations that they squandered the future to exploit the present.
  • Judgment of risk. What people want to hear is not what might happen, but what will happen. When leaders view the world as more certain than it is, they expose themselves and organizations to poor outcomes. In general, people underestimate the importance of chance or misperceive chance events. For example, each morning, the media presents an “explanation” in the financial pages of why the market went up or down.
  • Ignoring low-probability events. If a new product has the potential for great acceptance but a possible drawback, perhaps for only a few people, there is a tendency to underestimate the risk. One common response to the assertion that executives underestimate the importance of random events is that they have learned through experience how to process information about uncertainty. However, experience may not be a good teacher because people often misremember what the original expectations were. This phenomenon, called the “hindsight bias,” insulates leaders from previous errors.
  • Risk framing. Whether a glass is half full or half empty is a matter of risk framing. When the glass is described as half full, it appears more attractive than when it is described as half empty.
  • Perception of causes. Managers may oversimplify assessments of why things happen or do not happen. However, even under the best of circumstances, causation is usually complex, and ambiguity about causation is often at the heart of disputes about responsibility, blame, and punishment. If executives are overconfident, they will fail to seek additional information to update their knowledge and be reluctant to learn more about a situation or problem before acting.

John Kotter, a now retired professor from Harvard Business School, has suggested that the most critical task in organizations is leadership of change. Leading changes successfully requires realizing that the process goes through a series of phases that, in total, usually require a considerable length of time. Skipping steps creates only the illusion of speed and never produces a satisfying result. Critical mistakes in any of the phases can have a devastating impact, slowing change momentum. The most common change leadership errors to be avoided are the following:

  • Not establishing a great enough sense of urgency. Most successful change efforts begin when some individuals or groups look hard at a company’s competitive situation, market position, technological trends, and financial performance. They focus on the potential impact of impending events that everyone seems to be ignoring. The group finds ways to communicate this information broadly and dramatically, so that potential crises or great opportunities are clear. Without motivation, people will not help, and the effort goes nowhere. Compared with other steps in the change process, phase one can sound easy. However, sometimes leaders underestimate how hard it can be to drive people out of their comfort zones. Sometimes they grossly overestimate how successful they have already been in increasing urgency. Sometimes they lack patience: In many cases, executives become paralyzed by the downside possibilities. They worry that employees with seniority will become defensive, morale will drop, events will spin out of control, short-term business results will be jeopardized, the stock will sink, and they will be blamed for creating a crisis. Bad business results are both a blessing and a curse in this first phase. On the positive side, losing money does catch people’s attention, but it also gives less maneuvering room. With good business results, the opposite is true: Convincing people of the need for change is much harder, but you have more resources to help make changes.
  • Not creating a powerful enough guiding coalition. While some change efforts start with just one or two people, the leadership coalition must grow over time for the change to be successfully implemented. It is often said that major change is impossible unless the head of the organization is an active supporter. The guiding coalition tends to operate outside the normal hierarchy. This can be awkward, but it is clearly necessary because if the existing hierarchy were working well, there would be no need for a major transformation. Companies that fail in this phase may underestimate the difficulties of producing change and thus the importance of a powerful guiding coalition. Efforts that do not have a powerful enough guiding coalition can make apparent progress for a while. Sooner or later, however, the opposition gathers itself together and stops the change.
  • Lacking a vision. In every successful transformation effort the guiding coalition develops a picture of the future that is relatively easy to communicate and appeals to customers, stockholders, and employees. A vision says something that helps clarify the direction in which an organization needs to move. Eventually, a strategy for achieving that vision is also developed. Without a sensible vision, a transformation effort can easily dissolve into a list of confusing and incompatible projects that can take the organization in the wrong direction or nowhere at all. In failed transformations, you often find plenty of plans, directives, and programs but no vision. In one case, a company gave out 4-inch-thick notebooks describing its change effort. In mind-numbing detail, the books spelled out procedures, goals, methods, and deadlines. But nowhere was there a clear and compelling statement of where all this was leading. Not surprisingly, most of the employees were either confused or alienated.
  • Undercommunicating. Transformation is impossible unless lots of people are willing to help, often to the point of making short-term sacrifices. Employees will not make sacrifices, even if they are unhappy with the status quo, unless they believe that useful change is possible. Without credible communication from leadership, the hearts and minds of the troops are never captured. This phase is particularly challenging if the short-term sacrifices include job losses. Gaining understanding and support is tough when downsizing is part of the vision. For this reason, successful visions usually include new growth possibilities and the commitment to treat fairly anyone who is laid off. In successful transformation efforts, leaders use all existing communication channels to broadcast the vision. They turn boring, unread company newsletters into lively articles about the vision. They take ritualistic, tedious quarterly management meetings and turn them into exciting discussions of the transformation. They throw out much of the company’s generic management education and replace it with courses that focus on business problems and the new vision. Even more important, leaders of change must learn to “walk the talk.” They consciously attempt to become a living symbol of the new corporate culture. Nothing undermines change more than behavior by important individuals that is inconsistent with their words.
  • Not removing obstacles. Communication is never sufficient by itself. Leading renewal also requires the removal of obstacles. Too often, an employee understands the new vision and wants to help make it happen, but an elephant appears to be blocking the path. In many cases, the blockers are very real. However, sometimes the obstacle is the organizational structure: Narrow job categories can seriously undermine efforts to increase productivity or make it very difficult even to think about customers. Sometimes compensation or performance-appraisal systems make people choose between the new vision and their own self-interest. Perhaps worst of all are bosses who refuse to change and who make demands that are inconsistent with the overall effort. If the blocker is a person, it is important that the leader treat this person fairly and in a way that is consistent with the new vision. However, leadership action to remove obstacles is essential both to empower others and to maintain the credibility of the change effort as a whole.
  • Not creating short-term wins. Real transformation takes time, and a renewal effort risks losing momentum if there are no short-term goals to meet and celebrate. Creating short-term wins is different from hoping for short-term wins. In a successful transformation, leaders actively look for ways to obtain clear performance improvements, establish goals in the yearly planning system, achieve the objectives, and reward the people involved. Commitments to produce short-term wins help keep the urgency level up and force detailed analytical thinking that can clarify or revise visions.
  • Declaring victory too soon. After a period of hard work, it is tempting to declare victory with the first clear performance improvement. While celebrating a win is fine, declaring the war won can be catastrophic. Until changes sink deeply into a company’s culture, a process that can take 5 to 10 years, new approaches are fragile. A premature victory celebration can kill momentum and allow powerful forces associated with tradition to take over. Instead of declaring victory, leaders of successful efforts use the credibility afforded by short-term wins to tackle even bigger problems. They go after systems and structures that are not consistent with the transformation vision and have not been confronted before.
  • Not anchoring changes in the corporation’s culture. In the final analysis, change sticks when it becomes “the way we do things around here,” when it seeps into the bloodstream of the corporate body. Until new behaviors are rooted in social norms and shared values, they are subject to degradation as soon as the pressure for change is removed. Change leaders need to consciously show people how the new approaches, behaviors, and attitudes have helped improve performance. When people are left on their own to make the connections, they sometimes create very inaccurate links. Helping people see the right connections requires communication. It is also important to make sure that the next generation of top management really does personify the new approach.

