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7 Types of Homework for Students

types of homework

There are seven types of homework. These are practice, preparation, extension, integration, research, application, and flipped homework.

Each type of homework has its own role for students learning. The important task for teachers is to select homework that will best provide holistic support to a student.

This doesn’t mean just supporting students for the upcoming exams but also ensuring students are not overwhelmed by homework and that they can still live a balanced life outside of school.

Types of Homework

1. practice.

Practice is the most common task students have when they are given homework. It entails attempting to reinforce information learned in school so that students will commit it to long-term memory.

An example of practice homework is math workbooks. Usually, a teacher will complete the math task in class so students know how to do it, then give them a workbook of 20 – 50 tasks to complete overnight to reinforce the task.

The benefit of practice homework is that it can certainly help students commit what they learned in class to memory. This is especially the case if teachers used spaced repetition. This is a strategy whereby the teacher re-introduces things learned in previous weeks and months during homework revision so the information is not lost over time.

The downside of practice homework is that the child is learning on their own during this period. This means that, if the child hasn’t sufficiently learned the content in class, they don’t have anyone to help them during homework time. This can lead to a great deal of frustration and despair for students staring at a piece of paper feeling lost and confused.

Related: Homework Statistics

2. Preparation

Preparation homework is given to students before a lesson so they have the important information at hand before class.

Commonly, this occurs when teachers provide reading materials for students to look over between class. They then come to class having read the materials so they are ready to discuss and debate the topics.

It’s also commonly used in language learning, where it’s called pre-teaching of vocabulary. The teacher provides vocabulary to learn before class so the students can come to class and practice it together.

The benefit of preparation homework is that it bunches a lot of the didactic (non-interactive) parts of learning into the pre-class time so students can spend most of their time in class interacting with the teacher and peers.

The downside of preparation homework is that it rarely works as expected. Teachers often spend the first 10 to 15 minutes of class re-teaching what was supposed to be done for homework either because students found it too hard or they didn’t do the tasks.

3. Extension

Extension homework involves providing students with tasks that are based upon what was learned in class, but goes over and above those tasks.

It is the equivalent of teaching a student to swim then letting them out into the ocean. The students have to apply their knowledge in a new context without the support or ‘ scaffolding ’ of a teacher hovering over their shoulders.

The benefit of extension homework is it can give students a lot of confidence. They can go home and feel as if they’re excelling at their work when they find that they’re doing it without the support of a teacher.

The downside of extension homework is that it can be risky: by definition, students are extending themselves beyond what was learned in class, meaning they will come across new information and new contexts where they might need help that’s not available at the time.

Related: Homework Pros and Cons

4. Integration

Integration homework requires students to bring together, or ‘integrate’, knowledge from various subjects and knowledge areas into one project.

The homework may involve the integration of history lessons with writing lessons to create a book report, or the integration of math with business studies to create a business plan.

Integration is great for students to draw connections between things they have learned in various different classes at school. However, it also involves a lot of complexity that may make students feel confused or overwhelmed.

5. Research

Research homework involves using your time after school and on weekends to gather data that will be discussed in class.

Often, this can involve interviewing family members, taking photos around your community, or looking up information on the internet.

The benefit of research homework is that students often come to class with exciting things to share. They will also come with questions to help stimulate conversation in class.

However, it’s important for teachers to be aware that not all students have access to high-speed internet and other resources to conduct research. In fact, in my homework statistics article, I discussed how a staggering 24% of low-income American teens regularly fail to complete homework due to lack of access to technology.

6. Application

Application homework involves taking knowledge learned in class and applying it to real-world settings.

This is common in immersive language learning settings, for example, when teachers ask students to go out into the streets and practice new vocabulary when ordering a drink or buying food.

The benefit of application homework is that it gives real-world context to what was learned in class. By applying your knowledge, you can more effectively commit it to memory than simply rote learning it at your kitchen table.

Application in a real-world setting provides a context and a story that you can easily pull from your memory in the future, helping you to retain information long-term.

7. Flipped Homework

The flipped learning movement is a movement that involves making students learn at home on their own then come to class to practice it.

For teachers, this means thinking about school as the space for ‘traditional’ homework and home as the space for instruction.

This is increasingly popular with technology and hybrid learning environments. For example, a teacher might assign a YouTube video to watch as homework before class. Then, the class involves dissecting the video and critiquing it.

The benefit of flipped learning is that it maximizes time for constructivist and hands-on active learning in the classroom. The downside is students can get confused during preparation, they may not complete the preparation work, or technology may fail on them.

What are the Functions of Homework?

Homework serves multiple purposes. These include:

  • Getting Ahead: Many schools and parents give their children homework (including private tutoring help so their children can have an advantage in life over other children.
  • Keeping Up: On a societal level, many governments encourage homework so that students can keep up with other societies in the ‘education race’ of the 21st Century. Some societies, like South Korea, heavily emphasize homework, and others feel they need to keep up.
  • Catching Up: Many students are assigned homework to catch up with the rest of their class. If you find a topic very difficult, you may find you need to spend a lot more time on your own working through the information than your peers.
  • Retention: Homework helps you to repeat and retain information. With extra practice, you can commit information to memory.
  • Excitement: Some well-made homework can get students excited to come to class to discuss what they did.
  • Application: Situation-based learning, where you’re applying what you learned in class to real-world situations, can help progress students’ knowledge in ways that you can’t in school.
  • Home-School Relationships: Homework also serves the purpose of ensuring parents know what’s going on in school. Many parents like to see what children are learning so they can monitor their children’s progress and keep teachers accountable.

Homework comes in all shapes and sizes. While many teachers stick to the old fashioned repetition homework mode, I’d encourage you to try out a range of other types of homework that can keep students engaged, encourage more discussion and collaboration in class, and ensure that the difficult work where students need the teacher’s help takes place in the classroom. This will provide maximum support for your students, help propel them forward, and prevent arguments for why homework should be banned .


Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 50 Durable Goods Examples
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Sat / act prep online guides and tips, how to do homework: 15 expert tips and tricks.

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Everyone struggles with homework sometimes, but if getting your homework done has become a chronic issue for you, then you may need a little extra help. That’s why we’ve written this article all about how to do homework. Once you’re finished reading it, you’ll know how to do homework (and have tons of new ways to motivate yourself to do homework)! 

We’ve broken this article down into a few major sections. You’ll find: 

  • A diagnostic test to help you figure out why you’re struggling with homework
  • A discussion of the four major homework problems students face, along with expert tips for addressing them 
  • A bonus section with tips for how to do homework fast

By the end of this article, you’ll be prepared to tackle whatever homework assignments your teachers throw at you . 

So let’s get started! 


How to Do Homework: Figure Out Your Struggles 

Sometimes it feels like everything is standing between you and getting your homework done. But the truth is, most people only have one or two major roadblocks that are keeping them from getting their homework done well and on time. 

The best way to figure out how to get motivated to do homework starts with pinpointing the issues that are affecting your ability to get your assignments done. That’s why we’ve developed a short quiz to help you identify the areas where you’re struggling. 

Take the quiz below and record your answers on your phone or on a scrap piece of paper. Keep in mind there are no wrong answers! 

1. You’ve just been assigned an essay in your English class that’s due at the end of the week. What’s the first thing you do?

A. Keep it in mind, even though you won’t start it until the day before it’s due  B. Open up your planner. You’ve got to figure out when you’ll write your paper since you have band practice, a speech tournament, and your little sister’s dance recital this week, too.  C. Groan out loud. Another essay? You could barely get yourself to write the last one!  D. Start thinking about your essay topic, which makes you think about your art project that’s due the same day, which reminds you that your favorite artist might have just posted to Instagram...so you better check your feed right now. 

2. Your mom asked you to pick up your room before she gets home from work. You’ve just gotten home from school. You decide you’ll tackle your chores: 

A. Five minutes before your mom walks through the front door. As long as it gets done, who cares when you start?  B. As soon as you get home from your shift at the local grocery store.  C. After you give yourself a 15-minute pep talk about how you need to get to work.  D. You won’t get it done. Between texts from your friends, trying to watch your favorite Netflix show, and playing with your dog, you just lost track of time! 

3. You’ve signed up to wash dogs at the Humane Society to help earn money for your senior class trip. You: 

A. Show up ten minutes late. You put off leaving your house until the last minute, then got stuck in unexpected traffic on the way to the shelter.  B. Have to call and cancel at the last minute. You forgot you’d already agreed to babysit your cousin and bake cupcakes for tomorrow’s bake sale.  C. Actually arrive fifteen minutes early with extra brushes and bandanas you picked up at the store. You’re passionate about animals, so you’re excited to help out! D. Show up on time, but only get three dogs washed. You couldn’t help it: you just kept getting distracted by how cute they were!

4. You have an hour of downtime, so you decide you’re going to watch an episode of The Great British Baking Show. You: 

A. Scroll through your social media feeds for twenty minutes before hitting play, which means you’re not able to finish the whole episode. Ugh! You really wanted to see who was sent home!  B. Watch fifteen minutes until you remember you’re supposed to pick up your sister from band practice before heading to your part-time job. No GBBO for you!  C. You finish one episode, then decide to watch another even though you’ve got SAT studying to do. It’s just more fun to watch people make scones.  D. Start the episode, but only catch bits and pieces of it because you’re reading Twitter, cleaning out your backpack, and eating a snack at the same time.

5. Your teacher asks you to stay after class because you’ve missed turning in two homework assignments in a row. When she asks you what’s wrong, you say: 

A. You planned to do your assignments during lunch, but you ran out of time. You decided it would be better to turn in nothing at all than submit unfinished work.  B. You really wanted to get the assignments done, but between your extracurriculars, family commitments, and your part-time job, your homework fell through the cracks.  C. You have a hard time psyching yourself to tackle the assignments. You just can’t seem to find the motivation to work on them once you get home.  D. You tried to do them, but you had a hard time focusing. By the time you realized you hadn’t gotten anything done, it was already time to turn them in. 

Like we said earlier, there are no right or wrong answers to this quiz (though your results will be better if you answered as honestly as possible). Here’s how your answers break down: 

  • If your answers were mostly As, then your biggest struggle with doing homework is procrastination. 
  • If your answers were mostly Bs, then your biggest struggle with doing homework is time management. 
  • If your answers were mostly Cs, then your biggest struggle with doing homework is motivation. 
  • If your answers were mostly Ds, then your biggest struggle with doing homework is getting distracted. 

Now that you’ve identified why you’re having a hard time getting your homework done, we can help you figure out how to fix it! Scroll down to find your core problem area to learn more about how you can start to address it. 

And one more thing: you’re really struggling with homework, it’s a good idea to read through every section below. You may find some additional tips that will help make homework less intimidating. 


How to Do Homework When You’re a Procrastinator  

Merriam Webster defines “procrastinate” as “to put off intentionally and habitually.” In other words, procrastination is when you choose to do something at the last minute on a regular basis. If you’ve ever found yourself pulling an all-nighter, trying to finish an assignment between periods, or sprinting to turn in a paper minutes before a deadline, you’ve experienced the effects of procrastination. 

If you’re a chronic procrastinator, you’re in good company. In fact, one study found that 70% to 95% of undergraduate students procrastinate when it comes to doing their homework. Unfortunately, procrastination can negatively impact your grades. Researchers have found that procrastination can lower your grade on an assignment by as much as five points ...which might not sound serious until you realize that can mean the difference between a B- and a C+. 

Procrastination can also negatively affect your health by increasing your stress levels , which can lead to other health conditions like insomnia, a weakened immune system, and even heart conditions. Getting a handle on procrastination can not only improve your grades, it can make you feel better, too! 

The big thing to understand about procrastination is that it’s not the result of laziness. Laziness is defined as being “disinclined to activity or exertion.” In other words, being lazy is all about doing nothing. But a s this Psychology Today article explains , procrastinators don’t put things off because they don’t want to work. Instead, procrastinators tend to postpone tasks they don’t want to do in favor of tasks that they perceive as either more important or more fun. Put another way, procrastinators want to do things...as long as it’s not their homework! 

3 Tips f or Conquering Procrastination 

Because putting off doing homework is a common problem, there are lots of good tactics for addressing procrastination. Keep reading for our three expert tips that will get your homework habits back on track in no time. 

#1: Create a Reward System

Like we mentioned earlier, procrastination happens when you prioritize other activities over getting your homework done. Many times, this happens because homework...well, just isn’t enjoyable. But you can add some fun back into the process by rewarding yourself for getting your work done. 

Here’s what we mean: let’s say you decide that every time you get your homework done before the day it’s due, you’ll give yourself a point. For every five points you earn, you’ll treat yourself to your favorite dessert: a chocolate cupcake! Now you have an extra (delicious!) incentive to motivate you to leave procrastination in the dust. 

If you’re not into cupcakes, don’t worry. Your reward can be anything that motivates you . Maybe it’s hanging out with your best friend or an extra ten minutes of video game time. As long as you’re choosing something that makes homework worth doing, you’ll be successful. 

#2: Have a Homework Accountability Partner 

If you’re having trouble getting yourself to start your homework ahead of time, it may be a good idea to call in reinforcements . Find a friend or classmate you can trust and explain to them that you’re trying to change your homework habits. Ask them if they’d be willing to text you to make sure you’re doing your homework and check in with you once a week to see if you’re meeting your anti-procrastination goals. 

Sharing your goals can make them feel more real, and an accountability partner can help hold you responsible for your decisions. For example, let’s say you’re tempted to put off your science lab write-up until the morning before it’s due. But you know that your accountability partner is going to text you about it tomorrow...and you don’t want to fess up that you haven’t started your assignment. A homework accountability partner can give you the extra support and incentive you need to keep your homework habits on track. 

#3: Create Your Own Due Dates 

If you’re a life-long procrastinator, you might find that changing the habit is harder than you expected. In that case, you might try using procrastination to your advantage! If you just can’t seem to stop doing your work at the last minute, try setting your own due dates for assignments that range from a day to a week before the assignment is actually due. 

Here’s what we mean. Let’s say you have a math worksheet that’s been assigned on Tuesday and is due on Friday. In your planner, you can write down the due date as Thursday instead. You may still put off your homework assignment until the last minute...but in this case, the “last minute” is a day before the assignment’s real due date . This little hack can trick your procrastination-addicted brain into planning ahead! 


