94 Total Quality Management Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best total quality management topic ideas & essay examples, 👍 good essay topics on total quality management, 📌 most interesting total quality management topics to write about, ❓ total quality management essay questions.

  • Implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM): Toyota Case Study In order to implement TQM, Toyota corporations focused on the following phases: The company extended the management responsibility past the instantaneous services and products Toyota examined how consumers applied the products generated and this enabled […]
  • The Dimensions of Total Quality Management in Business Firms Total quality management is a complex notion covering human, product, and technological process as the basic dimensions leading to constant improvement of the quality of services and products.
  • Marriott Hotel International Total Quality Management The origin and development of Total Quality Management The total quality management is a theory applied in most of organizations in efforts of improving quality and performance to meet or exceed customers’ needs.
  • Total Quality Management: Xerox Case To achieve its success, the company used TQM principles to make changes in the way it does business and relates to customers, suppliers, and employees.
  • The Role of Human Resource Management in the Implementation of Successful Total Quality Management in Hospitality Industry According to Nickson, it is the role of the HRM in the hospitality industry to come up with HRM policies regarding the employment needs of the industry and the criteria to be used in selecting […]
  • Total Quality Management at the Walmart Inc. Solution Wal-Mart has made contracts with suppliers and has shared the cost for the new technology adopted by these suppliers to enhance better relationship.
  • Gillette’s Total Quality Management System The focus phase was concerned with the development of a problem statement; the analyze phase dealt with the use of data to understand the magnitude of the problem; the develop phase involved the determination of […]
  • Customer Focus Principle in Total Quality Management The findings emphasise the importance of the customer focus principle and lead to the conclusion that it is a vital element of performance improvement initiations.
  • Total Quality Management vs. Continuous Quality Improvement Before covering specific implications of TQM and CQM, it is worthy to examine definitions and objectives of the two strategies separately.
  • Total Quality Management in the Hospitality Industry TQM can be lucratively implemented in management of hotels by first recognizing customers as the most essential component of a transaction. The thriving realization of TQM in an organization by an executive can be evaluated […]
  • Total Quality Management: Quality and Customer Satisfaction As such the term Total Quality Management means different things to different people; designers expect the product or service to conform to specifications; producer expects the product to perform or fit into intended use; consumers […]
  • Total Quality Management: Kia Motors From the very beginning, KIA Motors has not been trying to appeal to a demographic that is well-off or has the means to purchase the best-quality car on the market.
  • Total Quality Management: Advantages and Disadvantages Total quality management refers to the approach used by the management to improve the quality of production and the organization’s performance in tandem with the needs of its goals.
  • Principles & Concept of Total Quality Management Essay The second principle of TQM is that the problem in most companies is the processes but not the people. This was based on the fact that the quality of the products was determined by all […]
  • Total Quality Management in Retailing and Services In many scenarios, TQM is viewed simply as a tool to improve the quality of services and products rather than a philosophy that motivates both managers and employees to improve on their work.
  • Walmart’s Total Quality Management in 2010-2020 Walmart US has been affected by the waste issues, and there is a need to research how the problem can be combatted by achieving zero waste in its operations in the US.
  • Total Quality Management Implementation The core aspect of quality is to get it right the first time, and to meet the needs of the customer every time, by engaging everyone in the firm.
  • Introduction and Implementation of Total Quality Management Total quality management is the integrative, prudent management with the intention of improving the quality of the products produced while encouraging conformity with the process and the environmental requirements.
  • Aldi Company: Total Quality Management That is why lean production principles make sense for Aldi and are efficient for maintaining its positions in the grocery market.
  • Total Quality Management and Firm Performance The author moves on to describe the early attempts, at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s, to research TQM.
  • Total Quality Management Models Comparison It is widely used in Europe and beyond it in both private and public organizations. It is majorly used in organizations than individuals.
  • Total Quality Management and Performance Measurement Blocher et al.define TQM as “the unyielding and continuous effort by everyone in the organization to understand, meet, and exceed the expectations of customers”.
  • Transcendental Leadership and Total Quality Management Theories Thus, this leadership model can significantly contribute to reorganizing human resources since the main principles of TQM and HR correlate. Empowerment and improvement of the human resources function exemplify how TQM can help when planning […]
  • Abu Mansoor Plastic Factory’s Total Quality Management In the planning phase, the company outlines the strategy that is to be for the change. In this case study, the research design of the company is outlined.
  • Philosophies and Frameworks: Total Quality Management Customer loyalty defines the reputation of an organization and, therefore, its further success in the home and global markets.
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) Implementation: The Case of ADNOC TQM incorporates the entire commodities attributes and the physical characteristics capable of meeting the affirmed customer requirements.
  • Balanced Scorecard and Total Quality Management The first part of the report provides an overview of the principles of BSC, considers the method’s advantages and drawbacks, and examines the reality of its implementation, with a specific focus on the United Arab […]
  • Quality Circles in Total Quality Management Quality circles refer to the practice of employee gathering to identify and analyze problems related to their sphere of competence to improve the overall quality of products and services.
  • Total Quality Management: A Viable Solution for Zayed University Despite the university’s good formal rankings, the recent history of the organization has not been devoid of troubles and controversies. It is clear that some of the university’s current policies are unviable.
  • Total Quality Management in Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank The bank offers a variety of banking and economic services primarily in the United Arab Emirates and also in India. This is seen as one of the attempts to adopt the emerging trends in which […]
  • Snow Canyon: Total Quality Management And, Management refers to the “accountability and inventiveness of the top management in the context of systematic quality development”. Quality development refers to the energetic development of the worth of services and its continuous upgrading […]
  • Abu Dhabi Police Department’s Total Quality Management The central aspects to be covered are considered to be the following: ethics, integrity, training, teamwork, trust, recognition, leadership, and communication; the analysis discloses the depth of management structure and environment developed within Abu Dhabi […]
  • Common Themes in Total Quality Management Public policy evolves over time out of experiences in the social arena, and the effectiveness or otherwise of the public policy depends, in a major fashion, on the level of assimilation and empathy of the […]
  • Total Quality Management for Urban Transformation The wave of globalization is attracting individuals and expatriates from different regions to work in foreign countries. In different towns and cities, many sectors are involved that require the input of all stakeholders.
  • The Philosophy of Total Quality Management The philosophy of Karlee reflects this because the company uses systems approaches to its management. Karlee applies this by assessing the current state of the company’s operations, aligning this data with prospects for the future, […]
  • Leadership and Total Quality Management The main objective is to critically evaluate the impact of leadership behaviour and management style on the success of Total Quality Management in the retail sector. What is the role of leadership in establishing processes […]
  • Total Quality Management: Strategies and Barriers The report concludes the practical validity of TQM in the case of Smart Pack Ltd, its applicability, and points out the range of benefits resulting from the process.
  • “Total Quality Management” by Peter Petersen Overall, the author argues that the theories of this quality expert are still viable and that they are still applicable to the needs of modern companies.
  • Continuous Improvement in the Total Quality Management On the other hand, the article also acknowledges that there are several factors that can determine the implementation of CI but the spirit of entrepreneurship in the organization helps it to be sustained.
  • Tools for Total Quality Management The process is only successful when the manager focuses on ways of structuring the problems and using the analysis tools only as a secondary manipulation step.
  • Government Accelerators and Total Quality Management The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of the government accelerators methodology on the total quality management and entities performance.
  • Dubai Police Applying Total Quality Management One of the key elements of the TQM model is that of innovation. The organization allows and encourages them to use modern technologies to meet the needs of the people they serve.
  • Total Quality Management as a Development Stimulus TQM suggests a wide array of techniques and methods that could be used at different stages of the production process to enhance the quality of goods and attract consumers.
  • Strategies for Total Quality Management in Science According to Kakuro, TQM’s practices require teamwork to improve the performance of each department as a separate entity and as a part of the company.
  • Deming and Juran as Total Quality Management Gurus If one recalls over the condition of quality management and philosophy, they would be inattentive if they did not pay attention to the two of the 20th centuries’ most noteworthy and valued contributors: William Edwards […]
  • Dubai Airports’ Total Quality Management The company provides core services for the operation and maintenance of airport terminals, including the resolution of customer complaints, integration of operational services, and the provision of management services.
  • Hospitals’ Total Quality Management and Leadership This report will address issues in leadership and TQM in hospitals from a holistic perspective. It will address the following research questions: What is the role of effective leadership in hospitals?
  • Total Quality Management and Organizational Culture The authors provide readers with the results of the study aimed at identifying the way organizational cultures can influence the implementation of the Total Quality Management practices.
  • Bahrain Development Bank’ Total Quality Management The purpose of this paper is to provide the discussion of the elements of the TQM framework in the context of the activities of the Administration Department in Bahrain Development Bank.
  • International Total Quality Management’ Implementation Therefore, the study examines a scenario that took place in a hotel and explains the solutions used to address the situation and the importance of using total quality management to set the tone of an […]
  • Total Quality Management in the EU and Football Association The European Commission and the council of the European Union are the chief institutions of the EU. In addition, the court of Justice of the European Union is a key legal institution of the EU.
  • Al Ain Hospital Total Quality Management Workers in the organisation know about the importance of quality improvement and most of them have made a commitment to the practice.
  • Alliant’s Total Quality Management System It explains Alliant’s TQM strategy, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the actions Alliant took in implementing this strategy. The TQM strategy, exemplified in the PCCs approach, took most of the functions and services closer […]
  • Comparison Between Six Sigma and Total Quality Management The second phase is to measure the main characteristics of the present process and gather relevant information. The last step is to verify the design, execute production procedures, and present it to the proprietors of […]
  • Total Quality Management: 6 Sigma The original objective of the six sigma method is to improve the quality of services and products and at the same time reduce the cost of production.
  • Total Quality Management and Six Sigma TQM principles enabled the company to improve on quality of its products and increase customer satisfaction. Six Sigma approach seeks to achieve the high quality expectations by identifying and elimination sources of errors.
  • Organizational Behavior: Total Quality Management This research proposal will seek to mobilize adequate information on the issue of Total Quality Management as a key pillar in the running of business organizations. This will in turn guarantee high quality, efficiency and […]
  • Total Quality Management: Origins and Evolution of the Term The article’s central concern and its relation to International Business Course The broad area covered in this article is the origins of the term Total Quality Management and a clarification on the divergent definitions of […]
  • Introduction to Total Quality Management and Six Sigma This assignment will identify them and discuss examples of companies which have applied TQM and six sigma strategies The main implementation issues associated with TQM include understanding of TQM and what it entails, establishing an […]
  • Total Quality Management: Pioneers, Elements and Trends Total quality management is likely to be practiced through the business chain, from suppliers, to production processes, to promotion of a product, and eventually to the grateful consumers. The principle of total quality will enable […]
  • Total Quality Management: A Path to Sustainable Growth and Improvement The considerations include but are not limited to: the identification of the business opportunity, development of the product or service, evaluations of the suppliers, clients and business environment and market analysis among others.
  • Total Quality Management at the BR Engineering To spite managers in the modern world where customers are ever demanding for quality, incorporating total quality management into BR engineering comes with a host of benefits that shall largely impact on the business position […]
  • Total Quality Management in Abu Dhabi University Total quality management is the process which managers use to continuously identify and administer the activities needed to achieve the quality objectives of an organization with an aim of offering high value products and services.
  • Total Quality Management (TQM) as a Significant Issue in the Contemporary Strategic Management Total Quality Management is a comparatively new concept in the area of strategic management; it emerged in the 1980s mainly as a response of the American companies to the competitive pressure of organizations from Japan.
  • Total Quality Management in the Healthcare Setting The model is a means to an end of improving quality of success at the lowest cost possible, while the process itself is continuously applied for continuous improvement in quality management. In the step wouldo’, […]
  • What Do You Mean by Total Quality Management?
  • What Is Total Quality Management and Its Benefits?
  • What Is Total Quality Management and Its Purpose?
  • What Is the Main Advantage of Total Quality Management?
  • Why Is Total Quality Management Important in Business?
  • What Are the Characteristics of Total Quality Management?
  • What Is Total Quality Management and Its Advantages and Disadvantages?
  • Who Is Responsible for Total Quality Management?
  • What Is the Most Important Element of Total Quality Management?
  • What Are the Barriers to Total Quality Management?
  • What Is the Example of Total Quality Management?
  • What Are the Factors Affecting Total Quality Management?
  • How Is Total Quality Management Implemented?
  • What Is the Role of Employees in Total Quality Management?
  • When Was Total Quality Management Introduced?
  • Who Introduced Total Quality Management?
  • What Are Total Quality Management Problems?
  • How Is Total Quality Management Measured?
  • What Tools Does Total Quality Management Use?
  • What Is a Common Total Quality Management Tool?
  • What Is the Structure of Total Quality Management?
  • How Does Total Quality Management Apply in Daily Life?
  • Who Is the Father of Total Quality Management?
  • What Are the Phases of Total Quality Management?
  • Where Is Total Quality Management Used?
  • How Is Quality Measured in Total Quality Management?
  • What Are the Methods of Total Quality Management?
  • How Does Total Quality Management Increase Productivity?
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Total Quality Management Research Paper Topics

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Total quality management research paper topics have grown to become an essential area of study, reflecting the critical role that quality assurance and continuous improvement play in modern organizations. This subject encompasses a wide array of topics, methodologies, and applications, all aimed at enhancing operational efficiency, customer satisfaction, and competitive advantage. The purpose of this text is to provide students, researchers, and practitioners with a comprehensive guide on various aspects of total quality management (TQM). It includes an extensive list of potential research paper topics categorized into ten main sections, a detailed article explaining the principles and practices of TQM, guidelines on how to choose and write on TQM topics, and an introduction to iResearchNet’s custom writing services that cater to this field. This comprehensive resource aims to assist students in navigating the complex landscape of TQM, inspiring insightful research, and offering practical tools and support for academic success.