This research paper has endeavored to provide the grounding needed to understand and undertake the leadership challenges facing organizations in the 21st century. The first major organizational challenges for the foreseeable future in this century are globalization of organizational membership. Globalization of organizations may be associated with markets, production alternatives, service operations, venture partnerships, and/or strategic linkages. The forces of globalization combined with the growth and expansions of new technologies suggest that the second most significant organizational need is the capacity to undertake change. The effective leadership of change requires leaders who are aware of their own characteristics, are conscious of how followers may perceive certain behaviors, and are sensitive to the cultural differences and similarities. The discussion of alternative leadership approaches provides exposure to a range of approaches that organizational leaders should consider when strategically assessing the needs of 21st-century dynamics. The leadership implications of particular traits invite the reader to “know thyself.” Alternative behavioral models provide strategic choices. The discussion of LMX development provides a look at some of the processes by which leader-follower roles are defined and relationships are established. Finally, a review of the requirements for leading successful organizational change and the pitfalls to be avoided in this process present criteria to consider when taking on the leadership challenge in this demanding but exciting time.


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Leadership styles relationship- and task-based leadership styles.

Leadership Styles elationship- and Task-Based Leadership Styles In leading groups and organizations, managers and leaders alike adopt different kinds of styles or approaches to be able to achieve specific objectives. These objectives could include establishing rapport and cohesion within a group, be it from a team or organizational level. Another objective that a leader could aspire to achieve is to focus on accomplishing the task or work at hand, regardless of the nature of the relationship between the leader and his/her team members/employees. Alternatively, a leader might aspire to maintain both relational and performance aspects of his responsibilities for his/her team or organization. Thus, s/he would work deliberately to maintain a balance between maintaining good relationships with group members and successfully accomplishing the task assigned to the group. The types of leadership described above are illustrative of either the relationship-based or task-based leadership. elationship-based leadership style is characterized by a kind of leadership….

Avolio, B. (2009). "Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions." Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 60.

Graen, G. (1995). "Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective." Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 2.

