Trail of Tears Research Paper Topics

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This page presents a comprehensive guide to Trail of Tears research paper topics , tailored for students of history who seek to delve into this tragic chapter of American history. From an extensive list of topics to valuable tips on selecting and crafting research papers, this page aims to equip students with the necessary tools to navigate through the complexities of the Trail of Tears and to understand its significance in shaping the nation’s past and present. Additionally, we introduce iResearchNet’s writing services, a reliable partner in providing top-quality custom research papers that meet students’ academic requirements and elevate their understanding of this critical historical event.

100 Trail of Tears Research Paper Topics

The Trail of Tears remains a poignant and significant episode in American history, exemplifying the dark side of westward expansion and the profound impact it had on Native American communities. To aid students in their research endeavors, we present a comprehensive list of Trail of Tears research paper topics, divided into 10 categories, each offering valuable insights into different aspects of this tragic event.

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  • The Indian Removal Act of 1830: Origins and implications
  • The political climate and public opinion surrounding Native American removal
  • Examination of treaties and agreements leading to forced removal
  • Comparison of Native American removal policies with other historical instances
  • The role of President Andrew Jackson in the Trail of Tears
  • The impact of the Trail of Tears on U.S. government and policies toward Native Americans
  • Native American resistance and activism during the removal
  • The Trail of Tears as a turning point in Native American-U.S. government relations
  • The Trail of Tears in the broader context of American expansionism
  • The ethical and moral implications of the Trail of Tears
  • Cherokee culture and society before the Trail of Tears
  • Principal Chiefs and tribal leadership during the removal
  • The impact of removal on Cherokee communities
  • Cherokee cultural preservation and adaptation after the relocation
  • The significance of Cherokee language and education during the Trail of Tears
  • The role of Cherokee women during the removal process
  • The representation of Cherokee people in contemporary literature and media
  • The legacy of Cherokee removal in modern-day Cherokee Nation
  • Cherokee-Native American relations after the Trail of Tears
  • The portrayal of the Cherokee removal in oral histories and folktales
  • The different routes taken by various tribes
  • Conditions and challenges faced during the journey
  • Accounts of individual experiences during the relocation
  • The impact of geography and environment on the Trail of Tears
  • The role of military escorts and their treatment of Native Americans
  • The significance of rivers and waterways in the forced removal
  • The role of missionaries and churches in aiding or opposing the removal
  • The Trail of Tears as a transnational event affecting multiple Native American nations
  • The use of primary sources, such as diaries and letters, to reconstruct the journey
  • The archeological evidence and artifacts related to the Trail of Tears routes
  • The experiences of Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, and Seminole tribes
  • Comparisons between the different tribes’ experiences
  • Resilience and adaptation of Native American communities after relocation
  • The impact of the Trail of Tears on intertribal relations and alliances
  • The legacy of the Trail of Tears in other Native American removals
  • The influence of non-removal tribes in advocating for those affected by the Trail of Tears
  • The role of Native American leaders and activists in response to removal policies
  • The cultural exchange and conflicts between different Native American tribes during the relocation
  • The representation of other Native American tribes in historical accounts of the Trail of Tears
  • The historical memory and commemoration of the Trail of Tears among non-Cherokee tribes
  • Attempts at legal challenges and resistance against removal
  • Life in the Indian Territory and efforts at rebuilding communities
  • Comparing pre- and post-removal living conditions and challenges
  • The impact of forced assimilation policies on Native American communities
  • Native American efforts at preserving cultural practices and traditions in the Indian Territory
  • The role of trade and economic activities in the Indian Territory
  • The role of education and mission schools in the Indian Territory
  • The influence of European settlers and traders in the Indian Territory
  • The significance of land ownership and distribution in the Indian Territory
  • The consequences of disease and illness on Native American populations in the Indian Territory
  • Effects on the economies of Native American tribes
  • Influence on the Southern economy and agricultural labor
  • Interactions and tensions between Native Americans and white settlers
  • The impact of the Trail of Tears on the Southern labor force
  • The role of African American slaves in the removal process and the Indian Territory
  • The economic and social dynamics between Native American tribes and African American slaves in the Indian Territory
  • The role of Native American labor and participation in the Southern economy after removal
  • The role of missionaries and churches in aiding Native American economic development in the Indian Territory
  • The impact of the Trail of Tears on Southern society and culture
  • The representation of economic aspects of the Trail of Tears in historical documents and literature
  • The psychological trauma experienced by Native American communities during the Trail of Tears
  • The impact of forced assimilation and acculturation on Native American identity
  • The preservation and revival of cultural practices and traditions after the removal
  • The role of storytelling and oral traditions in passing down the memory of the Trail of Tears
  • The representation of the Trail of Tears in Native American art and literature
  • The intergenerational effects of the Trail of Tears on Native American communities
  • The influence of the Trail of Tears on Native American religious beliefs and practices
  • The relationship between Native American spirituality and land in the context of the removal
  • The depiction of Native American cultures in the media and popular culture after the Trail of Tears
  • The exploration of cultural resilience and adaptation in the face of adversity
  • The response of U.S. government and political leaders to the Trail of Tears
  • The justification and debate over Native American removal policies
  • The impact of the Trail of Tears on the U.S. Supreme Court and legal interpretations of indigenous rights
  • The influence of the Trail of Tears on subsequent federal Indian policies
  • The role of advocacy groups and activists in challenging removal policies
  • The legacy of the Trail of Tears in modern Native American rights movements
  • The examination of treaties and agreements violated during the removal process
  • The international response and criticism of the U.S. government’s removal policies
  • The role of local and state governments in facilitating or opposing the removal
  • The exploration of reparations and recognition efforts for the descendants of those affected by the Trail of Tears
  • The involvement and experiences of African American slaves during the Trail of Tears
  • The relationship between Native American slaveholders and their African American slaves
  • The role of African American slaves in the Cherokee Nation and other tribes
  • The challenges faced by African American communities after the removal
  • The intersectionality of African American and Native American identities and experiences
  • The impact of the Trail of Tears on African American migration and settlement patterns
  • The legacy of the Trail of Tears in African American cultural memory and heritage
  • The portrayal of African American perspectives on the removal in historical accounts
  • The influence of the Trail of Tears on African American civil rights movements
  • The examination of race relations and interactions between African Americans and Native Americans in the Indian Territory
  • The ways in which the Trail of Tears is commemorated and memorialized today
  • The establishment and significance of Trail of Tears National Historic Trails and museums
  • The representation of the Trail of Tears in public history and education
  • The exploration of contested narratives and perspectives on the removal
  • The role of historical preservation and archeology in understanding the Trail of Tears
  • The significance of local and community efforts to remember the Trail of Tears
  • The impact of cultural heritage and tourism on the memory of the Trail of Tears
  • The comparison of American and indigenous perspectives on the Trail of Tears
  • The role of storytelling and oral history in preserving the memory of the Trail of Tears
  • The examination of ongoing efforts to reconcile and come to terms with the historical legacy of the Trail of Tears

This comprehensive list of Trail of Tears research paper topics provides students with a diverse array of avenues to explore the Trail of Tears, examining its historical context, cultural implications, and long-lasting effects on both Native American tribes and the nation as a whole. Each topic offers unique opportunities for critical analysis and contributes to a deeper understanding of this tragic and significant event in American history. Whether focusing on the experiences of specific tribes, the socio-economic impact, or the event’s portrayal in popular culture, students can uncover a wealth of insights and perspectives that shed light on the complex legacy of the Trail of Tears.