100 Total Quality Management Research Paper Topics

Total Quality Management (TQM) has evolved to become a strategic approach to continuous improvement and operational excellence. It has applications across various industries, each with its unique challenges and opportunities. Below is an exhaustive list of TQM research paper topics, divided into ten categories, offering a rich source of ideas for students and researchers looking to explore this multifaceted domain.

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Total Quality Management transcends traditional boundaries and integrates concepts from various disciplines. Its goal is to create a culture where quality is at the forefront of every decision and process. The following list presents 100 TQM research topics divided into ten different categories. Each category represents a specific aspect of TQM, providing an extensive foundation for exploring this complex field.

  • Historical Development of TQM
  • Core Principles of TQM
  • TQM and Organizational Culture
  • Deming’s 14 Points: A Critical Analysis
  • Six Sigma and TQM: A Comparative Study
  • TQM in Manufacturing: Case Studies
  • TQM and Leadership: Role and Responsibilities
  • Customer Focus in TQM
  • Employee Involvement in TQM Practices
  • Challenges in Implementing TQM
  • TQM in Healthcare
  • TQM in Education
  • TQM in the Automotive Industry
  • TQM in the Food and Beverage Industry
  • TQM in Information Technology
  • TQM in Hospitality
  • TQM in the Banking Sector
  • TQM in Construction
  • TQM in Supply Chain Management
  • TQM in Government Services
  • Statistical Process Control in TQM
  • The 5S Method in Quality Management
  • Kaizen and Continuous Improvement
  • Root Cause Analysis in TQM
  • Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
  • The Fishbone Diagram in TQM
  • Process Mapping and Quality Improvement
  • Benchmarking for Quality Enhancement
  • The Role of FMEA in Quality Management
  • Design of Experiments (DOE) in TQM
  • ISO 9001 and Quality Management
  • The Benefits of ISO 14001
  • Understanding Six Sigma Certifications
  • The Impact of OHSAS 18001 on Safety Management
  • Lean Manufacturing and Quality Standards
  • Implementation of ISO 22000 in Food Safety
  • The Role of ISO/IEC 17025 in Testing Laboratories
  • Quality Management in ISO 27001 (Information Security)
  • Achieving CE Marking for Product Safety
  • The Influence of SA 8000 on Social Accountability
  • Measuring Customer Satisfaction in TQM
  • The Role of Service Quality in Customer Retention
  • Customer Complaints and Quality Improvement
  • Building Customer Loyalty Through TQM
  • Customer Feedback and Continuous Improvement
  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and TQM
  • Emotional Intelligence and Customer Satisfaction
  • The Impact of Branding on Customer Loyalty
  • Customer Experience Management in TQM
  • Customer Segmentation and Targeting in TQM
  • The Role of Training in TQM
  • Employee Empowerment in Quality Management
  • Motivational Theories and TQM
  • Building a Quality Culture Through Employee Engagement
  • Employee Recognition and Reward Systems in TQM
  • Leadership Styles and Employee Performance in TQM
  • Communication and Teamwork in TQM
  • Managing Change in TQM Implementation
  • Conflict Resolution Strategies in TQM
  • Work-Life Balance in a Quality-Oriented Organization
  • Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in TQM
  • Balanced Scorecard and Quality Management
  • Performance Appraisals in a TQM Environment
  • Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation in TQM
  • Risk Management in Quality Performance
  • Process Auditing and Quality Control
  • The Role of Quality Circles in Performance Evaluation
  • Value Stream Mapping and Process Optimization
  • The Impact of E-business on Quality Performance
  • Outsourcing and Quality Assurance
  • Environmental Sustainability and TQM
  • Social Responsibility and Ethical Practices in TQM
  • Green Manufacturing and Environmental Performance
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Strategies in TQM
  • Waste Reduction and Recycling in TQM
  • Community Engagement and Social Impact
  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and TQM
  • Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Quality Management
  • Ethical Sourcing and Supply Chain Responsibility
  • Human Rights and Labor Practices in TQM
  • TQM Practices in Different Cultures
  • The Influence of Globalization on TQM
  • Cross-Cultural Communication and Quality Management
  • International Regulations and Quality Standards
  • TQM in Emerging Economies
  • Quality Management in Multinational Corporations
  • The Role of WTO in Global Quality Standards
  • Outsourcing and Global Supply Chain Quality
  • Global Competition and Quality Strategies
  • International Collaboration and Quality Innovation
  • Technological Innovations and Quality Management
  • Big Data and Analytics in TQM
  • Quality 4.0 and the Role of IoT
  • Artificial Intelligence and Quality Prediction
  • The Impact of Social Media on Quality Perception
  • Sustainability and Future Quality Management
  • Agile Methodologies and Quality Flexibility
  • Blockchain Technology and Quality Traceability
  • Cybersecurity and Quality Assurance
  • The Future Role of Human Resource in Quality Management

The vast array of topics listed above provides a comprehensive insight into the dynamic and multifaceted world of Total Quality Management. From foundational principles to future trends, these topics offer students a diverse range of perspectives to explore, understand, and contribute to the ongoing dialogue in TQM. With proper guidance, dedication, and an open mind, scholars can delve into these subjects to create impactful research papers, case studies, or projects that enrich the existing body of knowledge and drive further innovation in the field. Whether one chooses to focus on a specific industry, a particular tool, or an emerging trend, the possibilities are endless, and the journey towards quality excellence is both challenging and rewarding.

Total Quality Management and the Range of Research Paper Topics

Total Quality Management (TQM) represents a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality of products and services through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback. This article aims to provide an in-depth exploration of TQM, shedding light on its evolution, its underlying principles, and the vast range of research topics it offers.

Historical Background

Total Quality Management has its roots in the early 20th century, with the development of quality control and inspection processes. However, it wasn’t until the mid-1980s that TQM became a formalized, systematic approach, greatly influenced by management gurus like W. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, and Philip Crosby.

  • Early Quality Control Era : During the industrial revolution, emphasis on quality control began, primarily focusing on product inspection.
  • Post-World War II Era : The concept of quality management grew as the U.S. sought to rebuild Japan’s industry. Deming’s teachings on quality greatly influenced Japanese manufacturing.
  • TQM’s Formalization : The integration of quality principles into management practices led to the formalization of TQM, encompassing a holistic approach towards quality improvement.

Principles of Total Quality Management

TQM is underpinned by a set of core principles that guide its implementation and contribute to its success. Understanding these principles is fundamental to any research into TQM.

  • Customer Focus : At the heart of TQM is a strong focus on customer satisfaction, aiming to exceed customer expectations.
  • Continuous Improvement : TQM promotes a culture of never-ending improvement, addressing small changes that cumulatively lead to substantial improvement over time.
  • Employee Engagement : Engaging employees at all levels ensures that everyone feels responsible for achieving quality.
  • Process Approach : Focusing on processes allows organizations to optimize performance by understanding how different processes interrelate.
  • Data-Driven Decision Making : Utilizing data allows for objective assessment and decision-making.
  • Systematic Approach to Management : TQM requires a strategic approach that integrates organizational functions and processes to achieve quality objectives.
  • Social Responsibility : Considering societal well-being and environmental sustainability is key in TQM.

Scope and Application

Total Quality Management is applicable across various domains and industries. The following areas showcase the versatility of TQM:

  • Manufacturing : Implementing TQM principles in manufacturing ensures efficiency and consistency in production processes.
  • Healthcare : TQM in healthcare focuses on patient satisfaction, error reduction, and continuous improvement.
  • Education : In educational institutions, TQM can be used to improve the quality of education through better administrative processes and teaching methods.
  • Service Industry : Whether in hospitality, banking, or IT, TQM’s principles can enhance service quality and customer satisfaction.
  • Public Sector : Governmental bodies and agencies can also employ TQM to enhance public service delivery and satisfaction.

TQM’s multifaceted nature offers a wide range of research paper topics. Some areas of interest include:

  • TQM Tools and Techniques : Research on tools like Six Sigma, Kaizen, and statistical process control.
  • Quality Standards : Investigating the impact and implementation of ISO standards.
  • Industry-Specific Applications : Exploring how TQM is applied and adapted in different industries.
  • Challenges and Opportunities : Assessing the difficulties and advantages of implementing TQM in contemporary business environments.
  • Emerging Trends : Examining future trends in TQM, such as the integration of technology and sustainability considerations.

Total Quality Management has evolved from a simple focus on product inspection to a strategic approach to continuous improvement that permeates the entire organization. Its application is not confined to manufacturing but has spread across various sectors and industries.

Research in TQM is equally diverse, offering students and scholars a rich and complex field to explore. Whether delving into the historical evolution of TQM, examining its principles, evaluating its application in different sectors, or exploring its myriad tools and techniques, the study of TQM is vibrant and multifaceted.

By undertaking research in Total Quality Management, one not only contributes to the academic body of knowledge but also plays a role in shaping organizational practices that emphasize quality, efficiency, customer satisfaction, and social responsibility. In a global business environment characterized by competitiveness, complexity, and constant change, the principles and practices of TQM remain more relevant than ever.

How to Choose Total Quality Management Research Paper Topics

Choosing the right topic for a research paper in Total Quality Management (TQM) is a crucial step in ensuring that your paper is both engaging and academically relevant. The selection process should align with your interests, the academic requirements, the targeted audience, and the available resources for research. Here is an in-depth guide, including an introductory paragraph, ten essential tips, and a concluding paragraph to help you make an informed choice.

Total Quality Management encompasses a broad spectrum of theories, tools, techniques, and applications across various industries. This richness and diversity offer a plethora of potential research topics. However, selecting the perfect one can be daunting. The following tips are designed to guide students in choosing a research topic that resonates with their interests and the current trends in TQM.

  • Identify Your Area of Interest : TQM has many facets, such as principles, tools, applications, challenges, and trends. Pinpointing the area that piques your interest will help in narrowing down your topic.
  • Consider Academic Relevance : Your chosen topic should align with your course objectives and academic guidelines. Consult your professor or academic advisor to ensure that the topic fits the scope of your course.
  • Research Current Trends : Stay up-to-date with the latest developments in TQM by reading scholarly articles, attending conferences, or following industry leaders. Current trends may inspire a relevant and timely topic.
  • Evaluate Available Resources : Make sure that your chosen topic has enough existing literature, data, and resources to support your research.
  • Assess the Scope : A too broad topic might be overwhelming, while a too narrow one might lack content. Balance the scope to ensure depth without over-extending.
  • Consider Practical Implications : If possible, choose a topic that has real-world applications. Connecting theory to practice makes your research more impactful.
  • Check Originality : Aim for a topic that offers a new perspective or builds on existing research in a unique way. Your contribution to the field should be clear and valuable.
  • Evaluate Your Expertise : Choose a topic that matches your level of expertise. Overly complex subjects might lead to difficulties, while overly simple ones might not challenge you enough.
  • Consider the Target Audience : Think about who will be reading your research paper. Tailoring your topic to the interests and expectations of your readers can make your paper more engaging.
  • Conduct a Preliminary Research : Before finalizing your topic, conduct some preliminary research to ensure there’s enough material to work with and that the topic is feasible within the given timeframe.

Selecting the right topic for a Total Quality Management research paper is a thoughtful and multifaceted process. It requires considering personal interests, academic requirements, current industry trends, available resources, and practical implications.

By following the guidelines provided, students can align their research with both personal and academic objectives, paving the way for a successful research experience. The ideal topic is one that not only aligns with the ever-evolving field of TQM but also resonates with the researcher’s passion and curiosity, laying the foundation for a meaningful and insightful investigation into the dynamic world of Total Quality Management.

How to Write a Total Quality Management Research Paper

Writing a Total Quality Management (TQM) research paper is a valuable endeavor that requires a clear understanding of the subject, strong analytical skills, and a methodical approach to research and writing. This guide outlines how to write an impressive research paper on TQM, including an introductory paragraph, ten actionable tips, and a concluding paragraph.

Total Quality Management is a comprehensive approach that emphasizes continuous improvement, customer satisfaction, employee involvement, and integrated management systems. Writing a research paper on TQM is not just an academic exercise; it is an exploration into the principles and practices that drive quality in organizations. The following detailed guidance aims to equip you with the necessary knowledge and skills to compose a compelling TQM research paper.

  • Understand the Basics of TQM : Start by immersing yourself in the foundational principles of TQM, including its history, methodologies, and various applications across industries. A deep understanding will form the basis of your research.
  • Choose a Specific Topic : As outlined in the previous section, select a specific and relevant topic that aligns with your interest and the current trends in the field of TQM.
  • Conduct Comprehensive Research : Use reputable sources such as academic journals, books, industry reports, and expert opinions to gather information. Always critically evaluate the reliability and relevance of your sources.
  • Create a Thesis Statement : Your thesis statement is the guiding force of your paper. It should be clear, concise, and articulate your main argument or focus.
  • Develop an Outline : Organize your research into a logical structure. An outline will guide you in presenting your ideas coherently and ensuring that you cover all essential points.
  • Write the Introduction : Introduce the topic, provide background information, and present the thesis statement. Make sure to engage the reader and provide a roadmap for the paper.
  • Compose the Body : Divide the body into sections and subsections that explore different aspects of your topic. Use evidence, examples, and logical reasoning to support your arguments.
  • Incorporate Case Studies and Examples : If applicable, include real-world examples or case studies that demonstrate the application of TQM principles in a practical context.
  • Write the Conclusion : Summarize the key findings, restate the thesis, and provide insights into the implications of your research. A strong conclusion leaves a lasting impression.
  • Revise and Edit : Pay attention to both content and form. Check for logical flow, coherence, grammar, and formatting. Consider seeking feedback from peers or professionals.