Solansky, S. (2008). "Leadership style and team processes in self-managed teams." Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies.

Leadership Styles in Many Ways the United

Leadership Styles In many ways the United States offer the ideal case study for examining different leadership styles, because its particular process of election and governance presents opportunities for each leadership style to flourish. In short, while the election itself favors a charismatic leadership style, the success of the executive branch depends on a transformational leadership style, and the interactions between the executive and the legislature can only be characterized as transactional. This dynamic is partially due to the structure of the United States itself, as well as cultural and traditional standards that have developed over time. By examining how the different types of leadership are favored at different times and places in the governance of the United States, one will be able to understand not only how organizations actually encourage and shape certain leadership styles, but also how certain leadership strategies intended to generate change actually work to perpetuate the….

Green, D.D., & Roberts, G.E. (2012). Transformational leadership in a postmodern world: The presidential election of barack obama. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 11(1),

Howell, J.M., & Avolio, B.J. (1992). The ethics of charismatic leadership: Submission or liberation? The Executive, 6(2), 43-54.

Trottier, T., Wart, M.V., & Wang, X. (2008). Examining the Nature and Significance of Leadership in Government Organizations. Public Administration Review, (Mar/Apr),

Leadership Business and Rhetoric Perception of Leadership Styles and Trust Across Cultures and Gender

Leadership, Business and hetoric (Perception of Leadership Styles and Trust across Cultures and Gender) I agree with most of the author's findings especially those that relate to gender, culture, trust and likelihood of voting influenced the outcome of the Democratic Party primaries in 2008. This was prominently displayed from the numerical display of predictable voting patterns in some states and these states had predominant cultures and races that made it possible to foretell or predict how they will vote and/or whom they will vote despite the policies of the party, the basic consideration would be the candidate himself. However, I have some reservations about some of the writer's pronouncement and assertions that attention should be placed back upon transactional leadership which was initially criticized for being less effective than transformational leadership in the modern (Quader, 2011). Transactional leadership is experienced when there is element of exchange, or aspect of reward and….

References List

Mind Tools (2013). Leadership Styles: Choosing the Right Style for the Situation. Retrieved from 

Quader, M.S. (2011). Perception of Leadership Styles and Trust across Cultures and Gender: A

Comparative Study on Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. South Asian Journal of Management, 18(2), 30+

Leadership Styles -- Mentor Observations Primary Form

Leadership Styles -- Mentor Observations Primary Form of Leadership My mentor's leadership style is mostly democratic or participative. This form of leadership is particularly effective in a clinical setting as it encourages teamwork, collaboration and use of the collective experiences of multiple skilled staff members. This leadership style may also be described as democratic, where the leader encourages participation and input from other staff members and followers. Participative leadership enables multiple members of a group or team to participate in the decision making process, which can strengthen a groups achievements, motivation and dedication (Clark, 1997). While ultimately the mentor has the authority to make final decisions, he or she does so guided or influenced by the wants, needs and desires of employees. This form of leadership is particularly useful when knowledgeable and skillful employees interact in the workplace and have knowledge that may help the leader make informed decisions. Other Styles Exhibited By Other….

Clark, D. (1997 -- May). "Leadership Styles." 24, October 2005:

Leadership Styles Leadership Theories Northouse

This is a very good example to get a clear idea of what kind of people Level 5 leaders are. They are inspirational because they are good human beings, modest and humble, yet very willful at the same time. A possible successor to Executive A, Executive B, exhibits more of a Transactional type of leadership. Transactional leaders believe that there is an association between effort and reward. These types of leaders often believe in very standard forms of incentive, reward, and punishment. Transactional leaders often set goals for their subordinates and they offer rewards when the subordinate has done a good job with the task. Transactional leadership depends on the leader's ability to reinforce subordinates for their successful achievement of their end of the deal. Executive B. is a perfect example of a Transactional leader. He believes in a clear chain of command and in rewarding good performance. He believes that….


Collins, J. (2001). Good to great. HarperBusiness; 1st edition.

Northouse, P.G. (2006). Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage Publications, Inc.; 4th edition.

Ronco, W.C. & Ronco, J.S. (2005). The partnering solution: A powerful strategy for managers, professionals, and employees. Career Press.

Leadership Styles Discussion Leadership Responses

When a leader puts in extra hours, lends an ear to the grievances disgruntled employees, and takes a 'we're all in this together' the employees are more likely to try to weather their difficulties. Discussion 2 think most of our leadership styles are somewhat situational -- no one, unless their role is very limited with the organization, is likely to be called upon to do the same thing, day after day. One of the things I like about a Human Relations Specialist style is how showing empathy and consideration, as well as taking suggestions employees 'on board' can be a profound, if subtle, motivational tool. Even when subordinates don't know best what to do, trying to shape their responses through guidance is more effective than simply directing them, or worse, telling them they are wrong. Soliciting input from subordinates and adopting at least some of their suggestions is likely to….