Trail of Tears: A Tragic Chapter in American History

The Trail of Tears stands as one of the most tragic and consequential events in American history, leaving an indelible mark on the nation’s conscience. This 1000-word article will delve into the historical context, causes, and profound consequences of the Trail of Tears, shedding light on the forced removal of Native American tribes from their ancestral lands and the devastating impact it had on their cultures and livelihoods. Moreover, this article will highlight the significance of researching the Trail of Tears and the relevance it holds in contemporary times, as its legacy continues to shape the course of Native American communities and the United States as a whole.

Historical Context and Causes

To comprehend the significance of the Trail of Tears, it is crucial to understand its historical context. In the early 19th century, the United States underwent rapid expansion, driven by a fervent desire for territorial acquisition and economic growth. This ambition came at the expense of the indigenous peoples who inhabited the fertile lands of the Southeastern United States. As white settlers sought more land for agriculture and settlement, the federal government pursued a policy of forced removal of Native American tribes, leading to the tragic events that would become known as the Trail of Tears.

The Forced Removal

The Trail of Tears refers to the forced relocation of several Native American tribes, including the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole, from their ancestral homelands to lands west of the Mississippi River. The removal process was marked by deception, coercion, and violence. The tribes were subjected to treaties that were often obtained through unfair negotiations and signed under duress. These treaties stripped them of their land rights and forced them to leave behind their homes, communities, and cultural heritage.

Impact on Cultures and Livelihoods

The consequences of the Trail of Tears were devastating for the Native American tribes. The forced migration resulted in the loss of countless lives due to exposure, disease, and hunger. Families were torn apart, and entire communities were uprooted from their traditional ways of life. The removal had a profound impact on the tribes’ cultures, as they struggled to maintain their customs, languages, and religious practices in their new, unfamiliar surroundings. The forced assimilation into white American society further eroded their cultural identity and threatened the survival of their distinct ways of life.

Significance of Researching the Trail of Tears

Researching the Trail of Tears is not merely an academic pursuit but a moral imperative. Understanding the historical injustice and the human toll of this dark chapter in American history is essential for acknowledging the wrongs committed against Native American communities. It provides an opportunity to confront the legacy of dispossession, discrimination, and marginalization that continues to affect these communities today. By exploring this historical event, researchers can gain insights into the complexity of Native American experiences and the resilience of their cultures in the face of immense challenges.

Relevance in Contemporary Times

The legacy of the Trail of Tears reverberates in contemporary American society. It serves as a stark reminder of the profound impact of colonization, racism, and forced assimilation on indigenous peoples. The struggle for land rights, self-determination, and recognition of cultural heritage remains ongoing for Native American communities. Researching the Trail of Tears allows for a deeper understanding of the historical and ongoing injustices faced by these communities and the urgent need for reconciliation and social justice.

The Trail of Tears represents a dark and tragic chapter in American history, marked by the forced removal of Native American tribes and the immense suffering they endured. This article has provided insights into the historical context, causes, and consequences of the Trail of Tears, shedding light on its devastating impact on Native American cultures and livelihoods. Moreover, it has emphasized the importance of researching this pivotal event and its relevance in contemporary times, calling for greater awareness and acknowledgment of the historical injustices committed against Native American communities. By studying the Trail of Tears, we can strive for a more inclusive and empathetic understanding of American history, fostering a commitment to justice, reconciliation, and respect for the diverse cultures that shape our nation.

How to Choose Trail of Tears Research Paper Topics

Selecting a research paper topic on the Trail of Tears requires careful consideration and sensitivity to the historical significance and cultural implications of this tragic event. This section will provide valuable guidance on how to choose compelling and meaningful Trail of Tears research paper topics that delve into different aspects of the Trail of Tears. By following these 10 tips, students can navigate the complexities of this subject and contribute to a deeper understanding of this pivotal moment in American history.

  • Define Your Area of Interest : Begin by identifying your area of interest within the Trail of Tears. Are you fascinated by the historical context, the impact on Native American cultures, the political dynamics involved, or the legacy in contemporary society? Narrowing down your focus will help you choose a topic that resonates with your passion and curiosity.
  • Explore Different Perspectives : The Trail of Tears was a multi-faceted event with far-reaching consequences. Consider exploring different perspectives, such as the experiences of specific tribes like the Cherokee or the Choctaw, the roles of government officials involved in the removal process, or the viewpoints of white settlers who supported or opposed the removal.
  • Examine Cultural and Social Implications : The forced removal of Native American tribes had profound cultural and social implications. Consider topics that delve into the impact on Native American languages, religions, traditions, and family structures. You could also explore the resilience and preservation of cultural identity among the displaced tribes.
  • Analyze Political and Legal Aspects : The Trail of Tears was shaped by political decisions and legal mechanisms. Investigate topics related to the treaties, legislation, and court cases that paved the way for the removal, as well as the political motivations behind these actions.
  • Study Human Rights and Ethics : The Trail of Tears raises ethical questions about human rights violations and the treatment of indigenous peoples. Explore topics that delve into the ethical considerations of the removal policy, the responsibility of the government, and the lessons it offers for modern-day human rights issues.
  • Consider Economic Factors : Economic interests played a significant role in the forced removal of Native American tribes. Trail of Tears research paper topics exploring the economic motivations behind the removal, the impact on the tribes’ economies, and the consequences for both Native Americans and white settlers can provide valuable insights.
  • Investigate Resistance and Resilience : Despite the hardships they faced, Native American tribes displayed remarkable resistance and resilience. Trail of Tears research paper topics that highlight the efforts of tribes to resist removal, such as legal challenges, petitions, and peaceful protests, as well as their efforts to rebuild their communities in new territories.
  • Examine Intercultural Encounters : The Trail of Tears brought Native American tribes into contact with other cultures, such as white settlers and African Americans. Investigate topics that explore the interactions, conflicts, and exchanges between these different groups during this tumultuous period.
  • Explore Art and Literature : Artists and writers have captured the emotions and experiences of the Trail of Tears through various mediums. Consider research paper topics that analyze the portrayal of the removal in art, literature, and media, and how these representations shape public memory and understanding.
  • Reflect on Modern Implications : The Trail of Tears has lasting implications in contemporary society. Trail of Tears research paper topics that examine the ongoing impact on Native American communities, the recognition of historical injustices, and the importance of reconciliation and healing can contribute to current discussions on social justice and cultural heritage.

Choosing a research paper topic on the Trail of Tears is a critical step in contributing to the understanding and commemoration of this significant event in American history. By exploring different angles, perspectives, and implications, students can shed light on the complex and poignant story of the forced removal of Native American tribes, providing valuable insights into the legacy and ongoing relevance of the Trail of Tears in the modern world.

How to Write a Trail of Tears Research Paper

Writing a research paper on the Trail of Tears requires careful planning, in-depth research, and a nuanced understanding of historical events and cultural complexities. In this section, we will guide you through the process of crafting a comprehensive and compelling research paper that explores the Trail of Tears and its significance in American history. Follow these 10 tips to ensure your paper effectively communicates the profound impact of this tragic chapter.