Writing a research paper on Total Quality Management is a complex but rewarding task. By understanding the fundamentals of TQM, selecting a precise topic, conducting thorough research, and following a structured writing process, students can produce a paper that not only meets academic standards but also contributes to the understanding of quality management in the modern world.

Emphasizing critical thinking, analytical prowess, and attention to detail, the journey of writing a TQM research paper enriches the student’s academic experience and provides valuable insights into the field that continues to shape organizations globally.

The strategies and tips provided in this guide serve as a roadmap for aspiring researchers, helping them navigate the challenges and triumphs of academic writing in the realm of Total Quality Management. With dedication, creativity, and adherence to scholarly standards, the result can be a meaningful and enlightening piece that resonates with both academics and practitioners alike.

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  • Guide: Total Quality Management (TQM)

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Daniel Croft

Daniel Croft is an experienced continuous improvement manager with a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt and a Bachelor's degree in Business Management. With more than ten years of experience applying his skills across various industries, Daniel specializes in optimizing processes and improving efficiency. His approach combines practical experience with a deep understanding of business fundamentals to drive meaningful change.

  • Last Updated: February 25, 2024
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Implementing Total Quality Management means adopting a philosophy where excellence in operations and customer service is a constant goal, achieved through an organization-wide commitment to continual improvement. It’s a strategy that doesn’t just look at the end product but involves every employee in a collaborative effort to refine processes, enhance efficiency, and elevate the customer experience. This approach doesn’t compartmentalize quality as a departmental responsibility but integrates it into the fabric of the organizational culture, making it everyone’s priority. TQM transforms the traditional management model into a participative and process-oriented culture, ensuring that quality improvement is not a one-time project but an ongoing pursuit of perfection.

Table of Contents

What is total quality management (tqm).

Total Quality Management involves a comprehensive management approach centred around the principle of continuous improvement across all facets of an organization. It underscores the importance of quality not just as a metric for products or services but as a fundamental element that influences customer satisfaction and the overall performance of the business. TQM is distinctive in its inclusive nature, requiring active participation from every level within the organization. This means that everyone from the CEO to entry-level employees is involved in the process of identifying areas for improvement, suggesting changes, and implementing solutions that enhance the quality of the organization’s output. By integrating the efforts of all employees, TQM fosters a culture of quality awareness and improvement, aiming to create an environment where excellence in quality becomes a continuous pursuit, deeply embedded in the organizational fabric and mindset.

What are the Principles of Total Quality Management?

Total Quality Management, or TQM, is like a set of important rules that help make everything a company does really good and keep making it better over time. Here’s what these rules are all about:

Customer Focus

The idea of customer focus is like making sure everything a company does is aimed at making customers happy and meeting what they want or need. It’s like when a chef tastes the food to make sure it’s just right for the guests. Companies listen to what customers say, good or bad, and use that feedback to make their products or services better. This way, they keep customers coming back and attract new ones too.

Total Employee Involvement

Total employee involvement means everyone who works at the company, no matter their job, gets to help make things better. It’s like a sports team where every player, not just the stars, has a role in winning the game. When everyone shares their ideas and works together, they feel like they’re part of something big and are more likely to care about their work and do a good job.

Process Approach

Using a process approach is like following a recipe to bake a cake. Instead of just throwing ingredients together and hoping for the best, you follow steps that make sure the cake turns out great every time. In a company, this means organizing work into clear steps and making sure everything is done right at each step to get the best final result.

Integrated System

An integrated system is when all the different parts of a company, like sales, production, and customer service, work together like a well-oiled machine. It’s like a relay race where each runner passes the baton smoothly to the next. This teamwork across departments helps the company work efficiently and reach its quality goals.

Strategic and Systematic Approach

This principle is about making a game plan for quality. It’s like mapping out a route before a road trip to make sure you get to your destination. The company sets clear goals for quality and checks regularly to see how they’re doing. This way, they can stay on track or change course if needed to keep improving.

Continuous Improvement

Continuous improvement, or making things better bit by bit, is like leveling up in a video game. Each level challenges you to get a little better. In a company, this means always looking for ways to make products, services, or how work is done a little better. It’s about not settling for “good enough” and always striving for “even better.”

Fact-Based Decision Making

Making decisions based on facts is like using a map and compass when hiking. It helps you choose the best path based on the actual terrain and direction, not just a guess. Companies collect data and analyze it to make informed decisions. This way, they’re more likely to succeed because their choices are grounded in reality.


Good communication is like having a clear and open conversation. It means making sure everyone in the company knows what’s going on, understands the quality goals, and knows how they can contribute. It’s about making sure messages are clear, so everyone is on the same page and can work together effectively.

What are the Steps that Should be Taken to Implement TQM?

Implementing Total Quality Management is a journey that transforms the way an organization operates, focusing on quality in every aspect of its business. Let’s delve into

 the detailed process of implementing TQM.

Step 1: Commitment from Top Management

Leadership commitment is not just the first step; it’s the foundation of TQM. Imagine the leaders as the captains of a ship who decide the course and inspire the crew. They must wholeheartedly believe in the value of TQM and be willing to lead by example. This means allocating resources—time, money, and people—to support TQM initiatives. They also set the tone for a culture that prioritizes quality, where every employee feels responsible for maintaining high standards.

Step 2: Define Vision, Mission, and Goals

Step 2 - Vision and goals

Step 3: Employee Training

Step 3 - Employee Training

Step 4: Quality Improvement Teams

Step 4 - Quality Teams

Step 5: Develop Quality Measures

Step 5 - Quality Metrics

Step 6: Continuous Assessment and Improvement

Step 6 - Continuous Improvement

Implementing TQM is a transformative process that changes how an organization operates. It requires commitment, clarity of purpose, education, teamwork, measurement, and an unwavering focus on continuous improvement. When done correctly, it leads to higher quality, greater customer satisfaction, and improved performance across the board.

Benefits of Total Quality Management

The implementation of Total Quality Management offers a range of benefits that can significantly transform an organization. These benefits touch on various aspects of the business, from the quality of products and services to the overall operational efficiency and employee morale. Let’s explore these benefits in detail.

Improved Quality

The most direct outcome of TQM is the enhanced quality of products and services. By focusing on quality in every step of production and service delivery, organizations can significantly reduce errors, defects, and inconsistencies. This leads to products and services that not only meet but often exceed customer expectations. Higher quality translates into greater customer satisfaction, fostering loyalty and encouraging repeat business, which is vital for long-term success.

Increased Efficiency

TQM encourages organizations to examine their processes closely and continuously seek ways to make them more efficient. This involves streamlining operations, optimizing workflows, and eliminating any activities that do not add value. By doing so, organizations can accomplish more with less effort and resources, reducing turnaround times and increasing the capacity to deliver products and services faster and more reliably.

Reduced Costs

Hand in hand with increased efficiency, TQM helps organizations cut costs. By identifying and eliminating waste in processes—such as excess inventory, unnecessary steps, or rework—organizations can significantly lower their operational expenses. Furthermore, by improving quality, businesses reduce the costs associated with defects, such as rework, refunds, and returns, further contributing to financial health and stability.

Employee Satisfaction

TQM places a strong emphasis on involving employees at all levels in quality improvement efforts. This participatory approach not only leverages the collective knowledge and skills of the workforce but also fosters a sense of ownership and pride in their work. When employees see the impact of their contributions to the organization’s quality goals, it boosts their job satisfaction and motivation. A satisfied and motivated workforce is more productive, innovative, and committed to the organization’s success.

Competitive Advantage

In today’s competitive marketplace, quality can be a significant differentiator. Organizations that successfully implement TQM principles can achieve higher standards of quality and reliability in their products and services. This excellence in quality can set them apart from competitors, attracting more customers and enabling them to command premium prices. Moreover, a reputation for quality can enhance the organization’s brand and market position, contributing to long-term competitiveness and growth.

Total Quality Management is much more than a set of techniques or procedures; it’s a holistic approach that infuses quality into every aspect of an organization’s operations and culture. By adopting TQM, organizations commit to a path of continuous improvement, where the pursuit of excellence is a constant goal. The benefits of TQM—improved quality, increased efficiency, cost reduction, employee satisfaction, and competitive advantage—are substantial. These advantages highlight why TQM is not just a good practice but a strategic necessity for organizations aiming for long-term success and excellence. The journey toward total quality is ongoing, requiring dedication and commitment at all levels of the organization, but the rewards are well worth the effort.

  • Sallis, E., 2014.  Total quality management in education . Routledge.
  • Ahire, S.L., Landeros, R. and Golhar, D.Y., 1995. Total quality management: a literature review and an agenda for future research.   Production and Operations management ,  4 (3), pp.277-306.

Q: What is Total Quality Management (TQM)?

A: Total Quality Management (TQM) is a comprehensive management approach focused on continuous improvement in all aspects of an organization, aiming to ensure that every single process, product, or service meets or exceeds customer expectations. It involves the participation of all employees and encompasses the entire organization.

Q: How does TQM improve customer satisfaction?

A: TQM improves customer satisfaction by prioritizing the quality of products and services. It involves understanding customer needs and feedback, and then using this information to make continuous improvements. This ensures that the products or services not only meet but often exceed customer expectations, leading to higher satisfaction levels.

Q: Can small businesses implement TQM?

A: Yes, small businesses can implement TQM. While the scale of implementation may differ compared to larger organizations, the principles of continuous improvement, customer focus, and employee involvement are applicable and beneficial for businesses of any size. Implementing TQM can help small businesses improve quality, efficiency, and competitiveness.

Q: What role do employees play in TQM?

A: Employees play a crucial role in TQM as it requires the involvement and collaboration of everyone in the organization, from top management to front-line staff. Employees contribute to continuous improvement efforts, identify areas for improvement, and are involved in problem-solving. Their participation fosters a sense of ownership and commitment to the quality goals of the organization.

Q: How long does it take to see the benefits of implementing TQM?

A: The time it takes to see the benefits of implementing TQM can vary depending on the size of the organization, the current state of its processes, and the commitment level of its employees and management. Generally, some improvements can be seen relatively quickly, within a few months, but achieving a full transformation and realizing the comprehensive benefits of TQM is a long-term endeavor that can take several years. Continuous improvement is an ongoing process, so benefits can continue to grow over time.

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Daniel Croft is a seasoned continuous improvement manager with a Black Belt in Lean Six Sigma. With over 10 years of real-world application experience across diverse sectors, Daniel has a passion for optimizing processes and fostering a culture of efficiency. He's not just a practitioner but also an avid learner, constantly seeking to expand his knowledge. Outside of his professional life, Daniel has a keen Investing, statistics and knowledge-sharing, which led him to create the website learnleansigma.com, a platform dedicated to Lean Six Sigma and process improvement insights.

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A Quality Principle: Everything You Need to Know about Total Quality Management

By Kate Eby | June 21, 2017 (updated June 28, 2023)

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Today, we take for granted that the items and services we consume should work well as soon as we purchase them. In fact, many Industrial and post-industrial societies have simply discarded what doesn’t work. However, there was a time when quality and effectiveness were not always the priority for goods and service providers. The intense focus on quality developed largely after World War II, in particular in the 1980s, in response to a marketplace that rejected cheap workmanship and consumer demand increased for durable products that considered the user’s needs. 

In this article, we’ll discuss the history of one of the preeminent quality management philosophies, total quality management (TQM). We’ll learn how it can help for profits and nonprofits become more effective and cost-efficient. In addition, industry experts discuss how TQM compares to other quality philosophies and methodologies, such as Six Sigma and Kaizen.   

What Is Total Quality Management?

Total quality management (TQM) describes a management system wherein a company attains organizational advancement through a commitment to customer requirements. A company meets those requirements when it empowers every employee in every department to maintain high standards and strive for continuous improvement. Total quality management is the predecessor of many quality management systems, such as Six Sigma , Lean, and ISO. 

Andy Nichols

Andy Nichols, Quality Program Manager at the Michigan Manufacturing Technology Center , says that in practical terms, “Total quality management is really a company-wide initiative to get everybody involved in doing the right thing for the customer.”

What Is Quality Management?

First, what is quality? It is a measure of the level of acceptability of a product or service. The ASQ Quality Glossary defines quality management as “the application of a quality management system in managing a process to achieve maximum customer satisfaction at the lowest overall cost to the organization while continuing to improve the process.” Quality management has four parts: quality planning, quality assurance (defect prevention), quality control (which includes product inspection and other elements, such as competence), and quality improvement.    Why would it take until the 20th century to apply such seemingly obvious principles like product goals and parts inspection? Perhaps the right historical circumstances didn’t present themselves until the 20th century. Nichols credits new mass-production techniques, such as Ford’s assembly line, and the urgent demand for materials during two world wars for this particular innovation. “The US military demanded to some extent that every product they purchased be good because soldiers lives literally depended on the quality of the products they handled,” says Nichols. “Whether it was for K rations or bullets, these wars spurred a manufacturing revolution to focus on the idea of getting things right every time.”    Statistics play an integral part in quality management because being able to predict accuracy through numbers is much less expensive than inspecting parts. Moreover, sometimes inspection is simply inconvenient. “McDonald's needs to know that every burger is right without having to take a bite out of each one,” says Nichols. 

