92 Total Quality Management Essay Topic Ideas & Examples
🏆 best total quality management topic ideas & essay examples, 👍 good essay topics on total quality management, 📌 most interesting total quality management topics to write about, ❓ total quality management essay questions.
- Total Quality Management in the Hospitality Industry TQM can be lucratively implemented in management of hotels by first recognizing customers as the most essential component of a transaction. The thriving realization of TQM in an organization by an executive can be evaluated […]
- Total Quality Management in the Healthcare Setting The model is a means to an end of improving quality of success at the lowest cost possible, while the process itself is continuously applied for continuous improvement in quality management. In the step wouldo’, […]
- Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay The second principle of TQM is that the problem in most companies is the processes but not the people. This was based on the fact that the quality of the products was determined by all […]
- The Role of Human Resource Management in the Implementation of Successful Total Quality Management in Hospitality Industry According to Nickson, it is the role of the HRM in the hospitality industry to come up with HRM policies regarding the employment needs of the industry and the criteria to be used in selecting […]
- Total Quality Management (TQM) as a Significant Issue in the Contemporary Strategic Management Total Quality Management is a comparatively new concept in the area of strategic management; it emerged in the 1980s mainly as a response of the American companies to the competitive pressure of organizations from Japan.
- Total Quality Management in Abu Dhabi University Total quality management is the process which managers use to continuously identify and administer the activities needed to achieve the quality objectives of an organization with an aim of offering high value products and services.
- Total Quality Management at the Walmart INC. Solution Wal-Mart has made contracts with suppliers and has shared the cost for the new technology adopted by these suppliers to enhance better relationship.
- Total Quality Management at the BR Engineering To spite managers in the modern world where customers are ever demanding for quality, incorporating total quality management into BR engineering comes with a host of benefits that shall largely impact on the business position […]
- Total Quality Management: Quality and Customer Satisfaction As such the term Total Quality Management means different things to different people; designers expect the product or service to conform to specifications; producer expects the product to perform or fit into intended use; consumers […]
- Introduction and Implementation of Total Quality Management Total quality management is the integrative, prudent management with the intention of improving the quality of the products produced while encouraging conformity with the process and the environmental requirements.
- Total Quality Management: A Path to Sustainable Growth and Improvement The considerations include but are not limited to: the identification of the business opportunity, development of the product or service, evaluations of the suppliers, clients and business environment and market analysis among others.
- Total Quality Management: Pioneers, Elements and Trends Total quality management is likely to be practiced through the business chain, from suppliers, to production processes, to promotion of a product, and eventually to the grateful consumers. The principle of total quality will enable […]
- Gillette’s Total Quality Management System The focus phase was concerned with the development of a problem statement; the analyze phase dealt with the use of data to understand the magnitude of the problem; the develop phase involved the determination of […]
- Introduction to Total Quality Management and Six Sigma This assignment will identify them and discuss examples of companies which have applied TQM and six sigma strategies The main implementation issues associated with TQM include understanding of TQM and what it entails, establishing an […]
- The Dimensions of Total Quality Management in Business Firms Total quality management is a complex notion covering human, product, and technological process as the basic dimensions leading to constant improvement of the quality of services and products.
- Marriott Hotel International Total Quality Management The origin and development of Total Quality Management The total quality management is a theory applied in most of organizations in efforts of improving quality and performance to meet or exceed customers’ needs.
- Total Quality Management: Origins and Evolution of the Term The article’s central concern and its relation to International Business Course The broad area covered in this article is the origins of the term Total Quality Management and a clarification on the divergent definitions of […]
- Organizational Behavior: Total Quality Management This research proposal will seek to mobilize adequate information on the issue of Total Quality Management as a key pillar in the running of business organizations. This will in turn guarantee high quality, efficiency and […]
- Total Quality Management Implementation The core aspect of quality is to get it right the first time, and to meet the needs of the customer every time, by engaging everyone in the firm.
- Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM): Toyota Case Study In order to implement TQM, Toyota corporations focused on the following phases: The company extended the management responsibility past the instantaneous services and products Toyota examined how consumers applied the products generated and this enabled […]
- Total Quality Management: Xerox Case To achieve its success, the company used TQM principles to make changes in the way it does business and relates to customers, suppliers, and employees.
- Total Quality Management and Six Sigma TQM principles enabled the company to improve on quality of its products and increase customer satisfaction. Six Sigma approach seeks to achieve the high quality expectations by identifying and elimination sources of errors.
- Total Quality Management: 6 Sigma The original objective of the six sigma method is to improve the quality of services and products and at the same time reduce the cost of production.
- Total Quality Management: Advantages and Disadvantages Total quality management refers to the approach used by the management to improve the quality of production and the organization’s performance in tandem with the needs of its goals.
- Comparison Between Six Sigma and Total Quality Management The second phase is to measure the main characteristics of the present process and gather relevant information. The last step is to verify the design, execute production procedures, and present it to the proprietors of […]
- Alliant’s Total Quality Management System It explains Alliant’s TQM strategy, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the actions Alliant took in implementing this strategy. The TQM strategy, exemplified in the PCCs approach, took most of the functions and services closer […]
- Al Ain Hospital Total Quality Management Workers in the organisation know about the importance of quality improvement and most of them have made a commitment to the practice.
- Total Quality Management in the EU and Football Association The European Commission and the council of the European Union are the chief institutions of the EU. In addition, the court of Justice of the European Union is a key legal institution of the EU.
- International Total Quality Management’ Implementation Therefore, the study examines a scenario that took place in a hotel and explains the solutions used to address the situation and the importance of using total quality management to set the tone of an […]
- IKEA Company Total Quality Management Given the price of IKEA products, customers appear to be satisfied with their quality; apart from that the consumers seem to value the wide variety of products and enjoy the showrooms that provide ideas for […]
- Bahrain Development Bank’ Total Quality Management The purpose of this paper is to provide the discussion of the elements of the TQM framework in the context of the activities of the Administration Department in Bahrain Development Bank.
- Total Quality Management and Organizational Culture The authors provide readers with the results of the study aimed at identifying the way organizational cultures can influence the implementation of the Total Quality Management practices.
- Hospitals’ Total Quality Management and Leadership This report will address issues in leadership and TQM in hospitals from a holistic perspective. It will address the following research questions: What is the role of effective leadership in hospitals?
- Total Quality Management Models Comparison It is widely used in Europe and beyond it in both private and public organizations. It is majorly used in organizations than individuals.
- Dubai Airports’ Total Quality Management The company provides core services for the operation and maintenance of airport terminals, including the resolution of customer complaints, integration of operational services, and the provision of management services.
- Deming and Juran as Total Quality Management Gurus If one recalls over the condition of quality management and philosophy, they would be inattentive if they did not pay attention to the two of the 20th centuries’ most noteworthy and valued contributors: William Edwards […]
- Customer Focus Principle in Total Quality Management The findings emphasise the importance of the customer focus principle and lead to the conclusion that it is a vital element of performance improvement initiations.
- Aldi Company: Total Quality Management That is why lean production principles make sense for Aldi and are efficient for maintaining its positions in the grocery market.
- Strategies for Total Quality Management in Science According to Kakuro, TQM’s practices require teamwork to improve the performance of each department as a separate entity and as a part of the company.
- Total Quality Management as a Development Stimulus TQM suggests a wide array of techniques and methods that could be used at different stages of the production process to enhance the quality of goods and attract consumers.
- Dubai Police Applying Total Quality Management One of the key elements of the TQM model is that of innovation. The organization allows and encourages them to use modern technologies to meet the needs of the people they serve.
- Government Accelerators and Total Quality Management The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of the government accelerators methodology on the total quality management and entities performance.
- Total Quality Management in Retailing and Services In many scenarios, TQM is viewed simply as a tool to improve the quality of services and products rather than a philosophy that motivates both managers and employees to improve on their work.
- Tools for Total Quality Management The process is only successful when the manager focuses on ways of structuring the problems and using the analysis tools only as a secondary manipulation step.
- Continuous Improvement in the Total Quality Management On the other hand, the article also acknowledges that there are several factors that can determine the implementation of CI but the spirit of entrepreneurship in the organization helps it to be sustained.
- “Total Quality Management” by Peter Petersen Overall, the author argues that the theories of this quality expert are still viable and that they are still applicable to the needs of modern companies.
- Total Quality Management and Firm Performance The author moves on to describe the early attempts, at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, to research TQM.
- Total Quality Management: Strategies and Barriers The report concludes the practical validity of TQM in the case of Smart Pack Ltd, its applicability, and points out the range of benefits resulting from the process.
- Leadership and Total Quality Management The main objective is to critically evaluate the impact of leadership behaviour and management style on the success of Total Quality Management in the retail sector. What is the role of leadership in establishing processes […]
- The Philosophy of Total Quality Management The philosophy of Karlee reflects this because the company uses systems approaches to its management. Karlee applies this by assessing the current state of the company’s operations, aligning this data with prospects for the future, […]
- Total Quality Management for Urban Transformation The wave of globalization is attracting individuals and expatriates from different regions to work in foreign countries. In different towns and cities, many sectors are involved that require the input of all stakeholders.
- Common Themes in Total Quality Management Public policy evolves over time out of experiences in the social arena, and the effectiveness or otherwise of the public policy depends, in a major fashion, on the level of assimilation and empathy of the […]
- Abu Dhabi Police Department’s Total Quality Management The central aspects to be covered are considered to be the following: ethics, integrity, training, teamwork, trust, recognition, leadership, and communication; the analysis discloses the depth of management structure and environment developed within Abu Dhabi […]
- Snow Canyon: Total Quality Management And, Management refers to the “accountability and inventiveness of the top management in the context of systematic quality development”. Quality development refers to the energetic development of the worth of services and its continuous upgrading […]
- Total Quality Management in Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank The bank offers a variety of banking and economic services primarily in the United Arab Emirates and also in India. This is seen as one of the attempts to adopt the emerging trends in which […]
- Total Quality Management: A Viable Solution for Zayed University Despite the university’s good formal rankings, the recent history of the organization has not been devoid of troubles and controversies. It is clear that some of the university’s current policies are unviable.
- Quality Circles in Total Quality Management Quality circles refer to the practice of employee gathering to identify and analyze problems related to their sphere of competence to improve the overall quality of products and services.
- Balanced Scorecard and Total Quality Management The first part of the report provides an overview of the principles of BSC, considers the method’s advantages and drawbacks, and examines the reality of its implementation, with a specific focus on the United Arab […]
- Total Quality Management vs. Continuous Quality Improvement Before covering specific implications of TQM and CQM, it is worthy to examine definitions and objectives of the two strategies separately.
- Total Quality Management (TQM) Implementation: The Case of ADNOC TQM incorporates the entire commodities attributes and the physical characteristics capable of meeting the affirmed customer requirements.
- Philosophies and Frameworks: Total Quality Management Customer loyalty defines the reputation of an organization and, therefore, its further success in the home and global markets.
- Total Quality Management: Kia Motors From the very beginning, KIA Motors has not been trying to appeal to a demographic that is well-off or has the means to purchase the best-quality car on the market.
- Walmart’s Total Quality Management in 2010-2020 Walmart US has been affected by the waste issues, and there is a need to research how the problem can be combatted by achieving zero waste in its operations in the US.
- Total Quality Management and Performance Measurement Blocher et al.define TQM as “the unyielding and continuous effort by everyone in the organization to understand, meet, and exceed the expectations of customers”.
- What Do You Mean by Total Quality Management?
- What Is Total Quality Management and Its Benefits?
- What Is Total Quality Management and Its Purpose?
- What Is the Main Advantage of Total Quality Management?
- Why Is Total Quality Management Important in Business?
- What Are the Characteristics of Total Quality Management?
- What Is Total Quality Management and Its Advantages and Disadvantages?
- Who Is Responsible for Total Quality Management?
- What Is the Most Important Element of Total Quality Management?
- What Are the Barriers to Total Quality Management?
- What Is the Example of Total Quality Management?
- What Are the Factors Affecting Total Quality Management?
- How Is Total Quality Management Implemented?
- What Is the Role of Employees in Total Quality Management?
- When Was Total Quality Management Introduced?
- Who Introduced Total Quality Management?
- What Are Total Quality Management Problems?
- How Is Total Quality Management Measured?
- What Tools Does Total Quality Management Use?
- What Is a Common Total Quality Management Tool?
- What Is the Structure of Total Quality Management?
- How Does Total Quality Management Apply in Daily Life?
- Who Is the Father of Total Quality Management?
- What Are the Phases of Total Quality Management?
- Where Is Total Quality Management Used?
- How Is Quality Measured in Total Quality Management?
- What Are the Methods of Total Quality Management?
- How Does Total Quality Management Increase Productivity?
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IvyPanda . "92 Total Quality Management Essay Topic Ideas & Examples." September 27, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/topic/total-quality-management-essay-topics/.