  • Thoroughly Research the Trail of Tears : Begin your journey by delving into a wide range of reputable sources, including academic books, scholarly articles, primary documents, and online databases. Gain a comprehensive understanding of the historical context, the various tribes involved, the removal process, and the aftermath of the Trail of Tears.
  • Develop a Clear Thesis Statement : Your thesis statement is the foundation of your research paper. It should succinctly state the main argument or focus of your paper. Ensure that your thesis statement reflects the specific aspect of the Trail of Tears you intend to explore and the significance of your findings.
  • Outline Your Paper’s Structure : Organize your research and ideas by creating a detailed outline for your paper. Include sections for the introduction, literature review, methodology (if applicable), main body paragraphs, analysis, and conclusion. Each section should flow logically and support your thesis.
  • Use Diverse Sources and Evidence : To present a well-rounded analysis, utilize a diverse range of sources and evidence. Incorporate historical records, firsthand accounts, official documents, statistical data, and scholarly interpretations. Using varied sources strengthens the credibility of your research.
  • Analyze Historical Context and Causes : Devote a section of your research paper to the historical context and causes of the Trail of Tears. Explain the political, economic, and social factors that led to the forced removal of Native American tribes. Provide a comprehensive overview to set the stage for your analysis.
  • Address the Impact on Native American Tribes : Explore the profound impact of the Trail of Tears on the affected Native American tribes. Discuss the devastating consequences of forced relocation, loss of ancestral lands, and disruptions to their cultures, languages, and traditions. Highlight the resilience and perseverance of the tribes amidst adversity.
  • Evaluate Government Policies and Decisions : Examine the government policies and decisions that led to the Trail of Tears. Analyze the role of President Andrew Jackson, the Indian Removal Act of 1830, and the enforcement of removal treaties. Assess the ethical implications and historical consequences of these policies.
  • Analyze Intercultural Encounters and Conflicts : Within your research paper, explore the interactions and conflicts that arose between Native American tribes, white settlers, and government officials during the removal process. Discuss the cultural clashes, misunderstandings, and power dynamics that shaped these encounters.
  • Discuss Historical Memory and Commemoration : Address how the Trail of Tears is remembered and commemorated in contemporary society. Explore how different groups interpret and remember this event, and discuss the efforts made to honor the memory of those who suffered during the forced removal.
  • Conclude with Reflection and Implications : In your conclusion, restate your thesis and summarize your main findings. Reflect on the lasting implications of the Trail of Tears in shaping American history and the ongoing challenges faced by Native American communities. Offer insights into the importance of understanding this historical event and its relevance in the present day.

By following these tips and conducting rigorous research, you can craft a thought-provoking and insightful research paper that honors the legacy of the Trail of Tears and contributes to a deeper understanding of this tragic chapter in American history.

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  • Expert Degree-Holding Writers : Our writing team consists of highly qualified experts with advanced degrees in history and related fields. They have extensive experience in conducting research on complex historical topics like the Trail of Tears and possess the skills to create engaging and well-structured research papers.
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  • In-Depth Research : Understanding the complexity of the Trail of Tears and its historical context, our writers conduct thorough research from reputable sources to provide a comprehensive analysis of this significant event. They integrate a diverse range of scholarly materials to ensure the paper is academically robust.
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trail of tears research paper

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  • Andrew Jackson Papers The Andrew Jackson Papers collection documents Jackson's life in its several phases including his Indian policy as President.
  • Cherokee Removal and the Trail of Tears Primary source set and teaching guide from the Digital Public Library of America.
  • Indian Removal Act: Primary Documents in American History Digital materials at the Library of Congress related to the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and its after-effects, as well as links to external websites and a selected print bibliography.
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  • Last Updated: Feb 15, 2024 3:24 PM
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Shapiro Library

HIS 200 - Applied History

Cherokee removal and the trail of tears.

The Cherokee Removal is a broad topic! As you start your research, think about what specific area of the broader topic you could focus on for your project. Once you have a more specific idea identified, it can be helpful to write a research question that will then serve as your foundation for further research. You can check out the Shapiro Library FAQs on  writing research questions  for more information.

Here is a research starter that can give you background information about the Cherokee Removal and the Trail of Tears. As an encyclopedia article, the research starter is a tertiary source, like other background/reference sources. It can be a useful tool to give yourself some background knowledge on your topic, and help you decide how you would like to focus your research and which keywords might be helpful. Generally speaking, tertiary sources aren't acceptable sources to use in your papers because they summarize and condense information about a topic. The original research and primary sources reference sources that are discussed and cited within the source can be a good place to start.

Take a look at the Primary Sources and Secondary Sources pages for some recommendations for library databases to further research this topic!

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trail of tears research paper

Perspectives on the Trail of Tears

By elizabeth berlin taylor, introduction.

In this lesson, student groups will design and create a poster containing facts about the Trail of Tears as well as a collage and concluding statement expressing the group’s feelings about the event.  

The Trail of Tears was the result of Andrew Jackson’s policy of Indian Removal in the Southeastern United States. While Jackson’s designs on Indian territory east of the Mississippi River involved Indian nations such as the Cherokees, Seminoles, Chickasaws, Choctaws, and Creeks, as well as others from approximately 1814 until 1840, "the Trail of Tears" refers to the forced march of Cherokees from Georgia to Oklahoma from 1838 to 1839. This episode, legitimized by the disputed Treaty of New Echota, resulted in thousands of deaths and the removal of the Cherokee Nation from its ancestral homelands.  

  • Map of the Cherokee Nation in Georgia, 1827 , David Rumsey Historical Map Collection
  • Map of Cherokee Removal Routes , Smithsonian Institution
  • Interactive map of the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail (Scroll down and click on "The Trail of Tears National Historic Trail")
  • The Trail of Tears by Robert Lindneux, 1942

Secondary Sources

  • Cherokee Nation Timeline
  • "What happened on the Trail of Tears?"

Primary Sources

  • "General Winfield Scott’s Address to the Cherokee Nation," May 10, 1838
  • Letter from Chief John Ross protesting the Treaty of New Echota
  • Transcript of President Andrew Jackson’s message to Congress "On Indian Removal" (1830)
  • Treaty of New Echota , final paragraph of Article 1

Essential Question

What incidents led to the Trail of Tears and what is your perspective of this event?

  • Students will be able to read and understand primary and secondary documents that are germane to the events and points of view of the Trail of Tears.
  • Students will be able to communicate data about the Trail of Tears on a poster.
  • Students will be able to create a collage and a statement that captures the group’s feelings about the Trail of Tears.

Ask students the question: "Does the United States government have the right to make you move out of your house? Why or why not?" After students spend about two minutes writing responses to these questions, ask them to share their answers and respond to each other. As a follow-up question, ask students what they would do if they were required to move by their government.