Leadership Styles Functional Leadership in

So many times leaders are faced with situations in which one particular leadership theory does not always fit. Every employee within a company is different from the next and thus should be dealt with on an individual basis. This type of leadership allows for the manager to assess the current situation and set goals for the outcome. It then allows them to observe and monitor the progress of the situation along the way and make changes as necessary. It also allows for feedback to given in regards to the process as a whole. A manager who utilizes this leadership style will provide themselves with the opportunity to remind themselves in each situation that all people are different and should be approached as an individual. It allows for changes to be made along the way during a process. If things are working out then it offers a framework for rethinking the….

Functional Leadership Theory. (2010). Retrieved from 

Johannsen, M. (2011). Retreived from 

Leadership Types. (2008). Retrieved from

Situational Leadership by Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey, (2009). Retrieved from  

Leadership Styles My Leadership Style

A boss who preaches burning the midnight oil but goes home at 5pm, leaving everyone else to labor long hours on a hectic Friday night, will garner little respect. Employees are just as mindful of what their boss is doing as he or she is of what employees are doing. It is essential to 'walk the walk' as well as 'talk the talk.' Showing care and concern cannot be underestimated, either. Helping employees through difficult times is also a way to foster loyalty to an organization. Who will be more loyal, an employee who is forced to punch a clock, regardless of what is going on at home, or an employee whose company shows respect for her need for flex time, to take care of her young daughter at home? An employee who feels that his or her company cares is less likely to take needless sick days, to be….

Leadership Styles in the 21st

It has been suggested further that the transformational leadership is a special type of transactional leadership because both leaderships are goal oriented. The difference comes from the way methods used to motivate people and the goal sets (Hater & Bass, 1988). Thus, one model is based on the leader's power to inspire followers and the other is based on the leader's creativity regarding the reward system. The goals are usually higher for the first type of leadership, whereas for the second type the goals are more operational. Avolio (1999) suggested that transformational leadership comes to augment the transformational one. Transformational leadership vs. servant leadership TABLE 2 - MODEL for TANSFOMATIONAL & SEVANT LEADESHIP FUNCTIONAL ATTIBUTES TANSFOMATIONAL LEADESHIP SEVANT LEADESHIP Charismatic influence Vision Trust espect isk sharing Integrity Modeling Inspirational motivation Commitment to goals Communication Enthusiasm Intellectual stimulation ationality Problem solving Individual consideration Personal attention Mentoring Listening Empowerment Source: ussel & Stone (2002) ecent leadership studies have brought to attention spiritual leadership (Fairholm, 1996), comparing the value-based transformational leadership with the servant one (Burns, 1978;….

Reference List

Avolio, B.J. (1999). Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Avolio, B.J., Waldman, D., & Yammarino, F.J. (1991). Leading in the 1990's: The four I's of transformational leadership. Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 15(4): pp. 9-16.

Barbuto, J.E., Jr., & Wheeler, D.W. (2006). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group & Organization Management, vol. 31(3): pp. 1- 27.

Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Leadership Styles and Patterns

Leadership In order to effective, efficient, and profitable, an organization needs a good leader. However, leadership styles differ greatly, and what works for one organization may not work for another.[footnoteRef:1] This paper will thus attempt to describe four points: [1: The Art of Leadership. (2011). Retrieved October 1, .] First, it will address a human service organization selected to complete the given Leadership Matrix. Second, it will compare and contrast task-oriented internal leadership with task-orientated external leadership, as requested by the assignment itself, and explain which style is appropriate with regards to the points made in the first task. Third, it will compare and contrast people-oriented internal leadership with people-orientated external leadership, as given in the assignment and also explain appropriateness, as above. Lastly, it will explain insights and conclusions on leadership styles and patterns. Human Service Organization Introduction The organization selected for the purposes of this paper is Child Advocacy Services, a human services organization….

Leadership Styles Leadership Perceptions From

This attribute shows Nicholson's ability of decision making, and keeping firm when protecting his subordinates. This showed Nicholson's democratic vices that are recommended as the best way of leadership. Saito, on the other hand, gets mad and smacks the colonel's face with a booklet, after which he goes ahead to through the book on the ground, demanding with an authoritative mood, that the officers need to work. This symbolized an autocratic leader, who hardly needs any confirmations or opinions from his subordinates on the way to make decisions. After giving orders to no avail, asking the officers to do manual labor, Saito goes to the extent of threatening to kill Nicholson and most of his officers due to their defiance. However, due to the presence of many witnesses, Saito, who is evidently a dictator, relents to his own intentions, and decides not to harm the officers under Nicholson. Saito has….