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Total Quality Management Research Paper Topics
Total quality management research paper topics have grown to become an essential area of study, reflecting the critical role that quality assurance and continuous improvement play in modern organizations. This subject encompasses a wide array of topics, methodologies, and applications, all aimed at enhancing operational efficiency, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage. The purpose of this text is to provide students, researchers, and practitioners with a comprehensive guide on various aspects of total quality management (TQM). It includes an extensive list of potential research paper topics categorized into ten main sections, a detailed article explaining the principles and practices of TQM, guidelines on how to choose and write on TQM topics, and an introduction to iResearchNet’s custom writing services that cater to this field. This comprehensive resource aims to assist students in navigating the complex landscape of TQM, inspiring insightful research, and offering practical tools and support for academic success.
100 Total Quality Management Research Paper Topics
Total Quality Management (TQM) has evolved to become a strategic approach to continuous improvement and operational excellence. It has applications across various industries, each with its unique challenges and opportunities. Below is an exhaustive list of TQM research paper topics, divided into ten categories, offering a rich source of ideas for students and researchers looking to explore this multifaceted domain.
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Total Quality Management transcends traditional boundaries and integrates concepts from various disciplines. Its goal is to create a culture where quality is at the forefront of every decision and process. The following list presents 100 TQM research topics divided into ten different categories. Each category represents a specific aspect of TQM, providing an extensive foundation for exploring this complex field.
- Historical Development of TQM
- Core Principles of TQM
- TQM and Organizational Culture
- Deming’s 14 Points: A Critical Analysis
- Six Sigma and TQM: A Comparative Study
- TQM in Manufacturing: Case Studies
- TQM and Leadership: Role and Responsibilities
- Customer Focus in TQM
- Employee Involvement in TQM Practices
- Challenges in Implementing TQM
- TQM in Healthcare
- TQM in Education
- TQM in the Automotive Industry
- TQM in the Food and Beverage Industry
- TQM in Information Technology
- TQM in Hospitality
- TQM in the Banking Sector
- TQM in Construction
- TQM in Supply Chain Management
- TQM in Government Services
- Statistical Process Control in TQM
- The 5S Method in Quality Management
- Kaizen and Continuous Improvement
- Root Cause Analysis in TQM
- Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
- The Fishbone Diagram in TQM
- Process Mapping and Quality Improvement
- Benchmarking for Quality Enhancement
- The Role of FMEA in Quality Management
- Design of Experiments (DOE) in TQM
- ISO 9001 and Quality Management
- The Benefits of ISO 14001
- Understanding Six Sigma Certifications
- The Impact of OHSAS 18001 on Safety Management
- Lean Manufacturing and Quality Standards
- Implementation of ISO 22000 in Food Safety
- The Role of ISO/IEC 17025 in Testing Laboratories
- Quality Management in ISO 27001 (Information Security)
- Achieving CE Marking for Product Safety
- The Influence of SA 8000 on Social Accountability
- Measuring Customer Satisfaction in TQM
- The Role of Service Quality in Customer Retention
- Customer Complaints and Quality Improvement
- Building Customer Loyalty Through TQM
- Customer Feedback and Continuous Improvement
- Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and TQM
- Emotional Intelligence and Customer Satisfaction
- The Impact of Branding on Customer Loyalty
- Customer Experience Management in TQM
- Customer Segmentation and Targeting in TQM
- The Role of Training in TQM
- Employee Empowerment in Quality Management
- Motivational Theories and TQM
- Building a Quality Culture Through Employee Engagement
- Employee Recognition and Reward Systems in TQM
- Leadership Styles and Employee Performance in TQM
- Communication and Teamwork in TQM
- Managing Change in TQM Implementation
- Conflict Resolution Strategies in TQM
- Work-Life Balance in a Quality-Oriented Organization
- Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in TQM
- Balanced Scorecard and Quality Management
- Performance Appraisals in a TQM Environment
- Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation in TQM
- Risk Management in Quality Performance
- Process Auditing and Quality Control
- The Role of Quality Circles in Performance Evaluation
- Value Stream Mapping and Process Optimization
- The Impact of E-business on Quality Performance
- Outsourcing and Quality Assurance
- Environmental Sustainability and TQM
- Social Responsibility and Ethical Practices in TQM
- Green Manufacturing and Environmental Performance
- Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Strategies in TQM
- Waste Reduction and Recycling in TQM
- Community Engagement and Social Impact
- Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and TQM
- Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Quality Management
- Ethical Sourcing and Supply Chain Responsibility
- Human Rights and Labor Practices in TQM
- TQM Practices in Different Cultures
- The Influence of Globalization on TQM
- Cross-Cultural Communication and Quality Management
- International Regulations and Quality Standards
- TQM in Emerging Economies
- Quality Management in Multinational Corporations
- The Role of WTO in Global Quality Standards
- Outsourcing and Global Supply Chain Quality
- Global Competition and Quality Strategies
- International Collaboration and Quality Innovation
- Technological Innovations and Quality Management
- Big Data and Analytics in TQM
- Quality 4.0 and the Role of IoT
- Artificial Intelligence and Quality Prediction
- The Impact of Social Media on Quality Perception
- Sustainability and Future Quality Management
- Agile Methodologies and Quality Flexibility
- Blockchain Technology and Quality Traceability
- Cybersecurity and Quality Assurance
- The Future Role of Human Resource in Quality Management
The vast array of topics listed above provides a comprehensive insight into the dynamic and multifaceted world of Total Quality Management. From foundational principles to future trends, these topics offer students a diverse range of perspectives to explore, understand, and contribute to the ongoing dialogue in TQM. With proper guidance, dedication, and an open mind, scholars can delve into these subjects to create impactful research papers, case studies, or projects that enrich the existing body of knowledge and drive further innovation in the field. Whether one chooses to focus on a specific industry, a particular tool, or an emerging trend, the possibilities are endless, and the journey towards quality excellence is both challenging and rewarding.
Total Quality Management and the Range of Research Paper Topics
Total Quality Management (TQM) represents a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality of products and services through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback. This article aims to provide an in-depth exploration of TQM, shedding light on its evolution, its underlying principles, and the vast range of research topics it offers.
Total Quality Management has its roots in the early 20th century, with the development of quality control and inspection processes. However, it wasn’t until the mid-1980s that TQM became a formalized, systematic approach, greatly influenced by management gurus like W. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, and Philip Crosby.
- Early Quality Control Era : During the industrial revolution, emphasis on quality control began, primarily focusing on product inspection.
- Post-World War II Era : The concept of quality management grew as the U.S. sought to rebuild Japan’s industry. Deming’s teachings on quality greatly influenced Japanese manufacturing.
- TQM’s Formalization : The integration of quality principles into management practices led to the formalization of TQM, encompassing a holistic approach towards quality improvement.
Principles of Total Quality Management
TQM is underpinned by a set of core principles that guide its implementation and contribute to its success. Understanding these principles is fundamental to any research into TQM.
- Customer Focus : At the heart of TQM is a strong focus on customer satisfaction, aiming to exceed customer expectations.
- Continuous Improvement : TQM promotes a culture of never-ending improvement, addressing small changes that cumulatively lead to substantial improvement over time.
- Employee Engagement : Engaging employees at all levels ensures that everyone feels responsible for achieving quality.
- Process Approach : Focusing on processes allows organizations to optimize performance by understanding how different processes interrelate.
- Data-Driven Decision Making : Utilizing data allows for objective assessment and decision-making.
- Systematic Approach to Management : TQM requires a strategic approach that integrates organizational functions and processes to achieve quality objectives.
- Social Responsibility : Considering societal well-being and environmental sustainability is key in TQM.
Scope and Application
Total Quality Management is applicable across various domains and industries. The following areas showcase the versatility of TQM:
- Manufacturing : Implementing TQM principles in manufacturing ensures efficiency and consistency in production processes.
- Healthcare : TQM in healthcare focuses on patient satisfaction, error reduction, and continuous improvement.
- Education : In educational institutions, TQM can be used to improve the quality of education through better administrative processes and teaching methods.
- Service Industry : Whether in hospitality, banking, or IT, TQM’s principles can enhance service quality and customer satisfaction.
- Public Sector : Governmental bodies and agencies can also employ TQM to enhance public service delivery and satisfaction.
TQM’s multifaceted nature offers a wide range of research paper topics. Some areas of interest include:
- TQM Tools and Techniques : Research on tools like Six Sigma, Kaizen, and statistical process control.
- Quality Standards : Investigating the impact and implementation of ISO standards.
- Industry-Specific Applications : Exploring how TQM is applied and adapted in different industries.
- Challenges and Opportunities : Assessing the difficulties and advantages of implementing TQM in contemporary business environments.
- Emerging Trends : Examining future trends in TQM, such as the integration of technology and sustainability considerations.
Total Quality Management has evolved from a simple focus on product inspection to a strategic approach to continuous improvement that permeates the entire organization. Its application is not confined to manufacturing but has spread across various sectors and industries.
Research in TQM is equally diverse, offering students and scholars a rich and complex field to explore. Whether delving into the historical evolution of TQM, examining its principles, evaluating its application in different sectors, or exploring its myriad tools and techniques, the study of TQM is vibrant and multifaceted.
By undertaking research in Total Quality Management, one not only contributes to the academic body of knowledge but also plays a role in shaping organizational practices that emphasize quality, efficiency, customer satisfaction, and social responsibility. In a global business environment characterized by competitiveness, complexity, and constant change, the principles and practices of TQM remain more relevant than ever.
How to Choose Total Quality Management Research Paper Topics
Choosing the right topic for a research paper in Total Quality Management (TQM) is a crucial step in ensuring that your paper is both engaging and academically relevant. The selection process should align with your interests, the academic requirements, the targeted audience, and the available resources for research. Here is an in-depth guide, including an introductory paragraph, ten essential tips, and a concluding paragraph to help you make an informed choice.
Total Quality Management encompasses a broad spectrum of theories, tools, techniques, and applications across various industries. This richness and diversity offer a plethora of potential research topics. However, selecting the perfect one can be daunting. The following tips are designed to guide students in choosing a research topic that resonates with their interests and the current trends in TQM.
- Identify Your Area of Interest : TQM has many facets, such as principles, tools, applications, challenges, and trends. Pinpointing the area that piques your interest will help in narrowing down your topic.
- Consider Academic Relevance : Your chosen topic should align with your course objectives and academic guidelines. Consult your professor or academic advisor to ensure that the topic fits the scope of your course.
- Research Current Trends : Stay up-to-date with the latest developments in TQM by reading scholarly articles, attending conferences, or following industry leaders. Current trends may inspire a relevant and timely topic.
- Evaluate Available Resources : Make sure that your chosen topic has enough existing literature, data, and resources to support your research.
- Assess the Scope : A too broad topic might be overwhelming, while a too narrow one might lack content. Balance the scope to ensure depth without over-extending.
- Consider Practical Implications : If possible, choose a topic that has real-world applications. Connecting theory to practice makes your research more impactful.
- Check Originality : Aim for a topic that offers a new perspective or builds on existing research in a unique way. Your contribution to the field should be clear and valuable.
- Evaluate Your Expertise : Choose a topic that matches your level of expertise. Overly complex subjects might lead to difficulties, while overly simple ones might not challenge you enough.
- Consider the Target Audience : Think about who will be reading your research paper. Tailoring your topic to the interests and expectations of your readers can make your paper more engaging.
- Conduct a Preliminary Research : Before finalizing your topic, conduct some preliminary research to ensure there’s enough material to work with and that the topic is feasible within the given timeframe.
Selecting the right topic for a Total Quality Management research paper is a thoughtful and multifaceted process. It requires considering personal interests, academic requirements, current industry trends, available resources, and practical implications.
By following the guidelines provided, students can align their research with both personal and academic objectives, paving the way for a successful research experience. The ideal topic is one that not only aligns with the ever-evolving field of TQM but also resonates with the researcher’s passion and curiosity, laying the foundation for a meaningful and insightful investigation into the dynamic world of Total Quality Management.
How to Write a Total Quality Management Research Paper
Writing a Total Quality Management (TQM) research paper is a valuable endeavor that requires a clear understanding of the subject, strong analytical skills, and a methodical approach to research and writing. This guide outlines how to write an impressive research paper on TQM, including an introductory paragraph, ten actionable tips, and a concluding paragraph.
Total Quality Management is a comprehensive approach that emphasizes continuous improvement, customer satisfaction, employee involvement, and integrated management systems. Writing a research paper on TQM is not just an academic exercise; it is an exploration into the principles and practices that drive quality in organizations. The following detailed guidance aims to equip you with the necessary knowledge and skills to compose a compelling TQM research paper.
- Understand the Basics of TQM : Start by immersing yourself in the foundational principles of TQM, including its history, methodologies, and various applications across industries. A deep understanding will form the basis of your research.