  • Introduce background information on the Trail of Tears via a very brief lecture or discussion.
  • Project the maps of the Cherokee Nation in Georgia, 1830, and the Cherokee Removal Routes. Discuss the distance that the Cherokees walked and conditions they endured. If you have access to computer technology, have students investigate the interactive map of the Trail of Tears to understand how long the march was and would be today.
  • Project The Trail of Tears by Robert Lindneux. Have students discuss what is happening in the painting and how its subjects are depicted.
  • Divide the class into groups of four and distribute an information packet to each group. The packet should contain four copies of the two secondary sources and one copy of each primary source. It would be most effective to keep the materials in a folder.
  • Ask students to read the secondary sources individually. Then as a group, have students write one paragraph that responds to the question, "What was the Trail of Tears?"
  • Next, ask each student in the group to read one of the primary sources and complete the " Who, What, Where, and When " worksheet. Group members should then share information from their documents with the group.
  • Conclude this day’s class by asking for volunteers to explain the events and share their perceptions of the Trail of Tears.

Ask students to return to their groups and review the information they discovered in the previous class period. Hand out the  Perspectives on the Trail of Tears poster template to each group. Ask students to answer the following questions in the corners of the poster:

  • What was the Trail of Tears? 
  • Who was removed (and from where were they removed)? Where did they resettle? 
  • What was John Ross’s opinion of Indian Removal? 
  • What was Andrew Jackson’s opinion of Indian Removal? 

In the center of the poster, have students create a collage showing how the group feels about the Trail of Tears. Underneath the collage, the group should write a one-sentence statement explaining their feelings about the Trail of Tears.

After they complete their work, debrief students on the material they have learned. Pose the concluding question: "Could another removal of an ethnic group happen in the present-day United States?"

Students may research the experiences of other Indian nations subjected to removal as a result of Andrew Jackson’s policies and write a short essay explaining their research.

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Research paper on the trail of tears.

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Much has been written about the Trail of Tears in the last century. Yet aside from facing incredibly harsh psychological hardship by their untimely banishment from American land, Native Americans also suffered through a challenging terrain to reach their destination. This historical essay , written by a top Ultius writer, illustrates the many challenges Native Americans faced to arrive in Oklahoma.

Geographic and Climatological Characteristics of the Trail of Tears

The Trail of Tears era of Indian removal in the Eastern and Central United States is a dark and infamous period of American history. Much has been written about the trials and tribulations faced by the tribes who were forced to leave their homes and cross hundreds of miles to Oklahoma. While considerable attention has been given to the personal stories of many individuals on both sides of the operation, attention must also be paid to the environmental issues faced when moving a population that large so far in an era of relatively little infrastructure. The climate and geography of the Trail of Tears only compounded the psychological hardship suffered by entire nations of Native Americans.

The frontier

After The War of 1812 had concluded nineteenth century America could finally look to domestic matters and the expansion of it territory. The American frontier was not very far from the original colonies. There was a lot of space and there were a lot of natural resources to be claimed and everyone was eager to get a piece. However, the frontier was not empty. Various Indian tribes were settled in the very places that the white frontiersmen wanted to go and were organized internally and among each other. These five civilized tribes occupied large parts of:

  • Mississippi
  • Florida 
  • North Carolina 
  • South Carolina 

An important part of why they were able to be so organized and stable is that much of their territory was the best farmland in the region (Crewe 8). Both the climate and the terrain were well suited to agriculture and made it possible for the tribes to maintain year-round settlements.

Inability to integrate the indigenous tribes

When the United States government decided to take this natural bounty for its white citizens, the only two options were moving the massive populations or killing them all. Integration was apparently out of the question, according to President Jackson,

“’That those tribes can not exist surrounded by our settlements and in continual contact with our citizens is certain… Established in the midst of another and a superior race… they must necessarily yield… and ere long disappear’” (Crewe 15).  

In light of that opinion, the tribes are probably lucky they were not just exterminated. So it became a matter of moving them all over hundreds of miles of rugged, untamed country through one brutal season after another.

The Road to Oklahoma

There was no easy road to Oklahoma in those days. The Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River served as major geographic barriers, but the simple names for those landmarks do not describe the challenge of traversing them which every tribe except the Seminoles, who were shipped across the Gulf of Mexico, had to do (Crewe 18). Though a variety of water routes also existed for the Choctaws, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Muscogee tribes, most did not benefit from such a rapid or relatively easy journey.

The Nothern route

The most northern, and most common, route in particular suffered particular hardship. This route passed through several states, beginning in Tennessee, crossing Kentucky and Illinois, then over the Mississippi in Missouri and through Arkansas to finally arrive in Oklahoma (ToTA). This route, like the many others, faced the immediate challenge of working its way out of the Appalachian Mountains. While most of the tribes were familiar with the mountainous terrain as they had lived there for generations, it presented new challenges in the context of a mass exodus. The area was mountainous and heavily wooded, making it a challenge for pack animals and travelers of less-than-perfect health.  While the Trail of Tears route did stick to established roads, it must be remembered that these are early 19th century roads in the wilderness and many would be little more than broken trails by today’s standards (ToTA). Once they broke free of the mountains, the topography became considerably gentler, though. This continuing trek across the unforgiving terrain was well documented throughout American literature and shaped the way in which Native Americans were presented as steadfast and noble people .

Continued hardships beyond the mountains

While there were plenty of challenges remaining on the majority of the route, mountains were no longer one of them after the trail left Tennessee. The geography of most of Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and some parts of Arkansas is much flatter than that of Tennessee (ToTA).  There were still considerably changes in elevation made throughout the course of the journey. The northern Trail began at around 800 feet above sea level, but promptly had to rise to over 2,000 before dipping back down as it entered Kentucky and Illinois, reaching as low as a 200 feet or lower (geology.com). Lowland travel was likely easier in terms of both weather and terrain, but it would not last.  After crossing the Mississippi River, not an easy task when it’s thousands of people in the 1800s, the elevation started to rise again. Through the last leg of the journey the Trail rose back up to almost 2,000 feet through Missouri, Arkansas, and into Oklahoma (netstate.com). Any journey of thousands of miles would have been hard enough without having to climb up a hill into thinner air at the end, but that was the final step. 

The Cherokee

When it came time to move the the Cherokee people , there was a considerable heat wave and serious drought. The other tribes who had gone before had faced similar difficulties, water and food shortages because of heat and drought and subsequent sickness and death, so the Cherokee won a reprieve and were allowed to wait until Fall (Byers 46).

The Climate and Weather: A Horror Story

The real hardships came in terms of climate. Any journey that lasts several months is going to have to face the weather of different seasons and in the time of the Trail of Tears, the weather was being particularly cruel. In this way the brutal summers of the both the South and the Midwest were avoided by at least one tribe. There was no way to avoid the climatological hardships, however, and the weather was unforgiving. By leaving in the fall, the Cherokee instead faced the challenges of winter:

“By November, winter weather had arrived, and the frozen rivers were impossible to cross. Food was scarce” (Byers 46).  

Dry summers compounded with a harsh and relatively early winter made the journey of the Cherokee people one of the worst as all the difficulties of navigating broken or heavily forested terrain and crossing rivers became compounded by ice, snow and deadly cold.  The ability to grow and forage for food was also compromised by these conditions.  Both those who traveled in the summer and winter faced the challenge of feeding their pack animals and themselves because the areas they traveled through were uncultivated and poorly suited to supporting that kind of concentrated demand (Byers 46).  If it had been only one group traveling, it may not have mattered, but the land was taxed to its limit by repeated trips and particularly harsh weather year round.