Leadership Styles How to Be a Good Leader

Leadership Styles: How to Become an Effective Leader Power Perspective and Leader as epresentatives Extrovert and Introvert Emotional Intelligence (EI) Competencies to Leadership Effectiveness Task-Oriented Leadership Satisfaction and Performance Four Dimensions of Leader-Member Exchange Authentic leadership and Servant Leadership Creating Social and Organizational Identity Goal Orientations Transformational Leaders Enhancing the Goal-Setting Process Leadership Styles As the workplace turns out to be increasingly complex and multicultural, the cry for effective leadership has been answered by a growing popularity of leadership studies in various programs. Even though students may have the choice of majoring in leadership at a variation of universities, real intended outcomes may range from merely the study of theory to actual skill development. I think that it this report is important because students really need to learn what it means to be a leader that is effective. Cunningham, ( (2013) makes the suggestion that leadership needs to be imparted early and frequently. With that being said, this paper reviews the importance….

Avolio, B.J. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the processby which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 8, 801 -- 823.

Bass, B.M. (2010, June 19). A New Paradigm of Leadership: an Inquiry into Transformational Leadership. U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Alexandria, VA.

Beck, J.D. (2011). The Leader's Window: Mastering the Four Styles of Leadership to Build High-Performing Teams. New York: Wiley.

Covey, S.R. (2012). Principle-Centered Leadershi. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Servant Leadership Vs Traditional Leadership Styles

Starbucks vs. Tim Horton: Mission Statements and Leadership Mission and vision statements are important in any industry setting because it gives organizations directions on what to do for them to achieve their goals and objectives. They are important because they guide every step and action that is taken within and outside the business. Its influence can be seen from the way it touches on the operations of the organizational leaders. Often, it is possible to predict the leadership style used in business by looking and analyzing at its mission or vision statement (Roderick, 2016). For example, Starbucks mission statement reads, ‘To establish Starbucks as the premier purveyor of the finest coffee in the world while maintaining our uncompromising principles as we grow.’ The mission statement confirms the company’s commitment to servant leadership. In contrast, Tim Horton’s mission statement reads ‘To be the industry leader through commitment to excellence in people, product….

Diversity and the Business Culture

Changing Diversity and the Workplace Introduction Changing diversity is a major trend affecting the U.S. workforce and the demographics of virtually every organization. Demographics are destiny, as the common saying goes (Wolfe, 2017), and in the U.S. the future is being determined right now: families are shrinking, the population is graying, and the U.S. workforce is becoming more diverse (Buckley & Bachman, 2017). This diversity includes increases in women in the workplace as well as changes in demographics “by gender, by ethnicity, by culture, by religion, by sexual preference and identification” (Buckley & Bachman, 2017). There is also likely to be multiple generations of workers in the same workplace which can lead to its own management and leadership challenges, for each generation will have its own needs, strengths and weaknesses as far as managers are concerned (Krahn & Galambos, 2014; Moore, Everly & Bauer, 2016; Schullery, 2013). This paper will discuss these….

Leadership Style of the CEO of Google

Leadership style of the CEO of Google Inc. using situational leadershi Larry Page and Sergey Brin met at the Stanford University in 1995 and by 1996, they built first search initially called Backub, which used links to establish the importance of the individual web pages. They continued working on the search engine, and in 1998, they founded the now worldwide-established Google Inc. Company (Larson, 2010). The company packs a lot considering the young age of the company as it now serves billions of users and customers around the globe. The mission of Google Inc. is to organize the information of the entire world and make it useful and accessible universally. The headquarters of the company is in 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View CA 94043. The company boasts and enjoys a vast number of employees across the globe, with an established management team representing a team of the most experienced professionals in….

Godin, S. (2009). Situational leadership by Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey. Retrieved from  / on May 15, 2011.