- Choose a Specific Topic : As outlined in the previous section, select a specific and relevant topic that aligns with your interest and the current trends in the field of TQM.
- Conduct Comprehensive Research : Use reputable sources such as academic journals, books, industry reports, and expert opinions to gather information. Always critically evaluate the reliability and relevance of your sources.
- Create a Thesis Statement : Your thesis statement is the guiding force of your paper. It should be clear, concise, and articulate your main argument or focus.
- Develop an Outline : Organize your research into a logical structure. An outline will guide you in presenting your ideas coherently and ensuring that you cover all essential points.
- Write the Introduction : Introduce the topic, provide background information, and present the thesis statement. Make sure to engage the reader and provide a roadmap for the paper.
- Compose the Body : Divide the body into sections and subsections that explore different aspects of your topic. Use evidence, examples, and logical reasoning to support your arguments.
- Incorporate Case Studies and Examples : If applicable, include real-world examples or case studies that demonstrate the application of TQM principles in a practical context.
- Write the Conclusion : Summarize the key findings, restate the thesis, and provide insights into the implications of your research. A strong conclusion leaves a lasting impression.
- Revise and Edit : Pay attention to both content and form. Check for logical flow, coherence, grammar, and formatting. Consider seeking feedback from peers or professionals.
Writing a research paper on Total Quality Management is a complex but rewarding task. By understanding the fundamentals of TQM, selecting a precise topic, conducting thorough research, and following a structured writing process, students can produce a paper that not only meets academic standards but also contributes to the understanding of quality management in the modern world.
Emphasizing critical thinking, analytical prowess, and attention to detail, the journey of writing a TQM research paper enriches the student’s academic experience and provides valuable insights into the field that continues to shape organizations globally.
The strategies and tips provided in this guide serve as a roadmap for aspiring researchers, helping them navigate the challenges and triumphs of academic writing in the realm of Total Quality Management. With dedication, creativity, and adherence to scholarly standards, the result can be a meaningful and enlightening piece that resonates with both academics and practitioners alike.
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Total Quality Management (TQM) research papers require a specialized approach, encompassing a wide array of methodologies, tools, and applications. iResearchNet, as a leading academic writing service provider, is committed to assisting students in crafting top-notch custom Total Quality Management research papers. Here’s a detailed look at the 13 standout features that make iResearchNet the ideal choice for your TQM research paper needs:
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- Custom Written Works : Every research paper we undertake is customized to your specific requirements, providing unique, plagiarism-free content that aligns with your academic objectives.
- In-Depth Research : Equipped with access to vast academic and industry resources, our writers conduct comprehensive research, delivering TQM papers replete with the latest findings, theories, and applications.
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Total Quality Management (TQM): A Quick Guide
Total Quality Management (TQM) works to maintain success by doing what is necessary to improve customer satisfaction. Of course, that satisfaction is seeded in employees and business processes—long before any product or service reaches its customer.
How does a business or organization make sure that its processes and people are aligned with creating success and customer satisfaction? That’s where total quality management comes in.
What Is Total Quality Management (TQM)?
Total Quality Management is a management approach that focuses on delivering products and services with the highest quality to maximize customer satisfaction and meet regulatory standards. Total quality management is an organization-wide effort for continuous improvement. That improvement can be defined as an employee’s ability to provide on-demand products and services that are of value to their customers, even as their needs change.
That’s the “quality” in total quality management. The “total” indicates that the effort is one that touches every inch of every employee of an organization. As a methodology, however, total quality management has no widely agreed-upon approach. It does, though, draw from other tools and techniques, such as project quality control, quality assurance and testing, and others.
To make sure you’re delivering quality to your customers, you need to be able to monitor the processes you’re using to create the product or service you’re making for them. ProjectManager is online work and project management software that tracks real-time data with its live dashboards, which monitor six project metrics automatically. There’s no setup. It’s ready when you are. Get started with ProjectManager for free today.
Total Quality Management Principles
Just as the definitions of total quality management (TQM) differ, so do its principles. However, we’ve gathered the most important TQM principles for you below.
- Customer Focused: The definition of quality lies with the customer, and all efforts to achieve success in the organization lead to customer satisfaction.
- Total Employee Involvement: The effort is not isolated to one department of an organization. To be successful in its objective of customer satisfaction, there must be a common goal for all aspects of business and for each employee.
- Process Oriented: Process thinking is fundamental to total quality management; the internal steps a company takes directly result in the external output delivered to the customers.
- Integrated System: Basically, regardless of the size or complexity of the organization, all its distinct parts must work together.
- Strategic and Systemic Approach: Using strategic planning to create a strategic plan that integrates quality as a core component of the company is a way to structure total quality management into an organization’s mission.
- Continual Improvement: The mantra for total quality improvement is customer satisfaction, but that is not a one-shot goal: the act of improving quality for the customer is a process without an end.
- Fact-Based Decision Making: In order to know if an organization is meeting its objectives, there must be data on performance, and those metrics must be collected and analyzed with accuracy and without prejudice. (For more on this, learn how to use data to be a better manager .)
- Communications: It’s impossible to maintain a successful TQM approach without an effective communication plan. Communication plans make sure that every department is aware of what they and others are responsible for, so they can coordinate operations to achieve their common goal.
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Total Quality Management Methodologies
Being able to deliver total quality management requires methodology. There isn’t just one way to manage quality in your project . There are several approaches you can take. A few of them are listed below.
Lean manufacturing is a type of lean projection that comes from Japan, specifically, the car manufacturer Toyota. It’s all about targeting and eliminating what it calls muda or waste, in order to add value and maintain quality.
Six Sigma is another quality management methodology that is directed towards improving current processes, products or services. It does this by finding and removing any defects in order to streamline quality control.
ISO 9000 is a set of international standards focused on quality management and quality assurance. It was created to help companies document quality system elements that they needed to maintain an efficient quality system.
History of Total Quality Management
The roots of total quality management can be traced back to the economic instability of the late 1970s and into the early 1980s. It was at this time that the dominance of North America and Western Europe was challenged by competition from the East, specifically Japan’s skill at making high-quality inexpensive products.
While the origin of the term is not clear, many think it was inspired by the book Total Quality Control by quality control expert and businessman Armand V. Feigenbaum and What Is Total Quality Country? The Japanese Way by the organizational theorist Kaoru Ishikawa.
The Role of the U.S. Navy
It was the United States Navy that promoted the idea in 1984 when it asked its civilian researchers to offer recommendations on improving its operational effectiveness. The recommendation was to use the teachings of engineer and statistician W. Edwards Deming, which the U.S. Navy called total quality management in 1985.
The methodology was employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s underground storage tanks program in 1985. The private section soon followed as a way to remain competitive against the growing influence of the Japanese.
Key Concepts in Total Quality Management
The key concepts of total quality management developed by the U.S. Navy include:
- Quality is defined by what the customers’ requirements are
- Top-tier management is directly responsible for the improvement in quality
- It is by systemic analysis and using that data to improve work processes, that an increase in quality occurs
- The improvement of quality is a continuous effort and is conducted throughout the entire organization
The U.S. Navy employed certain techniques and tools to achieve those concepts. For example, there’s the Plan Do Check Act or PDCA cycle, which is a four-step management method to control the continuous improvement of processes and products.
Related: How to Implement Business Process Improvement
How to Implement Total Quality Management in 4 Steps
Getting started with total quality management requires that the top management learns about the methodology, and then commits to it as one of the organization’s strategies. The organization writ large must then assess its customer satisfaction and quality management systems.
One of the easiest methods to implement TQM is called PDCA. PDCA stands for Plan, Do, Check and Act. It’s a four-step management method to control the continuous improvement of processes and products.
Planning includes identifying and understanding the problem or opportunity as it relates to TQM. From the information you’ve gathered, come up with ideas and develop the best into an implementation plan.
With a planned solution, you can now test it and build a pilot program to see if you achieve the quality improvements you expected. Document the results.
Here you’ll analyze the results of your pilot program against what you expected to achieve. If you’ve met those criteria move on to the next step. However, if you’ve fallen short, then you need to return to step one.
Once you’ve tested and are satisfied with the solution, you can implement it at full scale. This process is a loop, however, with no beginning or end. The success is only the new baseline of which you’ll again test to improve.
The need for active management participation is critical to the success of any total quality management plan. This is done by creating steering committees to make sure everyone is working together to improve quality.
There is also the formation of ad hoc cross-functional teams that are responsible for addressing the immediate process issues. There are also standing cross-functional teams that have similar responsibilities, only those are over the long term.
Total Quality Management Tools
When it comes to analyzing quality-related issues, the U.S. Navy employed the seven basic tools of quality. This is a fixed set of graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in troubleshooting quality-related issues. These tools are often used in Six Sigma as well.
The seven tools for TQM are:
- Check sheet used to collect data in real time
- Control chart to determine if a process is in a state of control
- Stratification (or flow or run) chart to sample a group
- Pareto chart, which is both a bar and line graph that assess the most frequently occurring defects by category
- Histogram to roughly assess the probability distribution of a given variable by depicting the frequencies of observations occurring in certain ranges of value
- Cause-and-effect diagram
- Scatter diagram to display the value for two in a set of data
Free Templates to Help with TQM
Total quality management is best achieved through the use of project management software, which streamlines processes and helps you capture issues fast and resolve them. However, if you’re not using software or are not ready to upgrade to software, ProjectManager has dozens of free project management templates that can help you maintain the quality your customers expect. Here are a few.
Project Dashboard Template Being able to monitor and track activities in your project is how you make sure you’re meeting your quality expectations. While our real-time dashboard will capture live data, the free project dashboard template for Excel is the next best thing. You have to input the data but then you get the charts and graphs you need to see how your project is performing.
Gap Analysis Template In order to improve the quality of your product or service, you need to know where you are and where you want to be in the future. This is what a free gap analysis template for Excel can do for you. It captures the current and future stats and then shows the gap percentage you have to close, plus the actions and resources you’ll need to do it.
Issue Tracking Template When you find issues that are negatively impacting the quality of your project or service our free issue tracking template for Excel can help you monitor your progress in resolving it. The free template has space for you to describe the issue and its impact, add a priority, date and owner and track its status.
Use ProjectManager for Total Quality Management
ProjectManager is cloud-based work and project management software that delivers real-time data to help you make more insightful decisions when monitoring the quality of your work. Then you have features to plan, track and report on your quality management to implement total quality management.
Control Quality With Task Automation
One way to make sure you deliver quality is by removing as much human error as possible. Our workflow automation allows you to create custom workflows that trigger actions to change status, priority, assignee and much more. You can also add task approval settings so only those authorized to close a task can do so, further ensuring you deliver to your quality expectations.
Plan TQM With Interactive Gantt charts
Once you have a total quality management plan, you need to organize all the tasks and get your team assigned. Our online Gantt chart allows you to link task dependencies to avoid delays, set milestones to help with tracking and even filter for the critical path. Then set a baseline so you can measure project variance between what you planned and where you actually are in the schedule to stay on track.
Track Progress and More With One-Click Reports
To help you make sure you’re meeting deadlines and not overspending on your QTM plan, we have everything from status reports to reports on workload, time, cost and more. Generate them with a keystroke, and each report can be filtered to show only the data you want to see. They can also be easily shared to help keep stakeholders updated.
Our multiple project views allow your team to work how they want, on kanban boards, task lists and more. All data is updated together across the tool so you have a single source of truth to keep everyone working on the same page. Our collaborative platform allows team members to share files, comment and get notified of any updates to let them work more productively—all of which leads to more quality work.
As the name says, total quality management is a systemic change to the strategic goals of an organization. It impacts everyone and every department. Therefore, having the right tools to manage and communicate this process throughout an organization is critical. ProjectManager is a cloud-based project management software that gives managers and teams the control to plan, track and report on the progress of this or any methodology. See for yourself by taking this free 30-day trial.
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The Ultimate Guide to Total Quality Management (TQM)
By Kat Boogaard , January 20, 2021 - 10 min read
Your organization does good work. But, as a leader or a project manager, you feel like a lot of it rests on your shoulders. Up to this point, it’s been your responsibility to review everything carefully and make sure your company’s outputs meet your quality standards.
It’s working, but you know there has to be a better way. What if you could set up a system and a culture where everybody is invested in quality? What if you could refine processes that lead your team to consistently and reliably deliver top-notch work?
It’s possible, and it’s a concept called total quality management.
What is total quality management (TQM)?
To put it simply, total quality management (TQM) is a set of principles that helps organizations do their best work.
It focuses on helping companies evaluate and refine their processes, with the ultimate goal of improving their outputs and delivering a high-quality customer experience.
In many companies, managers and leaders accountable for the quality of work and the success of the organization. However, total quality management spreads the load more evenly. Since every employee is involved in delivering the work, they are also held accountable for its quality .