The Trail of Tears contained no shortage of horror stories and hardship for Native Americans . It needed no help from the very environment through which it passed to add to the hostility. Both terrain and climate combined upgraded the hardship to a nightmare. Though they followed roads, mountain, forest, and frontier roads were poor improvements on the naturally challenging terrain of the Trail, especially the early parts in the Appalachian Mountains. The continued trek accross the land beyond the mountains, unfortunately provided little comfort with constant changes in elevation and unforgiving weather through seasonal changes. The journey tooks its toll upon the people who suffered at its hands and the very existence of the Trail of Tears as an event in American history remains both a point of contention with surviving Native Americans and a blight on the reputation of this country.

Works Cited

Byers, Ann. The Trail of Tears: a primary source history of the forced relocation of the Cherokee Nation . New York: Rosen Pub., 2004. Print.

Crewe, Sabrina, and D. L. Birchfield. The Trail of Tears . Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Pub., 2004. Print.

ToTA. "The Story | Trail of Tears National Historic Trail." The Trail of Tears Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nationaltota.org/the-story/>.

Geology.com. "Tennessee Physical Map and Tennessee Topographic Map." Geology.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://geology.com/topographic-physical-map/tennessee.shtml>.

Netstate.com. "Arkansas Base and Elevation Maps." NetState. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.netstate.com/states/geography/mapcom/ar_mapscom.htm>.

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  • Trail Of Tears Essays

Trail Of Tears Essays (Examples)

76+ documents containing “trail of tears” .

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Trail of tears was an important experience.

Trail of Tears was an important experience that forever changed the history of the Cherokee Nation and the United States. Several thousand Cherokee Native Indians lost their lives when forced to leave their homelands through laws put in place by Federal authorities. The beginning of the negotiation of several treaties to establish land boundaries and trade routes started in 1776 between the nation of Native Americans and the United States. The influx of European-Americans and other countries desiring more of the fertile southern lands for farming and homesteads continued to encroach upon the lands of the Native owners. The beginning of the end came when a smaller representative delegation of Cherokee Natives who did not have authority were either coerced or agreed to sign a treaty in 1835. The Echota Treaty signed in Echota, GA was accepted as a legal document and ratified by the United States Congress in 1836. The….

Works Cited

Document A .The Cherokee Constitution. 1827

Document D. Andrew Jackson's Second State of the Union Address. 1830.

Document F. "Memorial of a Delegation of Cherokee Nation of Indians" (Message to Congress From a Cherokee delegation, 1830.

Document H. "Memorial and Protest of the Cherokee Nation." 1836.

Trail of Tears Review Theda

This must have made the sting of their losses in court -- and their losses despite winning in court -- even more bitter. They had learned and played by the new rules even though that system was unfair to begin with (in all fairness, the Americans should have used the Cherokee legal system to try and get what they wanted), but the system refused to give them fair access. This is more evidence that the American and Georgian governments really did not want to see the Cherokee as equal or deserving the same protections and rights under their own laws as they themselves were, and that they were willing to do whatever it took to get the land that the Cherokees had lived on for generations. The advancement of Cherokee language and culture would have been an indicator to any eye, even a heavily racist and otherwise biased one,….

Native Trail of Tears I

Disease ran through our people like wildfire, while others were simply to young or old to make the journey and gave up, to die alone by the side of the road. Some of the soldiers were kind to us, but others brutalized us and tormented the young women. My young daughter survived the trip, and together, we are trying to build a new life in the Indian Country. I will never forget the forced march in the coldest part of winter, when so many of my people died. The rest of you should not forget, as well. The Trail of Tears changed my life and my people's lives forever. Thousands of us lost family and loved ones. We were forced to live on the dry plains, where food and animals were totally different from our home. Our entire way of life was gone forever, and I lost everyone but my….

Burnett, John. "John Burnett's Story of the Trail of Tears." Cherokee.org. 1890. 10 Jan. 2007.  http://www.cherokee.org/home.aspx?section=culture&culture=culinfo&cat=R2OKZVC/B7c=&ID=JY45S/LKJQ0= 

Duncan, Barbara R., ed. Living Stories of the Cherokee. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Effect of Trail of Tears on Cherokees

Cherokee Nation can be described as the government of the Cherokee people that is recognized by the federal government in the United States. Throughout its history, the Cherokee Nation has remained committed to safeguarding its people's intrinsic sovereignty while promoting and preserving the language, culture, and values of the Cherokee people. Moreover, the Cherokee Nation is increasingly committed to enhancing the quality of life for subsequent generations of Cherokee people or citizens. However, the Cherokee Nation has experienced tremendous challenges throughout its history that has generated considerable impacts on these people. One of the major events or incidents that had significant implications on Cherokee people or Cherokee Indians is the Trail of Tears. The Trail of Tears can be described as the Cherokees' march that was forced and directed by the United States Army during the removal of American Indian tribes. In essence, the Trail of Tears is the forceful….

Bibliography

Conley, Robert J. Mountain Windsong: A Novel of the Trail of Tears. Oklahoma City, OK:

Kidwell, Clara Sue. "The Effects of Removal on American Indian Tribes." National Humanities

Center. accessed October 27, 2015.  http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indianremoval.htm

The Trail of Tears and How it S Like Racism

President Andrew Jackson built his political and military career on an aggressive approach to Native Americans. His exploits began well before 1838-9, when his Indian Removal Act signaled the deplorable state of affairs in North America. Around 4000 Cherokee died during the forcible removal program dubbed aptly the "Trail of Tears," as many more Indians were displaced and deprived of rights that had been previously been guaranteed by federal law. The Indian Removal Act violated several tacit and implicit agreements between tribal governments and their American counterparts. By the time of the passing of the Indian Removal Act, five tribes in the Southeastern United States including the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole (which were technically and historically a branch of Creek) had been assimilating into the colonial European society. Yet mastery English and avid participation in the colonial economy failed to enable the Southeastern tribes to stave off the….

Goldberg, Carole E. "Public Law 280: The Limits of State Jurisdiction over Reservation Indians." 22 UCLA L. Rev. 535 (1974-1975) .

Goss, George William. "The Debate Over Indian Removal in the 1830s." (2011). Graduate Masters Theses, Paper 44, 2011.

Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

"Indian Removal." PBS. Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html

Antebellum Period

Antebellum Period: Different Perspectives Woman in a White Slaveholding Family in Virginia My name is Matilda Baldwin originally of the Richmond Portmans that being my maiden name. I was born and raised outside of Richmond on my poppy's tobacco plantation. My husband's land is not very far away. I spend most of my summer afternoons with Mama. We sit fanning ourselves sipping mint-iced teas wondering if my baby sister will have a successful introduction into Richmond Society. Three years prior, my own debutante ball was glorious. It was where I met Robert Baldwin and many other suitors. He was clearly smitten with me from the start for the next day he asked Poppy for my hand in marriage. My father appreciates fine things in life; a good hand rolled cigar, two fingers of French Brandy and a man who knows what he wants but is not afraid of getting it. Besides Robert….

Identification American Indian Movement Activist

Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children 11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance 12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation 13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone 14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations 15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations 16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British retaliated with smallpox blankets eferences "ed Cloud."….