Total Quality Management Principles

No single accepted body of knowledge exists for total quality management, as does, for example, the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) for the Project Management Institute. Similarly, no prescribed actions exist for implementing TQM methods and tools. Organizations have been free to deploy and adapt TQM as they see fit, giving way to many definitions of the methodology. Despite these challenges to standardization, it’s possible to describe generally accepted principles:

  • Customer Satisfaction  
  • Employee Commitment: This creates empowerment through training and suggestion mechanisms. 
  • Fact-Based Decision Making: Teams collect data and process statistics to ensure that work meets specifications.
  • Effective Communications: There should be an open dialogue throughout an organization.
  • Strategic Thinking: Quality must be part of an organization’s long-term vision.
  • Integrated System: A shared vision, including knowledge of and commitment to principles of quality, keep everyone in a company connected. Taiichi Ohno recognized that even suppliers are an important part of the system. 
  • Process-Centered: You can deconstruct every activity into processes, and, therefore, locate and repeat the best process. 
  • Continuous Improvement: Every employee should always be thinking about how to better perform their job.

Total Quality Management Principles

You could sum up the goal of TQM in this way: “Do things right the first time, every time.”  

The History of Total Quality Management

There is no single, agreed-upon source for the phrase total quality management. Some experts believe it came from two books by seminal quality management thinkers: Armand Feigenbaum’s Total Quality Control and Kaoru Ishikawa's What Is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way . Others say the terminology arose from an initiative in the United States Navy to adopt quality management guru William Deming’s recommendations, which they termed total quality management . TQM did not enjoy widespread acceptance until the 1980s.   The roots of the principles and practice of TQM extend back to the early 20th century and Frederick Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management , which advocated a consistent way of performing tasks and inspecting finished work to prevent defective products from leaving the shop. Further innovation came in the 1920s with Walter Shewhart’s elaboration of statistical process controls , which one could apply at any point in the production process to predict quality levels. It was Shewhart who developed the control chart, used today for managing with Kanban and Agile.    Throughout the 20s and 30s, Shewhart’s friend and mentee, William Deming, developed statistical process control theories that he would eventually use to help the US Census department in the early 1940s. This was the first use of statistical process control in a non-manufacturing field. 

The Beginning of the Quality Era in Japan

After the war, other American quality theorists, including Deming, who would achieve hero status in Japan, advised Japanese industry on how to improve processes and output to rebuild their war-shattered economy. At the time, the term made in Japan was synonymous with shoddy craftsmanship. As early as 1945, such visionaries as electrical engineer Homer Sarasohn spoke about controlling variation and monitoring process to produce better deliverables.    As a result, in the 1950s, quality became the byword for Japanese manufacturing. Quality concerned not just management, but all levels of a company. In the 1960s, quality circles began appearing in Japanese workplaces to allow employees the opportunity to discuss problems and consider solutions, which they then presented to management. Starting on the factory floor, quality circles spread to other functional departments. The company-wide focus on quality may also provide a clue to the origin of the phrase total quality . 

Total Quality Management in the USA

By the 1970s, the term made in the USA was no longer a badge of pride. Since the end of WWII, the main effort in American factories was to produce a large quantity of items, maintain the production schedule, and save money. Usability and durability seldom mattered until concerns about lack of product quality reached a fever pitch. As Japan successfully challenged the United States for industrial leadership, US industry now took a page from Japan’s quality-improvement book. A new interest in quality management took hold, building on the work of Shewhart’s disciples, such as Deming, Josef Juran , and Kaoru Ishikawa in Japan. Influential businessmen like Philip Crosby championed the trend.  

Although the growth of TQM seems to have occurred exclusively within the precincts of industry, the basic outlines of the concept owe much to a 1980s US Navy project that used Shewhart and Deming’s PDCA (plan, do, check, act) model. Navy guidelines articulated the principles that customer requirements should define quality and continuous improvement should pervade an entire organization. Navy success with the methodology led to TQM’s adoption by other armed services, such as the army and coast guard, and eventually the rest of the US government. Congress established the Federal Quality Institute in 1988 to highlight the need for quality management in business and reward organizations for successful implementations. 

Total Quality Management Meets the World

Quality management began in manufacturing, and TQM, like it’s subsequent methodologies, adapted well to finance, healthcare, and other fields. Some of the landmark companies to adopt TQM include Toyota, Ford, and Philips Semiconductors.

Worldwide, countries such as Germany, France, the UK, and Turkey established TQM standards. But by the 1990s, TQM was superseded by ISO (International Standards Organization), which became the standard for much of continental Europe, and by another methodological response of the 1980s to quality concerns, Six Sigma. Nevertheless, TQM principles form the basis for much of ISO and Six Sigma. For example, PDCA appears under the Six Sigma method DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control). And in the 2000s, the ISO governing body recognized TQM as a foundational philosophy. TQM lives on in data-driven methods for a data-driven age. 

William Deming and the Origin of Total Quality Management

Much of our current understanding of the value and pursuit of quality traces back to William Deming. This American statistician, engineer, and management consultant laid many foundations for the use of statistics in production and work management. He introduced statistical process methods to the US Census Bureau in the early 1940s, marking the first time they were used in the business or service sector. During WWII, he advised US business and government on statistical methods to help with planning for wartime manufacturing. After the war, Deming was recruited by no less than General Douglas MacArthur to advise Japanese officials on census models to assess war damage and plan for rebuilding.  

Deming distinguished himself among many of the occupying forces by showing a genuine interest in Japan and its culture. Perhaps it’s not surprising, then, that the Japanese revere him for his role in midwifing the Japanese economic miracle.    Because Japan lacked abundant natural resources, Japanese leaders viewed the exportation of goods worldwide as their main path to financial success. Their post-war reputation for low-quality products posed a particular challenge to this goal. Deming was invited back to Japan by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE), whose president was Kaoru Ishikawa, to discuss quality management, ideas that formed the basis for what later became known as TQM. Japanese products were gradually recognized for usability and durability. In 1960, for his efforts on behalf of Japanese industry, Deming received the Second Order Medal of the Sacred Treasure from the Emperor of Japan. By the 1970s, Japanese exports surpassed those of the United States.    By contrast, American goods gained a reputation for poor design and defects. As early as 1940, Juran remarked that producing goods and meeting deadlines took priority, with quality being relegated to the final inspection. Deming believed that as soon as the war was over, US industry lost interest in statistical methods for pursuing quality. Ironically, it was Deming who, in the late 70s and early 80s, introduced the US and the UK to the quality management principles he’d taught in Japan 30 years earlier. In 1967, he published the article “What Happened In Japan?” in the journal Industrial Quality Control . Professionals consider it to be an early version of his famous 14 Points and PDCA cycle.

Although well-known in academic quality control circles, he achieved greater prominence when he was interviewed for the 1980 NBC documentary “If Japan Can, Why Can’t We?” In the program, Deming emphasized that, “If you get gains in productivity, it is only because people work smarter, not harder. That is total profit, and it multiplies several times.” The documentary revealed another act in Deming’s life, that of a sought-after quality consultant to American business. He gained a reputation for bluntness and fearlessness in the presence of senior executives. Legend has it he told senior Ford staff that 85 percent of quality issues resulted from poor management decisions. Some companies rejected him. However, on his advice, Ford conducted user surveys before designing and building the Ford Taurus. In 1992, the Taurus became the number one selling car in the US.   In his 1986 book, Out of the Crisis , he discussed his 14 Points for Management . The following year, at the age of 87, he was awarded the National Medal of Technology. In 1993, the year of his death, he established the Deming Institute . 

Why Is Total Quality Management Important to an Organization?

Nichols says that TQM tools and principles acquire power not when an organization creates a dedicated quality department, but when it includes the whole company in the pursuit of high quality. An example is the quality circle, in which workers directly involved in a process brainstorm to discover solutions. “People are a fabulous resource that is frequently underutilized. The leadership often doesn’t recognize the value that they bring to the everyday workplace. Employees know how to fix problems,” asserts Nichols. In addition to tapping a native resource, implementing a TQM philosophy can help an organization:

  • Ensure customer satisfaction and customer loyalty
  • Ensure increased revenues and higher productivity
  • Reduce waste and inventory
  • Improve design 
  • Adapt to changing markets and regulatory environments
  • Increase productivity
  • Enhance market image
  • Eliminate defects and waste
  • Increase job security
  • Improve employee morale
  • Reduce costs 
  • Increase profitability

What Are the Costs of Quality?

A fundamental tenet of TQM is that the cost of doing things right the first time is far less than the potential cost of re-doing things. There are also residual losses when customers abandon products and brands for quality reasons. Some schools of thought view quality as having a cost which cannot be recouped. Juran, Deming, and Feigenbaum held a different view. For advocates of TQM, the cost of quality really describes the cost of not creating a quality deliverable. There are four primary cost categories:

  • Appraisal Costs: Appraisal costs cover inspection and testing throughout the production cycle. This includes verifying that the materials received from the supplier meet specifications and ensuring that products are acceptable at each stage of production.
  • Prevention Costs: Prevention costs include proper setup of work areas for efficiency and safety, and proper training and planning. This type of cost also includes conducting reviews. Prevention-related activities often receive the smallest allocation of a company’s budget.
  • External Failure Costs: This category concerns the cost of issues following a product’s market release. They may include warranty issues, product recalls, returns, and repairs.
  • Internal Failure Costs: Internal failures are the costs of problems before products reach customers. Examples of internal failures include broken machines, which cause delay and downtime, poor materials, scrapped product runs, and designs that require rework.

Total Quality Management Models

Although TQM does not possess one universally recognized body of knowledge, organizations do pattern their efforts after a few formal models, including several industry entities and awards.   The Deming Application Prize was created in Japan in 1950 by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) to acknowledge companies and individuals from around the world for their successful efforts at implementing TQM. Winners have included Ricoh, Toyota, Bridgestone Tire, and many others.   Congress established The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) in 1987 to raise awareness of quality and reward US companies who pursue it. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) administers the award. It is given to large and small companies and nonprofit entities that demonstrate excellent performance in the following areas:

  • Delivery of increasing value to customers and stakeholders, contributing to organizational sustainability
  • Improvement of overall organizational effectiveness and capabilities
  • Implementation of organizational and personal learning

Past winners have included the Chugach School District, Concordia Publishing House, and Boeing Mobility.    The nonprofit European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) was established in 1989 to provide a quality framework for organizations throughout Europe. They maintain the EFQM excellence model, which embraces the following precepts:

  • Adding value for customers
  • Creating a sustainable future
  • Developing organizational capability
  • Harnessing creativity and innovation
  • Leading with vision, inspiration, and integrity
  • Managing with agility
  • Succeeding through the talent of people
  • Sustaining outstanding results 

Participating organizations can partake of training and assessment tools and may apply for the EFQM Excellence Award.    The International Organization for Standards (ISO 9000) publishes guidelines and specifications for parts, processes, and even documentation to ensure that quality is consistent across companies, organizations, and borders. 

How Do You Implement Total Quality Management?

PDCA  Plan-Do-Check-Act Plan Management

PDCA lies at the core of many 20th century quality efforts. PDCA began in the 1920s as a conception by engineer and statistician Walter Shewhart. It was originally called PDSA (plan, do, study, act). Widely disseminated by Deming, who referred to it as the Shewhart cycle, it is now often referred to as the Deming cycle. 

Marlon Walters

Marlon Walters, the Founder and CEO of Horizon Group Consulting, explains each step of PDCA: 

“ Plan:  The planning phase is the most important. That’s where management, along with the associates, identify the problems to see what really needs to be addressed — the day-to-day things that may be happening on the productivity side that management is not aware of. So they’re trying to determine a root cause. Sometimes, employees do research or high-level tracking to narrow down where an issue may originate.

Do:  The doing phase is the solution phase. Strategies are developed to try to fix those problems identified in the planning phase. Employees may implement solutions and if a solution doesn’t appear to work, it’s back to the drawing board. In contrast to Six Sigma, it’s less about measuring gains and more about whether the employees judge the solution to be working. 

Check:  The checking phase is the before and after. So after you’ve made these changes, you see how they’re doing.

Act:  The acting phase is the presentation or the documentation of the results to let everybody know, ‘Hey, here’s how we were doing it. Here’s how it is now. This is the new way, and this is what this should address going forward.’”

Nichols says that in 2000, ISO acknowledged PDCA as a foundational method. It appears again in Six Sigma as the DMAIC method (define, measure, analyze, improve, and control). Walters notes that TQM is much more people oriented, while Six Sigma is process based. He sees, for example, that the term define “takes the human element out” and the term measure focuses on data.  

Total Quality Management, Kaizen, and Six Sigma: Which One When?