What is the history of total quality management?
Think total quality management is something new? Think again. This concept has some pretty strong historical roots.
Quality control has been around for ages. However, a mathematician and statistician named W. Edwards Deming is seen as the pioneer of the concept of total quality management .
He saw flaws in U.S. production, especially when it came to quality control. Deming thought it was odd that management controlled the production process, despite the fact the line workers were the ones who had boots on the ground — and, as a result, had far more insight into how an effective process should run.
He lectured on this topic in Japan in the 1950s. Japan was receptive to the concept of total quality management and quickly began implementing it.
Upon seeing the success of those efforts in Japan, total quality management spread across the rest of the world — eventually becoming commonplace in the U.S. in the 1970s and 1980s.
Why is total quality management important?
Total quality management can feel like a difficult concept to wrap your arms around, and it’s tempting to write it off as another complex, academic subject that doesn’t have applications in the real world.
But that’s not the case. Many successful companies — like Toyota , Xerox , and Motorola — implement total quality management.
Why? Well, because it can lead to a number of undeniable benefits, including:
- Higher-quality products and services : This is the obvious one. When you intentionally and mindfully manage a process with quality in mind, you improve your outputs. That’s the biggest benefit of total quality management — your team delivers top-notch work.
- Improved customer experience : A focus on the customer is a core principle of total quality management (which we’ll dig into in detail later). Keeping an eye on the needs of the end customer means you offer a better experience, leading to more loyalty, a better reputation, and even increased sales.
- Greater efficiency : Total quality management also hinges on processes, and even more specifically, continuous process improvement. Regularly evaluating your organization’s workflows and identifying ways to refine and streamline them leads to greater efficiency and productivity.
- Boosted team morale : Employee involvement is another core piece of total quality management. Every single team member rallies around a shared goal and commits to achieving it. That level of togetherness can lead to positive team culture and better morale.
See? Total quality management isn’t just a stuffy theory or a buzzword — it can have real, measurable, and important effects within your team and organization. Using collaborative work management software (like Wrike) can make the process easier and enable even greater productivity. More on that a little later!
What are the total quality management principles?
Total quality management is about improving quality across the organization. But, it’s not quite as simple as saying, “Alright, we’re going to do a better job.”
Total quality management has a formal set of eight different principles it’s based on. Here’s a straightforward explanation of each of those concepts:
You can think your processes, products, and services are top-notch. But, your opinion means nothing if your customers aren’t satisfied and impressed with your offerings.
Organizations that implement total quality management always have the end customer in mind. They know their customers are the ultimate judges of whether or not their organization is of superior quality, and they refine their processes and offerings in the interest of the customer.
2. Total employee involvement
Remember when we mentioned that total quality management isn’t something handed down from on high? Rather, it involves every single member of the organization in achieving a goal and improving quality.
This can mean several different things. First and foremost, companies need to provide clarity around their objectives. Secondly, they need to provide the training and resources employees need to do their work efficiently and effectively. Finally, a high degree of psychological safety means employees have the freedom to push themselves — without the fear of repercussions for failure.
Companies that implement total quality management don’t take a willy nilly approach to their work. Instead, there are prescriptive sets of steps and workflows for getting work across the finish line.
These processes not only help them deliver more consistent work, but they also make production far easier to plan and monitor. That’s not to say these processes are set in stone. They’re constantly evaluated and improved upon.
4. Integrated system
Every company has various teams and departments responsible for different tasks. However, with a total quality management approach, these different groups can’t operate in their own universes. Total quality management emphasizes the importance of the links that connect these different departments and functions.
To preserve and improve quality, an organization needs to work as a cohesive, integrated system — rather than a collection of various teams. This requires a high degree of transparency and an understanding of the processes and work of other departments.
5. Strategic and systematic approach
Imagine that you wanted to drive to Niagara Falls. Would you set out without any directions? Probably not, because you have no idea how to get where you want to go.
The same is true for an organization. Total quality management requires that a company creates a strategic plan. Even more than that, the strategic plan needs to emphasize the importance of quality and quality management.
6. Continual improvement
Companies that are invested in total quality management aren’t content to stick with the status quo. They’re constantly looking at ways to be better.
This means evaluating processes, products, services, customer experience, employee feedback, and more to identify areas where you could improve. When you spot them, you need to address them and monitor them to ensure those changes actually benefited your work.
7. Fact-based decision making
There aren’t many gut decisions made by organizations that implement total quality management. That’s because this approach prioritizes making decisions based on facts and data.
Companies need to gather, organize, and analyze data about their performance measurements and use that to make their decisions. Total quality management doesn’t rely on intuition or best guesses.
It’s hard to overstate the importance of effective communication on a high-performing team — and that’s why it’s a core principle of total quality management too.
There needs to be clear and frequent communication across the entire organization to keep every employee in the loop on changes, operations, strategies, processes, and more. There’s no such thing as over-communicating.
How does Wrike help with total quality management?
Think total quality management sounds like a lot? It can be. But, rest assured, it’s not something that will be implemented overnight. Even taking small steps in the right direction can help you and your team improve your processes and work quality.
Need some help? Wrike can help you satisfy many of the core principles of total quality management for project management , including:
- Total employee involvement : With clear and automated task assignments, every employee knows what they’re responsible for.
- Process-centered : Templated workflows allow you to create a process and easily repeat it for similar projects.
- Integrated system : Wrike provides visibility into what every team is working on (and working toward).
- Continual improvement : Wrike’s project status report will show you how projects are progressing and make it easy to spot sticking points in your processes.
- Fact-based decision making : Wrike offers a number of other reports to give you data about how your team is performing so you can make strategic decisions.
- Communications : With the ability to leave comments, tag team members, attach files, and more, Wrike keeps all of your communication centralized in one place.
With a total quality management system like Wrike in your corner, you can help your team deliver top-notch work — without any added stress or hassles.
Ready to jump in? Start your free trial of Wrike now .
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Total Quality Management PDF | Notes, Paper | MBA 2021
- Post last modified: 9 July 2021
- Reading time: 25 mins read
- Post category: MBA Study Material
Download Total Quality Management PDF Notes for MBA 2021. We provide complete MBA total quality management notes . Total quality management study material includes total quality management notes , total quality management book , courses, case study, syllabus , question paper , questions and answers and available in total quality management pdf form.
Table of Content
- 1 Total Quality Management Syllabus
- 2 Total Quality Management PDF
- 3.1 What is Total Quality Management?
- 4 Total Quality Management Questions and Answers
- 5 Total Quality Management Question Paper
- 6 Total Quality Management Books
- 7 Go On, Share & Help your Friend
The MBA Total Quality Management Notes can be downloaded in total quality management pdf from the below article.
Total Quality Management Syllabus
A detailed MBA total quality management syllabus as prescribed by various Universities and colleges in India are as under. You can download the syllabus in total quality management pdf form.
Principles and Practices of TQM Introduction : Definition of TQM, Gurus of TQM, TQM Framework, Defining Quality for Goods and Services, Benefits of TQM. Definition and Importance of Leadership for Successful TQM, The Deming’s Philosophy. Quality Councils : Definition, Principles and Roles of Quality Councils for Implementation of TQM. Continuous Process Improvement : The Juran‟s Trilogy, PDCA Cycle, Kaizen and Six Sigma. Performance Measures : Concept of Cost of Quality, Basics of Customer Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Index.
Seven Old QC (Quality Control) Tools Statistical Process Control : Pareto Diagram, Process Flow Diagram, Cause and Effect Diagram, Histograms, Control Charts, State of Control, Process Capability, Scatter Diagrams.
Seven New QC (Quality Control) Tools Relationship Diagram, Affinity Diagram, Tree Diagram, Matrix Diagram, Matrix Data Analysis Diagram, Process Decision Program Diagram and Arrow Diagram.
Other tools of Quality Management -1 Benchmarking, Quality Function Deployment, Quality by Design, FMEA Concepts, Total Productivity Management Concepts. Taguchi‟s Quality Engineering.
Other Tools for Quality Management – 2 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Quality Management Systems : ISO 9000 Series of Standards, ISO 9001 Requirements, Implementation and Documentation. (Explaining Models) Environmental Management System : ISO 14000 Series Standards, Integration of ISO 14000 with ISO 9000(Explaining Models)
Total Quality Management PDF
Total quality management notes, what is total quality management.
Total Quality Management (TQM) describes a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.
Total Quality Management Questions and Answers
Some of the total quality management questions and answers are mentioned below. You can download the QnA in total quality management pdf form.
- Define Total Quality?
- What are the six basic concepts that a successful TQM programme requires?
- Explain about Deming’s philosophy.
- Elaborate Juran’s principles of quality improvement.
- What are the reasons for Benchmarking?
- Define “Taguchi’s Quality Loss Function”
Total Quality Management Question Paper
If you have already studied the total quality management notes , then its time to move ahead and go through previous year total quality management question paper .
It will help you to understand question paper pattern and type of total quality management question and answer asked in MBA total quality management exam. You can download the syllabus in total quality management pdf form.
Total Quality Management Books
Below is the list of total quality management book recommended by the top university in India.
- Total Quality Management by Dale H. Besterfield and others, Prentice Hall Publishing House
- Managing of Total Quality by N, Logothetis, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited
- A Management Guide to Quality and Productivity by J. Bicheno and M. R Gopalan, Wiley- Dreamtech, New Delhi
- Total Quality Management – Text and Cases, Janakiraman, B and Gopal, R.K, Prentice Hall (India) Pvt. Ltd
Below are the top total quality management book that can be bought from Amazon.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
- Author: Besterfield Dale H, Carol, Glen H, Mary, Hemant & Rashmi Urdhwareshe.
- Publisher: Pearson, 5e
- Amazon Bestsellers Rank : #19 in Production, Operation & Management #36 in Civil Engineering #206 in Management
- Customer Reviews: 5 out of 5
Total Quality Management
- Author : Mukherjee
- Publisher: Prentice Hall
- Amazon Bestsellers Rank : #5880 in Business, Strategy & Management
- Customer Reviews: 3.8 out of 5
- Author: Suganthi L
- Amazon Bestsellers Rank : #46 in Production, Operation & Management
- Customer Reviews: 4.2 out of 5
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Total Quality Management - I
Note: This exam date is subjected to change based on seat availability. You can check final exam date on your hall ticket.
- Total Quality Management and Quality Management Philosophies
- Customer Value Evaluation, Kaizen, Problem Solving and Quality Management
- Elementary concepts related to 7 Old and 7 New Tools for quality Assurance
- Basic Statistical Concepts and Control of Accuracy and Precision
- Process Capability, SPC, Acceptance Sampling
- Quality Management Systems, ISO 9000
Books and references
- Introduction of Statistical Quality Control: Douglas C. Montgomery, John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN: 978-0-470-16992-6
- Total Quality Management: Dale H. Besterfield , Hemant Urdhwareshe , Mary Besterfield-Sacre , Carol Besterfield-Michna , Rashmi Urdhwareshe , Glen H. Besterfield, Pearson, ISBN: 978-81-7758-412-7
- Design of Experiment: Douglas C. Montgomery, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 0-471-31649-0
Prof. Raghu Nandan Sengupta
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MBA Project topics for Total Quality Management
- Implementation of 5 P’s
- Quality Management in Software Industry : A Study
- Process Capability Study in BPO
- A Study on Continuous Improvement Process
- Effectiveness of Six sigma Projects : A Study
- Application of Quality Control tools : A Study
- Cost reduction through Quality Approach : A study
- A Study on Just In Time in specific manufacturing Company
- Total Productive maintenance in specific manufacturing Company : A Study
- Customer Satisfaction through TQM Approach : A Study
- A Study on Statistical Process Control in specific manufacturing Company
- Quality Management in Healthcare sector : A Study
- Impact of Application of QFD in Service Industries
- Impact of Application of FMEA in Manufacturing Industries
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TQM Practice Exam Questions
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Research paper on Total Quality Management (TQM)
During the recent years the world of business has changed vastly. We the people of different walks of life cannot be able to imagine that what is going to be the future picture if this change continues rapidly like this speed. Today there are very much competition in-between them and for that reason each and every business organization are trying to offer competitively better facilities for their customers better than the competitors.
We have learn much about the Introduction to Cost and Managerial Accounting. But don’t know how they are applied in the real lives. To find this out i.e. how they are applied in the real lives we were given this project. We tried our best to fetch all the possible information and include them in a relevant manner.
Management systems are usually implemented in response to current conditions. Such systems and the terms to describe them change with time and use in new contexts. Much of the current management literature, in education and other industries, focuses on systems that can be described under the umbrella term, Total Quality Management, or TQM. TQM contains a mix of original ideas and those with historical antecedents. The following is a brief overview of TQM and how it is being applied in community colleges.