"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from  http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm 

Saunders, R. (2007). "Chief Pontiac's War -- 1763." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/chief_pontiacs_war_1763

History of the Texas Range

(Famous Cattle Trails) The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from Comanche and Fort Worth, from further north. From Fort Worth, the Chisolm Trail goes straight northwards, and crosses the ed iver at ed iver Station, and when it reaches the Indian Nation Territory, it passes through ush Springs, Kingfisher and Hennessy on through to Kansas. In fact, what made this particular trail very important was the fact that along the route, there were present, three important cattle terminals, which were Wichita, Abilene, and Newton. Abilene was in fact one of the largest cow towns in Kansas, and it was a mere hamlet of twelve red roofed cabins in the year 1867, which was the year when Joseph Mc Coy, a cattle dealer from Chicago, happened to arrive at Kansas. ecognizing the potential….

Abilene, History" Retrieved at http://www.kansascattletowns.com/abilene/abilene.html. Accessed 7 August, 2005

Beef Farming" Retrieved at http://www.face-online.org.uk/resources/factsheets/pdf_doc/beef.pdf. Accessed 7 August, 2005

Prior Learning US Historic Travel

American History Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own. In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and sometimes massacred….

Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.

Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.

Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.

Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.

Black Seminoles

Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements. The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s in….

Amos, Alcione M., and Thomas Senter (eds). The Black Seminoles. History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996.

Hancock, I. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. Austin: African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1980.  http://members.aol.com/angelaw859/movement.html   http://www.nps.gov/foda/Fort_Davis_WEB_PAGE/About_the_Fort/Seminole.htm 

 http://www.ccny.cuny.edu/library/News/seminoles2.html 

Jahoda, G. The Trail of Tears. Kansas City: Wings Press, 1995.

The Character of the Oklahomans

Oklahomans Oklahoma has only been a state in the U.S. since 1907, yet Oklahomans were around well before then. Oklahoma is known as the “sooner” state because settlers had arrived in the territory before it had even been declared part of the United States. In the first half of the 19th century, the region was part of Arkansas Territory. The Native Americans were forced on the Trail of Tears and made to settle in Indian Territory in modern-day Oklahoma. In the latter half of the 19th century, cattle ranchers from Texas drove their cattle through Indian Territory to states up north and out west, paving cattle trails along the way. More and more whites began to settle in the area as a result of these cattle trails and the expansion of the railroad. Then when oil was found, Oklahoma became a major focus for the oil industry and Tulsa became known….

Removal of the Native Americans

He was viewing them as little children who required guidance. He tended to believe that the policy of removal had great benefits to the Indians. Majority of the white Americans were thinking that United States was not capable of extending past Mississippi. The removal was capable of saving the Indian nationals from the white's depredations Foreman 1932). The removal could make them to govern themselves peacefully It was assumed that the removal was to resettle the Indians in a region where they were capable of governing themselves peacefully. However, a number of Americans viewed this as being a mere excuse for a cruel and appalling course of action, and complained against the removal of the Indian nationals. Their complaints however could not prevent the southeastern populations from being removal. The first lot of people to sign the removal treaty was the Choctaws. They did this in September 1830. A number of….

(415 pp., 14 ill., 6 maps, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932.)

Gibson, Arrell M. Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1981

Lindberg, Kip and Matthews, Matt. "To Play a Bold Game: The Battle of Honey Springs" North and South Magazine December 2002: pgs. 56- 61.

American History Between the Years

As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued. The Missouri Compromise In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own slaves by….

Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from  http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html .

Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.

Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.

Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.

The Cherokee Negotiation and Removal

John Ross and JacksonThe two lettersone from Chief John Ross to the US governmentthe other from President Andrew Jackson to the Cherokeeshow two sides of a terrible battle in the 19th century. On the one hand is the plight of the Cherokee, who see themselves being forced off their land in the South to go to the West. On the other hand is the argument of Jackson that the Cherokee have not bought the land and have no means of securing it for themselves, that the US has set aside funds for them and promised schools for them in the Westand so they must go. Chief John Rosss letter shows how the Cherokee just wanted to have the same kind of liberty that the Americans promoted in their Declaration.[footnoteRef:2] Jacksons letter shows how there is no thought of liberty for the Cherokee but rather an intense desire to move them….

BibliographyAndrew Jackson Letter to the Cherokee.“Our Hearts are Sickened”: Letter from Chief John Ross of the Cherokee, Georgia, 1836.

Mirror of the Face of America Robert

Mirror of the Face of America Robert Takaki's book A Different Mirror is a history of the people of the nation of America. The book is not, however, a history of America that a reader might expect when he or she first opens an introductory text. The subtitle of A Different Mirror is A History of Multicultural America. The book attempts to give a fuller history of America. It tries to give a fuller history of the America of nationalities such as the Native Indian peoples of America, African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, Japanese-Americans, Chinese-Americans, Irish-Americans, and of the people of the Jewish religion in America. By telling the different stories of these different groups, Robert Takaki demonstrates that more conventional American history books are incomplete. The history of A Different Mirror is not simply the history of many different American groups -- it is a more complete history of America itself. The….

Takaki, Robert. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Back Bay Books, 1993. Reprinted 1994.

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Native Americans

Trail of Tears was an important experience that forever changed the history of the Cherokee Nation and the United States. Several thousand Cherokee Native Indians lost their lives when…

Research Paper

This must have made the sting of their losses in court -- and their losses despite winning in court -- even more bitter. They had learned and played…

Disease ran through our people like wildfire, while others were simply to young or old to make the journey and gave up, to die alone by the side…

Cherokee Nation can be described as the government of the Cherokee people that is recognized by the federal government in the United States. Throughout its history, the Cherokee Nation…

American History

President Andrew Jackson built his political and military career on an aggressive approach to Native Americans. His exploits began well before 1838-9, when his Indian Removal Act signaled the…

Family and Marriage

Antebellum Period: Different Perspectives Woman in a White Slaveholding Family in Virginia My name is Matilda Baldwin originally of the Richmond Portmans that being my maiden name. I was born and…

Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children 11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently…

Agriculture

(Famous Cattle Trails) The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from…

American History Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher…

Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not…

Oklahomans Oklahoma has only been a state in the U.S. since 1907, yet Oklahomans were around well before then. Oklahoma is known as the “sooner” state because settlers had arrived…

He was viewing them as little children who required guidance. He tended to believe that the policy of removal had great benefits to the Indians. Majority of the…

As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation…

Reaction Paper

John Ross and JacksonThe two lettersone from Chief John Ross to the US governmentthe other from President Andrew Jackson to the Cherokeeshow two sides of a terrible battle in…

Mirror of the Face of America Robert Takaki's book A Different Mirror is a history of the people of the nation of America. The book is not, however, a…

Research Paper #1 – the Trail of Tears

This research paper will provide a comprehensive analysis of the Trail of Tears, the forced relocation of Native American tribes in the 1830s. It will discuss the historical background, the policies of President Andrew Jackson, and the impact of the Indian Removal Act. The paper will examine the journey’s conditions, its effects on various Native American communities, and its long-term consequences. It will also consider the Trail of Tears in the broader context of American history and indigenous rights. PapersOwl offers a variety of free essay examples on the topic of Cherokee.