If you feel like Kevin Hart in this meme, then our tips for doing homework when you're busy are for you. 

How to Do Homework When You’re too Busy

If you’re aiming to go to a top-tier college , you’re going to have a full plate. Because college admissions is getting more competitive, it’s important that you’re maintaining your grades , studying hard for your standardized tests , and participating in extracurriculars so your application stands out. A packed schedule can get even more hectic once you add family obligations or a part-time job to the mix. 

If you feel like you’re being pulled in a million directions at once, you’re not alone. Recent research has found that stress—and more severe stress-related conditions like anxiety and depression— are a major problem for high school students . In fact, one study from the American Psychological Association found that during the school year, students’ stress levels are higher than those of the adults around them. 

For students, homework is a major contributor to their overall stress levels . Many high schoolers have multiple hours of homework every night , and figuring out how to fit it into an already-packed schedule can seem impossible. 

3 Tips for Fitting Homework Into Your Busy Schedule

While it might feel like you have literally no time left in your schedule, there are still ways to make sure you’re able to get your homework done and meet your other commitments. Here are our expert homework tips for even the busiest of students. 

#1: Make a Prioritized To-Do List 

You probably already have a to-do list to keep yourself on track. The next step is to prioritize the items on your to-do list so you can see what items need your attention right away. 

Here’s how it works: at the beginning of each day, sit down and make a list of all the items you need to get done before you go to bed. This includes your homework, but it should also take into account any practices, chores, events, or job shifts you may have. Once you get everything listed out, it’s time to prioritize them using the labels A, B, and C. Here’s what those labels mean:

  • A Tasks : tasks that have to get done—like showing up at work or turning in an assignment—get an A. 
  • B Tasks : these are tasks that you would like to get done by the end of the day but aren’t as time sensitive. For example, studying for a test you have next week could be a B-level task. It’s still important, but it doesn’t have to be done right away. 
  • C Tasks: these are tasks that aren’t very important and/or have no real consequences if you don’t get them done immediately. For instance, if you’re hoping to clean out your closet but it’s not an assigned chore from your parents, you could label that to-do item with a C. 

Prioritizing your to-do list helps you visualize which items need your immediate attention, and which items you can leave for later. A prioritized to-do list ensures that you’re spending your time efficiently and effectively, which helps you make room in your schedule for homework. So even though you might really want to start making decorations for Homecoming (a B task), you’ll know that finishing your reading log (an A task) is more important. 

#2: Use a Planner With Time Labels 

Your planner is probably packed with notes, events, and assignments already. (And if you’re not using a planner, it’s time to start!) But planners can do more for you than just remind you when an assignment is due. If you’re using a planner with time labels, it can help you visualize how you need to spend your day.

A planner with time labels breaks your day down into chunks, and you assign tasks to each chunk of time. For example, you can make a note of your class schedule with assignments, block out time to study, and make sure you know when you need to be at practice. Once you know which tasks take priority, you can add them to any empty spaces in your day. 

Planning out how you spend your time not only helps you use it wisely, it can help you feel less overwhelmed, too . We’re big fans of planners that include a task list ( like this one ) or have room for notes ( like this one ). 

#3: Set Reminders on Your Phone 

If you need a little extra nudge to make sure you’re getting your homework done on time, it’s a good idea to set some reminders on your phone. You don’t need a fancy app, either. You can use your alarm app to have it go off at specific times throughout the day to remind you to do your homework. This works especially well if you have a set homework time scheduled. So if you’ve decided you’re doing homework at 6:00 pm, you can set an alarm to remind you to bust out your books and get to work. 

If you use your phone as your planner, you may have the option to add alerts, emails, or notifications to scheduled events . Many calendar apps, including the one that comes with your phone, have built-in reminders that you can customize to meet your needs. So if you block off time to do your homework from 4:30 to 6:00 pm, you can set a reminder that will pop up on your phone when it’s time to get started. 


This dog isn't judging your lack of motivation...but your teacher might. Keep reading for tips to help you motivate yourself to do your homework.

How to Do Homework When You’re Unmotivated 

At first glance, it may seem like procrastination and being unmotivated are the same thing. After all, both of these issues usually result in you putting off your homework until the very last minute. 

But there’s one key difference: many procrastinators are working, they’re just prioritizing work differently. They know they’re going to start their homework...they’re just going to do it later. 

Conversely, people who are unmotivated to do homework just can’t find the willpower to tackle their assignments. Procrastinators know they’ll at least attempt the homework at the last minute, whereas people who are unmotivated struggle with convincing themselves to do it at a ll. For procrastinators, the stress comes from the inevitable time crunch. For unmotivated people, the stress comes from trying to convince themselves to do something they don’t want to do in the first place. 

Here are some common reasons students are unmotivated in doing homework : 

  • Assignments are too easy, too hard, or seemingly pointless 
  • Students aren’t interested in (or passionate about) the subject matter
  • Students are intimidated by the work and/or feels like they don’t understand the assignment 
  • Homework isn’t fun, and students would rather spend their time on things that they enjoy 

To sum it up: people who lack motivation to do their homework are more likely to not do it at all, or to spend more time worrying about doing their homework than...well, actually doing it.

3 Tips for How to Get Motivated to Do Homework

The key to getting homework done when you’re unmotivated is to figure out what does motivate you, then apply those things to homework. It sounds tricky...but it’s pretty simple once you get the hang of it! Here are our three expert tips for motivating yourself to do your homework. 

#1: Use Incremental Incentives

When you’re not motivated, it’s important to give yourself small rewards to stay focused on finishing the task at hand. The trick is to keep the incentives small and to reward yourself often. For example, maybe you’re reading a good book in your free time. For every ten minutes you spend on your homework, you get to read five pages of your book. Like we mentioned earlier, make sure you’re choosing a reward that works for you! 

So why does this technique work? Using small rewards more often allows you to experience small wins for getting your work done. Every time you make it to one of your tiny reward points, you get to celebrate your success, which gives your brain a boost of dopamine . Dopamine helps you stay motivated and also creates a feeling of satisfaction when you complete your homework !  

#2: Form a Homework Group 

If you’re having trouble motivating yourself, it’s okay to turn to others for support. Creating a homework group can help with this. Bring together a group of your friends or classmates, and pick one time a week where you meet and work on homework together. You don’t have to be in the same class, or even taking the same subjects— the goal is to encourage one another to start (and finish!) your assignments. 

Another added benefit of a homework group is that you can help one another if you’re struggling to understand the material covered in your classes. This is especially helpful if your lack of motivation comes from being intimidated by your assignments. Asking your friends for help may feel less scary than talking to your teacher...and once you get a handle on the material, your homework may become less frightening, too. 

#3: Change Up Your Environment 

If you find that you’re totally unmotivated, it may help if you find a new place to do your homework. For example, if you’ve been struggling to get your homework done at home, try spending an extra hour in the library after school instead. The change of scenery can limit your distractions and give you the energy you need to get your work done. 

If you’re stuck doing homework at home, you can still use this tip. For instance, maybe you’ve always done your homework sitting on your bed. Try relocating somewhere else, like your kitchen table, for a few weeks. You may find that setting up a new “homework spot” in your house gives you a motivational lift and helps you get your work done. 


Social media can be a huge problem when it comes to doing homework. We have advice for helping you unplug and regain focus.

How to Do Homework When You’re Easily Distracted

We live in an always-on world, and there are tons of things clamoring for our attention. From friends and family to pop culture and social media, it seems like there’s always something (or someone!) distracting us from the things we need to do.

The 24/7 world we live in has affected our ability to focus on tasks for prolonged periods of time. Research has shown that over the past decade, an average person’s attention span has gone from 12 seconds to eight seconds . And when we do lose focus, i t takes people a long time to get back on task . One study found that it can take as long as 23 minutes to get back to work once we’ve been distracte d. No wonder it can take hours to get your homework done! 

3 Tips to Improve Your Focus

If you have a hard time focusing when you’re doing your homework, it’s a good idea to try and eliminate as many distractions as possible. Here are three expert tips for blocking out the noise so you can focus on getting your homework done. 

#1: Create a Distraction-Free Environment

Pick a place where you’ll do your homework every day, and make it as distraction-free as possible. Try to find a location where there won’t be tons of noise, and limit your access to screens while you’re doing your homework. Put together a focus-oriented playlist (or choose one on your favorite streaming service), and put your headphones on while you work. 

You may find that other people, like your friends and family, are your biggest distraction. If that’s the case, try setting up some homework boundaries. Let them know when you’ll be working on homework every day, and ask them if they’ll help you keep a quiet environment. They’ll be happy to lend a hand! 

#2: Limit Your Access to Technology 

We know, we know...this tip isn’t fun, but it does work. For homework that doesn’t require a computer, like handouts or worksheets, it’s best to put all your technology away . Turn off your television, put your phone and laptop in your backpack, and silence notifications on any wearable tech you may be sporting. If you listen to music while you work, that’s fine...but make sure you have a playlist set up so you’re not shuffling through songs once you get started on your homework. 

If your homework requires your laptop or tablet, it can be harder to limit your access to distractions. But it’s not impossible! T here are apps you can download that will block certain websites while you’re working so that you’re not tempted to scroll through Twitter or check your Facebook feed. Silence notifications and text messages on your computer, and don’t open your email account unless you absolutely have to. And if you don’t need access to the internet to complete your assignments, turn off your WiFi. Cutting out the online chatter is a great way to make sure you’re getting your homework done. 

#3: Set a Timer (the Pomodoro Technique)

Have you ever heard of the Pomodoro technique ? It’s a productivity hack that uses a timer to help you focus!

Here’s how it works: first, set a timer for 25 minutes. This is going to be your work time. During this 25 minutes, all you can do is work on whatever homework assignment you have in front of you. No email, no text messaging, no phone calls—just homework. When that timer goes off, y ou get to take a 5 minute break. Every time you go through one of these cycles, it’s called a “pomodoro.” For every four pomodoros you complete, you can take a longer break of 15 to 30 minutes. 

The pomodoro technique works through a combination of boundary setting and rewards. First, it gives you a finite amount of time to focus, so you know that you only have to work really hard for 25 minutes. Once you’ve done that, you’re rewarded with a short break where you can do whatever you want. Additionally, tracking how many pomodoros you complete can help you see how long you’re really working on your homework. (Once you start using our focus tips, you may find it doesn’t take as long as you thought!) 


Two Bonus Tips for How to Do Homework Fast 

Even if you’re doing everything right, there will be times when you just need to get your homework done as fast as possible. (Why do teachers always have projects due in the same week? The world may never know.) 

The problem with speeding through homework is that it’s easy to make mistakes. While turning in an assignment is always better than not submitting anything at all, you want to make sure that you’re not compromising quality for speed. Simply put, the goal is to get your homework done quickly and still make a good grade on the assignment! 

Here are our two bonus tips for getting a decent grade on your homework assignments , even when you’re in a time crunch. 

#1: Do the Easy Parts First 

This is especially true if you’re working on a handout with multiple questions. Before you start working on the assignment, read through all the questions and problems. As you do, make a mark beside the questions you think are “easy” to answer . 

Once you’ve finished going through the whole assignment, you can answer these questions first. Getting the easy questions out of the way as quickly as possible lets you spend more time on the trickier portions of your homework, which will maximize your assignment grade. 

(Quick note: this is also a good strategy to use on timed assignments and tests, like the SAT and the ACT !) 

#2: Pay Attention in Class 

Homework gets a lot easier when you’re actively learning the material. Teachers aren’t giving you homework because they’re mean or trying to ruin your weekend... it’s because they want you to really understand the course material. Homework is designed to reinforce what you’re already learning in class so you’ll be ready to tackle harder concepts later. 

When you pay attention in class, ask questions, and take good notes, you’re absorbing the information you’ll need to succeed on your homework assignments. (You’re stuck in class anyway, so you might as well make the most of it!) Not only will paying attention in class make your homework less confusing, it will also help it go much faster, too. 


What’s Next? 

If you’re looking to improve your productivity beyond homework, a good place to begin is with time management. After all, we only have so much time in a day...so it’s important to get the most out of it! To get you started, check out this list of the 12 best time management techniques that you can start using today.

You may have read this article because homework struggles have been affecting your GPA. Now that you’re on the path to homework success, it’s time to start being proactive about raising your grades. This article teaches you everything you need to know about raising your GPA so you can

Now you know how to get motivated to do homework...but what about your study habits? Studying is just as critical to getting good grades, and ultimately getting into a good college . We can teach you how to study bette r in high school. (We’ve also got tons of resources to help you study for your ACT and SAT exams , too!) 

Need more help with this topic? Check out Tutorbase!

Our vetted tutor database includes a range of experienced educators who can help you polish an essay for English or explain how derivatives work for Calculus. You can use dozens of filters and search criteria to find the perfect person for your needs.

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Ashley Sufflé Robinson has a Ph.D. in 19th Century English Literature. As a content writer for PrepScholar, Ashley is passionate about giving college-bound students the in-depth information they need to get into the school of their dreams.

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What Kinds of Homework Seem to be Most Effective?

Please try again

types of homework for students

If you made it past the headline, you're likely a student, concerned parent, teacher or, like me, a nerd nostalgist who enjoys basking in the distant glow of Homework Triumphs Past (second-grade report on Custer's Last Stand, nailed it!).

Whoever you are, you're surely hoping for some clarity in the loud, perennial debate over whether U.S. students are justifiably exhausted and nervous from too much homework — even though some international comparisons suggest they're sitting comfortably at the average.

Well, here goes. I've mapped out six, research-based polestars that should help guide you to some reasonable conclusions about homework.

How much homework do U.S. students get?

The best answer comes from something called the National Assessment of Educational Progress or NAEP . In 2012, students in three different age groups — 9, 13 and 17 — were asked, "How much time did you spend on homework yesterday?" The vast majority of 9-year-olds (79 percent) and 13-year-olds (65 percent) and still a majority of 17-year-olds (53 percent) all reported doing an hour or less of homework the day before.

Another study from the National Center for Education Statistics found that high school students who reported doing homework outside of school did, on average, about seven hours a week.

If you're hungry for more data on this — and some perspective — check out this exhaustive report put together last year by researcher Tom Loveless at the Brookings Institution.