TQM is a management system- a philosophy, set of tools, and organizational models. It is known by names other than Total Quality Management, including: the Deming Management Method; in the United States Total Quality Improvement and Total Quality Commitment; in Japan- Total Quality Control, Company- Wide Quality Control, and kaizen, which in Japanese means gradual, unending improvement, doing little things better, setting and achieving ever higher standards.
The components of TQM are a blend of ideas developed by three major theorists. W. Edwards Deming applied statistical thinking to the control of variation of work processes. He is best known for his fourteen points. J. M. Juran added insight into managing for quality and describing the quality trilogy: quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. Philip B. Crosby developed ways to motivate and organize for quality. His less technical approach is based on the ideas of “zero defects” and “conformance to requirements”. Most quality improvement programs follow the ideas of one or more of these theorists .
01.02 Historical Review
The history of quality control is undoubtedly as old as industry itself. During the Middle Ages, quality was to a large extent controlled by the long periods of training required by the guilds. This training instilled pride in workers for quality of a product.
The concept of specialization of labor was introduced during the Industrial Revolution. As a result, a worker no longer made the entire product, only a portion. This change brought about a decline in workmanship. Because most products manufactured during that early period were not complicated, quality was not greatly affected. In fact, because productivity improved there was a decrease in cost, which resulted in lower customer expectations. As products became more complicated and jobs more specialized, it became necessary to inspect products after manufacture.
In 1924, W. A. Shewhart of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a statistical chart for the control of product variables. This chart is considered to be the beginning of statistical quality control.
In 1950, W. Edwards Deming, who learned statistical quality control from Shewhart, gave a series of lectures on statistical methods to Japanese engineers and on quality responsibility to the CEOs of the largest organizations in Japan. Joseph M. Juran made his first trip to Japan in 1954 and further emphasized management’s responsibility to achieve quality. Using these concepts the Japanese set the quality standards for the rest of the world to follow.
In 1960, the first quality control circles were formed for the purpose of quality improvement. Simple statistical techniques were learned and applied by Japanese workers.
Emphasis on quality continued in the auto industry in the 1990s when the Saturn automobile ranked first in customer satisfaction (1996). In addition, ISO 9000 became the worldwide model for a quality management system. ISO 14000 was approved as the worldwide model for environmental management systems.
Total Quality Management
02.01 Total Quality Management (TQM) defined
Total Quality Management ( TQM ) is an enhancement to the traditional way of doing business. It is a proven technique to guarantee survival in world‑class competition. Only by changing the actions of management will the culture and actions of an entire organization be transformed. TQM is for the most part common sense. Analyzing the three words, we have
Total ‑ Made up of the whole
Quality ‑ Degree of excellence a product or service provides.
Management‑ Act, art, or manner of handling, controlling, directing, etc
Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence. The Golden Rule is a simple but effective way to explain it: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
TQM is defined as both a philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the foundation of a continuously improving organization. It is the application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve all the processes within an organization and exceed customer needs now and in the future. TQM integrates fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplined approach.
02.02 TQM; Basic Concepts
While there are significant differences among the theorists and their approaches to implementation, they share basic concepts that are the foundation of TQM.
02.02.01 Continuous Improvement of Quality. Fundamental to all TQM systems is improving the quality of the products and services provided by an organization. Such quality improvement results in greater productivity and enhances the ability of an organization to remain vital, employ people, and serve customers. A focus on continuous quality improvement helps an organization do things right.
02.02.02 Central Focus on the Customer. Also central to all TQM is a focus on the customer, the internal and external recipients of an organization’s products. Their needs and desires define quality for the producer whose job it is to meet or exceed the customer’s needs and expectations. A focus on customers helps an organization to do the right things.
02.02.03 Systematic Improvement of Operations. All work occurs in processes that begin and end somewhere. These work processes account for 80- 85 percent of the quality of work and productivity of employees. Management is responsible for systems within an organization; therefore, managers, not employees, must shoulder blame when something goes wrong with the system.
TQM calls for studying work processes quantitatively, using individuals or teams, to find places that breakdowns or unnecessary complexities occur in processes, and then to identify solutions that prevent them in the future. Study of work processes helps to reduce costs while ensuring that quality is built into a service or product since quality cannot be inspected into it at the end of the processes.
02.02.04 Open Work Environments. Continuous quality improvement requires an atmosphere for innovation where suggestions for improvement are solicited and respected and where supervisors and managers are open to disagreement, conflict, and challenge. Activities for the improvement of work processes, especially when teams are involved, help to break down barriers that occur between departments or between supervisors and those supervised.
02.02.05 Long- Term Thinking. TQM is also characterized by long- term thinking which helps mold the future by understanding the consequences of current actions. Such thinking requires decision making that is based on data, both hard and soft, and related to real problems, not symptoms. It requires time. It shies away from quick fixes arrived at by discussion and intuition. Long- term thinking works best in organizations where managers plan to stay, and thus have a stake in the consequences of their decisions.
02.02.06 Development of Human Resources. Organizations that follow TQM principles are organized to help people do their jobs; they are seriously committed to employee learning and development. Such development begins with a thorough orientation to the organization, including its mission, values, and information about where the job fits into the organization. It involves educating people to perform to the quality standards of a specific job before requiring them to work independently.
TQM expects managers to respect the ability of well trained employees to know the work they do better than anyone, and therefore, to be the best at improving it. Human resource development includes providing the training to learn the communication, quantitative, and team- participation skills required in an open, quality improvement work environment. Development programs provide extensive education to help individuals keep up- to- date on their jobs and to prepare themselves for new responsibilities.
02.02.07 Management Responsibility for TQM Leadership. Managers need to lead the transformation of the organization to the new culture of continuous quality improvement. They must accept personal responsibility for continuous quality improvement and be dedicated to empowering others in the organization to accept personal responsibility for it, too. This approach taps the collective genius of the organization to identify and solve problems. The leader’s focus is on policy, structure, and systems to sustain continuous quality improvement. Within this context, quality is the first among equals of the organization’s functions. Quality is at the top of the agenda for every meeting, every communication. The leader’s goal is to help people, things, and machines do a better job; the leader’s role is that of facilitator, catalyst, and coach.
As previously stated, TQM requires a cultural change. Table I ‑I compares the previous state with the TQM state for typical quality elements. This change is substantial and will not be accomplished in a short period of time. Small organizations will be able to make the transformation much faster than large organizations.
02.03 New and Old Cultures
An organization will not begin the transformation to TQM until it is aware that the quality of the product or service must be improved. Awareness comes about when an organization loses market share or realizes that quality and productivity go hand‑in‑hand. It also occurs if TQM is mandated by the customer or if management realizes that TQM is a better way to run a business and compete in domestic and world markets.
Automation and other productivity enhancements might not help a corporation if it is unable to market its product or service because the quality is poor. The Japanese learned this fact from practical experience. Prior to World War 11, they could sell their products only at ridiculously low prices, and even then it was difficult to secure repeat sales. Until recently, corporations have not recognized the importance of quality. However, a new attitude has emerged‑‑quality first among the equals of cost and service. To sum it up, the customer wants value.
02.05 Implementing Total Quality Management Concepts
Since World War 11, the Japanese have been very successful using the American ideas for total quality improvement they learned from Deming and Juran. In the late 1970s Americans became interested in the success of Japanese firms and discovered that their management processes were the cornerstone of that success. Some American companies adopted TQM and applied it successfully, notably Ford Motor Company, Hewlett Packard, Campbell Soup Company, and the Paul Revere Insurance Company. Others were less successful, largely it seems, because they were unable to accomplish the cultural and organizational changes required to implement TQM principles.
The TQM implementation process begins with senior management and, most important, the CEO’s commitment. The importance of the senior management role cannot be overstated. Leadership is essential during every phase of the implementation process and particularly at the start. In fact, indifference and lack of involvement by senior management are frequently cited as the principal reasons for the failure of quality improvement efforts. Delegation and rhetoric are insufficient involvement is required.
Senior management needs to be educated in the TQM concepts. In addition to formal education, managers should visit successful TQM organizations, read selected articles and books, and attend seminars and conferences. The next step is for senior management to develop an implementation plan.
Timing of the implementation process can be very important. Is the organization ready to embark on the total quality journey? There may be some foreseeable problems, such as a reorganization, change in senior management personnel, interpersonal conflicts, a current crisis, or a time consuming activity. These problems may postpone implementation to a more favorable time.
The next step is the formation of the quality council initiation of these duties is a substantial part of the implementation of TOM. The development of core values, a vision statement, a mission statement, and a quality policy statement, with input from all personnel, should be completed first.
The active involvement of middle managers and first line supervisors is essential to the success of the TQM effort. They are accountable for achieving many of the organization’s performance goals and objectives, and they form enduring links in the communication chain from senior management to the front line workers. Without middle management’s early and active support, the TQM effort could fail. Senior management needs to ensure that managers at all levels have an opportunity, as soon as possible, to develop ownership in the TQM effort and a chance to acquire the insight and skills necessary to become leaders. One way to accomplish this concept is to have a retreat. The retreat will focus on TQM training, leadership skills, and active involvement in the development of the organization’s statements.
If there is a union, there should be early discussions with the representatives on TQM. Managers should involve union leaders by sheling with them implementation plans for TQM. As the quality effort progresses, managers and union leaders should work together on quality improvement activities.
At this stage of the implementation process, it is important to communicate TQM to the entire organization. Communication is important throughout the implementation stage. Communication is necessary to create TQM awareness interest, desire, and action. Everyone needs to be trained in quality awareness and problem solving. This training is conducted when the employee is placed on a project team or the work group is ready for the training.
Customer, employee, and supplier surveys must be conducted to benchmark the attitudes of these three stakeholders. Information from these surveys provides ideas for quality improvement projects. The quality council determines the quality improvement projects. In addition the council establishes the project teams and work groups and monitors their progress. The organization has to be patient and not rush the teams for solutions that don’t eliminate the root causes. There is often a tendency to rush the implementation process. TECSTAR, a small business, was able to achieve savings of more than $3 million the first year of its TQM program. On the other hand, Karlee, a Malcolm Baldrige
Implementation of TQM is described in the next chapter, on leadership. This section gives information concerning the obstacles associated with implementation.
Many organizations, especially small ones with a niche, are comfortable with their current state. They are satisfied with the amount of work being performed, the profits realized, and the perception that the customers are satisfied. Organizations with this culture will see little need for TQM until they begin to lose market share.
Once an organization embarks on TQM, there will be obstacles to its successful implementation. The first eight most common were determined by Robert J. Masters after an extensive literature search and the last obstacle added by the authors They are given below.
- Lack of Management Commitment
- Inability to Change Organizational Culture
- improper Planning
- Lack of Continuous Training and Education
- Incompatible Organizational Structure and Isolated Individuals And Departments
- Ineffective Measurement Techniques and Lack Of Access
- Paying Inadequate Attention To Internal and External Customers
- Inadequate Use of Empowerment Arid Teamwork
- Failure to Continually Improve
02.07 Benefits of TQM
According to a survey of manufacturing firms in Georgia, the benefits of TQM are improved quality, employee participation, teamwork, working relationships, customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, productivity, communication, profitability, and market share.
TQM is a good investment as shown by a ten‑year study by Hendricks and Singhai. They showed that there is a strong link between TQM and financial performance. The researchers selected a group of 600 publicly traded organizations that had won awards for effectively implementing TQM. They then selected a control group similar in size and industry to the award winners. Performance of both groups was compared during the five years prior to the award and five years after winning the award. No difference was shown between the two groups prior to the award. However, as shown below the award group far outstripped the control group during the five‑year period after the award.
The study also showed that stock price performance for the award winners was 114% while the S&P was 80%. In addition, the study showed that small organizations out performed larger organizations. Recent studies have shown that only about 30% of manufacturing organizations have successfully implemented TQM.
Some Related Topics and Explanations
There is no universal definition of leadership and indeed many books have been devoted to the tonic of leadership). In his book Leadership, James MacGregor Bums describes a leader as one who instills purposes, not one who controls by brute force. A leader strengthens and inspires the followers to accomplish shared goals. Leaders shape the organization’s values, promote the organization’s values, protect the organization’s values and exemplify the organization’s values. Ultimately, Bums says, “Leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality … leadership becomes moral in that it raises the level of human conduct and ethical aspiration of both the leader and the led, and thus has a transforming effect on both.”‘ Similarly, Daimler Chrysler’s CEO Bob Eaton defines a leader as “. . . someone who can take a group of people to a place they don’t think they can go.” “Leadership is we, not me; mission, not my show; vision, not division; and community, not domicile.” As the above illustrates, leadership is difficult to define in anything other than lofty words.