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The Trail of Tears. One of the darkest periods in the history of the United States. It all started with the Indian Removal Act signed by Andrew Jackson in the year of 1830 (History). This Act, along with the pride of the still young independent country led by Manifest Destiny fueled this massive ordeal that caused thousands of Native Americans to die during this period. The first victims were the Choctaw Indians when they were completely forced to vacate their lands in the year of 1831 (History), essentially creating the Trail of Tears. The Trail of Tears refers to the journey that the Native Americans were forced to make to evade American attackers after being forced off their lands and being further pushed away into other areas.

The Trail of Tears unfortunately continued in the year of 1836, when the government forcefully moved the last of the Creeks off their rightfully owned roughly 3,500 of 15,000 Creeks who originally departed towards Oklahoma did not arrive. When it came time to move the Cherokee tribe they were divided on whether or not to agree to work with Congress or to fight for their lands. Half of the Cherokees attempted to figure out some way to curb the US government’s hunger for the prized Cherokee lands, while others were ready to stand their ground and fight against the government. A small percentage of the Cherokee population suggested that it would be both safe and beneficial if they made a monetary agreement for their lands through Congress, which is ironically what wound up happening to the group as a whole. The minority of the Cherokee nation who wanted to sell the land wound up creating the Treaty of New Echota with Congress during 1835. The Treaty of New Echota stated that the Cherokee Indians would receive $5 million plus the relocation reimbursement, and proper compensation for lost belongings and property (Indian Removals). When Congress received the treaty they were more than happy to sign it quickly before anyone had second thoughts. Unfortunately for the Cherokees the majority who wanted to stay and fight for their lands felt betrayed due to the minority going behind their backs and striking a deal without the consent of the majority. Due to this situation most of the Cherokees adamantly refused to leave their land with only around 2,000 actually complying.

In 1838, the current President, Martin Van Buren assigned the General Winfield Scott and his troops the task of speeding up the Native American removal process. Scott’s troops brutally forced the Cherokee Indians inside of their stockades at gunpoint while the soldiers proceeded to loot the remaining Cherokee homes for their belongings, which were usually seized and not returned. After doing this, Scott’s troops forced the Cherokee Indians to complete a twelve-hundred mile journey to a new designated territory. Diseases and sicknesses such as the Whooping cough, typhus, dysentery, cholera and starvation were causes of epidemic along the way, and current historians estimate that more than 5,000 Cherokees died due to the harshness of the journey (History).

Wrapping things up, the Trail of Tears was the most sorrowful legacy of the Jacksonian Era (Indian Removals). The amount of innocent Native Americans that were forced off their lands due to the ideals of Manifest Destiny and white settler superiority was utterly disgraceful. While modern day Native Americans are well compensated for their past I do believe that they should have received substantially more land than the pitiful amount of reservation lands that remain.

Works Cited

  • “Trail of Tears.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 1 Apr. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trail_of_Tears#Choctaw_removal.
  • Editors, History.com. “Trail of Tears.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 9 Nov. 2009, www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/trail-of-tears.
  • “The Trail of Tears – The Indian Removals.” Ushistory.org, Independence Hall Association, www.ushistory.org/us/24f.asp.”

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72 Trail Of Tears Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best trail of tears topic ideas & essay examples, 📌 good essay topics on trail of tears, 🔎 simple & easy trail of tears essay titles, ❓ trail of tears research questions.

  • The Trail of Tears: Historical Overview The trail of tears was a term that was used to refer to the forced movement and the relocation of these native Indians tribes.
  • The Keys of Territorial Expansion: The Trail of Tears The parties opposing the removal were advancing their arguments around the following points; one of them is that the US should implement policies that were applicable to the cases of the affected and that they […] We will write a custom essay specifically for you by our professional experts 808 writers online Learn More
  • Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation However, the primary advantage of the book is that it presents a different perspective and casts light on some facts of relationships between Native and White Americans that people, whether intentionally or not, tend to […]
  • Cherokee Removal: The Trail of Tears, 1833-1839 Thus, I should state that the Cherokees had many reasons to discuss the forced relocation as the ‘Trail of Tears’ because they suffered significantly and saw a lot of deaths during the journey.
  • Native Americans History: Trail of Tears Therefore, The Trail of Tears was a battle between the Europeans and Native Americans, often referred to as the American Holocaust because it completely outcast a group of people due to the fact they were […]
  • Summary of “Trail of Tears” by John Ehle This analysis by John Ehle is about the rise and fall of the Cherokee nation resulting from the forced removal of the Cherokees who were Native Americans from their ancestral lands in Georgia to the […]
  • “Mountain Windsong: A Novel of the Trail of Tears” by Robert Conley The book under consideration in this paper, “Mountain Windsong: A novel of the trail of tears” by Robert Conley depicts the events of those times showing the tragedy of the Indian people of the Cherokee […]
  • America’s Early National Disgrace, the Trail of Tears of 1838
  • Andrew Jackson and the Elimination of the Cherokee Indians in the Trail of Tears
  • Book Review “Trail of Tears”: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation
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  • The Injustices and Inhumanity in the Trail of Tears
  • Cherokee Population Losses During Trail of Tears
  • The Original Race Discrimination in America of the Trail of Tears
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  • Comparing the Middle Passage to the Trail of Tears
  • Historical Background and Review of the “Trail of Tears”
  • Life With the Ojibwa: A Modern Day Trail of Tears
  • Starvation, Illness, and Death of the Native Americans in Trail of Tears
  • The Five Civilized Tribes and the “Trail of Tears”
  • The Indian Removal Act and Trail of Tears
  • The Misguided Policy That Put the Cherokee Indians on the Trail of Tears
  • The U. S. Oppression of the Native Americans on the Trail of Tears
  • Voices From the “Trail of Tears” by Vicki Rozema
  • Western Expansion and the Trail of Tears
  • The Sufferings of the Native Americans During the Trail of Tears
  • An Argument in Favor of the Trail of Tears
  • The Trail of Tears and the Long Walk of the Navajo
  • The History of the Genocide in the Trail of Tears
  • Historical Background of the Trail of Tears
  • The Trail of Tears: Event That Changed the Native Americans
  • Trail of Tears: A Part of Cherokee Nation’s History
  • Causes of the Trail of Tears
  • The Pros and Cons of the Trail of Tears
  • Cherokee Women in Crisis: Trail of Tears, Civil War, and Allotment
  • Cherokee Trail of Tears: One of the Removals of Eastern Tribes to Oklahoma
  • History of the Cherokee Removal and the Trail of Tears
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  • Stories of the Trail of Tears in Oklahoma History
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  • The Indian Removal Act and Its Effect on the Trail of Tears
  • Supreme Court Decision of the Trail of Tears
  • In What Order Did the Five Civilized Tribes Make the Trail of Tears
  • Affect the Trail of Tears on the Cherokee Nation
  • What Lesson Can Be Learned from the Trail of Tears?
  • How Did the Indian Removal Act Affect Native American Culture?
  • Why Were Native Americans Forced on the Trail of Tears?
  • How Did the Trail of Tears Affect the Future?
  • What Diseases Did the Trail of Tears Bring?
  • How Did the Trail of Tears Destroy Native American Culture?
  • What Was the Social Impact of the Trail of Tears?
  • How Did the Trail of Tears Change American History?
  • Was the Trail of Tears an Example of the Indian Removal Policy Implemented by the United States Government During Jackson’s Time?
  • How Is the Trail of Tears Remembered Today?
  • What Misguided Policies Led the Cherokee Indians Through Hell on the Trail of Tears?
  • How Was the Cherokee Involved in the Trail of Tears?
  • What Is the Native American History of the Trail of Tears?
  • Why Did the United States Oppress Native Americans on the Trail of Tears?
  • How Did the Soldiers Treat the Indians During the Trail of Tears?
  • What Supreme Court Decision and Jackson’s Response Led to the Trail of Tears?
  • How Did the Trail of Tears Affect History?
  • Which Tribe Lost the Most People During the Trail of Tears?
  • How Did the Trail of Tears and the Indian Removal Act Affect Westward Expansion?
  • What Were the Main Causes of Death on the Trail of Tears?
  • Has Anyone Tried to Stop the Trail of Tears?
  • Why Is the Trail of Tears Called a National Tragedy?
  • What Is the Significance of the Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears?
  • How Did the Trail of Tears End?
  • What Happened to the Natives After the Trail of Tears?
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Trail of Tears Research Paper