An hour or less a day? But we hear so many horror stories! Why?

The fact is, some students do have a ton of homework. In high school we see a kind of student divergence — between those who choose or find themselves tracked into less-rigorous coursework and those who enroll in honors classes or multiple Advanced Placement courses. And the latter students are getting a lot of homework. In that 2012 NAEP survey, 13 percent of 17-year-olds reported doing more than two hours of homework the previous night. That's not a lot of students, but they're clearly doing a lot of work.

That also tracks with a famous survey from 2007 — from MetLife — that asked parents what they think of their kids' homework load. Sixty percent said it was just right. Twenty-five percent said their kids are getting too little. Just 15 percent of parents said their kids have too much homework.

Research also suggests that the students doing the most work have something else in common: income. "I think that the debate over homework in some ways is a social class issue," says Janine Bempechat, professor of human development at Wheelock College. "There's no question that in affluent communities, children are really over-taxed, over-burdened with homework."

But the vast majority of students do not seem to have inordinate workloads. And the ones who do are generally volunteering for the tough stuff. That doesn't make it easier, but it does make it a choice.

Do we know how much homework students in other countries are doing?

Sort of. Caveats abound here. Education systems and perceptions of what is and isn't homework can vary remarkably overseas. So any comparison is, to a degree, apples-to-oranges (or, at least, apples-to-pears). A 2012 report from the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development pegged the U.S. homework load for 15-year-olds at around six hours per week. That's just above the study's average. It found that students in Hong Kong are also doing about six hours a week. Much of Europe checks in between four and five hours a week. In Japan, it's four hours. And Korea's near the bottom, at three hours.

How much homework is too much?

Better yet, how much is just right? Harris Cooper at Duke University has done some of the best work on homework. He and his team reviewed dozens of studies, from 1987 to 2003, looking for consensus on what works and what doesn't. A common rule of thumb, he says, is what's called the 10-minute rule. Take the child's grade and multiply by 10. So first-graders should have roughly 10 minutes of homework a night, 40 minutes for fourth-graders, on up to two hours for seniors in high school. A lot of of schools use this. Even the National PTA officially endorses it.

Homework clearly improves student performance, right?

Not necessarily. It depends on the age of the child. Looking over the research, there's little to no evidence that homework improves student achievement in elementary school. Then again, the many experts I spoke with all said the same thing: The point of homework in those primary grades isn't entirely academic. It's about teaching things like time-management and self-direction.

But, by high school the evidence shifts. Harris Cooper's massive review found, in middle and high school, a positive correlation between homework and student achievement on unit tests. It seems to help. But more is not always better. Cooper points out that, depending on the subject and the age of the student, there is a law of diminishing returns. Again, he recommends the 10-minute rule.

What kinds of homework seem to be most effective?

This is where things get really interesting. Because homework should be about learning, right? To understand what kinds of homework best help kids learn, we really need to talk about memory and the brain.

Let's start with something called the spacing effect . Say a child has to do a vocabulary worksheet. The next week, it's a new worksheet with different words and so on. Well, research shows that the brain is better at remembering when we repeat with consistency, not when we study in long, isolated chunks of time. Do a little bit of vocabulary each night, repeating the same words night after night.

Similarly, a professor of psychology at Washington University in St. Louis, Henry "Roddy" Roediger III , recommends that teachers give students plenty of little quizzes, which he says strengthen the brain's ability to remember. Don't fret. They can be low-stakes or no-stakes, says Roediger: It's the steady recall and repetition that matter. He also recommends, as homework, that students try testing themselves instead of simply re-reading the text or class notes.

There's also something known as interleaving . This is big in the debate over math homework. Many of us — myself included — learned math by focusing on one concept at a time, doing a worksheet to practice that concept, then moving on.

Well, there's evidence that students learn more when homework requires them to choose among multiple strategies — new and old — when solving problems. In other words, kids learn when they have to draw not just from what they learned in class that day but that week, that month, that year.

One last note: Experts agree that homework should generally be about reinforcing what students learned in class (this is especially true in math). Sometimes it can — and should — be used to introduce new material, but here's where so many horror stories begin.

Tom Loveless, a former teacher, offers this advice: "I don't think teachers should ever send brand-new material that puts the parent in the position of a teacher. That's a disaster. My own personal philosophy was: Homework is best if it's material that requires more practice but they've already received initial instruction."

Or, in the words of the National PTA: "Homework that cannot be done without help is not good homework."

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Adolescent girl doing homework.

What’s the Right Amount of Homework?

Decades of research show that homework has some benefits, especially for students in middle and high school—but there are risks to assigning too much.

Many teachers and parents believe that homework helps students build study skills and review concepts learned in class. Others see homework as disruptive and unnecessary, leading to burnout and turning kids off to school. Decades of research show that the issue is more nuanced and complex than most people think: Homework is beneficial, but only to a degree. Students in high school gain the most, while younger kids benefit much less.

The National PTA and the National Education Association support the “ 10-minute homework guideline ”—a nightly 10 minutes of homework per grade level. But many teachers and parents are quick to point out that what matters is the quality of the homework assigned and how well it meets students’ needs, not the amount of time spent on it.

The guideline doesn’t account for students who may need to spend more—or less—time on assignments. In class, teachers can make adjustments to support struggling students, but at home, an assignment that takes one student 30 minutes to complete may take another twice as much time—often for reasons beyond their control. And homework can widen the achievement gap, putting students from low-income households and students with learning disabilities at a disadvantage.

However, the 10-minute guideline is useful in setting a limit: When kids spend too much time on homework, there are real consequences to consider.

Small Benefits for Elementary Students

As young children begin school, the focus should be on cultivating a love of learning, and assigning too much homework can undermine that goal. And young students often don’t have the study skills to benefit fully from homework, so it may be a poor use of time (Cooper, 1989 ; Cooper et al., 2006 ; Marzano & Pickering, 2007 ). A more effective activity may be nightly reading, especially if parents are involved. The benefits of reading are clear: If students aren’t proficient readers by the end of third grade, they’re less likely to succeed academically and graduate from high school (Fiester, 2013 ).

For second-grade teacher Jacqueline Fiorentino, the minor benefits of homework did not outweigh the potential drawback of turning young children against school at an early age, so she experimented with dropping mandatory homework. “Something surprising happened: They started doing more work at home,” Fiorentino writes . “This inspiring group of 8-year-olds used their newfound free time to explore subjects and topics of interest to them.” She encouraged her students to read at home and offered optional homework to extend classroom lessons and help them review material.

Moderate Benefits for Middle School Students

As students mature and develop the study skills necessary to delve deeply into a topic—and to retain what they learn—they also benefit more from homework. Nightly assignments can help prepare them for scholarly work, and research shows that homework can have moderate benefits for middle school students (Cooper et al., 2006 ). Recent research also shows that online math homework, which can be designed to adapt to students’ levels of understanding, can significantly boost test scores (Roschelle et al., 2016 ).

There are risks to assigning too much, however: A 2015 study found that when middle school students were assigned more than 90 to 100 minutes of daily homework, their math and science test scores began to decline (Fernández-Alonso, Suárez-Álvarez, & Muñiz, 2015 ). Crossing that upper limit can drain student motivation and focus. The researchers recommend that “homework should present a certain level of challenge or difficulty, without being so challenging that it discourages effort.” Teachers should avoid low-effort, repetitive assignments, and assign homework “with the aim of instilling work habits and promoting autonomous, self-directed learning.”

In other words, it’s the quality of homework that matters, not the quantity. Brian Sztabnik, a veteran middle and high school English teacher, suggests that teachers take a step back and ask themselves these five questions :

  • How long will it take to complete?
  • Have all learners been considered?
  • Will an assignment encourage future success?
  • Will an assignment place material in a context the classroom cannot?
  • Does an assignment offer support when a teacher is not there?

More Benefits for High School Students, but Risks as Well

By the time they reach high school, students should be well on their way to becoming independent learners, so homework does provide a boost to learning at this age, as long as it isn’t overwhelming (Cooper et al., 2006 ; Marzano & Pickering, 2007 ). When students spend too much time on homework—more than two hours each night—it takes up valuable time to rest and spend time with family and friends. A 2013 study found that high school students can experience serious mental and physical health problems, from higher stress levels to sleep deprivation, when assigned too much homework (Galloway, Conner, & Pope, 2013 ).

Homework in high school should always relate to the lesson and be doable without any assistance, and feedback should be clear and explicit.

Teachers should also keep in mind that not all students have equal opportunities to finish their homework at home, so incomplete homework may not be a true reflection of their learning—it may be more a result of issues they face outside of school. They may be hindered by issues such as lack of a quiet space at home, resources such as a computer or broadband connectivity, or parental support (OECD, 2014 ). In such cases, giving low homework scores may be unfair.

Since the quantities of time discussed here are totals, teachers in middle and high school should be aware of how much homework other teachers are assigning. It may seem reasonable to assign 30 minutes of daily homework, but across six subjects, that’s three hours—far above a reasonable amount even for a high school senior. Psychologist Maurice Elias sees this as a common mistake: Individual teachers create homework policies that in aggregate can overwhelm students. He suggests that teachers work together to develop a school-wide homework policy and make it a key topic of back-to-school night and the first parent-teacher conferences of the school year.

Parents Play a Key Role

Homework can be a powerful tool to help parents become more involved in their child’s learning (Walker et al., 2004 ). It can provide insights into a child’s strengths and interests, and can also encourage conversations about a child’s life at school. If a parent has positive attitudes toward homework, their children are more likely to share those same values, promoting academic success.

But it’s also possible for parents to be overbearing, putting too much emphasis on test scores or grades, which can be disruptive for children (Madjar, Shklar, & Moshe, 2015 ). Parents should avoid being overly intrusive or controlling—students report feeling less motivated to learn when they don’t have enough space and autonomy to do their homework (Orkin, May, & Wolf, 2017 ; Patall, Cooper, & Robinson, 2008 ; Silinskas & Kikas, 2017 ). So while homework can encourage parents to be more involved with their kids, it’s important to not make it a source of conflict.

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Designing Effective Homework

Best practices for creating homework that raises student achievement

Claire Rivero

Homework. It can be challenging…and not just for students. For teachers, designing homework can be a daunting task with lots of unanswered questions: How much should I assign? What type of content should I cover? Why aren’t students doing the work I assign? Homework can be a powerful opportunity to reinforce the Shifts in your instruction and promote standards-aligned learning, but how do we avoid the pitfalls that make key learning opportunities sources of stress and antipathy?

The nonprofit Instruction Partners recently set out to answer some of these questions, looking at what research says about what works when it comes to homework. You can view their original presentation here , but I’ve summarized some of the key findings you can put to use with your students immediately.

Does homework help?

Consistent homework completion has been shown to increase student achievement rates—but frequency matters. Students who are given homework regularly show greater gains than those who only receive homework sporadically. Researchers hypothesize that this is due to improved study skills and routines practiced through homework that allow students to perform better academically.

Average gains on unit tests for students who completed homework were six percentile points in grades 4–6, 12 percentile points in grades 7–9, and an impressive 24 percentile points in grades 10–12; so yes, homework (done well) does work. [i]

What should homework cover?

While there is little research about exactly what types of homework content lead to the biggest achievement gains, there are some general rules of thumb about how homework should change gradually over time.

In grades 1–5, homework should:

  • Reinforce and allow students to practice skills learned in the classroom
  • Help students develop good study habits and routines
  • Foster positive feelings about school

In grades 6–12, homework should:

  • Prepare students for engagement and discussion during the next lesson
  • Allow students to apply their skills in new and more challenging ways

The most often-heard criticism of homework assignments is that they simply take too long. So how much homework should you assign in order to see results for students? Not surprisingly, it varies by grade. Assign 10-20 minutes of homework per night total, starting in first grade, and then add 10 minutes for each additional grade. [ii] Doing more can result in student stress, frustration, and disengagement, particularly in the early grades.

Why are some students not doing the homework?

There are any number of reasons why students may not complete homework, from lack of motivation to lack of content knowledge, but one issue to watch out for as a teacher is the impact of economic disparities on the ability to complete homework.

Multiple studies [iii] have shown that low-income students complete homework less often than students who come from wealthier families. This can lead to increased achievement gaps between students. Students from low-income families may face additional challenges when it comes to completing homework such as lack of access to the internet, lack of access to outside tutors or assistance, and additional jobs or family responsibilities.

While you can’t erase these challenges for your students, you can design homework that takes those issues into account by creating homework that can be done offline, independently, and in a reasonable timeframe. With those design principles in mind, you increase the opportunity for all your students to complete and benefit from the homework you assign.

The Big Picture

Perhaps most importantly, students benefit from receiving feedback from you, their teacher, on their assignments. Praise or rewards simply for homework completion have little effect on student achievement, but feedback that helps them improve or reinforces strong performance does. Consider keeping this mini-table handy as you design homework:

The act of assigning homework doesn’t automatically raise student achievement, so be a critical consumer of the homework products that come as part of your curriculum. If they assign too much (or too little!) work or reflect some of these common pitfalls, take action to make assignments that better serve your students.

[i] Cooper, H. (2007). The battle over homework (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

[ii] Cooper, H. (1989a). Homework .White Plains, NY: Longman.

[iii] Horrigan, T. (2015). The numbers behind the broadband ‘homework gap’ http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/04/20/the-numbers-behind-the-broadband-homework-gap/ and Miami Dade Public Schools. (2009). Literature Review: Homework. http://drs.dadeschools.net/LiteratureReviews/Homework.pdf

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About the Author: Claire Rivero is the Digital Strategy Manager for Student Achievement Partners. Claire leads the organization’s communications and digital promotion work across various channels including email, Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest, always seeking new ways to reach educators. She also manages Achieve the Core’s blog, Aligned. Prior to joining Student Achievement Partners, Claire worked in the Communications department for the American Red Cross and as a literacy instructor in a London pilot program. Claire holds bachelor’s degrees in English and Public Policy from Duke University and a master’s degree in Social Policy (with a concentration on Education Policy) from the London School of Economics and Political Science.

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The role of homework

Homework seems to be an accepted part of teachers’ and students’ routines, but there is little mention of it in ELT literature.

types of homework for students

The role of homework is hardly mentioned in the majority of general ELT texts or training courses, suggesting that there is little question as to its value even if the resulting workload is time-consuming. However, there is clearly room for discussion of homework policies and practices particularly now that technology has made so many more resources available to learners outside the classroom.