While TQM’s method of using employees as a source of ideas and solutions can help companies, Six Sigma’s process and measurement focus — which promotes data-driven decisions — offers compelling benefits. Walters uses the example of producing peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.   “We’d start out with two pieces of bread, add the peanut butter, add the jelly, and put the two pieces of bread together. But, maybe the edges are smashed together. Maybe the corners are damaged. Or, when our customers get it, they say the bread is soggy. Within that process, we’re not sure whether we’re putting on too much jelly or whether we’re using the wrong type of peanut butter. You just don’t know what it is, so you have these group meetings and brainstorm until your customer response is what you want, and the level of acceptance of your quote unquote quality product is where you desire it to be,” says Walters.   With Six Sigma, however, the questioning process would drill down to the details. What kind of bread were you using? What kind of peanut butter? What kind of jelly?   “That to me is the benefit because it takes the onus off the people and focuses strictly on the process,” asserts Walters. “So, if we tighten up the process, we can feel like we already have quality people. And after the process is repeating in the same manner, even if there are other performance issues, that automatically sets you back to the human side. But then you can manage the human issue properly because you don’t have to worry about your processes. Your numbers aren’t changing.”   Walters states further that most companies want to develop brand loyalty, even if their product is essentially the same as a competitor’s. “If we use TQM, we hope a product is of better quality, so you’ll come back. With TQM, you have to wait for your customers to confirm that it’s good. With Six Sigma, at the end of the day, you don’t guess if your product is better. You know it. If you properly identify your market and your product has the best fit for the niche, you know you have the best product from a process perspective. That leads to the deeper relationships,” he says.    If Six Sigma can offer definitive results for an existing process and TQM can help achieve results over time, where does Kaizen fit? Kaizen is a Japanese word meaning philosophy of improvement. It includes the 5 Ss, seiri, seiton, seiso, Seiketsu, and shitsuke , translated loosely into English as sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain. Kaizen is considered more of a philosophy for how to organize your workspace and the larger workplace and how to have the right attitude toward your work and coworkers.    Kaizen events are improvement efforts that involve small teams that spend a short time, usually about a week, considering and testing improvements. The team then presents its findings to management. Management periodically reviews the solutions to make sure that they continue to benefit the team.    Like TQM, Kaizen approaches efforts from the perspective that the whole company is responsible for quality and that improvement must be continuous. It is generally less methodological than Six Sigma, although Kaizen may inform the lean aspect of Lean Six Sigma. 

The Seven Basic Tools of Total Quality Management

According to the experts, the basic tools of TQM allow anyone - even someone without statistical training - to gather data to illuminate most problems and reveal possible solutions. Here are the seven basic tools of TQM:

  • Check Sheet: This is a pre-made form for gathering one type of data over time, so it’s only useful for frequently recurring data.
  • Pareto Chart: The chart posits that 80 percent of problems are linked to 20 percent of causes. It helps you identify which problems fall into which categories.
  • Cause and Effect Diagram or Ishikawa Diagram: This diagram allows you to visualize all possible causes of a problem or effect and then categorize them.
  • Control Chart: This chart is a graphical description of how processes and results change over time.
  • Histogram Bar Chart: This shows the frequency of a problem’s cause, as well as how and where results cluster.
  • Scatter Diagram: This diagram plots data on the x and y axes to determine how results change as the variables change.
  • Flow Chart or Stratification Diagram: This represents how different factors join in a process. 

The Key Players in Total Quality Management: Customers, Suppliers, and Employees

To achieve success with a total quality management program or any other improvement methodology, managers must understand the quality goals for their product or company. They must then communicate those goals, in addition to the benefits of TQM, to the company, as employees play a vital role by contributing their intimate, day-to-day knowledge of product creation and processes.    TQM is a philosophy that values comprehensiveness. Therefore, suppliers are a crucial part of TQM execution. Companies must vet new suppliers and regularly audit existing suppliers to guarantee that materials meet standards. Communication with suppliers about TQM goals is also essential.   Customers are the most significant part of the TQM equation. After all, they’re the reason for TQM’s existence. Aside from the obvious feedback the sales team provides, customers — product or service users — give information about what they want from the deliverable, whether that deliverable is tangible or a service.

Certifications in Total Quality Management

Since its heyday in the 1980s and 1990s, TQM has been largely superseded by Six Sigma and ISO 9000. “The thing about Lean and Six Sigma is that they have a very definite set of methods to achieve these goals effectively. You go do x, y, and z,” explains Nichols. “ISO is a universal standard, and it’s clear what you have to do.Of course, what goes along with that is that you can be certified, which is outside the scope or remit of TQM,” concludes Nichols. He suggests that TQM lost traction in the UK because Europe adopted ISO in the 1990s. Today, formal TQM training is rare. Nichols suggests that companies with interest in pure TQM may pursue something like the Baldrige award. 

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The Ultimate Guide to Total Quality Management (TQM)

January 20, 2021 - 10 min read

Kat Boogaard

Your organization does good work. But, as a leader or a project manager, you feel like a lot of it rests on your shoulders. Up to this point, it’s been your responsibility to review everything carefully and make sure your company’s outputs meet your quality standards.

It’s working, but you know there has to be a better way. What if you could set up a system and a culture where everybody is invested in quality? What if you could refine processes that lead your team to consistently and reliably deliver top-notch work? 

It’s possible, and it’s a concept called total quality management. 

What is total quality management (TQM)?

To put it simply, total quality management (TQM) is a set of principles that helps organizations do their best work. 

It focuses on helping companies evaluate and refine their processes, with the ultimate goal of improving their outputs and delivering a high-quality customer experience. 

In many companies, managers and leaders accountable for the quality of work and the success of the organization. However, total quality management spreads the load more evenly. Since every employee is involved in delivering the work, they are also held accountable for its quality . 

What is the history of total quality management? 

Think total quality management is something new? Think again. This concept has some pretty strong historical roots.

Quality control has been around for ages. However, a mathematician and statistician named W. Edwards Deming is seen as the pioneer of the concept of total quality management .

He saw flaws in U.S. production, especially when it came to quality control. Deming thought it was odd that management controlled the production process, despite the fact the line workers were the ones who had boots on the ground — and, as a result, had far more insight into how an effective process should run. 

He lectured on this topic in Japan in the 1950s. Japan was receptive to the concept of total quality management and quickly began implementing it. 

Upon seeing the success of those efforts in Japan, total quality management spread across the rest of the world — eventually becoming commonplace in the U.S. in the 1970s and 1980s. 

Why is total quality management important?

Total quality management can feel like a difficult concept to wrap your arms around, and it’s tempting to write it off as another complex, academic subject that doesn’t have applications in the real world.

But that’s not the case. Many successful companies — like Toyota , Xerox , and Motorola — implement total quality management. 

Why? Well, because it can lead to a number of undeniable benefits, including: 

  • Higher-quality products and services : This is the obvious one. When you intentionally and mindfully manage a process with quality in mind, you improve your outputs. That’s the biggest benefit of total quality management — your team delivers top-notch work. 
  • Improved customer experience : A focus on the customer is a core principle of total quality management (which we’ll dig into in detail later). Keeping an eye on the needs of the end customer means you offer a better experience, leading to more loyalty, a better reputation, and even increased sales.
  • Greater efficiency : Total quality management also hinges on processes, and even more specifically, continuous process improvement. Regularly evaluating your organization’s workflows and identifying ways to refine and streamline them leads to greater efficiency and productivity. 
  • Boosted team morale : Employee involvement is another core piece of total quality management. Every single team member rallies around a shared goal and commits to achieving it. That level of togetherness can lead to positive team culture and better morale. 

See? Total quality management isn’t just a stuffy theory or a buzzword — it can have real, measurable, and important effects within your team and organization. Using collaborative work management software (like Wrike) can make the process easier and enable even greater productivity. More on that a little later! 

What are the total quality management principles?

Total quality management is about improving quality across the organization. But, it’s not quite as simple as saying, “Alright, we’re going to do a better job.”

Total quality management has a formal set of eight different principles it’s based on. Here’s a straightforward explanation of each of those concepts: 

1. Customer-centered

You can think your processes, products, and services are top-notch. But, your opinion means nothing if your customers aren’t satisfied and impressed with your offerings.

Organizations that implement total quality management always have the end customer in mind. They know their customers are the ultimate judges of whether or not their organization is of superior quality, and they refine their processes and offerings in the interest of the customer. 

2. Total employee involvement 

Remember when we mentioned that total quality management isn’t something handed down from on high? Rather, it involves every single member of the organization in achieving a goal and improving quality. 

This can mean several different things. First and foremost, companies need to provide clarity around their objectives. Secondly, they need to provide the training and resources employees need to do their work efficiently and effectively. Finally, a high degree of psychological safety means employees have the freedom to push themselves — without the fear of repercussions for failure. 

3. Process-centered 

Companies that implement total quality management don’t take a willy nilly approach to their work. Instead, there are prescriptive sets of steps and workflows for getting work across the finish line. 

These processes not only help them deliver more consistent work, but they also make production far easier to plan and monitor. That’s not to say these processes are set in stone. They’re constantly evaluated and improved upon. 

4. Integrated system 

Every company has various teams and departments responsible for different tasks. However, with a total quality management approach, these different groups can’t operate in their own universes. Total quality management emphasizes the importance of the links that connect these different departments and functions. 

To preserve and improve quality, an organization needs to work as a cohesive, integrated system — rather than a collection of various teams. This requires a high degree of transparency and an understanding of the processes and work of other departments. 

5. Strategic and systematic approach 

Imagine that you wanted to drive to Niagara Falls. Would you set out without any directions? Probably not, because you have no idea how to get where you want to go.

The same is true for an organization. Total quality management requires that a company creates a strategic plan. Even more than that, the strategic plan needs to emphasize the importance of quality and quality management. 

6. Continual improvement 

Companies that are invested in total quality management aren’t content to stick with the status quo. They’re constantly looking at ways to be better. 

This means evaluating processes, products, services, customer experience, employee feedback, and more to identify areas where you could improve. When you spot them, you need to address them and monitor them to ensure those changes actually benefited your work. 

7. Fact-based decision making 

There aren’t many gut decisions made by organizations that implement total quality management. That’s because this approach prioritizes making decisions based on facts and data. 

Companies need to gather, organize, and analyze data about their performance measurements and use that to make their decisions. Total quality management doesn’t rely on intuition or best guesses. 

8. Communications 

It’s hard to overstate the importance of effective communication on a high-performing team — and that’s why it’s a core principle of total quality management too. 

There needs to be clear and frequent communication across the entire organization to keep every employee in the loop on changes, operations, strategies, processes, and more. There’s no such thing as over-communicating. 

How does Wrike help with total quality management? 

Think total quality management sounds like a lot? It can be. But, rest assured, it’s not something that will be implemented overnight. Even taking small steps in the right direction can help you and your team improve your processes and work quality.

Need some help? Wrike can help you satisfy many of the core principles of total quality management for project management , including: 

  • Total employee involvement : With clear and automated task assignments, every employee knows what they’re responsible for.
  • Process-centered : Templated workflows allow you to create a process and easily repeat it for similar projects.
  • Integrated system : Wrike provides visibility into what every team is working on (and working toward).
  • Continual improvement : Wrike’s project status report will show you how projects are progressing and make it easy to spot sticking points in your processes. 
  • Fact-based decision making : Wrike offers a number of other reports to give you data about how your team is performing so you can make strategic decisions.
  • Communications : With the ability to leave comments, tag team members, attach files, and more, Wrike keeps all of your communication centralized in one place. 

With a total quality management system like Wrike in your corner, you can help your team deliver top-notch work — without any added stress or hassles.

Ready to jump in? Start your free trial of Wrike now .

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Kat Boogaard

Kat is a Midwest-based contributing writer. She covers topics related to careers, self-development, and the freelance life. She is also a columnist for Inc., writes for The Muse, is Career Editor for The Everygirl, and a contributor all over the web.

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Total Quality Management (TQM): A Quick Guide


Total Quality Management (TQM) works to maintain success by doing what is necessary to improve customer satisfaction. Of course, that satisfaction is seeded in employees and business processes—long before any product or service reaches its customer.

How does a business or organization make sure that its processes and people are aligned with creating success and customer satisfaction? That’s where total quality management comes in.

What Is Total Quality Management (TQM)?

Total Quality Management is a management approach that focuses on delivering products and services with the highest quality to maximize customer satisfaction and meet regulatory standards. Total quality management is an organization-wide effort for continuous improvement. That improvement can be defined as an employee’s ability to provide on-demand products and services that are of value to their customers, even as their needs change.

That’s the “quality” in total quality management. The “total” indicates that the effort is one that touches every inch of every employee of an organization. As a methodology, however, total quality management has no widely agreed-upon approach. It does, though, draw from other tools and techniques, such as project quality control, quality assurance and testing, and others.

To make sure you’re delivering quality to your customers, you need to be able to monitor the processes you’re using to create the product or service you’re making for them. ProjectManager is online work and project management software that tracks real-time data with its live dashboards, which monitor six project metrics automatically. There’s no setup. It’s ready when you are. Get started with ProjectManager for free today.

ProjectManager's dashboard

Total Quality Management Principles

Just as the definitions of total quality management (TQM) differ, so do its principles. However, we’ve gathered the most important TQM principles for you below.