Nicholas Carlson, Google CEO Eric Schmidt: "We Don't Really Have A Five-Year Plan" (CLIP)|

May 20, 2009, 2:59 PM Read more: 

Larson, C. (2010). Interview: Googlopolis. Foreign Policy, (181), 152-152. Retrieved from


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Leadership In order to effective, efficient, and profitable, an organization needs a good leader. However, leadership styles differ greatly, and what works for one organization may not work for another.[footnoteRef:1]…

This attribute shows Nicholson's ability of decision making, and keeping firm when protecting his subordinates. This showed Nicholson's democratic vices that are recommended as the best way of…

Leadership Styles: How to Become an Effective Leader Power Perspective and Leader as epresentatives Extrovert and Introvert Emotional Intelligence (EI) Competencies to Leadership Effectiveness Task-Oriented Leadership Satisfaction and Performance Four Dimensions of Leader-Member Exchange Authentic leadership…

Starbucks vs. Tim Horton: Mission Statements and Leadership Mission and vision statements are important in any industry setting because it gives organizations directions on what to do for them to…

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Term Paper on Leadership

The paradoxical issue of leadership has been such long subject of speculation and much has been focused on the determinants s of leadership effectiveness. Much of the leadership has been centered on the different concept of leadership, different ways of evaluating its effectiveness, and different approaches for studying leadership and how it forges and affects the effectiveness and the efficiency of a particular organization.

According to The Webster Dictionary, a leader is defined as a person who by force of example, talents or qualities of leadership plays a directing role, wields commanding influence, or has a following in any sphere of activity or thought. It defines leadership as that ingredient of personality that causes people to follow. Leadership is also conveniently defined as the ability to get things done through others, the process by which a leader exerts influence over others to move towards a vision. Leadership is distinguished from management, in that leadership implies a vision, or some sense of a higher and purpose beyond the day to day task of managing the work production of an organization or agency.

According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2000), efficiency is defined as “the quality of doing well with no waste of time or money” meanwhile effective is defined as “producing the intended result or a successful result”. As such, Leadership is an act of securing, attaining results for the organization and with the optimum utilization of its resources. This entails very imperative and a high quality of traits or characteristics that leaders should possess that contribute to the effectiveness and efficiency of the particular organization.

Leadership can also be defined as the process of influencing people to direct their efforts toward the attainment of some particular goal or goals (Hodgetts and Kuratko, 1986).

Invariably in a similar note, Leadership is defined as process used by the individual to influence group of members toward the achievement of group goals, where the group members view the influence as legitimate (Howell, and Costley, 2001).

According to Howell and Costley, careful studies in organizations show that executive leadership can account for 45 percent of an organization’s performance. Leadership also tends to make a difference in follower’s satisfaction and performance and persevere the effectiveness and the efficiency of the organization.

The core characteristics of the definition of the above stated leadership are, firstly, leadership is a process or a reasonable systematic and continuous series of actions directed toward group goals. As such, leadership today should be referred as the pattern of behaviors that leaders exhibit rather than the individual or the properties or traits or qualities of the individuals. Secondly, leadership is the designed act to influence people to influence people to modify their behavior. Thirdly, leadership is characterized as a single individual who usually fulfills the role for a group. Fourthly, leadership influence is viewed by followers as reasonable and justified. Fifthly, leadership influence is directed towards achieving group goals.

Current leadership experts agree that effective leadership behavior depends on situational and follower characteristics. To be effective leaders means to be able to diagnose the situation and follower’s characteristics and this will determine the pattern of leadership behavior that will result in high performance. This suggests that leader’s behavior differ from leadership traits or skills. Nevertheless, behavior and traits or skills interact to determine a leader’s effectiveness.

Certain situational or followers characteristics can increase or decrease the effectiveness of a leader’s behavior. Nevertheless, leaders have important roles to play in organizations, and effective leaders need to be aware of three tasks the effective leadership process: diagnosing situations to determine the need for a specific leader behavior, providing the needed leader behavior and modify situations and/or follower to increase their ability to work effectively and/or independently of the leader in attaining high performance and positive attitudes. According to Robert T. Justis, the level of leadership effectiveness is influenced strongly by the perceived task competency of the leader, by the reward dependency of the subordinate upon the leader, and by the interaction of these two variables.

Leadership in a traditional view of organization would entail strong directive and task skills, and a clear idea of the objective, usually formed by the individual independent of input from others. Leadership is deemed as a function of position, a power possessed only by the person at the top. The new context of organizations as a more complex and comprehensive call for a new paradigm in leadership. This is due to the fact that organizations and systems are now seen as interdependent, complex and diverse. The environment that the organization has to endure consists of complex network of customers, suppliers, and interlocking markets and subject to sudden, unpredictable change.

As such, a new model of leadership is needed to sustain and persevere to these new organization conditions and it entails new sets of behaviors and skills. Leaders need to have interpersonal attitude, the ability to authentically articulate core principles and a sense of meaning for oneself and for others, and the skill to tap the deep resources of creativity and passion of team members. According to Bolman & Deal (1991), this is defined as the symbolic frame of leadership who can release the deep intrinsic motivation in staff and customers to increase loyalty, passion, and creativity that cannot be tapped by other means. Invariably, the political frame of effective leadership posits leaders as astute politician that employ power constructively, and offer a review of the literature on how this might be approached.