Reasons for homework

  • Attitudes to homework
  • Effective homework
  • Types of homework
  • Homework is expected by students, teachers, parents and institutions.
  • Homework reinforces and helps learners to retain information taught in the classroom as well as increasing their general understanding of the language.
  • Homework develops study habits and independent learning. It also encourages learners to acquire resources such as dictionaries and grammar reference books. Research shows that homework also benefits factual knowledge, self-discipline, attitudes to learning and problem-solving skills.
  • Homework offers opportunities for extensive activities in the receptive skills which there may not be time for in the classroom. It may also be an integral part of ongoing learning such as project work and the use of a graded reader.
  • Homework provides continuity between lessons. It may be used to consolidate classwork, but also for preparation for the next lesson.
  • Homework may be used to shift repetitive, mechanical, time-consuming tasks out of the classroom.
  • Homework bridges the gap between school and home. Students, teachers and parents can monitor progress. The institution can involve parents in the learning process.
  • Homework can be a useful assessment tool, as part of continual or portfolio assessment.

Attitudes to homework Teachers tend to have mixed feelings about homework. While recognising the advantages, they observe negative attitudes and poor performance from students. Marking and giving useful feedback on homework can take up a large proportion of a teacher’s time, often after school hours.

  • Students themselves complain that the homework they are given is boring or pointless, referring to homework tasks that consist of studying for tests, doing workbook exercises, finishing incomplete classwork, memorising lists of vocabulary and writing compositions. Where this is actually the case, the negative effects of homework can be observed, typified by loss of interest and a view of homework as a form of punishment.
  • Other negative effects of poorly managed homework include lack of necessary leisure time and an increased differential between high and low achievers. These problems are often the cause of avoidance techniques such as completing homework tasks in class, collaborating and copying or simply not doing the required tasks. In turn, conflict may arise between learners, teachers, parents and the institution.

Effective homework In order for homework to be effective, certain principles should be observed.

  • Students should see the usefulness of homework. Teachers should explain the purpose both of homework in general and of individual tasks.
  • Tasks should be relevant, interesting and varied.
  • Good classroom practice also applies to homework. Tasks should be manageable but achievable.
  • Different tasks may be assigned to different ability groups. Individual learning styles should be taken into account.
  • Homework should be manageable in terms of time as well as level of difficulty. Teachers should remember that students are often given homework in other subjects and that there is a need for coordination to avoid overload. A homework diary, kept by the learner but checked by teachers and parents is a useful tool in this respect.
  • Homework is rarely co-ordinated within the curriculum as a whole, but should at least be incorporated into an overall scheme of work and be considered in lesson planning.
  • Homework tends to focus on a written product. There is no reason why this should be the case, other than that there is visible evidence that the task has been done.
  • Learner involvement and motivation may be increased by encouraging students to contribute ideas for homework and possibly design their own tasks. The teacher also needs to know how much time the students have, what facilities they have at home, and what their preferences are. A simple questionnaire will provide this data.
  • While homework should consolidate classwork, it should not replicate it. Home is the outside world and tasks which are nearer to real-life use of language are appropriate.
  • If homework is set, it must be assessed in some way, and feedback given. While marking by the teacher is sometimes necessary, peer and self-assessment can encourage learner independence as well as reducing the teacher’s workload. Motivating students to do homework is an ongoing process, and encouragement may be given by commenting and asking questions either verbally or in written form in order to demonstrate interest on the teacher’s part, particularly in the case of self-study and project work.

Types of homework There are a number of categories of useful and practicable homework tasks.

  • Workbook-based tasks Most published course materials include a workbook or practice book, mainly including consolidation exercises, short reading texts and an answer key. Most workbooks claim to be suitable for both class and self-study use, but are better used at home in order to achieve a separation of what is done in class and at home. Mechanical practice is thus shifted out of class hours, while this kind of exercise is particularly suited to peer- or self-checking and correction.
  • Preparation tasks Rarely do teachers ask learners to read through the next unit of a coursebook, though there are advantages in involving students in the lesson plan and having them know what is coming. More motivating, however, is asking students to find and bring materials such as photographs and pictures, magazine articles and realia which are relevant to the next topic, particularly where personalisation or relevance to the local context requires adaptation of course materials.
  • Extensive tasks Much can be gained from the use of graded readers, which now often have accompanying audio material, radio and TV broadcasts, podcasts and songs. Sometimes tasks need to be set as guidance, but learners also need to be encouraged to read, listen and watch for pleasure. What is important is that learners share their experiences in class. Extensive reading and listening may be accompanied by dictionary work and a thematic or personalised vocabulary notebook, whereby learners can collect language which they feel is useful.
  • Guided discovery tasks Whereas classroom teaching often involves eliciting language patterns and rules from learners, there is also the option of asking learners to notice language and make deductions for themselves at home. This leads to the sharing of knowledge and even peer teaching in the classroom.
  • Real-world tasks These involve seeing, hearing and putting language to use in realistic contexts. Reading magazines, watching TV, going to the cinema and listening to songs are obvious examples, offering the option of writing summaries and reviews as follow-up activities. Technology facilitates chat and friendship networks, while even in monolingual environments, walking down a shopping street noticing shop and brand names will reveal a lot of language. As with extensive tasks, it is important for learners to share their experiences, and perhaps to collect them in a formal or informal portfolio.
  • Project work It is a good idea to have a class or individual projects running over a period of time. Projects may be based on topics from a coursebook, the locality, interests and hobbies or selected individually. Project work needs to be guided in terms of where to find resources and monitored regularly, the outcome being a substantial piece of work at the end of a course or term of which the learner can claim ownership.

Conclusion Finally, a word about the Internet. The Web appears to offer a wealth of opportunity for self-study. Certainly reference resources make project work easier and more enjoyable, but cutting and pasting can also be seen as an easy option, requiring little originality or understanding. Conferring over homework tasks by email can be positive or negative, though chatting with an English-speaking friend is to be encouraged, as is searching for visual materials. Both teachers and learners are guilty of trawling the Net for practice exercises, some of which are untried, untested and dubious in terms of quality. Learners need guidance, and a starting point is to provide a short list of reliable sites such as the British Council's  LearnEnglish  and the BBC's Learning English  which provide a huge variety of exercises and activities as well as links to other reliable sources. Further reading Cooper, H. Synthesis of Research on Homework . Educational Leadership 47/3, 1989 North, S. and Pillay, H. Homework: re-examining the routin e. ELT Journal 56/2, April 2002 Painter, L. Homework . English Teaching Professional, Issue 10, 1999 Painter, L. Homework . OUP Resource Books for Teachers, 2003

First published in October 2007

Mr. Steve Darn I liked your…

Mr. Steve Darn I liked your method of the role of the homework . Well, I am one of those laggard people. Unfortunately, when it comes to homework, I definitely do it. Because, a student or pupil who understands new topics, of course, does his homework to know how much he understands the new topic. I also completely agree with all of Steve Darn's points above. However, sometimes teachers give a lot of riff-raff homework, just like homework is a human obligation. This is a plus. But in my opinion, first of all, it is necessary to divide the time properly, and then to do many tasks at home. Only then will you become an "excellent student" in the eyes of the teacher. Although we live in the age of technology, there are still some people who do not know how to send homework via email. Some foreign teachers ask to send tasks by email. Constant email updates require time and, in rare cases, a fee. My above points have been the cause of constant discussions.

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Setting homework, busy work or homework, setting homework.

I could not agree more!

Homeworks are an excellent way to revise and learn.

However, students are not likely to accept homeworks. That is why, as you claimed, the homeworks need to be useful, to have purpose.

I like your idea of ,, Real-world tasks,, since they definitely involve their background knowledge and such a type of homework is interesting and contemporary!

I totally agree. I am one of those teachers who give a lot of homework, and sometimes pupils don't like it. But homework help a lot. I mostly prefer project works, especially to upper levels.

I want to learn more about upper English specially law and business English all terms and words that we can use when we are making business.

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High-quality homework: How to assign the right amount, and the most effective formats of homework for the 2019-2020 school year

by Chandra Williams | Jul 16, 2019

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Although studies have shown that homework offers some benefits to students, assigning too much homework can actually cause students to experience higher stress levels and physical and mental health issues . In this article, we’ll discuss guidelines you can use to assign high quality homework for your students.

What is the “ten-minute homework guideline?”

The National PTA and National Education Association support the “ ten minute homework guideline ,” which suggests each student should have about ten minutes of homework per grade level. First-grade students should have between ten to twenty minutes of homework, with an additional ten minutes added for each subsequent grade level.

The ten-minute homework rule offers several benefits to students, including:

  • Reduces the likelihood of students becoming overwhelmed.
  • Prevents diminishing returns for academic success.
  • Reduces the impact of the “homework gap,” a term indicating the disproportionate challenges faced by students who do not have access to the internet and other resources to complete homework assignments at their homes.
  • Reduces impact on students who naturally take longer to complete homework assignments.

What purposes should homework accomplish?

Most homework assignments fall into one of the following four categories :

  • Practice — Students have learned skills in class and practice using those skills on their own at home. For example, students learned the order of operations in math class and practice using these skills by solving some multi-step equations.
  • Preparation — Students prepare to learn about a new concept in class the next day. For example, students read the first chapter of a new book which will be discussed in tomorrow’s English class.
  • Study — Students review content they have already learned and practiced to prepare for a formative, unit, or benchmark assessment.
  • Extend or Elaborate — Students have learned about a general concept in class, and complete individual work to expand their knowledge on the topic. For example, students learned about the formation of the United States in class, and each student will individually create a project exploring the history of a different state.

When students’ complete homework for the purpose of practicing skills, they may have single-skill assignments or cumulative assignments.

  • Single-skill assignments are most effective when students need to master the skill taught in class. For example, students may list the steps of the scientific method.
  • Cumulative assignments require students to decide which skill they need to use when solving a particular problem, and then properly use the skill. For example, students are presented with an experiment, must determine which steps in the scientific method need to be completed, and then must complete the experiment and demonstrate its results.

What is the most effective type of homework?

Existing studies have found that student performance is most positively affected when homework is used to build fluency, master new concepts, and proficiency. Students retain information better when the practice is conducted over several shorter sessions, rather than through one marathon session. Additionally, students should be able to use the same processes and skills with their homework assignments, which were modeled and demonstrated during class. In other words, homework assignments should be presented in the same format as classroom practices.

What are best practices for assigning homework?

Research suggests that homework is most effective when:.

  • Assignments promote curiosity, leading to “ autonomous, self-directed learning .”
  • Students have already “ demonstrated competence in the skill…before being asked to do it independently.”
  • Teachers consider some students do not have access to the internet, a quiet working space, or homework help from parents or a tutor.
  • Students understand the purpose of completing each homework assignment.
  • Teachers provide feedback quickly, minimizing the chance for students to forget the assignment before they learn their scores.
  • Teachers keep in mind that middle school and high school students may be assigned homework from all of their classes, and the ten-minute homework guideline applies to the combined homework load.


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Part 7: The First Week of School

What is the ideal amount of homework to assign.

A typical school day in the United States is six to six and half hours long. During this time, teachers are required to teach four to five core subjects, including math, English, science, and history. In addition, they must find time to include the fundamental supplementary subjects. These supplementary subjects include, but are not limited to, physical education, health, art, music, and foreign language. In these six hours, lunch and recess must also take place. Because of the large curriculum and the limited time, many teachers assign homework.

What is Homework?

Homework is work assigned to students, by teachers, to be completed outside of the school. “It is used as an instructional supplement to classroom teaching.” (6) Although it is not required, homework is typically counted as part of the students’ grade. “The U.S. is one of the few nations where teachers include homework scores as an element of course grades.” (2) Forms, objectives, and lengths of homework vary. A large debate surrounds the importance of homework and the time restraints it places on today’s students.

History of the Homework Debate

The debate over the importance of homework is not a new one. It has been debated since the late 1800s. Between the late 1800s and the mid 1900s some cities in the United States banned homework on the account that it was affecting the health of children; “many thought (homework) was an overemphasis on at-home drill and memorization”.(2) Children were spending so much time on schoolwork and homework that they were mentally and physically exhausted. However, in the 1950s and ’60s homework loads began to increase. The government felt that the “United States was becoming less economically competitive” (2). A major event that sparked these notions was the Russians’ launch of the Sputnik satellite (7). This increase of homework lasted until the 1970s, in which it once again made a drastic decline. In the 1980s the load once again begins to increase (2). This time it is due to the incompetence on international tests. In 2002, Congress passed the No Child Left Behind Act under President George W. Bush. Under this act, teachers and administrators are required to submit their school’s achievements on state standardized test to the federal government. Failure to comply or to reach the goals set forth by the state leads to a range of consequences. The most severe consequence is the replacement of staff in those failing schools. According to the NCLB Act, all students must be proficient in math and reading by 2014 (2).

Types of Homework

Homework is assigned in a multitude of varieties. Some assignments include reading specific content, problems at the end of a chapter, worksheets, research papers, and creative projects. Teachers may assign daily homework in which the assignment is to be completed and turned in on the following school day. Alternatively, teachers may assign long-term assignments; giving the students a week or more to complete the assignment. Homework assignments can be used to reinforce lessons taught in class, or elaborate on briefly introduced material (2). In addition, homework assignments may be used to prepare the students for an upcoming lesson (5).

Purpose of Homework

“Different homework assignments serve different purposes, so it is important to consider the goal of each exercise.” (5) Some valid purposes of homework assignments include knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. (5) Homework assigned to reinforce lessons gives students the opportunity to practice newly acquired skills. They also help teachers assess the students’ understanding and comprehension of the lessons. Homework assigned to elaborate on newly introduced material requires students to take initiative and learn independently. This type of assignments also allows teachers to introduce more material throughout the school year. Homework assignments designed as preparation for upcoming lessons introduces the lesson to the students beforehand and therefore increases their ability to comprehend it. All of these reasons are intended to have a direct effect on students’ learning and academic performances. In addition to these academic lessons, homework results in positive non-academic lessons. Homework teaches the values of responsibility, good work-study habits, time management, initiative, and motivation. “Perhaps the most important advantage of homework is that it can enhance achievement by extending learning beyond the school day.” (8)

The Effects of Homework

Does the amount of homework assigned have an impact on the academic success of students? Unfortunately, there is no straightforward concrete answer. Research shows that homework affects students differently depending on their age and grade level. The effect of homework on academic success increases as age and grade levels increase. The National Education Association and the National Teacher Association endorse a 10 minute per grade rule of thumb (2). This rule of thumb suggests that first graders should be assigned approximately ten minutes of homework, second graders about twenty, and twelfth graders about two hours.