  • Customer Focused: The definition of quality lies with the customer, and all efforts to achieve success in the organization lead to customer satisfaction.
  • Total Employee Involvement: The effort is not isolated to one department of an organization. To be successful in its objective of customer satisfaction, there must be a common goal for all aspects of business and for each employee.
  • Process Oriented: Process thinking is fundamental to total quality management; the internal steps a company takes directly result in the external output delivered to the customers.
  • Integrated System: Basically, regardless of the size or complexity of the organization, all its distinct parts must work together.
  • Strategic and Systemic Approach: Using strategic planning to create a strategic plan that integrates quality as a core component of the company is a way to structure total quality management into an organization’s mission.
  • Continual Improvement: The mantra for total quality improvement is customer satisfaction, but that is not a one-shot goal: the act of improving quality for the customer is a process without an end.
  • Fact-Based Decision Making: In order to know if an organization is meeting its objectives, there must be data on performance, and those metrics must be collected and analyzed with accuracy and without prejudice. (For more on this, learn how to use data to be a better manager .)
  • Communications: It’s impossible to maintain a successful TQM approach without an effective communication plan. Communication plans make sure that every department is aware of what they and others are responsible for, so they can coordinate operations to achieve their common goal.

tqm assignment topics

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Quality Control Template

Use this free Quality Control Template for Excel to manage your projects better.

Total Quality Management Methodologies

Being able to deliver total quality management requires methodology. There isn’t just one way to manage quality in your project . There are several approaches you can take. A few of them are listed below.

Lean Manufacturing

Lean manufacturing is a type of lean projection that comes from Japan, specifically, the car manufacturer Toyota. It’s all about targeting and eliminating what it calls muda or waste, in order to add value and maintain quality.

Six Sigma is another quality management methodology that is directed towards improving current processes, products or services. It does this by finding and removing any defects in order to streamline quality control.

ISO 9000 is a set of international standards focused on quality management and quality assurance. It was created to help companies document quality system elements that they needed to maintain an efficient quality system.

History of Total Quality Management

The roots of total quality management can be traced back to the economic instability of the late 1970s and into the early 1980s. It was at this time that the dominance of North America and Western Europe was challenged by competition from the East, specifically Japan’s skill at making high-quality inexpensive products.

While the origin of the term is not clear, many think it was inspired by the book Total Quality Control by quality control expert and businessman Armand V. Feigenbaum and What Is Total Quality Country? The Japanese Way by the organizational theorist Kaoru Ishikawa.

The Role of the U.S. Navy

It was the United States Navy that promoted the idea in 1984 when it asked its civilian researchers to offer recommendations on improving its operational effectiveness. The recommendation was to use the teachings of engineer and statistician W. Edwards Deming, which the U.S. Navy called total quality management in 1985.

The methodology was employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s underground storage tanks program in 1985. The private section soon followed as a way to remain competitive against the growing influence of the Japanese.

Key Concepts in Total Quality Management

The key concepts of total quality management developed by the U.S. Navy include:

  • Quality is defined by what the customers’ requirements are
  • Top-tier management is directly responsible for the improvement in quality
  • It is by systemic analysis and using that data to improve work processes, that an increase in quality occurs
  • The improvement of quality is a continuous effort and is conducted throughout the entire organization

The U.S. Navy employed certain techniques and tools to achieve those concepts. For example, there’s the Plan Do Check Act or PDCA cycle, which is a four-step management method to control the continuous improvement of processes and products.

Related: How to Implement Business Process Improvement

How to Implement Total Quality Management in 4 Steps

Getting started with total quality management requires that the top management learns about the methodology, and then commits to it as one of the organization’s strategies. The organization writ large must then assess its customer satisfaction and quality management systems.

One of the easiest methods to implement TQM is called PDCA. PDCA stands for Plan, Do, Check and Act. It’s a four-step management method to control the continuous improvement of processes and products.

Planning includes identifying and understanding the problem or opportunity as it relates to TQM. From the information you’ve gathered, come up with ideas and develop the best into an implementation plan.

With a planned solution, you can now test it and build a pilot program to see if you achieve the quality improvements you expected. Document the results.

Here you’ll analyze the results of your pilot program against what you expected to achieve. If you’ve met those criteria move on to the next step. However, if you’ve fallen short, then you need to return to step one.

Once you’ve tested and are satisfied with the solution, you can implement it at full scale. This process is a loop, however, with no beginning or end. The success is only the new baseline of which you’ll again test to improve.

The need for active management participation is critical to the success of any total quality management plan. This is done by creating steering committees to make sure everyone is working together to improve quality.

There is also the formation of ad hoc cross-functional teams that are responsible for addressing the immediate process issues. There are also standing cross-functional teams that have similar responsibilities, only those are over the long term.

Total Quality Management Tools

When it comes to analyzing quality-related issues, the U.S. Navy employed the seven basic tools of quality. This is a fixed set of graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in troubleshooting quality-related issues. These tools are often used in Six Sigma as well.

The seven tools for TQM are:

  • Check sheet used to collect data in real time
  • Control chart to determine if a process is in a state of control
  • Stratification (or flow or run) chart to sample a group
  • Pareto chart, which is both a bar and line graph that assess the most frequently occurring defects by category
  • Histogram to roughly assess the probability distribution of a given variable by depicting the frequencies of observations occurring in certain ranges of value
  • Cause-and-effect diagram
  • Scatter diagram to display the value for two in a set of data

This quality control template is ideal to document any issues that are found when evaluating the quality of your products or project deliverables. It allows you to describe the quality management issue, who’s responsible for fixing it, its status and the expected date of completion.

tqm assignment topics

Free Templates to Help with TQM

Total quality management is best achieved through the use of project management software, which streamlines processes and helps you capture issues fast and resolve them. However, if you’re not using software or are not ready to upgrade to software, ProjectManager has dozens of free project management templates that can help you maintain the quality your customers expect. Here are a few.

Project Dashboard Template Being able to monitor and track activities in your project is how you make sure you’re meeting your quality expectations. While our real-time dashboard will capture live data, the free project dashboard template for Excel is the next best thing. You have to input the data but then you get the charts and graphs you need to see how your project is performing.

Gap Analysis Template In order to improve the quality of your product or service, you need to know where you are and where you want to be in the future. This is what a free gap analysis template for Excel can do for you. It captures the current and future stats and then shows the gap percentage you have to close, plus the actions and resources you’ll need to do it.

Issue Tracking Template When you find issues that are negatively impacting the quality of your project or service our free issue tracking template for Excel can help you monitor your progress in resolving it. The free template has space for you to describe the issue and its impact, add a priority, date and owner and track its status.

Use ProjectManager for Total Quality Management

ProjectManager is cloud-based work and project management software that delivers real-time data to help you make more insightful decisions when monitoring the quality of your work. Then you have features to plan, track and report on your quality management to implement total quality management.

Control Quality With Task Automation

One way to make sure you deliver quality is by removing as much human error as possible. Our workflow automation allows you to create custom workflows that trigger actions to change status, priority, assignee and much more. You can also add task approval settings so only those authorized to close a task can do so, further ensuring you deliver to your quality expectations.

Plan TQM With Interactive Gantt charts

Once you have a total quality management plan, you need to organize all the tasks and get your team assigned. Our online Gantt chart allows you to link task dependencies to avoid delays, set milestones to help with tracking and even filter for the critical path. Then set a baseline so you can measure project variance between what you planned and where you actually are in the schedule to stay on track.

ProjectManager Gantt chart

Track Progress and More With One-Click Reports

To help you make sure you’re meeting deadlines and not overspending on your QTM plan, we have everything from status reports to reports on workload, time, cost and more. Generate them with a keystroke, and each report can be filtered to show only the data you want to see. They can also be easily shared to help keep stakeholders updated.

ProjectManager's status report filter

Our multiple project views allow your team to work how they want, on kanban boards, task lists and more. All data is updated together across the tool so you have a single source of truth to keep everyone working on the same page. Our collaborative platform allows team members to share files, comment and get notified of any updates to let them work more productively—all of which leads to more quality work.

As the name says, total quality management is a systemic change to the strategic goals of an organization. It impacts everyone and every department. Therefore, having the right tools to manage and communicate this process throughout an organization is critical. ProjectManager is a cloud-based project management software that gives managers and teams the control to plan, track and report on the progress of this or any methodology. See for yourself by taking this free 30-day trial.

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Total Quality Management principles

8 Total Quality Management principles to improve processes

Reading time: about 8 min

During the global recession of the late ’70s and early ’80s, the United States (and the rest of the world) faced stiff competition from Japan. The Japanese had captured the world automotive and electronics markets because they found a way to produce high-quality goods at lower prices. And as a result, corporations in the U.S. looked more closely at the quality of Japanese goods and services, trying to find ways to improve production and recapture market share.

Their solution was Total Quality Management.

What is Total Quality Management?

According to the definitive text, Total Quality: A User’s Guide for Implementation , Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management technique based on the idea that all “employees continuously improve their ability to provide on-demand products and services that customers will find of particular value.”

The concept of Total Quality Management can be found right in its name: The word “total” implies that all employees in the organization, from development to production to fulfillment, are obligated to improve operations. And “management” insinuates that this methodology should be a focused effort. Leadership should provide funding, training, staffing, and clearly defined goals to actively manage product and service quality on an ongoing basis.

8 principles of Total Quality Management

As with most management methods and techniques, implementation and success will vary from one company to another. While there is not a single agreed upon approach, the most common TQM definition includes the following eight principles.

1. Customer focus

The first of the Total Quality Management principles puts the focus back on the people buying your product or service. Your customers determine the quality of your product. If your product fulfills a need and lasts as long or longer than expected, customers know that they have spent their money on a quality product.

When you understand what your customer wants or needs, you have a better chance of figuring out how to get the right materials, people, and processes in place to meet and exceed their expectations. 

To implement this TQM principle:

  • Research and understand your customers’ needs and expectations.
  • Align your organization’s objectives with customer needs.
  • Communicate with customers, measure satisfaction, and use the results to find ways to improve processes .
  • Manage customer relationships.
  • Find a balance for satisfying customers and other interested parties (such as owners, employees, suppliers, and investors).

The benefits of being customer-focused include:

  • More sales, increased revenue, market share, and mindshare.
  • Strong customer loyalty leading to repeat business
  • Increased possibility that satisfied customers will tell others about your products and services

Learn how to better incorporate the Voice of the Customer into your process improvement strategy.

2. Total employee commitment

You can’t increase productivity, processes, or sales without the total commitment of all employees. They need to understand the vision and goals that have been communicated. They must be sufficiently trained and given the proper resources to complete tasks in order to be committed to reaching goals on time.

  • Clearly communicate and acknowledge the importance of each individual contribution to the completed product.
  • Stress that each team or individual accepts ownership and give them the responsibility and opportunity to solve problems when they arise.
  • Encourage employees to self-evaluate performance against personal goals and objectives, and make modifications as necessary to improve workflow.
  • Acknowledge successes and optimized performance to build confidence in your employees and your stakeholders.
  • Make responsibilities clear, provide adequate training, and make sure your resources are used as efficiently as possible.
  • Encourage people to continually seek opportunities to learn and move into other roles to increase their knowledge, competence, and experience.
  • Create an environment where employees can openly discuss problems and suggest ways to solve them.

The key benefits of total employee commitment include:

  • Increased employee retention because employees are motivated, committed, and actively involved in working toward customer satisfaction
  • Individual and team innovation and creativity in problem-solving and process improvement
  • Employees who take pride and accountability for their own work
  • Enthusiasm for active participation and contribution to continual improvement

3. Process approach

Adhering to processes is critical in quality management. Processes ensure that the proper steps are taken at the right time to ensure consistency and speed up production.

  • Use Total Quality Management tools such as process flowcharts to define and delineate clear roles and responsibilities so everybody knows who does what at certain times.
  • Create a visual action plan so everybody can easily see the specific activities that need to be completed to achieve the desired result.
  • Analyze and measure current activities to see where improvements can be made or where steps in the process are creating bottlenecks.
  • Evaluate the impact your processes and activities may have on your customers, suppliers, and all stakeholders.

Benefits of a process approach include:

  • Faster development and production cycles, lower costs, and increased revenue
  • More consistency and predictable outcomes
  • Focus on continued improvements and success

process flowchart template

4. Integrated system

Typically a business has many different departments, each with their own specific functions and purposes. These departments and functions should be interconnected with horizontal processes that should be the focus of Total Quality Management. But sometimes these departments and functions operate in isolated silos .  

In an integrated system, everybody in every department should have a thorough understanding of policies, standards, objectives, and processes. Integrated systems help the company to look for continual improvement in order to achieve an edge over the competition.

  • Promote a work culture focused on quality.
  • Use flowcharts and other visual aids to help employees understand how their functions fit in with the rest of the company.
  • Use as-is process analysis to see where improvements can be made.
  • Make training available for employees who need to learn new processes and who want to explore opportunities for advancement.

Benefits include:

Focus on quality that will help your business achieve excellence and meet or exceed customer expectations 

5. Strategic and systematic approach

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes this principle as:

“Identifying, understanding and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives.”

Multiple processes within a development or production cycle are managed as a system of processes in an effort to increase efficiency.

  • Provide your people with the proper training and resources that will help them complete their individual steps in the process.
  • Continually improve processes and products, and upgrade equipment as necessary to reach goals.
  • Make continual improvement a measurable objective for all employees.
  • Recognize, acknowledge, and reward innovations and process improvements.
  • An ability to quickly identify, react, and fix process bottlenecks or breakdowns
  • Overall improved organizational capabilities and improved performance

6. Continual improvement

Optimal efficiency and complete customer satisfaction doesn’t happen in a day—your business should continually find ways to improve processes and adapt your products and services as customer needs shift. As previously stated, the other Total Quality Management principles should help your business keep an eye toward continual improvement.