According to Steven Covey (1990), attainment of an effective and efficient organization is warranted by leaders having built a high-trust culture where people are empowered to strive for their best, and seeking to align “strategy, style, structure and systems” with the professed mission and with the realities of the environment.

Leadership is inevitably the essence of the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization. As stated above leaders need to influence followers and he or she must use behavioral patterns in an effective manner. Failing which, followers are not influenced to achieve group goals. Types of situational and follower characteristics that leaders must consider in selecting the appropriate behavior should be identified. There are five core leader behavior patterns that should be adhered by leaders.

Firstly, the supportive behavior which entails the leader’s role in showing concern for comfort and well being of followers; demonstrating considerate, kind, and understanding attitude in dealing with followers; being friendly and informative, and encouraging open two-way communication and follower development.

Secondly, directive leadership behavior refers to the leader’s behavior in assigning followers to specific tasks, explaining the methods to be used in completing the tasks, clarifying expectations regarding quantity and quality of follower performance, setting goals for followers, planning and coordinating followers, and specifying roles and procedures to be followed.

Thirdly, the participating leadership involves followers in decision-making by consulting and getting ideas from followers. Followers are given opportunity in disseminating and constructing their own decisions with initial effort by the leaders or assigning a particular problem to a follower to resolve.

Fourthly, leader reward and punishment behavior entails the leader to provide intrinsic and extrinsic benefits and usually and in best practices is based on the follower’s performance. Punishment is rendered for unwanted followers behaviors.

Fifthly, the charismatic leadership behavior involves the leader communicating a vision of the future that has ideological significance to the followers, arousing follower’s needs which are relevant to goal accomplishment, serving as a role model, expressing high expectations and confidence in follower’s capabilities, and projecting a high esteem degree of confidence.

The leadership behavioral patterns which are exhibited are not mutually exclusive although they are described as distinct from one another. Nevertheless, different behavioral patterns may serve different leadership patterns. There are other emerging leader behavior include the leaders role in boundary spanning, which is representing the group, protecting members from outsiders, obtaining resources, and resolving conflicts among members and with other groups. Leaders use behavioral patterns to influence followers to accomplish group or organization’s goals. It is imperative for leaders to use a variety of behaviors to obtain desired outcomes with followers. Using of different combination of behaviors are called leadership styles. Most effective leaders demonstrate all of these behavioral patterns at one time or another based on the situation.

Leaders behavior have a constructive and influencing bearing on the psychological reactions(attitudes, feelings,perceptions,motivations and expectations) on the followers which in turn has an impact on the followers satisfaction with supervision, general job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job stress, role clarity, motivation and group cohesion. As such, positive effects ensure a pleasant working environment and facilitate attainment of organization goals. Meanwhile, negative effects reduce satisfaction and may result in resentment and uncooperative followers. This will result in the organization being ineffective and inefficient. The leadership behavior patterns have bearings on the organizational outcomes. Importance outcomes include high individual and group performance; low turnover, absenteeism, lateness, and grievance rates; and high quality levels, all of which result in a production organization. This suggest that a supportive leader tends to increase followers satisfaction (a psychological reaction) and a high level of job satisfaction among workers and naturally result in lower turnover, absenteeism, and grievance rates which may impose high production costs.

Even though the deliberations so far has centered or viewed as shared influence process based on a behavioral approach, it is appreciated that leadership should also be viewed as a specialized role which focuses on the attributes that determine selection of designated leaders. Traits and skills coupled with leadership behavior emanate an effective leadership and justify effective and efficient organization. It helps to say that positive trait and skills gives and added advantage to the leadership effectiveness.

Firstly, leaders should have a visionary mind or has the ability to give clear direction. Leaders are always engaged in the implementation of a change in complex systems and agencies. It is a critical element in this effort and the imitative to succeed and leaders will be needed to articulate a vision and motivate the aligned energy of groups of people, negotiate resources, resolves conflicts, keep the change process moving in the desired direction, and stimulate appropriate adjustment to ever-changing conditions. Leaders are attentive to visions by paying attention, synthesizing vision into a choice of direction and focusing attention by developing commitment. Leaders should be able to scan the horizon, identify future trends, and position the agency or system to meet future needs and basically inspire a shared vision.

Secondly, leadership entails the need of an interpersonal aptitude of the leader, the ability to authentically articulate core principles and a sense of meaning for oneself and for others, and the skill to tap the deep resources of creativity and passion of team members. Leadership is the willingness to coach and support people and have the tendency to reward a diversify set of skills, creatively aligned towards one outcome.