Elementary School

Although homework has the least effect on elementary aged students, research shows that the homework loads have increased in the elementary schools over the last decade (2). “Research shows little evidence that homework improves learning or school achievement for children in the early grades.” (2) Students at this age have a limited attention span and grasp of study skills. A vast amount of homework may actually inhibit their academic achievement; “it can be counter productive, children will show signs of fatigue and frustration”. (7) Homework, in moderation, is more important at this age level to foster good work-study habits and teach self-motivation and responsibility.

Middle School

Research is inconclusive on regards to the effects of homework on middle school students. However, research does show that middle school is the stage of school that our students began falling behind on an international level; “by middle school U.S. scores begin to fall (on international achievement tests)” (2).

High School

Homework has the most effect on the academic success of high school students. There is a correlation between homework and scores on achievement tests and overall grades. (6) Following the ten-minute rule of thumb, the optimal amount of homework for high school students is approximately two hours. The more the better does not apply after two hours. Each added hour doing homework shows a smaller pay off in achievement (6).

Too Much or Too Little

A major debate surrounds the effect and time restriction that homework has on school-aged children. Should homework be required? How much is too much? Critics against required homework argue that if students are assigned too much homework it leaves no time for family, extra curricular activities, and play. “Research shows (these activities) are more highly correlated with cognitive development and achievement than is homework.”(2) Too much homework can lead to stress, sleep deprivation and even depression. An unreasonable amount of homework dims children’s love of learning and too much may “diminish its effectiveness or become counter productive”. (2) On the other side, critics that are for required homework argue that the schools are not assigning enough homework. “Mastering a subject or skill takes practice, and homework can provide that practice.” (5) Students have the weekends, holidays, and summer to play. The amount of time spent on academics, to include the length of school days and school years as well as time spent on homework, does not compare with other industrialized countries, such as Asia and Europe. (2) Supporters of homework argue that homework adds to study time, and study time is the chief determinant of how much students learn. (2)

Importance of the Type of Homework Assigned

The type of homework that a teacher assigns can have a lot to do with its effectiveness. “Even more important than how much homework is what kind.” (2) If students are required to complete repetitive, long, ill thought out assignments, the knowledge they gain by doing so is minimal (8). For example, if there are 40 math problems assigned focusing on the same material, a student that knows the material may feel that it is repetitive and pointless. On the other hand, a student that is having a hard time with the material may get frustrated and disengaged. An approach taken by many teachers to avoid these issues is to use the five-problem rule recommended by the U.S. Department of Education (2). This rule suggests that teachers should not assign more than five problems of any given content. Five problems are enough to assess weather a student comprehends the material or not. Furthermore, “if a child who did not get the right idea in class slogs through thirty problems, she is just cementing the wrong method in her brain” (2).

Teachers must carefully plan and assign homework in a way that maximizes the potential for student success (2). Not all students learn the same way. Students may be visual, verbal, or logical learners. Teachers need to be aware of the different learning strengths of their students and vary the types of homework they assign to include all types of learning styles. In addition, assignments must be realistic in length and difficulty (8). First graders should not be expected to learn twenty-five seven-letter words for a spelling test. Teachers need to take in to account their students logical and mental capabilities. Teachers should limit assignments to important and thoughtful ones (2). They should not assign homework just because it is expected by the parents and/or students. Generally, students complete their assignments because of expectations, as opposed to the educational gain they will receive by doing so. Keeping this in mind, teachers should assign homework that will keep the students interested while expanding their knowledge.

Homework is a hot-button topic in education. Some view homework as a needless waste of time and effort, and source of tremendous stress for students; while, others view it as an excellent study and review tool. As a middle school teacher, I see it as a way for my students to hone the information they learned in class and also continually spiral back to retain information learned previously. Also, it can be used as a way to introduce new topics and peak interest in a student. It is a valuable resource one can use to their advantage. However, it should not be a determining factor in a student’s grade point or average, as it is merely a tool and not a fundamental aspect of any course; the heart of the material should be assessed and covered in class. In fact, many teachers refuse to even assign homework as it is understood that students rarely complete it or put great effort into it. Whatever one’s feeling regarding homework, there is a definite ‘best’ method one can employ to reap the full benefits of homework. As pointed out by the National Education Association, “ensuring students’ success is a shared responsibility” (NEA, 2006, p. 2). That is, as parents and educators, we should be utilizing every avenue available to us to assist our students in their journey for academic success. As the achievement gap becomes a gorge the world grows ever more competitive and unforgiving. So, what can we do to make homework work? First, we can be prepared. Secondly, be on the same page as the instructor or teacher—understand their policy. Thirdly, be accessible and willing to model your expectations. Also, utilize all of your resources and stay in touch. Finally, foster learning even outside of school. (NEA, 2006, p. 1-3).

Multiple Choice Questions

Click to reveal the answer.

Homework has the greatest positive effects on…

C. High school students

Which of the following is not a valid purpose of assigning homework?

B. Punishment

The effectiveness of homework depends on the type assigned.

Which of the following is a value that homework teaches?

D. All of the above

Ms. Jackson is a 6th grade teacher. She often gives her students brief assignments for homework that pique their interest and goes back to information in the beginning if the year. This is an example of someone using homework to

B. Be a valuable review resource.

With homework, it is important to

D. Be accessible and willing to model your expectations.

Mr. Anderson is a third grade teacher. For homework he gives each child an old magazine. The students are to circle at least ten proper nouns they come across. They started proper nouns one day earlier. What is one thing we can say about Mr. Anderson’s choice of homework?

C. The assignment is good practice for the students, but should not be graded because it is such a new concept.

Essay Question

Click to reveal sample responses.

In having the opportunity to teach high school students, I have also had the chance to develop homework policies for my students. Homework is considered a tool to reinforce new and existing material that has been learned within the classroom. My class used computers for 90% of their class assignments. Homework consists of work that can be completed outside of class, without using a computer. By completing the assignments this allows students to become independent learners, as they work on self discipline and prepare themselves for higher academia. Students receive points for completing homework; however, they do not receive a grade for homework. The points that the students receive are incentive points and are translated into extra credit points for taking time to complete assignments outside of class. Students are assigned long-term projects. The long-term projects can be completed outside of class; however, students have enough time within class to complete the assigned project. The purpose for allowing students to complete long-term projects in class is to be able to support the student’s questions, concerns and or ideas.

Students who do not take the opportunity to complete assignments outside of class do not receive any points. The points are not averaged into grades; but, by completing homework assignments students will have additional points to add to their original grade. The points that are added to the original grade can make a difference between a B or an A, or a D or a C. Students do not have any other opportunities to receive extra credit; therefore, all students make an effort to complete the homework assignments that are assigned to them.

I plan to teach Kindergarten and I don’t think that I will be giving them homework unless it is something that isn’t too time consuming such as reading a story to a parent. I feel that students work hard enough at school and they need time to relax and be kids. Students are in school for six or six and a half hours five days a week. That’s a lot of time to be learning new things. I think that homework should be different at different grade levels. For example if I was teaching sixth grade then they would definitely have to have homework. Subjects such as math require homework because you need to make sure you understand the material. Some teachers take the homework overboard though, because some teachers forget that the students have other classes and want to give them tons of work to do. When this happens the students are doing homework all night and don’t get much of a break; especially if they are involved in extra-curricular activates. That is why I think that homework should only be given if necessary. —Katherine Owen

If I was a teacher for school I would give my students homework but I would not collect it. A lot of teachers give out homework and then they collect it for part of the student’s grade. Homework should always be offered but it should not be graded because homework is suppose to help students learn the information better so if a student does not do their homework and gets a bad grade on the test then that would be their fault. Students would then realize that even though homework is not collected you should still do it so you will be able to do well on your test. Another reason why I would not collect it for a grade is so the student can have more time studying for a class that he needs help in, because if a student knows the information and gets homework on that information then its a waste of time and that would take time from him studying for a class maybe he is struggling on. When I was a teacher I hated teachers that gave out a lot of homework and collected it for a grade because it takes all of your time. I feel like a student has been in school for 8 hours of the day, so they should get some free time and enjoy being a kid, not going straight home and cracking down on the books for another couple hours. —Kurt Johnson

I believe that homework is a crucial part of the learning process. It gives children a chance to attempt problems on their own. This allows them to discover their weaknesses and strengths before a test is given. It will also helps the children to learn valuable study skills. In addition, assigning homework gives parents a chance to become involved in what their children are learning. Parents’ support is crucial to the education of younger children. When I become a teacher, I definitely plan on assigning homework. However, I will do it in moderation. I believe that the 10 minutes per grade level rule is an excellent amount. Younger children should not be expected to spend as much time as older children on homework.

I would not assign homework over the weekends or during holiday breaks. Everyone needs a break now and then so that they do not become “burned out”. Also, with this break and rest from school work, the children will return feeling refreshed and ready to start learning again. I also think that long term assignments are a great learning tool. Children can begin these assignments and work on them little by little as they learn new skills. This would help the children see the progress of their knowledge and help them to realize how their lessons are related. —Kristy Currin

As a future fourth grade teacher, I plan to assign a minimal amount of homework. I intend to allow class time to complete assignments. If the student does not use his or her time wisely, then the work will have to be completed as homework. However, I realize that there will be occasions when assignments will have to be completed at home due to disruptions in the school day, such as assemblies. Also, due to extracurricular activities, many students have to rush to complete homework in order to get to participate in the activity or parents do the work for them just to get it done. If students have to rush through their work, they will not learn the necessary material, which will create problems for the student later. When students do their homework during class, I know whose work I will be grading. Another reason I plan to assign a minimal amount of homework is because I believe children need time to be children. If they have to go home and complete two hour’s worth of homework, when will they have time to play? In addition to getting their exercise, children learn when they are able to play and explore outdoors, which creates a happy, healthy child and a successful student. —Amanda Hughes

I plan on teaching 3rd grade and I think homework is a great opportunity to do some work on their own time. This can also teach the students good time management and how not to procrastinate. I do not plan on assigning a lot of homework but I believe it’s an important learning skill. Homework also gives the parents an idea of what their children are learning in class and what their children’s learning level is at. I also intend on giving students time in class to do their assignments and if they do not finish them in class they will have to finish at home. This also gives the students the opportunity to ask me questions if they have any. I think that homework is a good idea and I intend on giving some, but maybe not on the weekends. —Diane Berry

I plan to be a third grade teacher. At that age, I think it’s important to not give an overload of homework. Some homework is inevitable. It is a great opportunity to see how the students work without the teacher’s help, and their parents get to see how and what they are learning in school. However, I think children do enough work during the school day. When they go home at the end of the day, they should be able to play and enjoy their time away from school. Family time is also important for the development of small children. There is plenty of time in the school day for them to complete all their work and stay on track with the students from other classrooms that are given homework every night. If the student doesn’t complete the given classwork in school, then it school be completed at home, but as a teacher I would try to my best to not give homework. —Whitney Medeiros

As a future high school or middle school history and government teacher, homework will be an important part of my class. I believe that at those ages, students should be serious about their education and willing to do outside of the classroom work in order to enhance their learning. Teachers do not give homework just to give it. Homework is given to supplement the present lesson or to get students to think about the next lesson they will be going over. I believe that some homework assignments can also help students because some people learn better on their own and it also helps reinforce what they have already learned. In my class, there will most likely be a lot of essay questions, reading and paper writing. I not only want my students to learn about history and government, but also use the tools they have learned in other classes such as English. Most likely I will have my students read a section in the book before we go over it, just so they have a basic understanding of the material. After we cover the material, they will complete worksheets that correspond. Any assignments that are not finished in class will be considered homework. I will also have my students complete long term assignments, such as a term paper. I do not want to assign my class loads of homework each night because I know that there will be some students who will not complete the work, but students who do complete homework assignments will be rewarded. Homework grades will be a small portion of the final grades for students, so they need to take it seriously. —Tara Saylor

I plan to be a kindergarten teacher. I will probably not assign that much homework to them. Children are in school for a long enough period during the day that at such a young age I don’t think that it is necessary for them to be assigned work to do at home. I plan on giving them a few activities to complete at home though, but I will make sure it is all things that they would enjoy. By working with young children, I have observed that when they are in kindergarten they actually think it’s kind of “cool” to have homework. It makes them feel older and gives them a sense of accomplishment. I also feel that if they have some homework it will give the children a chance to ask their parents questions. By doing so parents (or guardians) and children can have a chance to spend time together and talk about what the child is learning in school. Although I feel that homework can be very essential to students at higher grade levels, I feel that in elementary school homework should be used to reinforce what was learned during the school day and give a chance for parents and children to spend time together at home. I do not believe that children (especially in elementary schools) should have so much work to take home that it makes going home a stressful event. —Marinda Gregory

Some people dislike the idea of homework and they say that it’s a waste of time and it is not an effective way to reinforce material. I believe that homework can be a really useful tool in the classroom and I think that it will benefit my students in the long run. I plan to become a Spanish teacher, and learning a language other than one’s own can be difficult, so I will give my students homework so they can get a grasp of the concepts presented to them. It is easy for kids to forget what they are taught, especially when a plethora of new ideas are thrown at them over the course of six hours a day, so my homework assignments will help them retain information and practice using the language outside of the classroom. I will not, however, make homework a major part of my student’s grades. Homework will only be mandatory if students fail to show mastery of a skill on tests or quizzes. If they maintain at least a “B” and aren’t showing any problems, then they do not have to do the assignment if they don’t want to. I don’t think it is a good idea to make students do homework if it doesn’t help them learn anything new. If their grades are not up to par then they will have required homework assignments until their quiz or test grades are adequate. This will keep them on task and then they will be rewarded in the end for making progress. —Lauren Spindle