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award has a more grounded definition of leadership in its core values. As stated in its core values and concepts, visionary leadership is-
“An organization’s senior leaders should set directions and create a customer focus, clear and visible values, and high expectations. The directions, values, and expectations should balance the needs of all your stakeholders. Your leaders should ensure the creation of strategies, systems, and methods for achieving excellence, stimulating innovation, and building knowledge and capabilities. The values and strategies should help guide all activities and decisions of your organization. Senior leaders should inspire and motivate your entire workforce and should encourage all employees to contribute, to develop and learn, to be innovative, and to be creative,
Senior leaders should serve as role models through their ethical behavior and their personal involvement in planning, communications, coaching, development of future leaders, review of organizational performance, and employee recognition. As role models, they can reinforce values and expectations while building leadership, commitment, and initiative throughout your organization.”
Leadership can be difficult to define. However, successful quality leaders tend to have certain characteristics.
03.01.01 Leadership Concepts
In order to become successful, leadership requires an intuitive understanding of human nature the basic needs, wants, and abilities of people. To be effective, a leader under‑
- People, paradoxically, need security and independence at the same time.
- People are sensitive to external rewards and punishments and yet are also strongly self‑motivated.
- People like to hear a kind word of praise. Catch people doing something right, so you can pat them on the back.
- People can process only a few facts at a time; thus, a leader needs to keep, things simple.
- People trust their gut reaction more than statistical data.
- People distrust a leader’s rhetoric if the words are inconsistent with the leader’s actions.
03.01.02 Role of TQM Leaders
Everyone is responsible for quality, especially senior management and the CEO; however, only the latter can provide the leadership system to achieve results., For instance, in the 1980’s, General Electric’s CEO, Jack Welch, instituted leadership training courses at all levels of the organization. The General Electric training courses taught leadership approaches and models and provided the opportunity for teams to develop solutions to real business problems. Many of the solutions the teams developed were implemented. Jack Welch supported the development of a leadership system whereby quality control leaders were developed at all levels in all functions of the organization, including research, marketing, manufacturing, sales, finance, and human resources. Senior managers need to be provided with the skills to implement quality control techniques and actively participate in the quality council.
Senior management has numerous responsibilities. Senior management must practice the philosophy of Management by Wandering Around (MBWA). Management should get out of the office and visit customers, suppliers, departments within the organization, and plants within the organization. That way, managers learn what is happening with a particular customer, supplier, or project. MBWA can substantially reduce paperwork. Encourage subordinates to write only important messages that need to be part of the permanent record. For example, Kinko’s executives perform normal operating duties for two or three days at one location. This approach is an excellent technique for gaining firsthand information.
The idea is to let employees think for themselves. Senior management’s role is no longer to make the final decision, but to make sure the team’s decision is aligned with the quality statements of the organization. Push problem solving and decision making to the lowest appropriate level by delegating authority and responsibility.
Senior managers must stay informed on the topic of quality improvement by reading books and articles, attending seminars, and talking to other TQM leaders. The leader sends a strong message to subordinates when that leader asks if they have read a part ocular book or article.
Se Managers must find time to celebrate the success of their organization’s quality efforts by personally participating in award and recognition ceremonies. This activity is an excellent opportunity to reinforce the importance of the effort and to promote TQM. A phone call or handshake combined with a sincere “thank you for a job well done” is a powerful form of recognition and reward. One of the duties of the quality council is to establish or revise the recognition and reward system. In particular, senior management’s incentive compensation must include quality improvement performance. Also, provisions must be made to reward teams as well as creative individuals.
Senior managers must be visibly and actively engaged in the quality effort by sending on teams, coaching teams, and teaching seminars. They should lead by demonstrating, communicating, and reinforcing the quality statements. As a rule of thumb, they should spend about one third of their time on quality.
A very important role of senior managers is listening to internal and external customers and suppliers through visits, focus groups, and surveys. This information is translated into core values and process improvement projects.
Another very important role is communication. The objective is to create awareness of the importance of TQM and provide TQM results in an ongoing manner. The TQM message must be “sold” to personnel, for if they don’t buy it, TQM will never happen. In addition to internal efforts, there must be external activities with customers and suppliers, the media, advertising in trade magazines, and interaction with the quality community.
By following the preceding suggestions, senior managers should be able to drive fear out of the organization, break down barriers, remove system roadblocks, anticipate and minimize resistance to change, and, in general, change the culture. Only with the involvement of senior management can TQM be a success.
03.02 Customer Satisfaction
The most important asset of any organization is its customers. An organization’s success depends on how many customers it has, how much they buy, and how often they buy. Customers that are satisfied will increase in number, buy more, and buy more frequently. Satisfied customers also pay their bills promptly, which greatly improves cash flow the lifeblood of any organization.
Increasingly, manufacturing and service organizations are using customer satisfaction as the measure of quality. The importance of customer satisfaction is not only due to national competition but also due to worldwide competition.
Since customer satisfaction is hard to measure, the measurement often is not precise. As with most attitudes, there is variability among people, and often within the same person at different times. Often, due to the difficulty of measuring feelings, customer satisfaction strategies are developed around clearly stated, logical customer opinions, and the emotional issues of a purchase are disregarded. This can be a costly mistake.
Customer satisfaction should not be viewed in a vacuum. For example, a customer may be satisfied with a product or service and therefore rate the product or service highly in a survey, and yet that same customer may buy another product or service. It is of little benefit to understand a customer’s views about a product or service if the customer’s views about competitors’ product or service are not understood. The value customers place on one product compared to another may be a better indicator of customer loyalty. Customer loyalty can be sustained only by maintaining a favorable comparison when compared with competitors. As mentioned before customer satisfaction is not a simple concept to understand or to measure.
03.03 Benefits of Employee Involvement
Involving employees, empowering them and bringing them into the decision making process provides the opportunity for continuous process improvement. The untapped ideas, innovations, and creative thoughts of employees can make the difference between success and failure. Competition is so fierce that it would be unwise not to use every available tool.
Employee involvement improves quality and increases productivity, because
- Employees make better decisions using their expert knowledge of the process.
- Employees are more likely to implement and support decisions they had a part in making.
- Employees are better able to spot and pinpoint areas for improvement.
- Employees are better able to take immediate corrective action.
- Employee involvement reduces labor/management friction by encouraging more effective communication and cooperation.
- Employee involvement increases morale by creating a feeling of belonging to the organization.
- Employees are better able to accept change because they control the work environment.
- Employees have an increased commitment to unit goals because they are involved.
03.04 Continuous Process Improvement
Quality based organizations should strive to achieve perfection by continuously improving the business and production processes. Of course, perfection is impossible because the race is never over; however, we must continually strive for its attainment.
Improvement is made by-
- Viewing all work as a process, whether it is associated with production or business activities.
- Making all processes effective, efficient, and adaptable.
- Anticipating changing customer needs.
- Controlling in process performance using measures such as scrap reduction, cycle time, control charts, and so forth.
- Maintaining constructive dissatisfaction with the present level of performance.
- Eliminating waste and rework wherever it occurs.
- Investigating activities that do not add value to the product or service, with the aim of eliminating those activities.
- Eliminating nonconformities in all phases of everyone’s work, even if the increment of improvement is small.
- Using benchmarking to improve competitive advantage.
- Innovating to achieve breakthroughs.
- Incorporating lessons learned into future activities.
- Using technical tools such as statistical process control (SPC), experimental design, benchmarking, quality function deployment (QFD), and so forth.
03.05 PDCA Cycle
The basic Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) cycle was first developed by Shewhart and then modified by Deming. It is an effective improvement technique.
The four steps in the cycle are exactly as stated. First, plan carefully what is to be done. Next, carry out the plan (does it). Third, study the results did the plan work as intended, or was the results different? Finally, act on the results by identifying what worked as planned and what didn’t. Using the knowledge learned, develop an improved plan and repeat the cycle. The PDSA cycle is a simple adaptation of the more elaborate problem solving method discussed in the next section.
03.06 Problem Solving Method
Process improvement achieves the greatest results when it operates within the framework of the problem solving method, In he initial stages of a program, quick results are frequently obtained because the solutions are obvious or an individual has a brilliant idea, However, in the Ion, term, a systematic approach will yield the greatest benefits ,
The problem solving method (also called the scientific method) has many variations depending, to some extent, on the use; however, they are all similar. shown is the relationship to the PDCA cycle.
The phases are integrated because each phase is dependent upon the previous phase. Continuous process improvement is the objective, and these phases are the framework to achieve that objective.
03.07 Identify the Opportunity
The objective of this phase is to identify and prioritize opportunities for improvement. It consists of three parts: identify the problem, form the team (if one is not in existence) and define the scope.
Problem identification answers the question, “What are the problems?” The answer leads to those problems that have the greatest potential for improvement and have the greatest need for solution. Problems can be identified from a variety of inputs.
03.08 Performance Measures
The final concept of Total Quality Measurement (TQM) is performance measures. One of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award core values is managing by fact rather than by gut feeling. Managing an organization without performance measures is like a captain of a ship navigating without instrumentation. The ship would most likely end up traveling in circles, as would an organization. Measures play a vital part in the success or failure of an organization.
Performance measures are used to achieve one or more of the following seven objectives:
- Establish baseline measures and reveal trends.
- Determine which processes need to be improved.
- Indicate process gains and losses.
- Compare goals with actual performance.
- Provide information for individual and team evaluation.
- Provide information to make informed decisions.
- Determine the overall performance of the organization.
- Few in number
- Relevance to customer:
The quality council has the overall responsibility for the performance measures. It ensures that all the measures are integrated into a total system of measures. To develop the system, the quality council will obtain appropriate information from all of the stall holders. They will utilize the core values, goals, mission, and vision statements as well as the objectives and criteria given above. With this information, the strategic measurement system is created.
An example of a system that emphasizes percent improvement might contain the functions and metrics as given below:
- Percent reduction in cost of poor quality
- Percent reduction in nonconformities
- Percent of certified suppliers
- Percent reduction in supplier base
- Percent reduction in corrective action cycle time
- Percent increase in inventory turnover
- Percent reduction in data transactions
- Percent increase in materials shipped direct to work in process by the supplier
- Percent increase in output dollars per employee
- Percent reduction in floor space utilization
- Percent reduction in cycle time
- Percent reduction in setup time
- Percent reduction in lot/batch size
- Percent increase in number of jobs mastered per employee
- Percent of processes capable of C p = 2.0
- Percent reduction in down time
- Percent reduction in warranty costs
- Percent reduction in design changes
- Percent increase in on time delivery
- Percent reduction in new product introduction time
- Percent increase in new product sales revenue as a percent of total sales revenue
- Percent increase in new patents granted
- Customer perception as a leader in innovation
- Percent of management time spent on or leading innovation
03.09 Quality Control Circles (QCCs)
To involve employees in productivity and efficiency improvement activities, a team-based environment must be developed in which they can participate actively in improving their process, product, or service performance. One such employee participation program is quality control circles (QCCs).
QC-circle activities are usually directed towards improvements in the workplace. They focus on such areas as-
03.09.01 Case Studies: Survey by NPC, Malaysia
A 2002 survey on quality control circles (QCCs) by the National Productivity Corporation (NPC) of Malaysia revealed that the majority of the respondents were from the manufacturing (42.0%) and service (31.0%) sectors. Most of the projects undertaken were related to members’ own workplaces, work processes, service delivery, and product development. The vast majority (95.1%) of the respondents said that QCC activities had helped reduce operational costs, with savings reported ranging from US$125.00 to US$2 million, with the median of US$50,000.
Benchmarking is a systematic method by which organizations can measure themselves against the best industry practices. It promotes superior performance by providing an organized framework through which organizations learn how the “best in class” do things, understand how these best practices differ from their own, and implement change to close the gap. The essence of benchmarking is the process of borrowing ideas and adapting them to gain competitive advantage. It is a tool for continuous improvement.
Benchmarking is an increasingly popular tool. It is used extensively by both manufacturing and service organizations, including Xerox, AT&T, Motorola, Ford, and Toyota. Benchmarking is a common element of quality standards, such as the Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors Quality System Requirements. These standards, sfiptdate that quality goals and objectives be based on competitive products and benchmarking, both inside and outside the automotive industry. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award similarly requires that applicants benchmark external organizations.
Benchmarking is the systematic search for best practices, innovative ideas, and highly effective operating procedures. Benchmarking considers the experience of others and uses it. Indeed, it is the common sense proposition to learn from others what they do right and then imitate it to avoid reinventing the wheel. Benchmarking is not new and indeed has been around for a long time. In fact, in the 1800s, Francis Lowell, a New England
03.10.01 Reasons to Benchmark
Benchmarking is a tool to achieve business and competitive objectives. It is power and extremely effective when used for the right reasons and aligned with organization strategy. It is not a panacea that can replace all other quality efforts or management processes. Organizations must still decide which markets to serve and determine the strengths that will enable them to gain competitive advantage. Benchmarking is one tool to help organizations develop those strengths and reduce weaknesses.