  • Implement policies to establish product, process, and system improvements as measurable goals for individuals, teams, and departments.
  • Recognize, acknowledge, and encourage innovation to improve processes and development.
  • Encourage employees to participate in available training sessions to learn and take on new and additional roles.
  • Improved knowledge and capabilities to increase performance
  • Improvement goals strategically aligned with organizational capabilities and goals
  • Quick reaction times to recognize and fix bottlenecks and broken processes

7. Fact-based decision-making

Analysis and data gathering lead to better decisions based on the available information. Making informed decisions leads to a better understanding of customers and your market.

  • Analyze and check data to ensure that it is reliable and accurate.
  • Make relevant data available to stakeholders.
  • Use valid methods to gather and analyze data.
  • Make decisions based on the facts learned from the data in addition to your experience and intuition.
  • Ability to make informed decisions
  • Ability to analyze and defend past decisions by referencing factual records
  • Ability to change past decisions based on data review

8. Communications

Everybody in your organization needs to be aware of plans, strategies, and methods that will be used to achieve goals. There is a greater risk of failure if you don’t have a good communication plan.

  • Establish an official line of communication so that all employees know about updates, policy changes, and new processes.
  • Where possible, involve employees in decision-making.
  • Make sure everybody in every department understands their roles and how they fit in with the rest of the company.
  • Boost in morale and motivation when employees understand how their contributions help the company achieve its goals
  • Interdepartmental coordination and cooperation
  • Connection of silos
  • Ability to more accurately measure the effectiveness of current policies and procedures
  • Higher motivation from employees to achieve goals because they are part of the decision-making process

communication plan

Successful implementation of these Total Quality Management concepts will not come overnight. Because TQM often represents a large cultural shift, you may want to implement these changes in phases to lessen the impact.

high performing teams

High performance is a journey, not a destination. Learn more about how your team can continuously adapt to drive better results.

About Lucidchart

Lucidchart, a cloud-based intelligent diagramming application, is a core component of Lucid Software's Visual Collaboration Suite. This intuitive, cloud-based solution empowers teams to collaborate in real-time to build flowcharts, mockups, UML diagrams, customer journey maps, and more. Lucidchart propels teams forward to build the future faster. Lucid is proud to serve top businesses around the world, including customers such as Google, GE, and NBC Universal, and 99% of the Fortune 500. Lucid partners with industry leaders, including Google, Atlassian, and Microsoft. Since its founding, Lucid has received numerous awards for its products, business, and workplace culture. For more information, visit lucidchart.com.

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Total Quality Management PDF | Notes, Paper | MBA 2021

  • Post last modified: 9 July 2021
  • Reading time: 25 mins read
  • Post category: MBA Study Material

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Download  Total Quality Management PDF  Notes for MBA 2021. We provide complete MBA total quality management notes . Total quality management study material includes  total quality management notes , total quality management book , courses, case study, syllabus , question paper , questions and answers and available in  total quality management pdf  form.

Total Quality Management PDF

Table of Content

  • 1 Total Quality Management Syllabus
  • 2 Total Quality Management PDF
  • 3.1 What is Total Quality Management?
  • 4 Total Quality Management Questions and Answers
  • 5 Total Quality Management Question Paper
  • 6 Total Quality Management Books
  • 7 Go On, Share & Help your Friend

The  MBA Total Quality Management Notes can be downloaded in total quality management pdf from the below article.

Total Quality Management Syllabus

A detailed MBA total quality management syllabus as prescribed by various Universities and colleges in India are as under. You can download the syllabus in total quality management pdf form.

Principles and Practices of TQM Introduction : Definition of TQM, Gurus of TQM, TQM Framework, Defining Quality for Goods and Services, Benefits of TQM. Definition and Importance of Leadership for Successful TQM, The Deming’s Philosophy. Quality Councils : Definition, Principles and Roles of Quality Councils for Implementation of TQM. Continuous Process Improvement : The Juran‟s Trilogy, PDCA Cycle, Kaizen and Six Sigma. Performance Measures : Concept of Cost of Quality, Basics of Customer Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Index.

Seven Old QC (Quality Control) Tools Statistical Process Control : Pareto Diagram, Process Flow Diagram, Cause and Effect Diagram, Histograms, Control Charts, State of Control, Process Capability, Scatter Diagrams.

Seven New QC (Quality Control) Tools Relationship Diagram, Affinity Diagram, Tree Diagram, Matrix Diagram, Matrix Data Analysis Diagram, Process Decision Program Diagram and Arrow Diagram.

Other tools of Quality Management -1 Benchmarking, Quality Function Deployment, Quality by Design, FMEA Concepts, Total Productivity Management Concepts. Taguchi‟s Quality Engineering.

Other Tools for Quality Management – 2 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Quality Management Systems : ISO 9000 Series of Standards, ISO 9001 Requirements, Implementation and Documentation. (Explaining Models) Environmental Management System : ISO 14000 Series Standards, Integration of ISO 14000 with ISO 9000(Explaining Models)

Total Quality Management PDF

Total quality management notes, what is total quality management.

Total Quality Management (TQM) describes a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.

tqm assignment topics

Total Quality Management Questions and Answers

Some of the total quality management questions and answers are mentioned below. You can download the QnA in total quality management pdf form.

  • Define Total Quality?
  • What are the six basic concepts that a successful TQM programme requires?
  • Explain about Deming’s philosophy.
  • Elaborate Juran’s principles of quality improvement.
  • What are the reasons for Benchmarking?
  • Define “Taguchi’s Quality Loss Function”

Total Quality Management Question Paper

If you have already studied the total quality management notes , then its time to move ahead and go through previous year total quality management question paper .

It will help you to understand question paper pattern and type of total quality management question and answer asked in MBA total quality management exam. You can download the syllabus in total quality management pdf form.

Total Quality Management Books

Below is the list of total quality management book recommended by the top university in India.

  • Total Quality Management by Dale H. Besterfield and others, Prentice Hall Publishing House
  • Managing of Total Quality by N, Logothetis, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited
  • A Management Guide to Quality and Productivity by J. Bicheno and M. R Gopalan, Wiley- Dreamtech, New Delhi
  • Total Quality Management – Text and Cases, Janakiraman, B and Gopal, R.K, Prentice Hall (India) Pvt. Ltd

Below are the top total quality management book that can be bought from Amazon.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

  • Author: Besterfield Dale H, Carol, Glen H, Mary, Hemant & Rashmi Urdhwareshe.
  • Publisher:  Pearson, 5e
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank : #19 in Production, Operation & Management #36 in Civil Engineering #206 in Management
  • Customer Reviews: 5 out of 5

Total Quality Management

  • Author : Mukherjee
  • Publisher:  Prentice Hall
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank : #5880 in Business, Strategy & Management
  • Customer Reviews: 3.8 out of 5
  • Author: Suganthi L
  • Amazon Bestsellers Rank : #46 in Production, Operation & Management
  • Customer Reviews: 4.2 out of 5

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tqm assignment topics


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Total Quality Management - I

Note: This exam date is subjected to change based on seat availability. You can check final exam date on your hall ticket.

Page Visits

Course layout.

  • Total Quality Management and Quality Management Philosophies
  • Customer Value Evaluation, Kaizen, Problem Solving and Quality Management
  • Elementary concepts related to 7 Old and 7 New Tools for quality Assurance
  • Basic Statistical Concepts and Control of Accuracy and Precision
  • Process Capability, SPC, Acceptance Sampling
  • Quality Management Systems, ISO 9000

Books and references

  • Introduction of Statistical Quality Control: Douglas C. Montgomery, John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN: 978-0-470-16992-6
  • Total Quality Management: Dale H. Besterfield , Hemant Urdhwareshe , Mary Besterfield-Sacre , Carol Besterfield-Michna , Rashmi Urdhwareshe , Glen H. Besterfield, Pearson, ISBN: 978-81-7758-412-7
  • Design of Experiment: Douglas C. Montgomery, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 0-471-31649-0

Instructor bio

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Prof. Raghu Nandan Sengupta

Course certificate.

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Related Papers

Deepak Dhounchak

In the present time, manufacturing industries suffers from the quality problems in products and services. The manufacturing industry gain loss and wastage of resources due to quality problems that results in poor efficiency of manufacturing plant. The quality of products has to regularly upgraded time to time to achieve desire goal in manufacturing industry. The regular upgradation of quality of products and services in the manufacturing sector is known as Total Quality Management. The whole processes, manpower and management are controlled efficiently and maximum output is obtained from resources in the total quality management. The TQM is the art of controlling everything in efficient and better controlled manner in any organization. This is the mostly and widely used quality tool in the manufacturing industry. The TQM is a tool used to increase the quality of product and quality of processes in the manufacturing industry. The implementation of TQM in any manufacturing plant increases the quality and production of plant.

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Marimin Marimin

This research was aimed at designing strategies for improving total quality management at CV XYZ and PT HIJ. The research locations were selected intentionally with the consideration that the company is a middle class company that started to apply a study in line with the research topic. The experts were chosen using an approach method. This research used a descriptive approach and quantitative analysis through questionnaires using purposive sampling. The stages began with data processing, i.e. testing the questionnaire quality through validity and reliability tests, making a causality diagram, evaluating the implementation levels of each company by giving evaluation scales based on the existing condition, making House of Quality (HOQ) using QFD methods, and then analyzing the problem solutions produced from the QFD methods with 5W + IH analysis, and finally determining the improvement priorities using Fuzzy AHP methods. The results were the strategies for improving total quality management /TQM of CV XYZ, namely the factor that plays the most important role was improving the quality management performance. The actor that has the competence to carry out the TQM improvement is the director. The prioritized goal to be achieved is a commitment to improve the quality of goods and services. The prioritized strategy used in improving TQM is carrying out SOP consistently.

Zillur Rahman

This paper attempts to identify the TQM practices in two different sectors and examines the difference between them by analyzing their commonalities with respect to their implementation as applicable to both the sectors. The methodology adopted was critically examining the literature on TQM practices followed by manufacturing and service sectors.

Computers & Industrial Engineering

Ahmad Elshennawy

Sohail Anwer

This study will explain how Total Quality Management can be implemented at the second line aircraft maintenance department of Pakistan Naval Aviation. The TQM Implementation process can be established by considering four important elements: Top management commitment, present indoor quality culture of the second line maintenance activities, ISO certification of the organization, and the built in TQM characteristics of Pakistan Naval Aviation. The instructions and guide lines of Naval Aviation Maintenance Manual UK and Group Officer Quality Assurance at Air Engineering Department along with the intellectual support of Sir Imranullah Shriff will be used for TQM implementation. Aircraft Maintenance Control Office, Group Officer Quality Assurance and Group Officer Air Engineering Training are the help lines to be approached for assistance for TQM implementation. Battery shop is presented as TQM model work shop for other shops of second line maintenance activities for using it as a bench mark. The project recommends the methodologies for the implementation process of TQM. An understanding of the hurdles to the TQM implementation process, for corrective actions improvements, suggestions and recommendations will shape the end of the project.

Asian Journal of Engineering and Applied Technology

Pramila Devi Maganti

Total quality management (TQM) has been widely considered as the strategic, tactical and operational tool in the quality management research field. It is one of the most applied and well accepted approaches for business excellence besides continuous quality improvement, six sigma, just-in-time, and supply chain management approaches. This study investigated impact of TQM practices on quality performance in an armament manufacturing industry in Ethiopia. The quantitative approach and the survey method of collecting data were used. The five point Likert scale structured questionnaire was administered through the face-to-face method of collecting data. 340 questionnaires were randomly distributed to employees who are working in different factories in the two armament manufacturing industry. Eight factors related to TQM practices were initially selected as independent variables viz., leadership, customer focus, continuous improvement, employee involvement, training and education, suppli...

Ismail Md Yusof Implementation of Quality Management in the Manufacturing Industry Phd Thesis Dublin City University

Yusof Ismail


Sudip Ghimire

Proceedings of The 6th International Conference on Applied Research in Management, Business and Economics

Jonida Teta

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MBA Project topics for Total Quality Management

  • Implementation of 5 P’s
  • Quality Management in Software Industry : A Study
  • Process Capability Study in BPO
  • A Study on Continuous Improvement Process
  • Effectiveness of Six sigma Projects : A Study
  • Application of Quality Control tools : A Study
  • Cost reduction through Quality Approach : A study
  • A Study on Just In Time in specific manufacturing Company
  • Total Productive maintenance in specific manufacturing Company : A Study
  • Customer Satisfaction through TQM Approach : A Study
  • A Study on Statistical Process Control in specific manufacturing Company
  • Quality Management in Healthcare sector : A Study
  • Impact of Application of QFD in Service Industries
  • Impact of Application of FMEA in Manufacturing Industries

Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management

Total quality management (TQM) describes a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work

Benchmarking – Standard, or a set of standards, used as a point of reference for evaluating performance or level of quality. Benchmarks may be drawn from a firm’s own experience, from the experience of other firms in the industry, or from legal requirements such as environmental regulations.

Business process reengineering – The business process reengineering method (BPR) is defined by as “the fundamental reconsideration and radical redesign of organization processes, in order to achieve drastic improvement of current performance in cost, service and speed”. Value creation for the customer is the leading factor of BPR and information technology often plays an important enabling role.