First and foremost, I am not a big fan of long, drawn out homework assignments. I do not believe they enhance learning or lead to better comprehension of material (in agreement with this article). For my classrooms, I will only assign homework as needed. When we are working on math problems, which require practice, I will assign a few (no more than five) for my students to practice after school. Spelling words or simple papers will be the maximum for my language arts classes. All other topics will have assignments on an as needed basis. I hope to be able to cover all material and reach my students in class, without the need for after school work. The higher grade levels will require more homework, due to the amount of material that must be covered. For example, fifth graders are required to learn many more difficult topics than first graders, but their attention span and cognitive abilities are also greater. I had many friends who became “burnt out” from large homework loads and will make it a goal of mine to limit the amount of homework I assign. If I were to teach high school, obviously the workload would be higher. These students are preparing for college and must learn how to properly manage time and complete multiple assignments on time. The length of time we are given with our students is adequate, but reinforcement of skills will still be necessary. Therefore, it will be necessary to assign some homework, but it is still my job to teach the material and I intend to do so in class and without the need of learning skills at home. There is no way to get around studying for tests, but if the material is presented properly study time should be minimal. Homework will be solely for reinforcement of skills and practice. —April K. Smith

I would like the opportunity to teach second grade. I would assign homework to my students but only work that is manageable and acceptable. Personally, I believe homework should be a review and work that can be done. Too often homework has been work that takes hours or discourages students. I can remember doing homework in elementary school and feeling hopeless. The homework was overwhelming and took hours, when it should not have. Throughout middle and high school homework was the same. I spent way too long doing it and it became draining. Homework should be a review from that day’s lesson and not teach something new. My policy would be homework would be nightly and work from that day could help with the assignments. I know now, I would ask students to read every night but I would never ask them to read something out of the ordinary knowing they cannot read it. I believe in homework but it should be used when needed and necessary. —Meryl Cox

I am currently teaching twelfth grade honors English at Menchville High School in Newport News. This is my second year teaching this class and, with the help of the other honors English teacher, I have adopted very specific homework policies that I think are very effective. I spent last year perfecting these policies, and this year, I have found it even easier to enforce. My seniors have reading homework almost every night. It usually is not an excessive amount, but at the same time, it is difficult reading that requires a certain degree of effort and hard work. When they complain, I remind them that the point of this class is to prepare them for life after high school. Because it is an honors class, it is expected that the majority of these students will go on to college next year. Those who don’t will be entering the work force or the military, and like in college, they will have certain duties they will be expected to complete. The homework assignments are designed to make them think on their own and prepare them for life after high school. With every reading assignment, they know there is a possibility for a quiz the following class period. Failing several quizzes in a row as a result of not doing homework, will significantly lower a student’s grade. Therefore, they are much more likely to do the reading because they don’t want their grades to drop. —Erin Eudy

I am going to be a music teacher which will not require assigning homework, but I would also like to teach music theory which would. This would be a high school class. This subject is one that is very methodical and can only be learned through working out written examples. While taking music theory in high school about twenty minutes of homework was a sufficient amount for the class to master the material, generally. I would try to assign only that much, especially since I know the core classes would be assigning more and I wouldn’t want my students to get stressed out. However, if I didn’t feel enough material was covered during class, I would assign more. Homework is something to aid in the learning process, in my opinion, and it should not be assigned just for homework’s sake, so I would keep that in mind as well. Also, I would check the homework to see whether or not the students made an attempt and that would determine their grade, not how well they did it. However, I would edit them for mistakes to make sure they understand the material. Homework is a learning experience and the student should not be faulted if they don’t understand something. —Brittany Cannon

As a high school Spanish teacher, I think that it would be necessary to have homework for the students on a regular basis so that they get time to practice the language that they are learning. There is no way they will be able to learn the language if they only ever use it or think about it just in class, so I know that I would have homework for my kids every week. That said, I also think that I would be lenient in the homework that I give. It would follow the ten minute rule for the most part and be a review of the things that we learned in class that day, either some sort of grammar or vocabulary assignment. I would work with the children who were having trouble with the activity and use the homework in class as a review so that they get the opportunity to learn from each other and from me. I would also make sure that I know my kids well and know their backgrounds and stories so that I can work with children who do not have time or maybe a place at home to complete their homework, or have to work to help support their family. I think it is important to be firm in making students do homework as a review, but there will always be exceptions to that rule, there will always be students with special needs that you will have to work with so that they are able to succeed in the class and I think it is important to remember that when assigning homework especially. —Jessie Neumann

I am going to teach math at the high school level. Math is a subject that must be practiced at home to make sure the student can solve a problem on their own. I am also a mother of two children who are both in elementary school. I feel homework is very important for students no matter what the grade. Homework should be a review of what is taught in the class and just a way for students to test their understanding of the daily lessons taught. I do not feel that giving students more tougher homework will help our students to become smarter. The above article talks about how “by middle school U.S. scores begin to fall (on international achievement tests)”. I do not believe more homework will solve this problem. I think the approach to teaching needs to change so students are learning the most up to date information possible. Technology today allows for many new and entertaining ways to teach students. I feel we need to focus more on the what and how we are teaching our kids rather than the amount of homework time. In my opinion too hard of homework or overloaded homework will many times only be completed by the students who have a strong support system at home. Sadly many times students do not have a strong support system at home. Many students do not have help on the hard homework assignments and become discouraged when they are unable to complete the assignment. Many students live for today and easily become unmotivated when they are given too much homework deciding not to do any of the homework because they feel they were given an unreasonable amount. I also feel that as important as homework is, exercise is just as important. Kids need to have time to go outside for at least an hour so they keep their bodies healthy. Students go to school for about 6 hours five days a week and even though they get holidays and summers off, it is very important that students are happy with as little stress as possible because that is how the brain learns best, according to Dr. Allen’s lecture on “The Brain”. When I teach I will only use homework as practice to ensure the students understand the material taught. —Victoria Monaghan

  • Bempechat, Janine. “The motivational benefits of homework: a social-cognitive perspective.” Theory Into Practice Summer 2004: 8pp. FindArticles. 8 Sept. 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NQM/is_3_43/ai_n6361599/print
  • Clemmitt, Marcia. “Students Under Stress.” CQ Researcher 17 (2007): 577-600. CQ Researcher Online. 2 Sept. 2007. http://library.cqpress.com.ezproxy.vccs.edu:2048/cqresearcher/cqresrre2007071300
  • Coutts, Pamela. “Meanings of homework and implications for practice.” Theory Into Practice Summer 2004: 7pp. FindArticles. 15 Sept. 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NQM/is_3_43/ai_n7069035/print
  • “Do Students Have Too Much Homework?” A Report by The Brown Center on Education Policy. Oct. 2003. The Brookings Institution. 3 Sept. 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20040427043131/http://www.brookings.edu/gs/brown/20031001homework.htm
  • Junior Science Support Service. Department of Education and Science. 6 Sept. 2007 http://juniorscience.ie/jsss/Files/se_homework.pdf
  • Keith, Timothy, Christine Diamond-Hallam, and Jodene Fine. “Longitudinal Effects of In-School and Out-of-School Homework on High School Grades.” School Psychology Quarterly 19.3 (2004): 187-211.
  • Marshall, Patrick. “Homework Debate.” CQ Researcher 12 (2002): 993-1012. CQ Researcher Online. 2 Sept. 2007 < http://library.cqpress.com.ezproxy.vccs.edu:2048/cqresearcher/cqresrre2002120600 >.
  • Marzano, Robert, and Debra Pickering. “The Case For and Against Homework.” Educational Leadership 64.6 (2007): 74-79.
  • Van Voorhis, Frances L., (2004), Reflecting on the Homework Ritual: Assignments and Designs, Theory Into Practice; Vol. 43 Issue 3.
  • The Center on School, Family, and Community Partnerships at Johns Hopkins University Retrieved November 11, 2007 from www.csos.jhu.edu/P2000/tips/index.htm
  • National Education Association. (2006). Bridging the Great Homework Divide: A Solutions Guide for Parents of Middle School Students. http://www.nea.com . Retrieved November 8, 2007 from ERIC database.
  • Strauss, Valerie. “As Homework Grows, So Do Arguments Against It.” The Washington Post Online (2006), http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/11/AR2006091100908.html
  • Social and Cultural Foundations of American Education: A Student-Authored Textbook. Authored by : Dwight W. Allen, Patrick O'Shea, and Peter Baker. Provided by : Old Dominion University. Located at : https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Social_and_Cultural_Foundations_of_American_Education . License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike

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Home > College of Education and Learning Design > Teacher Development > Culminating Projects > 24

Culminating Projects in Teacher Development

Types of homework and their effect on student achievement.

Tammi A. Minke , St.Cloud State University Follow

Date of Award

Culminating project type.

Starred Paper

Degree Name

Curriculum and Instruction: M.S.

Teacher Development

School of Education

First Advisor

Stephen Hornstein

Second Advisor

Third advisor.

Marc Markell

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Creative Commons License

Keywords and Subject Headings

  • Does the amount of homework impact students’ academic achievement in school?
  • What type of homework has the best impact on students’ academic achievement in school?

The literature review in Chapter 2 describes homework trends over the years, different types of homework, what constitutes worthy homework, reasons for homework incompletion, homework completion strategies, parent involvement, positive and negative effects of homework, and recommended time spent on homework for students today in high school, middle school, and elementary students.

Recommended Citation

Minke, Tammi A., "Types of Homework and Their Effect on Student Achievement" (2017). Culminating Projects in Teacher Development . 24. https://repository.stcloudstate.edu/ed_etds/24

Since August 30, 2017

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The 5 Top Types of DIY Homework Assignments That ESL Students Love

Did you ever have that one teacher who went the extra mile ?

When I had a teacher who devoted their time to developing exciting material, I was much more engaged in the learning experience .

The lessons and homework didn’t feel like work. Instead, I felt like I was in an intellectually stimulating space where I was learning important life skills.

Think about the more boring classes you had as a student. Do you remember how much you dreaded cookie-cutter homework activities that came in the form of a worksheet or textbook assignment? They were bland and lacking creativity, and you rarely felt like they actually helped you better understand the content.

Most of your ESL students feel the same way about the generic homework that comes with their curriculum. However, you can increase their motivation and happiness by developing homework activities that are creative and enjoyable . That way, you become that special kind of teacher who students enjoy learning from.

You’ll find that the majority of ESL students want homework. They see the importance of practicing English outside of the classroom. However, they also want activities that give them the opportunity to experiment and have fun with English.

Homework shouldn’t be a time for drilling verb tenses and memorizing definitions. It should be a time for students to express themselves using English. Give your students this important practice time by dedicating some of your lesson prep to creating meaningful homework assignments that help them reach specific goals , and they’ll feel like they’re really making progress.

Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. Click here to get a copy. (Download)

The Creative Teacher’s Guide to Custom-tailored Homework for ESL Students

Things to keep in mind while creating esl homework.

Being able to self-study is an important part of learning any new language. You’ll need to motivate and inspire your students to learn outside of the classroom and make every moment an opportunity to learn something related to English.

Think of homework as being  guided home learning  rather than assignments to be completed perfectly to receive points.

Before you can create effective homework that your students will benefit from and enjoy , you’ll need to take some time to think about how you want to design your assignments. Here are some things to consider when creating homework:

  • What topics your class is currently studying—think about the themes, relevant vocabulary and grammar structures you have been teaching.
  • The average proficiency level of the class.
  • What will the students get out of this assignment?

With these things in mind, homework assignments can be a great way to step away from the confines of your current curriculum and experiment with creative ways to reinforce the concepts you’ve covered.

Focus on your students

Try thinking about the general strengths and weaknesses of your classes when you create activities so that you can create customized homework that helps students overcome weaknesses while building upon strengths.

Not entirely sure what their weaknesses are? That’s normal. Students sometimes lack the vocabulary to explain why they’re confused in class, especially when you put them on the spot and ask about their level of understanding. They might not raise questions during lessons, but the truth of their comprehension will surface in homework assignments. By allowing you to identify students’ specific strengths and weaknesses firsthand, well-made, custom homework gives you the chance to be a more effective teacher.

Noticing those strengths and weaknesses will help you get an idea of how the class performs as a whole, as well as the specific areas that individuals need to work on.

With this information, you can then make modifications to your lessons and future homework assignments to help improve your students’ understanding.

Stay relevant

Another benefit of customized homework is that you can base your assignments on topics that are hot and trendy. You can catch attention by referring to big topics in sports, entertainment and current events that you’ve noticed your students buzzing about lately.

You can also stay extremely focused on the themes you’ve been presenting during class time. This reinforces the material students have covered in class in a fun way, which greatly boosts their chances of retaining what they’ve learned.

Encourage them to open their books

This custom homework also gives many students a way to complete assignments with less stress; pupils can learn in a relaxed environment now that they’re working at their own paces rather than the teacher’s set speed, and they can also use outside resources to help them.

You can even design the homework so that they’re encouraged to seek help directly from a specific textbook, website or video.

Important Things to Remember When Creating Homework for ESL Students

There aren’t many students who like doing homework, even if they know it’s critical to their success with the language. While you won’t be able to change that, you can make their homework more enjoyable by taking these steps.

1. Make your homework relevant

Loading your students up with pointless busywork is going to only make them feel negatively about learning English. Spend a little extra preparation time on developing homework so that it’s engaging and has an obvious, specific purpose. If your assignment doesn’t have a clear goal that’s relevant to the students’ current lessons, change it up.

2. Write down your classroom objectives before making homework

Before you even think about creating a homework assignment, write down what you hope your students will get out of it. This will provide you with a blueprint that will help you design more effective material. With the right wording, you can even place this hope right on the homework assignment itself.

3. Don’t be so rigid

Homework should be an opportunity for students to step out of the confines of the classroom. Give them the chance to explore the language and tap into their own creativity so that they can incorporate their world knowledge into the learning experience.

4. Be consistent with grading

One of the quickest ways to stop students from getting creative with English is to mark their work stringently. Develop a grading system, let your class know what you’re looking for when you mark homework and don’t deviate from it.

Marking for participation rather than accuracy is a good way to keep your students motivated and active. If you do grade for accuracy, let the class know beforehand and give them ample time to complete the assignment (perhaps over the course of a few days).