By definition, benchmarking requires an external orientation, which is critical in a world where the competition can easily be on the other side of the globe. An external outlook greatly reduces the chance of being caught unaware by competition. Benchmarking can notify the organization if it has fallen behind the competition or failed to take advantage of important operating improvements developed elsewhere. In short, benchmarking can inspire managers (and organizations) to compete.
In contrast to the traditional method of extrapolating next year’s goal from last year’s performance, benchmarking allows goals to be set objectively, based on external information. When personnel are aware of the external information, they are usually much more motivated to attain the goals and objectives. Also, it is hard to argue that an objective is impossible when it can be shown that another organization has already achieved it.
Benchmarking is time and cost efficient because the process involves imitation and adaptation rather than pure invention. Benchmarking partners provide a working model of an improved process, which reduces some of the planning, testing, and prototyping effort. As the old saying goes, Why reinvent the wheel?
The primary weakness of benchmarking, however, is the fact that best in class performance is a moving target. For example, new technology can create quantum leap performance improvements, such as the use of electronic data interchange (EDI). Automobile makers no longer use paper to purchase parts from suppliers. A computer tracks inventory and transmits orders directly to a supplier’s computers. The supplier delivers the goods, and payment is electronically transmitted to the supplier’s bank. Wall Mart uses bar code scanners and satellite data transmission to restock its stores, often in a matter of hours. These applications of EDI save tens of thousands of worker hours and whole forests of trees, as well as helping to meet customer requirements.
For functions that are critical to the business mission, organizations must continue to innovate as well as imitate. Benchmarking enhances innovation by requiring organizations to constantly scan the external environment and to use the information obtained to improve the process. Potentially useful technological breakthroughs can be located and adopted early.
Organizations that benchmark, adapt the process to best fit their own needs and culture. Although the number of steps in the process may vary from organization to organization, the following six steps contain the core techniques.
- Decide what to benchmark.
- Uaderstand current performance
03.11 Quality Management Systems
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was founded in 1946 in Geneva, Switzerland, where it is still based. Its mandate is to promote the development of international standards to facilitate the exchange of goods and services worldwide. ISO is composed of more than 90 member countries. The United States representative is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The ISO Technical Committee (TC) 176 developed a series of international standards for quality systems, which were first published in 1987 new standards (ISO 9000, 9001, and 9004) were intended to be advisory and were developed for use in two party contractual situations and internal auditing. However, with their adoption by the European Community (EC) and a worldwide emphasis on quality and economic competitiveness, the standards have become universally accepted.
03.12 TQM Concept in Japan
TQM, also known as Total Quality Control (TQC), is a management tool for improving total performance. TQC means organized Kaizen activities involving everyone in a company – managers and workers – in a totally systemic and integrated effort toward improving performance at every level. It is to lead to increased customer satisfaction through satisfying such corporate cross-functional goals as quality, cost, scheduling, manpower development, and new product development. In Japan, TQC activities are not limited to quality control only. Elaborate system of Kaizen strategies has been developed as management tools within the TQC approach. TQC in Kaizen is a movement aimed at improvement of managerial performance at all levels.
According to the Japan Industrial Standards, “implementing quality control effectively necessitates the cooperation of all people in the company, including top management, managers, supervisors, and workers in all areas of corporate activities such as market research and development, product planning, design, preparation for production, purchasing, vendor management, manufacturing, inspection, sales and after-sale services, as well as financial control, personnel administration, and training & education. Quality control carried out in this manner is called company-wide quality control or total quality control (TQC).” Quality control in Japan deals with quality of people. It is the fundamental concept of the Kaizen-style TQC. Building quality into its people brings a company a half-way towards producing quality products.
03.12.01 Education and Training
As a natural follow-up to the concept of building quality into people, TQC starts with education and training of managers and workers. The major aim of these awareness and training programs is to implant TQC thinking in all employees.
TQC education and training is a continuous process. Separate courses for different organizational levels are organized to reach everyone in the company.
03.12.02 Seven main feature of the TQM movement in japan
- Company-wide TQC, involving all employees, organization, hardware, and software
- Emphasis on education and training for top management, middle management and workers
- Quality control (QC) circle activities by small groups of volunteers
- Application of statistical methods
- Constant revision and upgrading of standards
- Nation-wide TQC promotion
03.12.03 Areas Targeted by TQM in Japan
- Quality assurance
- New product development
- Cost reduction
- Productivity improvement
- Education and training
- Organizational / systems development
- Cross-functional management
- Policy deployment
- Quality deployment
- Supply management
- Meeting production quotas
- Meeting delivery schedules
03.13 TQM Concept in Community College Administration
Community colleges, too, have adopted TQM, primarily to improve their management processes. While the number of colleges that has implemented TQM systems is not large, an increasing number are experimenting with various elements of it. They have approached implementation in a variety of ways.
Perhaps the most common model is for senior leadership to become interested in TQM, to study various applications, and then, to initiate TQM practices from the top- down. At most of these colleges, TQM is first applied to leadership team processes or related administrative functions. Incorporation of TQM principles into the curriculum and academic administration may follow administrative application.
TQM has also been introduced to community colleges by mid- level managers who have come in contact with its principles through a curriculum designed and provided by the college for local business and industry. These managers begin to introduce TQM practices within their own areas. This grassroots approach often spreads laterally before upward. Other colleges have actually become involved in TQM along with a consortium of businesses in their service area. Business and college participants learn both TQM and about the challenges they have in common. The consortium then becomes a critical link with the community, as well as a source of problem solving, support, and encouragement for TQM.
It is legitimate to question why any leader would be attracted to TQM since the model demands basic changes in established management practices. However, a rationale for experimenting with TQM is not difficult to articulate. At its best, TQM can provide a focus and structure for institutional effectiveness that includes the dimensions of quality and accountability and operationalizes them throughout the college. TQM can provide a structure for involving faculty and staff in college problem solving and decision making in ways that are meaningful to them and to the college. TQM can also provide a model for transforming a stagnant college organization to a new level of fitness.
Even more fundamental is the fact that the values espoused by TQM are the values of community colleges: commitment to quality, respect for people, focus on process, and the expectation of continuous learning.
L imitations o f t he S tudy
The subject Introduction to Cost and Managerial Accounting is a vast one and due to the in short supply of time we could not complete many of the major portions. If we have had as much as necessary time and given apposite information, it was for sure that we could have industrial a much better report on this topic.
Actually the business organizations of Bangladesh are not stressing too much on the practice in total quality management rather they are practicing traditional management approach in their organization.
Another problem that we have to face in one of the well known organization we had to go for almost two times to fix an appointment with the manager. Finally when we met him, he was not willing to give us information not even the company profile which has nothing to maintain secrecy. At last we decided to drop the study on their organization.
This was not at all an easy project to complete. Gathering information was also a difficult task. What ever the limitations were, we made our best effort to overcome them and anchor safe.No matter how good we do in designing the project but it’s the knowledge that we gather that remains us till the end and satisfies us. At last, we hope that our attempt behind this project is a successful one and will surely bear the expected fruit.
- Course materials provided by course instructor Mr. Quamrul Islam
- Besterfield, Dale H. ; Besterfield, Glen H. ; Total Quality Management
- Edgeman, Rick L.; On Leaders and Leadership
- Fredendall, Lawrence D.; Robbins, Tina L. Journal of Managerial
- Juliette, Jandel-Leavitt; TQM Case Study
- Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005
- Needham, Robbie Lee; Total Quality Management
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Abstract: Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management philosophy which focuses on customer satisfaction by improving the organisation performance through co-ordination of various processes in all the business units. The purpose of TQM is to provide quality product or service to the customer which inturn provides increased productivity at low cost. TQM is applicable to all manufacturing and service industries. It operates on the principle that cost of prevention is less than the cost of correction. This study focuses on TQM development, performance and sustenance in service industries through effective communication, critical success factors and market orientation. It examines the quality improvement through effective employee communication and the relationship between CSFs and company performance. The study suggests Deming’s Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle based approach to develop and sustain TQM. It articulates the relationship between TQM and market orientation, in terms of both elements (practices) and performance. The study investigates the reasons for TQM failures and proposes guidelines for successful implementation of TQM. Keywords: Critical Success Factors (CSFs), Effective Communication, Market Based Quality, PDSA, TQM Failures, and TQM Implementation
In the current market economy, companies are constantly struggling to achieve a sustained competitive advantage that will enable them to improve performance, which results in increased competitiveness, and of course, profit. Among the few competitive advantages that can become sustainable competitive advantages, quality plays a crucial role. Recent research shows that about 90% of buyers in the international market, consider quality as having at least equal importance with price in making the decision to purchase. In the opinion of some specialists in economic theory and practice, total quality refers to the holistic approach of quality, which actually means, addressing all aspects of economic and social development and technical of quality. Thus, the holistic approach of quality at organisation-wide involves procedural approach of quality, in this respect, the study focuses on this type of quality approach, i.e. the procedural approach, taking into account the strategic aspects of the continuous improvement of quality, which means in fact, the quality management. Total Quality Management is seen as a way to transform the economies of some countries to be more competitive than others. However, Total Quality Management brings not and will not produce results overnight, it is not a panacea for all the problems facing the organization. Total Quality Management requires a change in organizational culture, which must focus on meeting customer expectations and increasing the involvement of all employees to meet this objective, as an expression of the ethics of continuous improvement. In general, research on quality aiming identify why an organization should adopt the principles of total quality management, but attempts to identify the failing companies' attempts to implement total quality management principles are not so visible. Concerns companies to introduce quality management systems are becoming more pronounced, therefore, in this study we try to identify and present the main reasons that prevent achieving quality and implementation of total quality management system, in other words, we are interested in identify barriers to implementation and development of a quality management system.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) practices and organizational performance in Indian automobile manufacturing companies. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research was conducted in five Indian automobile manufacturing companies located in Chennai cluster taking a sample size of 375 employees across the five Indian automobile manufacturing companies using the questionnaire method. The relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) practices and organizational performance was examined through Correlation analysis. Findings: The study revealed that the extent to which Total Quality Management (TQM) practices and Organizational performance are correlated and how Total Quality Management (TQM) practices impacts on organizational performance. Research Limitations/Implications: The research paper was limited by including only five Indian automobile manufacturing companies located in Chennai cluster, making this a possibly biased selection and it may not be adequate to generalize the results for the entire Indian automobile manufacturing companies.
Texila International Journal , Solomon Omede
The ever increasing demand of customers and the challenges of globalization put a lot of pressure on companies worldwide to adopt proven frameworks for organizational excellence. As a result, Nigerian companies today are implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) System. The objective of this study is to establish a relationship between total quality management and organizational performance using a manufacturing company in Nigeria. Twenty five (25) carefully framed questionnaires were sent out to the study population and 13 were returned in usable form. The Chi Square method of statistics was used to test the four formulated hypothesis. The findings showed a significant relationship between total quality management and organizational performance, between TQM and defect prevention and perception errors, between the success of TQM and perception of organizational members, between TQM and effective management of resistance to .change. This study recommends that organizational management provide enabling environment to implement TQM systems. The study concludes that a major strategy for achieving high quality is TQM with a good management system for continuous improvements that rely heavily on employee involvement. Keywords: Defect Prevention, Globalization, Organizational Challenges, Organizational Performance and Total Quality Management.
Mazhar Ali Kazmi
Continuous improvement within an organization is the philosophy of TQM. It centers on people and focuses the customers. TQM involves every one working in the company and get feedback from the customer for being successful. Having debate on its failure is quite interesting but alarming as well. Major cause is that managers neither develop ownership and nor do they encourage everyone in the organization to involve. In addition, proper evaluation of the consultation is not made for implementation of the system. Talking further, another reason is that failure of management is seen due to undue strain of lowering the charges and increasing turnover, putting aside customer’s satisfaction. Lack of interaction with manpower of organization and confrontation from inside to changes may be another cause to be taken seriously. Targets are to be fixed for determination of outcomes of TQM. The requirements of a successful TQM program are whole-hearted participation of the employees, better team work and good relationship with supplier (Richard L. Miller, Joseph P. Cangemi, 1993).
management research field. It is one of the most applied and well accepted approaches for business excellence besides Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI), Six Sigma, Just-in-Time (JIT), and Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches. There is a great enthusiasm among manufacturing and service industries in adopting and implementing this strategy in order to maintain their sustainable competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to develop and propose the conceptual framework and research model of TQM implementation in relation to company performance particularly in context with the Indian service companies. It examines the relationships between TQM and company’s performance by measuring the quality performance as performance indicator. A comprehensive review of literature on TQM and quality performance was carried out to accomplish the objectives of this study and a research model and hypotheses were generated. Two research questions and 34 hypotheses were proposed to re-validate the TQM practices. The adoption of such a theoretical model on TQM and company’s quality performance would help managers, decision makers, and practitioners of TQM in better understanding of the TQM practices and to focus on the identified practices while implementing TQM in their companies. Further, the scope for future study is to test and validate the theoretical model by collecting the primary data from the Indian service companies and using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach for hypotheses testing.