Thirdly, knowledge-sharing leadership involves the need for leaders to possess knowledge of the subject they are involved and should be sufficient to command the respect of his followers. In absence, the leadership’s credibility is disputed and questioned. This will tend to construct an ineffectiveness and inefficiencies in the organization. Employees tend to be disoriented and lack the confidence in executing their work.

Fourthly, leadership needs the capacity and the tenacity to communicate with their followers especially in conveying their thoughts in a clear and concise manner. Leadership involves the competency to influence people to do what they want them to do. This is imperative so that goals and objectives of organizations are attained. It ensures the effectiveness of the organization to realize its goals.

In conclusion, evaluation of leadership effectiveness is coined in terms of the consequences of the leader’s actions for followers and other organizational stakeholders. The different outcomes dictate the extent of organizational effectiveness and efficiency that the organization is nurtured, molded and strategised to enable the attainment of the organizational goals and objectives. Outcomes could be in the form of the performance and growth of the leader’s group or organization, its preparedness to deal with challenges or crises, follower satisfaction with the leader, follower commitment to the group objectives, the psychological well being and development of the followers. Nevertheless, the most important should be the attainment of the organizational goals and performance effectively and efficiently. This is measured in terms of profits, profit margin, sales increase, market share, sales relative to targeted sales, return on investment, productivity, cost per unit of output and cost in relative to budget expenditures. Leadership must condone to a continuous effort to enhance group cohesiveness by improving the quality of work life, build the self-confidence of followers, increasing their skills, and contribute to the psychological development growth and development. This will eventually ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization when goals and performance of the organization is attained.


Warning! This is a free sample term paper on Leadership which cannot be used as your own term paper research. This term paper example can be easily detected as plagiarism by any plagiarism detection tool.

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Leadership Term Paper

Despite some people may consider leadership studies as an easy discipline, it is, actually, quite complex and is often mistaken for management. Therefore, in order to get the highest grade in this subject, it is crucial to know what exactly a leadership term paper needs to include and avoid. In particular, there is a range of topics that are typical for a usual leadership term paper and being familiar with this list and some other fundamental guidelines is a guarantee for getting a good grade.

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As a matter of fact, leadership is a part of any interaction between people. Thus, throughout the life, an individual faces either the responsibility to manage a team at school or a workplace, or be a part of it and report to a leader. However, not always such involvement can appear to be successful, as simply telling others what to do is not what makes one a leader. Thus, when writing a leadership term paper , it is important to remember that the process of guiding a group of people requires different aspects to be taken into account.

Interestingly, each of these points can become a separate topic for a leadership term paper. These include:

  • essential skills for leadership;
  • the role of a leader for the team’s success;
  • leadership styles and theories;
  • leadership behaviors;
  • the importance of leader’s personal self-development;
  • types and theories of motivation to use;
  • leadership in a particular environment (e.g. at school, work, in a sports team, etc.);
  • the key differences between a manager and a leader;
  • the role of gender and/or age in leadership;
  • common mistakes that leaders make;
  • challenges that a leader may face.

However, choosing a topic of the paper is only the first step. Having done that, it is crucial to start with doing research on the subject that implies looking for reliable references, which are no older than five years, browsing them, and taking notes. This is to be followed by creating a rough outline of the paper and, then, organizing the gathered information into a draft. Thus, the topic needs to be covered enough for the paper to be informative but the essay should not be too brief and shallow. In addition, it is a necessity to stick to a particular point of view throughout the entire work so that the arguments support each other; although, an opposite point of view can be included for emphasizing the strength of the chosen perspective.

With a written draft, it is possible to start working on the term paper itself. Importantly, the paper needs to be structured and well-organized that requires including an introduction, several properly divided body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The good idea is to start the paper with providing a general overview of what leadership implies as a science and in life and include a clear thesis afterward. Then, using the notes from references as supporting arguments to leading points contributes to the quality of the essay as opposed to using own assumptions and opinions. Equally important, the conclusion needs to summarize the paper and not include any new information. When finished, proofreading the paper is essential, as well as it is possible to add transition words and phrases so that the text is coherent and captivating. 


  • Alghazo, A. & Al-Anazi, M. (2016). The Impact of Leadership Style on Employee’s Motivation. International Journal Of Economics And Business Administration, 2(5), 37-44.
  • Gentry, W., Eckert, R., Stawiski, S., & Zhao, S. (2016). The Challenges Leaders Face Around the World. More Similar than Different.
  • Popovici, V. (2012). SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP. Annals Of The „Constantin Brâncuşi” University Of Târgu Jiu, Economy Series(2), 126-135.
  • Sharma, M. & Jain, S. (2013). Leadership Management: Principles, Models and Theories. Global Journal Of Management And Business Studies, 3(3), 309-318.
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