5. Be mindful of your students’ limitations

Before you start assigning homework that requires computers, mobile devices or CD players, make sure that everyone has equal access to the resources. Teaching ESL means that you work with people from all walks of life, and some might not have access these devices. Make a plan to accommodate students or come up with a different homework exercise.

Ideas for Getting Started with DIY Homework for ESL Students

Making the perfect homework assignment takes effort, but it’s not impossible. With a little bit of time and creativity, you can develop material that helps your students improve their English skills in a fun and engaging manner. Here are some ideas that will help you make excellent homework.

1. Create debate teams

Debating is a perfect activity in the ESL classroom. It allows students to develop better persuasive skills while teaching them how to research in English. But every good debate requires some preparation.

Simply put your students into groups, assign a debating topic and make sure that every student is assigned a task to complete at home, like writing their argument or doing the actual research for the debate. Just make sure that you give your class ample time to prepare their arguments—they might need a few days for this homework assignment.

2. Give your class blogging assignments

Having your students write blogs provides two functions: learning how to write in prose and getting comfortable using an English keyboard. One of the biggest benefits of blogging assignments is their versatility.

You can have students write about literally anything, from daily diaries to structured academic essays . You can have students use specific vocabulary words or grammatical structures that were covered in class.

There are even blogging platforms available for language students  where people will proofread their submissions and give feedback.

3. Use current events as curriculum

Being able to apply the news to your lessons and homework assignments is an excellent way to keep your students interested and engaged. Assign your students specific topics in the news to follow, then give them writing and worksheet assignments related to the topics.

If you teach beginner and intermediate English students, have them get their news from a platform that uses simplified English . Advanced students may use native sources.

4. Create homework that helps build functional life skills

Especially if you’re teaching English to adults, focus on homework assignments that they can truly benefit from in the real world. You’ll find that adult learners really enjoy assignments with a clear purpose instead of more general learning . Have them write resumes and cover letters for homework to let them practice writing, or give them time to prepare for a face-to-face mock job interview with you.

Another popular homework topic is writing complaint letters. Your students can choose a company that they’re dissatisfied with and write a letter complaining about the poor service delivery or something similar.

5. Use technology whenever you can

If your students have reliable access to smartphones or computers then you can start a chat group. Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp  are two chatting platforms that allow for group communication. You can discuss things with your students in real time, share videos and audio clips and answer any questions regarding homework.

Pitfalls to Avoid When Creating Homework for ESL Students

Coming up with homework isn’t as simple as going to a website full of ESL resources and printing out a generic worksheet. If you really want to help your students succeed, you’re going to need to put a lot of thought into how you can help them self-study. For this reason, you shouldn’t rely too heavily on workbook-based assignments. If their textbooks come with an additional workbook, use it as a way to supplement their learning but don’t restrict yourself to using only that.

Planning ESL homework can be a challenging task, especially if you’re teaching adults. Try and get to know your students a little more personally so that you have an idea of what’s going on in their lives. Ask about their school or work schedules so that you don’t overload them with excessive homework during a time when they’re preparing for exams or completing important projects.

Moreover, as you’re designing material, keep your students’ cultures in mind. A common mistake many ESL teachers make is not accounting for the cultural differences , especially when teaching students from more conservative countries. Learn what is and isn’t appropriate!

Remember, homework should always have a purpose. Never assign homework that you don’t plan on marking or evaluating in some way. Effective homework is designed for two functions: to let students engage with the language without the teacher present and to give students constructive feedback that they can benefit from.

By creating ESL homework that helps students overcome specific obstacles and learn how to use practical English in the real world, you’re helping your students work towards reaching fluency.

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School Life Balance , Tips for Online Students

The Pros and Cons of Homework


Homework is a word that most students dread hearing. After hours upon hours of sitting in class , the last thing we want is more schoolwork over our precious weekends. While it’s known to be a staple of traditional schooling, homework has also become a rather divise topic. Some feel as though homework is a necessary part of school, while others believe that the time could be better invested. Should students have homework? Have a closer look into the arguments on both sides to decide for yourself.

A college student completely swamped with homework.

Photo by  energepic.com  from  Pexels

Why should students have homework, 1. homework encourages practice.

Many people believe that one of the positive effects of homework is that it encourages the discipline of practice. While it may be time consuming and boring compared to other activities, repetition is needed to get better at skills. Homework helps make concepts more clear, and gives students more opportunities when starting their career .

2. Homework Gets Parents Involved

Homework can be something that gets parents involved in their children’s lives if the environment is a healthy one. A parent helping their child with homework makes them take part in their academic success, and allows for the parent to keep up with what the child is doing in school. It can also be a chance to connect together.

3. Homework Teaches Time Management

Homework is much more than just completing the assigned tasks. Homework can develop time management skills , forcing students to plan their time and make sure that all of their homework assignments are done on time. By learning to manage their time, students also practice their problem-solving skills and independent thinking. One of the positive effects of homework is that it forces decision making and compromises to be made.

4. Homework Opens A Bridge Of Communication

Homework creates a connection between the student, the teacher, the school, and the parents. It allows everyone to get to know each other better, and parents can see where their children are struggling. In the same sense, parents can also see where their children are excelling. Homework in turn can allow for a better, more targeted educational plan for the student.

5. Homework Allows For More Learning Time

Homework allows for more time to complete the learning process. School hours are not always enough time for students to really understand core concepts, and homework can counter the effects of time shortages, benefiting students in the long run, even if they can’t see it in the moment.

6. Homework Reduces Screen Time

Many students in North America spend far too many hours watching TV. If they weren’t in school, these numbers would likely increase even more. Although homework is usually undesired, it encourages better study habits and discourages spending time in front of the TV. Homework can be seen as another extracurricular activity, and many families already invest a lot of time and money in different clubs and lessons to fill up their children’s extra time. Just like extracurricular activities, homework can be fit into one’s schedule.

A female student who doesn’t want to do homework.

The Other Side: Why Homework Is Bad

1. homework encourages a sedentary lifestyle.

Should students have homework? Well, that depends on where you stand. There are arguments both for the advantages and the disadvantages of homework.

While classroom time is important, playground time is just as important. If children are given too much homework, they won’t have enough playtime, which can impact their social development and learning. Studies have found that those who get more play get better grades in school , as it can help them pay closer attention in the classroom.

Children are already sitting long hours in the classroom, and homework assignments only add to these hours. Sedentary lifestyles can be dangerous and can cause health problems such as obesity. Homework takes away from time that could be spent investing in physical activity.

2. Homework Isn’t Healthy In Every Home

While many people that think homes are a beneficial environment for children to learn, not all homes provide a healthy environment, and there may be very little investment from parents. Some parents do not provide any kind of support or homework help, and even if they would like to, due to personal barriers, they sometimes cannot. Homework can create friction between children and their parents, which is one of the reasons why homework is bad .

3. Homework Adds To An Already Full-Time Job

School is already a full-time job for students, as they generally spend over 6 hours each day in class. Students also often have extracurricular activities such as sports, music, or art that are just as important as their traditional courses. Adding on extra hours to all of these demands is a lot for children to manage, and prevents students from having extra time to themselves for a variety of creative endeavors. Homework prevents self discovery and having the time to learn new skills outside of the school system. This is one of the main disadvantages of homework.

4. Homework Has Not Been Proven To Provide Results

Endless surveys have found that homework creates a negative attitude towards school, and homework has not been found to be linked to a higher level of academic success.

The positive effects of homework have not been backed up enough. While homework may help some students improve in specific subjects, if they have outside help there is no real proof that homework makes for improvements.

It can be a challenge to really enforce the completion of homework, and students can still get decent grades without doing their homework. Extra school time does not necessarily mean better grades — quality must always come before quantity.

Accurate practice when it comes to homework simply isn’t reliable. Homework could even cause opposite effects if misunderstood, especially since the reliance is placed on the student and their parents — one of the major reasons as to why homework is bad. Many students would rather cheat in class to avoid doing their homework at home, and children often just copy off of each other or from what they read on the internet.

5. Homework Assignments Are Overdone

The general agreement is that students should not be given more than 10 minutes a day per grade level. What this means is that a first grader should be given a maximum of 10 minutes of homework, while a second grader receives 20 minutes, etc. Many students are given a lot more homework than the recommended amount, however.

On average, college students spend as much as 3 hours per night on homework . By giving too much homework, it can increase stress levels and lead to burn out. This in turn provides an opposite effect when it comes to academic success.

The pros and cons of homework are both valid, and it seems as though the question of ‘‘should students have homework?’ is not a simple, straightforward one. Parents and teachers often are found to be clashing heads, while the student is left in the middle without much say.

It’s important to understand all the advantages and disadvantages of homework, taking both perspectives into conversation to find a common ground. At the end of the day, everyone’s goal is the success of the student.

Related Articles

Privacy overview.