Continuous quality improvement – CQI is an approach to quality management that builds upon traditional quality assurance methods by emphasizing the organization and systems. It focuses on the “process” rather than the individual, recognizes both internal and external “customers” and promotes the need for objective data to analyze and improve processes. The rapid growth and proliferation of managed care organizations in the healthcare industry has caused many public health agencies, providers, employers, and consumers to question the quality of healthcare and the consequences for patient safety.

Cost of quality – Sum of costs incurred in maintaining acceptable quality levels plus the cost of failure to maintain that level (cost of poor quality).

Customer satisfaction – Degree of satisfaction provided by the goods or services of a firm as measured by the number of repeat customers .

Employee empowerment – Empowerment is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action, and control work and decision making in autonomous ways. It is the state of feeling self-empowered to take control of one’s own destiny

Employee involvement – Regular participation of employees in (1) deciding how their work is done, (2) making suggestions for improvement , (3) goal setting , (4) planning , and (5) monitoring of their performance . Encouragement to employee involvement is based on the thinking that people involved in a process know it best, and on the observation that involved employees are more motivated to improve their performance.

Globalization – Globalization in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones. It can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces.

Just-in-time (JIT) – Pull ‘ ( demand ) driven inventory system in which materials , parts , sub-assemblies, and support items are delivered just when needed and neither sooner nor later. Its objective is to eliminate product inventories from the supply chain . As much a managerial philosophy as an inventory system, JIT encompasses all activities required to make a final product—from design engineering onwards to the last manufacturing operation. JIT systems are fundamental to time based competition and rely on waste reduction , process simplification, setup time and batch size reduction , parallel (instead of sequential) processing , and shop floor layout redesign. Under JIT management , shipments are made within rigidly enforced ‘time windows’ and all items must be within the specifications with very little or no inspection .

Kaizen – Kaizen means “continuous improvement”. It is a Japanese philosophy that focuses on continuous improvement throughout all aspects of life. When applied to the workplace, Kaizen activities continually improve all functions of a business; from manufacturing to management and from the CEO to the assembly line workers. By improving standardized activities and processes, Kaizen aims to eliminate waste. Kaizen was first implemented in several Japanese businesses during the country’s recovery after World War II, including Toyota, and has since spread to businesses throughout the world.

Management philosophy – a philosophy and style of management that gives everyone in an organization responsibility for delivering quality to the customer. Total quality management views each task in the organization as a process that is in a customer/supplier relationship with the next process. The objective at each stage is to define and meet the customer’s requirements in order to maximize the satisfaction of the final consumer at the lowest possible cost. Total quality management constitutes a challenge to organizations that have to manage the conflict between cost-cutting and the commitment of employees to continuous improvement. Achievement of quality can be assessed by quality awards and quality standards.

Monitoring process variation – It’s an important element of TQM. It is a series of actions that leads to a particular result, occurs when there is a deviation from standards, which invariably affects reliability and quality of products or services.

Organizational restructuring – Organizations are human systems and their system structure includes the worldview, beliefs, and mental models of their leaders and members.  Changing organizational behavior requires changing the belief system of its personnel.  This process of changing beliefs is called learning.  Effective learning requires clear, open communications throughout the organization

Paradigm shift – Fundamental change in an individual’s or a society’s view of how things work in the world. For example, the shift from earth to sun as the center of solar system , ‘humors’ to microbes as causes of disease, heart to brain as the seat of thinking and feeling.

Participative management – An open form of management where employees have a strong decision-making role. Participative management is developed by managers who actively seek a strong cooperative relationship with their employees. The advantages of participative management include increased productivity, improved quality, and reduced costs.

PDCA cycle – Four-step process used in quality control and elsewhere as a simplified method of achieving improvements . These steps are: (1) Plan : determine what needs to be done, when, how, and by whom. (2) Do: carry out the plan, on a small-scale first. (3) Check: analyze the results of carrying out the plan. (4) Act : take appropriate steps to close the gap between planned and actual results. Named after its proposer, the US mathematician Dr. Walter Shewart (1891-1967). Also called Deming cycle or plan do check act (PDCA) cycle.

Preventive maintenance – Systematic inspection , detection, correction , and prevention of incipient failures , before they become actual or major failures. Contrasted with corrective maintenance .

Quality – “Quality itself has been defined as fundamentally relational:  ‘Quality is the ongoing process of building and sustaining relationships by assessing, anticipating, and fulfilling stated and implied needs.’ Organizational performance ultimately rests on human behavior and improving performance requires changing behavior.  Therefore organizational restructuring should have as a fundamental goal the facilitation of clear, open communication that can enable organizational learning and clarify accountability for results.

Quality culture – Quality culture: Organizations have to be free from cultural impediments or so to say organizational inertia. It means that TQM demands quality culture which should consists of values, tradition, procedures, and expectations that promote quality

Quality delivery process – The concept of quality delivery process is used to refer to the implementation of new system in TQM. The purposes are-

  • To ensure that everyone works on those activities which are most important for the success of the business by fulfilling work group missions.
  • To improve the quality of work delivered to the internal customers.
  • To eliminate work that is wasted.
  • To harness the combined skills, ideas and experience of the work group members to improve the business continuously through teamwork.
  • To satisfy the external customer.

Quality guru – They are the quality leaders who have immensely contributed towards the development of total quality management as a management philosophy and a way of corporate life.  Such as Walter Shewhart, Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, Philip Crosby etc.

Reward and recognition – Effective use of Reward and Recognition (R&R) is a proven, practical and cost effective means of motivating people and improving business performance. A programme that is well thought through, structured, communicated and embedded, can give a business a competitive edge when it comes to attracting high performers into the organization and retaining the loyalty of valued existing employees. At a different and altogether more significant level, R&R is a fundamental component in the ongoing, and of late, much debated process of employee engagement. We define Reward as the tangible return beyond basic salary that is given to an employee for delivering results; and Recognition as the way or the context in which the employee receives both tangible and non-tangible returns. A Reward and Recognition programme is the structured framework within which this process takes place. It typically involves a currency in which employees can receive credits, an environment in which these credits can be exchanged for goods and services and a set of rules and best practice advice, under which the programme should operate.

Team-building – The term ‘team building’ can refer generally to the selection and motivation of teams , or more specifically to group self-assessment in the theory and practice of organizational development. When a team in an organizational development context embarks upon a process of self-assessment in order to gauge its own effectiveness and thereby improve performance, it can be argued that it is engaging in team building, although this may be considered a narrow definition. The process of team building includes, (a) clarifying the goal, and building ownership across the team and (b)identifying the inhibitors to teamwork and removing or overcoming them, or if they cannot be removed, mitigating their negative effect on the team.

Top-down implementation – The top-down approach to implementing an identity management solution focuses on implementing identity management capabilities for an individual managed resource, such as an application. In the top-down approach, your organization strives to realize higher-level capabilities for a more narrowly focused group of users, such as those who are closely associated with the managed application.

Total Quality Management (TQM) – Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to management methods used to enhance quality and productivity in organizations, particularly businesses. TQM is a comprehensive system approach that works horizontally across an organization, involving all departments and employees and extending backward and forward to include both suppliers and clients/customers.

Total quality tools – Beginning from the design phase through production of a product a few statistical tools need to be employed. These are total quality tools. Tools are important and they need to be used for facilitating human rational thinking in solving problems that occur in the work process.

Transformational leadership – Motivational management method whereby employees are encouraged to achieve greater performance through inspirational leadership, which develops employee self-confidence and higher achievement goals.

Zero defect – The concept of zero defects was coined by Philip Crosby who viewed that the ultimate goal of a TQM system should be reduction of variation in the production of products and services to absolute zero.

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tqm assignment topics


Trending topics, former red hill task force commander heading to u.s. 3rd fleet.

tqm assignment topics

Vice Adm. John Wade has a new assignment following his stint as the leader of Joint Task Force – Red Hill.

Wade will serve as the commander of U.S. 3rd Fleet in San Diego, Calif., according to a Thursday Pentagon announcement.

Wade oversaw the defeuling of the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility following a November 2021 leak that contaminated drinking water with jet fuel and maritime diesel.

Wade turned over the responsibilities of closing Red Hill to the Navy Closure Task Force – Red Hill in March, while he stayed on to help finish the administrative work necessary to end the task force, he told USNI News ahead of the turnover ceremony. At the time, Wade was unsure where he would go after his time in Hawaii.

Wade will take over 3rd Fleet from Vice Adm. Michael Boyle, who has been leading the San Diego-based fleet since June 2022. Boyle has been nominated to serve as the next deputy chief of naval operations for operations, plans and strategy (OPNAV N3/N5).

Meanwhile, Rear Adm. Michael Vernazza will serve as the next commander of Naval Information Forces in Suffolk, Va. He will also be appointed to vice admiral. Vernazza will succeed Vice Adm. Kelly Aeschbach, who has been the commander of Naval Information Forces since May of 2021.

Vernazza is currently the commander of Fleet Information Warfare Command Pacific and Information Warfare Task Force (TF-501), Pacific, located at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam in Hawaii.

He is a 1990 graduate of the Naval Academy, according to his biography. Vernazza previously served as the deputy branch head for Battlespace Awareness Programs under the office of the Chief of Naval Operations, the director for intelligence for Carrier Strike Group 11 and the chief of staff and deputy commander for Fleet Cyber Command/U.S. 10th Fleet.

Heather Mongilio

Heather Mongilio

Heather Mongilio is a reporter with USNI News. She has a master’s degree in science journalism and has covered local courts, crime, health, military affairs and the Naval Academy. Follow @hmongilio

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Detroit Tigers injury update: Gio Urshela starts rehab; Mark Canha back in MLB lineup

tqm assignment topics

Third baseman Gio Urshela is making his way back to the Detroit Tigers from a right hamstring strain.

The 32-year-old began his rehab assignment Thursday with Triple-A Toledo. He needs to play multiple games with the Mud Hens, including Friday as the third baseman, but he could return to the Tigers at some point early next week.

"He's got a few days to play," Tigers manager A.J. Hinch said. "He hasn't played in a while, so he's just getting his baseball stuff back. The better he plays, the faster he will be back, and obviously, health is the No. 1 concern."

NOT ON TIME: Tigers' Spencer Torkelson not a rookie anymore, but troubles now stem back to then

Urshela, a nine-year MLB veteran who signed a one-year, $1.5 million free agent contract last offseason, hasn't played for the Tigers since April 19, when he suffered the hamstring strain while running to first base against the Minnesota Twins.

All things Tigers: Latest Detroit Tigers news, schedule, roster, stats, injury updates and more.

He served as the designated hitter in Thursday's game with Triple-A Toledo against the St. Paul Saints, an affiliate of the Twins. (After Friday's game, Urshela won't play Saturday, but he will play Sunday.)

In Thursday's game, Urshela went 1-for-2 with one walk in three plate appearances. He grounded out in the first inning, walked on four pitches in the third inning and singled on a down-and-away cutter in the fourth inning.

Before the injury, Urshela hit .298 with one walk and 10 strikeouts in 18 games, spanning 58 plate appearances. Of his 17 hits, only two of them — a pair of doubles — went for extra bases.

[ MUST LISTEN: Make "Days of Roar" your go-to Detroit Tigers podcast, available anywhere you listen to podcasts ( Apple , Spotify ) ]

Justyn-Henry Malloy update

Triple-A Toledo outfielder Justyn-Henry Malloy hasn't played since last Friday due to an undisclosed injury, now missing six games in a row. He could return to the Mud Hens' lineup this weekend, possibly Sunday.

JEFF SEIDEL: Dreaming of more Tigers offense? Justyn-Henry Malloy would be my answer in Toledo

The Tigers, though, haven't provided any information about Malloy's health other than when Hinch described him as "banged up a little bit" after calling up Ryan Vilade — rather than Malloy — from Triple-A Toledo.

It's a lower-body injury.

On Wednesday, Malloy talked to Free Press columnist Jeff Seidel in Toledo.

"I feel great," Malloy said. "Just doing a lot of precautionary things. But I feel great."

Malloy, a corner outfielder, was removed from last Friday's game in the sixth inning following a groundout. He had a nine-game hitting streak when he got hurt. This season, he is hitting .279 with three home runs, 26 walks (tied for ninth among Triple-A hitters) and 34 strikeouts in 30 games.

Mark Canha returns

Outfielder Mark Canha returned to the Tigers' starting lineup after missing two games in a row with an upper respiratory infection. The 35-year-old slotted into the lineup as the designated hitter, batting third in the order, for Friday's game against the Houston Astros at Comerica Park.

"A lot of coughing," Canha said. "I wasn't sleeping very well in Cleveland. I had body aches and chills. It was a struggle-fest for like three days straight. ... It's better. I slept better the last two nights. No more chills or body aches. I'm back."

A BIG HIT: After two years of waiting, Ryan Vilade finally gets first MLB hit with Tigers

He drove home separately from the Tigers after Wednesday's series finale in Cleveland.

He felt better on Thursday's off day.

"Hopefully, that's the end of this virus that came through the clubhouse," Hinch said. "It went through coaches, players. We'd like to avoid any more, but Mark had it the worst and missed a few days. Hopefully, it's better."

Canha, a 10-year MLB veteran, is hitting .248 with five home runs, 17 walks and 28 strikeouts across 34 games in his first season as a Tiger.

Contact Evan Petzold at  [email protected]  or follow him  @EvanPetzold .

Listen to our weekly Tigers show  "Days of Roar"  every Monday afternoon on demand at freep.com,  Apple ,  Spotify  or wherever you listen to podcasts. And catch all of our podcasts and daily voice briefing at  freep.com/podcasts .


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