1999, Journal of quality in clinical practice
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In recent years, there is an increasing interest in the healthcare industry to apply total quality management (TQM) principles to improve customers’ quality of service and care. The most influencing reason behind this is increased competitive market, advancement of medical technology, high quality healthcare service at reasonable costs, and proactive consumer culture. Therefore, the healthcare managers begin to find new ways to provide services to meet there requirement and TQM best fits to them as this concept had success in other service industries also. This paper highlights some of the current state-of-affairs of TQM implementation in the healthcare industry and presents a TQM implementation framework for the healthcare industry. This framework consists of five different stages or enablers which are integrated systematically to achieve preferred results. The paper concludes that this framework of TQM implementation can lead to higher business performance of the healthcare industry and to a higher employee, customer, and personnel satisfaction. Further, managerial implications, pre-requisite for implementing framework, and scope for future research are also included at the end.
In present scenario of globalization and economic slowdown, survival of organizations has become a challenging task for the management. Customers expect high product quality along with low cost, timely deliver and best service. In such a situation, total quality management in the organization is very relevant. This paper has tried to explore different issues affecting implementation of TQM, effect of TQM on performance and circumstances under which TQM fails. One hundred twenty research papers, mainly from referred international journals are reviewed to identify thrust areas of research. On the basis of review, gaps are identified and research agenda is proposed. This paper has identified certain gaps from literature on issues related with TQM such as development of framework for evaluating effectiveness of TQM, prioritization of critical success factors, comparative study of TQM and effect of TQM on performance of organizations from supply chain perspective etc on which further study can be conducted
ASIAN JOURNAL OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTING (AJBA)
The Malaysian Administrative Modernization and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU) has outlined Total Quality Management (TQM) by means of seven core principles: (1) top management commitment, (2) strategic quality planning, (3) customer focus, (4) training and recognition, (5) enhancing teamwork, (6) performance measurement, and (7) quality assurance. Malaysian organizations are encouraged to apply these core principles in order to attain competitive advantage in the marketplace. The present study has made an attempt to survey the level of awareness and implementation of these principles in a typical Malaysian organization. The data has been collected through a questionnaire survey and interviews. Seventy two of the total of 125 employees of the organization participated in the survey. Details of the findings are discussed and implications are highlighted.
Gangaram Biswakarma, PhD
In this 21st century, globally quality is the foremost emphasized in any sector, whether it is manufacturing or service sector. It leads to the competitive advantage to an organization. In this front, TQM implementation gives a cutting edge to the organization. In Nepalese context there is an increasing interest in TQM in service sector including hospitality, for providing company with a competitive advantage. A sample of 250 employees of hospitality sector in Nepal was taken with convenience sampling techniques, returned 226 questionnaires. It can be concluded in results that TQM is an important tool to manage organization successfully. TQM focuses strongly on the importance of the relationship between customers and as well as employee. It is practiced moderately. The dimensions of TQM - top management commitment & leadership, continuous improvement, quality planning, customer focus, service design, supplier relationship and employee management are equally vital and contribute to the instatement of TQM in hospitality industry. All the dimensions have positive correlation with effectiveness of TQM. Likewise, all dimensions have their impact over the effectiveness of TQM; employee management has the strongest impact on effectiveness of total quality management.
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Total Quality Management - Assignment Example
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Total Quality Management – December 2023 Assignment Questions
Q1. Maxx Industry is in the process of implementing TQM across the entire organization. You are asked to make a presentation to the senior managers on the aspects of TQM and points to consider while implementing. Discuss your presentation. (10 Marks)
Q2. What would be your advice to a design team on quality management techniques that may support in removing defects in products at design phase or the production phase? (10 Marks)
Q3. Below is data collected for the percentage of defective from a process (n=100).
a. Find all control limits for this process. ( 5 Marks)
b. Discuss two types of control charts you will use for attributes data. ( 5 Marks)
Total quality management – April 2023 Assignment Questions
1. “Partnering with suppliers to develop deep, mutually beneficial relationships over the long-term is frequently cited as a means by which to lessen that risk and develop true supply chain excellence”. Discuss this statement with relevant examples. (10 Marks)
Ans 1. Supply chain management may be defined as control overseeing how services and goods evolve from raw materials and idea introduction into a final completed product. It entails storing and moving the substances used to fabricate goods, maintaining the last goods until they are bought, and tracking wherein offered products are used so that we can use that insight to drive destiny income.
The technique of SCM consists of every detail of business operations, buying, and information technology, including logistics. It gathers finances, substances, manufacturing facilities.
2. Performance measurement is considered to be a vital factor of the total quality management efforts of an organization. Discuss the concepts of performance measurement and its objectives. (10 Marks)
Performance management can be defined as a corporate management tool that allows managers to reveal and decide employees’ work. Performance management’s goal is to form an environment where humans can perform efficiently to the high quality in their competencies and supply the best exceptional work most efficaciously and efficiently.
A formal performance management method facilitates the employees and managers to see eye-to-eye approximately desires, expectations, and career progress, including how a person’s work aligns with the desires and goals .
3. An auto manufacturing organization receives 10,000 bearings from its supplier. The quality control inspector will inspect 28 of them. If there are 0, 1, or 2 defective bearing, she can accept the delivery of the shipment. But if the sample contains more than 2 defectives, she will reject the entire lot.
a. Discuss the quality control procedure the quality inspector has adopted. (5 Marks)
Ans 3a. Exceptional does now not have a single definition. That means value. Great control may be described as how services/ products are tested and determined to ensure they meet a fixed standard. A company can evaluate, improve, and maintain products nicely via this degree.
Ultimately, there are two essential desires of exceptional management: a) to ensure that goods
b. What are the four parameters of an OC curve? (5 Marks)
Ans 3b. The characteristic running curve shows or depicts the discriminatory power of a reputation sampling plan. The feature running curve plots the possibility of accepting loads as opposed to the faulty fraction. When the operating curve is plotted, the sampling risks are certain.
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College football bowl game schedule for the 2023-24 season: A full guide for fans.
Think of the college football postseason is more a marathon than a sprint. There's 42 games running from the first series of matchups on Dec. 16 through the College Football Playoff championship game on Jan. 8.
The ending of a college football is bittersweet. It's as the song goes "the most wonderful of time of the year" but also the ending of another season for the sport until we see it again next August.
The playoff semifinals will be held on Jan. 1 at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California, and the Sugar Bowl in New Orleans. The national title game is being held at NRG Stadium in Houston.
But there's plenty of other intriguing games to watch. Here's the entire lineup:
Myrtle Beach Bowl: Ohio vs. Georgia Southern
DETAILS: Dec. 16, Conway, S.C., ESPN, 11 a.m.
New Orleans Bowl: Jacksonville State vs. Louisiana-Lafayette
DETAILS: Dec. 16, New Orleans, ESPN, 2:15 p.m.
Cure Bowl: Appalachian State vs. Miami (Ohio)
DETAILS: Dec. 16, Orlando, ABC, 3:30 p.m.
New Mexico Bowl: New Mexico State vs. Fresno State
DETAILS: Dec. 16, Albuquerque, ESPN, 5:45 p.m.
LA Bowl: UCLA vs. Boise State
DETAILS: Dec. 16, Inglewood, Calif., ABC, 7:30 p.m.
Independence Bowl: Texas Tech vs. California
DETAILS: Dec. 16, Shreveport, La., ESPN, 9:15 p.m.
Famous Toastery Bowl: Western Kentucky vs. Old Dominion
DETAILS: Dec. 18, ESPN, 2:30 p.m.
Frisco Bowl: Marshall vs. Texas-San Antonio
DETAILS: Dec. 19, Frisco, Texas, ESPN, 9 p.m.
Boca Raton Bowl: South Florida vs. Syracuse
DETAILS: Dec. 21, Boca Raton, Fla., ESPN, 8 p.m.
Gasparilla Bowl: Georgia Tech vs. Central Florida
DETAILS: Dec. 22, Tampa, Fla., ESPN, 6:30 p.m.
Birmingham Bowl: Duke vs. Troy
DETAILS: Dec. 23, Birmingham, Ala., ABC, noon
Camellia Bowl: Northern Illinois vs. Arkansas State
DETAILS: Dec. 23, Montgomery, Ala., ESPN, noon
Armed Forces Bowl: James Madison vs. Air Force
DETAILS: Dec. 23, Fort Worth, Texas, ABC, 3:30 p.m.
Idaho Potato Bowl: Utah State vs. Georgia State
DETAILS: Dec. 23, Boise, Idaho, ESPN, 3:30 p.m.
68 Ventures Bowl: Eastern Michigan vs. South Alabama
DETAILS: Dec. 23, Mobile, Ala., ESPN, 7 p.m.
Las Vegas Bowl: Northwestern vs. Utah
DETAILS: Dec. 23, Las Vegas, ABC, 7:30 p.m.
Hawaii Bowl: Coastal Carolina vs. San Jose State
DETAILS: Dec. 23, Honolulu, ESPN, 10:30 p.m.
Quick Lane Bowl: Bowling Green vs. Minnesota
DETAILS: Dec. 26, Detroit, ESPN, 2 p.m.
First Responder Bowl: Texas State vs. Rice
DETAILS: Dec. 26, Dallas, ESPN, 5:30 p.m.
Guaranteed Rate Bowl: Kansas vs. UNLV
DETAILS: Dec. 26, Phoenix, ESPN, 9 p.m.
Military Bowl: Tulane vs. Virginia Tech
DETAILS: Dec. 27, Annapolis, Md., ESPN, 2 p.m.
Duke's Mayo Bowl: North Carolina vs. West Virginia
DETAILS: Dec. 27, Charlotte, N.C., ESPN, 5:30 p.m.
Holiday Bowl: Louisville vs. Southern California
DETAILS: Dec. 27, San Diego, Fox, 8 p.m.
Texas Bowl: Oklahoma State vs. Texas A&M
DETAILS: Dec. 27, Houston, ESPN, 9 p.m.
Fenway Bowl: Boston College vs. SMU
DETAILS: Dec. 28, Boston, ESPN, 11 a.m.
Pinstripe Bowl: Miami (Fla.) vs. Rutgers
DETAILS: Dec. 28, Bronx, N.Y., ESPN, 2:15 p.m.
Pop-Tarts Bowl: North Carolina State vs. Kansas State
DETAILS: Dec. 28, Orlando, Fla., ESPN, 5:45 p.m.
Alamo Bowl: Oklahoma vs. Arizona
DETAILS: Dec. 28, San Antonio, ESPN, 9:15 p.m.
Gator Bowl: Clemson vs. Kentucky
DETAILS: Dec. 29, Jacksonville, Fla., ESPN, noon
Sun Bowl: Oregon State vs. Notre Dame
DETAILS: Dec. 29, El Paso, Texas, CBS, 2 p.m.
Liberty Bowl: Iowa State vs. Memphis
DETAILS: Dec. 29, Memphis, Tenn. ESPN, 3:30 p.m.
Cotton Bowl: Ohio State vs. Missouri
DETAILS: Dec. 29, Arlington, Texas, ESPN, 8 p.m.
Peach Bowl: Penn State vs. Mississippi
DETAILS: Dec. 30, Atlanta, ESPN, noon
Music City Bowl: Auburn vs. Maryland
DETAILS: Dec. 30, Nashville, Tenn., ABC, 2 p.m.
Orange Bowl: Florida State vs. Georgia
DETAILS: Dec. 30, Miami Gardens, Fla., ESPN, 4 p.m.
Arizona Bowl: Toledo vs. Wyoming
DETAILS: Dec. 30, Tucson, Ariz., 4:30 p.m.
ReliaQuest Bowl: Wisconsin vs. LSU
DETAILS: Jan. 1, Tampa, Fla., ESPN2, noon
Citrus Bowl: Iowa vs. Tennessee
DETAILS: Jan. 1, Orlando, Fla., ABC, 1 p.m.
Fiesta Bowl: Oregon vs. Liberty
DETAILS: Jan. 1, Glendale, Ariz., ESPN, 1 p.m.
Rose Bowl: Michigan vs. Alabama
DETAILS: Jan. 1, Pasadena, Calif., ESPN, 5 p.m.
Sugar Bowl: Washington vs. Texas
DETAILS: Jan. 1, New Orleans, ESPN, 8:45 p.m.
College Football Playoff championship game
DETAILS: Jan. 8, Houston, ESPN, 8 p.m.
MATCHUP: College Football Playoff semifinal winners