Background information on the cherokee indians, social and world problems, culturally lasting effects, relating to the holocaust.

In 1838-1839 the Cherokee, Creek, and Seminoles were moved from their land in Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Florida. The white settlers wanted the indian land to grow crops. The federal government forced the native americans out of the southeast to Oklahoma. The Indians suffered social world problems, and culturally lasting effects, and were exiled like the Jews in the holocaust.

Andrew Jackson had been an backer of what he called ‘Indian removal.’ According to History.com, “As an Army general, he had spent years leading brutal campaigns against the Creeks in Georgia and Alabama and the Seminoles in Florida–campaigns that resulted in the transfer of hundreds of thousands of acres of land from Indian nations to white farmers. As president, he continued this crusade.” In 1830, Andrew Jackson created what he called the Indian Removal Act. This act made it possible for the federal government to take land from the Native Americans. This land was located in the cotton kingdom,which was east of the Mississippi. The government gave the Native Americans land to the west, in what History.com calls “the Indian colonization zone,” that the United States had acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase.

When they began the march, it was known as the Trail of Tears. 4,000 cherokee people died on the trail from hunger, cold, and disease. An estimated 90%. of the cherokee population.

When the trail of tears first started or even after, no one tried to prevent it at a time that would matter. The Native Americans were not given time to gather their belongings, and as they left, Americans raided their homes. The americans did not care til the whole thing was said and done. As the Indian-removal procedure went on, iIn 1836, the government drove the Indians from their land. 3,500 of the 15,000 who set out for the trip did not survive. History.org says that “The cherokee of Georgia used legal action to resist.” and that most of the Cherokee people weren't “frontier savages.” Ccherokeemuseum.org says “They resisted their Removal by creating their own newspaper, called The Cherokee Phoenix.” Indians were only known to the americans at that time as savages.

These Native American tribes are all fading from North America. The culture of these tribes have forever changed. During and aAfter the Trail of Tears, the Native Americans suffered many new changes. On this treacherousturis journey, over 8,000 Native Americans died on this trail. They were used to the swampy wetlands then moved to the dry pPrairies of Oklahoma. In Oklahoma there are tornadoes and blizzards in the winter. The Natives had to change their culture to the land they were exiled to. The Natives and their tribe have faded from the land. The very few native tribes left are modernized and even further west of the Mississippi River.

The Natives in South east of the United States where exiled like jews in the Holocaust. The Indians were abused, mistreated, killed, and tortured. The natives had to march from the south to to present day Oklahoma. The jews had to march in the death march from camp to camp. The United States Government acted almost like a Hitler figure at this time. They exiled the Indians for white settlers to grow crops on native land. The jews were exiled because they were not the superior race.

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  1. The Cherokee Trail of Tears: A Sesquicentennial Perspective

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    The term Trail of Tears invokes the collective suffering those people experienced, although it is most commonly used in reference to the removal experiences of the Southeast Indians generally and the Cherokee nation specifically. The physical trail consisted of several overland routes and one main water route and, by passage of the Omnibus ...

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    John G. Burnett served as an interpreter in an army group that oversaw removal and wrote a letter about the brutality of the Trail to his children in 1890. He remembers, saying "Murder is murder, and somebody must answer. Somebody must explain the streams of blood that flowed in the Indian country in the summer of 1838.

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    Research. Research about the Trail of Tears events and routes is on-going. The National Park Service works cooperatively with scholars, site managers, and others to learn more about trail-related stories and sites. Since 2000, the agency has worked with more than 30 partners - the Trail of Tears Association, universities, museums, historical ...

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    Research Paper on the Trail of Tears Ultius 18 Jun 2013 Much has been written about the Trail of Tears in the last century. Yet aside from facing incredibly harsh psychological hardship by their untimely banishment from American land, Native Americans also suffered through a challenging terrain to reach their destination.

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    Research on the topic you chose shanon mcgrew his 200: applied history southern new hampshire university april 2023 the event in question is the trial of tears ... References: Appendix 2: General Winfield Scott's Removal Order No. 25. (2003). Voices from the Trail of Tears, 194- Blackburn, M. (2012). Return to the Trail of Tears ...

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    Trail Of Tears Research Paper. 135 Words1 Page. The trail of tears was a tretrous journey that the native Americans took. Because the Americans would promise land, then take it back. First off it was approximately one thousand miles. The five different tribes were the Cherokee, Choctaw, Seminole, and finally the Creek.

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    Trail Of Tears Research Paper 478 Words | 2 Pages Trail of Tears Proclamation of 1763 much hope for the native americans and english settlers to live in peace.after american revolution,founding fathers envisioned future native american and english to share land in peace. Native American embrace this idea by simulating white culture.

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  20. 72 Trail Of Tears Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    Summary of "Trail of Tears" by John Ehle. This analysis by John Ehle is about the rise and fall of the Cherokee nation resulting from the forced removal of the Cherokees who were Native Americans from their ancestral lands in Georgia to the […] "Mountain Windsong: A Novel of the Trail of Tears" by Robert Conley.

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    Trail Of Tears Research Paper. 1609 Words 7 Pages. The Trail of Tears. For centuries Indians occupied what is today known as Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, Florida and North Carolina, thriving and prospering there (History-Trail of Tears). The Cherokee Indians lived peacefully in the Southern Appalachians until Europeans settled on their land in ...

  22. Trail of Tears Research Paper Flashcards

    Trail of Tears Research Paper. Term. 1 / 43. In 1830, Andrew Jackson, signed the Indian Removal Act. This act allowed the government to trade the Native's land east of the Mississippi for the for land in Oklahoma. This land was called "The Indian Colonization Zone." The government acquired "The Indian Colonization Zone" via Louisiana Purchase.

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    100% plagiarism free Rating: 5/5 Views: 802 Orders: 16 Sample details Trail of Tears Research Paper Check out more papers on Indian Removal Act Trail Of Tears United States Contents Background Information on the Cherokee Indians Social and World Problems Culturally lasting effects Relating to The Holocaust