Homework as a Mental Health Concern It's time for an in depth discussion about homework as a major concern for those pursuing mental health in schools. So many problems between kids and their families, the home and school, and students and teachers arise from conflicts over homework. The topic is a long standing concern for mental health practitioners, especially those who work in schools. Over the years, we have tried to emphasize the idea that schools need to ensure that homework is designed as "motivated practice," and parents need to avoid turning homework into a battleground. These views are embedded in many of the Center documents. At this time, we hope you will join in a discussion of what problems you see arising related to homework and what you recommend as ways to deal with such problems, what positive homework practices you know about, and so forth. Read the material that follows, and then, let us hear from you on this topic. Contact: [email protected] ######################### As one stimulus, here's a piece by Sharon Cromwell from Education World prepared for teachers " The Homework Dilemma: How Much Should Parents Get Involved? " http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr053.shtml . What can teachers do to help parents help their children with homework? Just what kind of parental involvement -- and how much involvement -- truly helps children with their homework? The most useful stance parents can take, many experts agree, is to be somewhat but not overly involved in homework. The emphasis needs to be on parents' helping children do their homework themselves -- not on doing it for them. In an Instructor magazine article, How to Make Parents Your Homework Partner s, study-skills consultant Judy Dodge maintains that involving students in homework is largely the teacher's job, yet parents can help by "creating a home environment that's conducive to kids getting their homework done." Children who spend more time on homework, on average, do better academically than children who don't, and the academic benefits of homework increase in the upper grades, according to Helping Your Child With Homework , a handbook by the Office of Education Research and Improvement in the U.S. Department of Education. The handbook offers ideas for helping children finish homework assignments successfully and answers questions that parents and people who care for elementary and junior high school students often ask about homework. One of the Goals 2000 goals involves the parent/school relationship. The goal reads, "Every school will promote partnerships that will increase parental involvement and participation in promoting the social, emotional, and academic growth of children." Teachers can pursue the goal, in part, by communicating to parents their reasons for assigning homework. For example, the handbook states, homework can help children to review and practice what they have learned; prepare for the next day's class; use resources, such as libraries and reference materials; investigate topics more fully than time allows in the classroom. Parents can help children excel at homework by setting a regular time; choosing a place; removing distractions; having supplies and resources on hand; monitoring assignments; and providing guidance. The handbook cautions against actually doing the homework for a child, but talking about the assignment so the child can figure out what needs to be done is OK. And reviewing a completed assignment with a child can also be helpful. The kind of help that works best depends, of course, partly on the child's age. Elementary school students who are doing homework for the first time may need more direct involvement than older students. HOMEWORK "TIPS" Specific methods have been developed for encouraging the optimal parental involvement in homework. TIPS (Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork) Interactive Homework process was designed by researchers at Johns Hopkins University and teachers in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia to meet parents' and teachers' needs, says the Phi Delta Kappa Research Bulletin . The September 1997 bulletin reported the effects of TIPS-Language Arts on middle-grade students' writing skills, language arts report card grades, and attitudes toward TIPS as well as parents' reactions to interactive homework. TIPS interactive homework assignments involve students in demonstrating or discussing homework with a family member. Parents are asked to monitor, interact, and support their children. They are not required to read or direct the students' assignments because that is the students' responsibility. All TIPS homework has a section for home-to-school communication where parents indicate their interaction with the student about the homework. The goals of the TIPS process are for parents to gain knowledge about their children's school work, students to gain mastery in academic subjects by enhancing school lessons at home, and teachers to have an understanding of the parental contribution to student learning. "TIPS" RESULTS Nearly all parents involved in the TIPS program said TIPS provided them with information about what their children were studying in school. About 90 percent of the parents wanted the school to continue TIPS the following year. More than 80 percent of the families liked the TIPS process (44 percent a lot; 36% a little). TIPS activities were better than regular homework, according to 60 percent of the students who participated. About 70 percent wanted the school to use TIPS the next year. According to Phi Delta Kappa Research Bulletin , more family involvement helped students' writing skills increase, even when prior writing skills were taken into account. And completing more TIPS assignments improved students' language arts grades on report cards, even after prior report card grades and attendance were taken into account. Of the eight teachers involved, six liked the TIPS process and intended to go on using it without help or supplies from the researchers. Furthermore, seven of the eight teachers said TIPS "helps families see what their children are learning in class." OTHER TIPS In "How to Make Parents Your Homework Partners," Judy Dodge suggests that teachers begin giving parent workshops to provide practical tips for "winning the homework battle." At the workshop, teachers should focus on three key study skills: Organizational skills -- Help put students in control of work and to feel sure that they can master what they need to learn and do. Parents can, for example, help students find a "steady study spot" with the materials they need at hand. Time-management skills -- Enable students to complete work without feeling too much pressure and to have free time. By working with students to set a definite study time, for example, parents can help with time management. Active study strategies -- Help students to achieve better outcomes from studying. Parents suggest, for instance, that students write questions they think will be on a test and then recite their answers out loud. Related Resources Homework Without Tears by Lee Canter and Lee Hauser (Perennial Library, 1987). A down-to-earth book by well-known experts suggests how to deal with specific homework problems. Megaskills: How Families Can Help Children Succeed in School and Beyond by Dorothy Rich (Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992). Families can help children develop skills that nurture success in and out of school. "Helping Your Student Get the Most Out of Homework" by the National PTA and the National Education Association (1995). This booklet for teachers to use with students is sold in packages of 25 through the National PTA. The Catalog item is #B307. Call 312-549-3253 or write National PTA Orders, 135 South LaSalle Street, Dept. 1860, Chicago, IL 60674-1860. Related Sites A cornucopia of homework help is available for children who use a computer or whose parents are willing to help them get started online. The following LINKS include Internet sites that can be used for reference, research, and overall resources for both homework and schoolwork. Dr. Internet. The Dr. Internet Web site, part of the Internet Public Library, helps students with science and math homework or projects. It includes a science project resource guide Help With Homework. His extensive listing of Internet links is divided into Language Art Links, Science Links, Social Studies Links, Homework Help, Kids Education, and Universities. If students know what they are looking for, the site could be invaluable. Kidz-Net... Links to places where you can get help with homework. An array of homework help links is offered here, from Ask Dr. Math (which provides answers to math questions) to Roget's Thesaurus and the White House. Surfing the Net With Kids: Got Questions? Links to people -- such as teachers, librarians, experts, authors, and other students -- who will help students with questions about homework. Barbara J. Feldman put together the links. Kidsurfer: For Kids and Teens The site, from the National Children's Coalition, includes a Homework/Reference section for many subjects, including science, geography, music, history, and language arts. Homework: Parents' Work, Kid's Work, or School Work? A quick search of this title in the Education Week Archives and you'll find an article presenting a parent's viewpoint on helping children with homework. @#@#@#@@# As another stimulus for the discussion, here is an excerpt from our online continuing education module Enhancing Classroom Approaches for Addressing Barriers to Learning ( https://smhp.psych.ucla.edu ) Turning Homework into Motivated Practice Most of us have had the experience of wanting to be good at something such as playing a musical instrument or participating in a sport. What we found out was that becoming good at it meant a great deal of practice, and the practicing often was not very much fun. In the face of this fact, many of us turned to other pursuits. In some cases, individuals were compelled by their parents to labor on, and many of these sufferers grew to dislike the activity. (A few, of course, commend their parents for pushing them, but be assured these are a small minority. Ask your friends who were compelled to practice the piano.) Becoming good at reading, mathematics, writing, and other academic pursuits requires practice outside the classroom. This, of course, is called homework. Properly designed, homework can benefit students. Inappropriately designed homework, however, can lead to avoidance, parent-child conflicts, teacher reproval, and student dislike of various arenas of learning. Well-designed homework involves assignments that emphasize motivated practice. As with all learning processes that engage students, motivated practice requires designing activities that the student perceives as worthwhile and doable with an appropriate amount of effort. In effect, the intent is to personalize in-class practice and homework. This does not mean every student has a different practice activity. Teachers quickly learn what their students find engaging and can provide three or four practice options that will be effective for most students in a class. The idea of motivated practice is not without its critics. I don't doubt that students would prefer an approach to homework that emphasized motivated practice. But �� that's not preparing them properly for the real world. People need to work even when it isn't fun, and most of the time work isn't fun. Also, if a person wants to be good at something, they need to practice it day in and day out, and that's not fun! In the end, won't all this emphasis on motivation spoil people so that they won't want to work unless it's personally relevant and interesting? We believe that a great deal of learning and practice activities can be enjoyable. But even if they are not, they can be motivating if they are viewed as worthwhile and experienced as satisfying. At the same time, we do recognize that there are many things people have to do in their lives that will not be viewed and experienced in a positive way. How we all learn to put up with such circumstances is an interesting question, but one for which psychologists have yet to find a satisfactory answer. It is doubtful, however, that people have to experience the learning and practice of basic knowledge and skills as drudgery in order to learn to tolerate boring situations. Also in response to critics of motivated practice, there is the reality that many students do not master what they have been learning because they do not pursue the necessary practice activities. Thus, at least for such individuals, it seems essential to facilitate motivated practice. Minimally, facilitating motivated practice requires establishing a variety of task options that are potentially challenging -- neither too easy nor too hard. However, as we have stressed, the processes by which tasks are chosen must lead to perceptions on the part of the learner that practice activities, task outcomes, or both are worthwhile -- especially as potential sources of personal satisfaction. The examples in the following exhibit illustrate ways in which activities can be varied to provide for motivated learning and practice. Because most people have experienced a variety of reading and writing activities, the focus here is on other types of activity. Students can be encouraged to pursue such activity with classsmates and/or family members. Friends with common interests can provide positive models and support that can enhance productivity and even creativity. Research on motivation indicates that one of the most powerful factors keeping a person on a task is the expectation of feeling some sense of satisfaction when the task is completed. For example, task persistence results from the expectation that one will feel smart or competent while performing the task or at least will feel that way after the skill is mastered. Within some limits, the stronger the sense of potential outcome satisfaction, the more likely practice will be pursued even when the practice activities are rather dull. The weaker the sense of potential outcome satisfaction, the more the practice activities themselves need to be positively motivating. Exhibit � Homework and Motivated Practice Learning and practicing by (1) doing using movement and manipulation of objects to explore a topic (e.g., using coins to learn to add and subtract) dramatization of events (e.g., historical, current) role playing and simulations (e.g., learning about democratic vs. autocratic government by trying different models in class; learning about contemporary life and finances by living on a budget) actual interactions (e.g., learning about human psychology through analysis of daily behavior) applied activities (e.g., school newspapers, film and video productions, band, sports) actual work experience (e.g., on-the-job learning) (2) listening reading to students (e.g., to enhance their valuing of literature) audio media (e.g., tapes, records, and radio presentations of music, stories, events) listening games and activities (e.g., Simon Says; imitating rhymes, rhythms, and animal sounds) analyzing actual oral material (e.g., learning to detect details and ideas in advertisements or propaganda presented on radio or television, learning to identify feelings and motives underlying statements of others) (3) looking directly observing experts, role models, and demonstrations visual media visual games and activities (e.g., puzzles, reproducing designs, map activities) analyzing actual visual material (e.g., learning to find and identify ideas observed in daily events) (4) asking information gathering (e.g., investigative reporting, interviewing, and opinion sampling at school and in the community) brainstorming answers to current problems and puzzling questions inquiry learning (e.g., learning social studies and science by identifying puzzling questions, formulating hypotheses, gathering and interpreting information, generalizing answers, and raising new questions) question-and-answer games and activities (e.g., twenty questions, provocative and confrontational questions) questioning everyday events (e.g., learning about a topic by asking people about how it effects their lives) O.K. That's should be enough to get you going. What's your take on all this? What do you think we all should be telling teachers and parents about homework? Let us hear from you ( [email protected] ). Back to Hot Topic Home Page Hot Topic Home Page --> Table of Contents Home Page Search Send Us Email School Mental Health Project-UCLA Center for Mental Health in Schools WebMaster: Perry Nelson ([email protected])

The ‘Homework Gap’ Is About to Get Worse. What Should Schools Do?

types of homework for students

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A program that provides discounted broadband internet service to low-income households is expected to run out of funding by the end of April, a concerning development for school districts with families that relied on the subsidy.

With the Affordable Connectivity Program , eligible families can receive a discount of up to $30 per month toward internet service. For those on qualifying tribal lands, the discount is up to $75 per month. The program also provides a one-time discount to purchase a laptop, desktop computer, or tablet from participating providers.

Nearly 23 million households have enrolled in the program since it launched in 2021, according to the Federal Communications Commission, which runs the program. However, the agency stopped accepting new enrollments as of Feb. 8 and said it will disenroll all households from the program at the end of April, unless Congress provides additional funding.

Schools are increasingly relying on technology for teaching and learning, from learning management systems to multimedia curriculum to internet research. In some cases, schools are turning inclement weather days into remote learning days . So it’s even more imperative that students have sufficient internet connectivity and devices to access learning materials while at home.

‘It’s a huge equity problem’

Educators and advocates say the possible sunsetting of the Affordable Connectivity Program could worsen the so-called “ homework gap ”—a phrase used to describe the inequities between students who have digital devices and reliable internet connectivity at home, and those who don’t and struggle to complete online assignments as a result.

“My fear is that, with this funding running out, we’re going to have either more families not having access to those services, or more families having to go someplace with open Wi-Fi that maybe isn’t as secure as it should be,” said Chantell Manahan, the director of technology for Steuben County schools, a 2,600-student district in rural northeast Indiana. The program’s expiration could also mean more “families away from home, sitting in parking lots like they were during the pandemic, and that’s not a good place for our students and families to be.”

In 2024, [internet access is] not a luxury anymore. This is a necessity to participate in modern society.

The expiration of the Affordable Connectivity Program doesn’t just affect students, but parents, too.

“Many schools rely on online communications platforms to communicate with parents and guardians about their student’s progress, school activities, and other important information. If families lose affordable internet access, this [communication] channel may be compromised,” said Julia Fallon, the executive director of the State Educational Technology Directors Association.

Sometimes, a school-issued device is the only one available to use at home, so parents also use it to look for jobs, do online coursework, or attend telehealth appointments, Manahan said.

“It’s not just a K-12 education problem. It’s a community problem. It’s a huge equity problem,” she added.

Will Congress provide more funding for ACP?

The Affordable Connectivity Program first launched as the Emergency Broadband Benefit, which was part of a pandemic relief package signed by former President Donald Trump in 2020. The next year, the program was codified as part of the bipartisan infrastructure law signed by President Joe Biden.

But the program has run through much of the initial $17.4 billion allocated by Congress, including $14.2 billion from the infrastructure law and $3.2 billion from its emergency predecessor.

Photo of African-American boy working on laptop computer at home.

In January, a bipartisan group of lawmakers introduced a bill in the Senate and the House of Representatives that would provide $7 billion to keep the Affordable Connectivity Program operational.

It’s unclear how much traction the bill will receive, but several FCC commissioners and advocacy groups have applauded the bill and urged Congress to pass the measure.

Districts look for other solutions

In the meantime, district leaders are having tough conversations about how to provide adequate internet access to students and families who relied on the program.

In Steuben County, Manahan said the district might go back to solutions it used before the Affordable Connectivity Program, such as partnerships with local businesses and organizations that would let families come in and use their Wi-Fi for virtual learning.

The district has Wi-Fi hotspot devices it can lend to students, too, though Manahan is unsure how many of those devices the district can keep after funding runs out. The devices were originally funded through ESSER and the Emergency Connectivity Fund , both of which are also expiring this year.

High angle shot of a man assisting his students at computers

Fortunately, Manahan said, the FCC’s E-rate funding will now cover putting Wi-Fi on school buses .

“It’ll be much more cost-effective for the district to be able to outfit all the buses,” she said. “We know there are some places where we might be able to park those buses and have internet access available.”

Along with school bus Wi-Fi, the district could also extend the reach of the Wi-Fi on school buildings so students, families, and staff can use it in the parking lot, she said.

“I can only hope that if we do see both ACP and ECF sunsetting that they’re going to divert those funds to other programs [that would provide] internet access into all our homes,” Manahan said. “In 2024, it’s not a luxury anymore. This is a necessity to participate in modern society.”

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Best 5 Online Homework Help Websites to Score A+ Grades (Updated 2024)

D iscover the top 5 websites for online homework help. These websites guarantee solutions that are 100% free of AI and plagiarism. Get expert help now! 

As the academic landscape evolves, students face increasingly challenging homework tasks and assignments. In such a scenario, seeking online homework help has become a common practice. Numerous platforms are available, each specializing in a particular subject or field. This blog post will explore the best 5 online homework help websites that cater to various academic needs. 

Best 5 Online Homework Help Websites for Students

If you are looking for online homework help? then don’t worry, You’re not alone. There are a lot of students who seek a reliable homework help service. We have collected a list of services that provide the best service in their expertise. Explore the best 5 online homework help websites to score A+ grades.

Accounting Homework Help from Calltutors.com

CallTutors is an online platform that helps students with homework in many subjects. In addition, it has experienced tutors in math, science, humanities, and programming. These tutors offer personalized help to students on assignments to help them score A+ grades.

Moreover, CallTutors is a guiding light for accounting students. It offers various assignment and homework help services to students. Accounting Homework Help is also one of them. Many students find it challenging as it requires a deep understanding of accounting formulas and practical applications. So you don’t have to worry. CallTutors provides top-notch Accounting Homework Help, ensuring students receive accurate and comprehensive help.

Furthermore, it also provides plagiarism-free and AI-free homework solutions. So that the content meets academic standards. The website commits to excellence and timely delivery. Due to this, it is among the best online homework help websites. The best part is that accounting students can rely on it for reliable homework help. Having in the the list you can also get professional ExcelAssignmentHelp.

Math Homework Help from StatAnalytica.com

StatAnalytica is a platform that specializes in statistics and data analysis. It is the go-to choice for students who are struggling with quantitative subjects. The website is well-known for its team of statisticians and data analysts. They offer assignment and homework help to students, helping them achieve A+ grades. 

Moreover, StatAnalytica offers unparalleled Math Homework Help. The platform covers many mathematical topics. In addition, it starts with basic algebra and goes to advanced calculus. It also helps students at different academic levels.

Furthermore, StatAnalytica’s math experts ensure that every assignment is approached precisely and clearly. The website provides step-by-step solutions, aiding students in grasping complex mathematical concepts. StatAnalytica has earned its reputation as a trusted resource. Because it focuses on clear explanations and plagiarism-free content for math homework help.

Java Programming Help from JavaAssignmentHelp.com

For students experierincing difficulties with Java programming assignments & homework, JavaAssignmentHelp is a savior. This website is dedicated to assisting with Java-related tasks, ensuring that students can grasp the intricacies of this programming language.

Moreover, the platform is staffed by experienced Java developers who deliver custom solutions, helping students improve their coding skills. JavaAssignmentHelp is known for two things. The first is its commitment to providing content that is free from plagiarism. The second is its ability to deliver projects on time. This makes it a top choice among programming students.

JavaAssignmentHelp.com ensures students receive top-notch, error-free, original solutions. They help debug code, develop applications, and understand Java concepts. With a commitment to meeting deadlines and providing clear explanations. This website is a lifeline for those seeking AllProgrammingHelp Services.

Python Homework Help from CodeAvail.com

CodeAvail versatile platform caters to students studying computer science and programming degrees. It offers assistance with coding assignments to students to score A+ grades. CodeAvail’s team consists of professionals who specialize in different programming languages. This ensures that students get precise and efficient solutions.

Many students prefer Codeavail for Python homework help. Python assignments are often challenging. So, CodeAvail is a reliable source for students to provide Python Homework Help. It helps students to get good grades with the help of quality solutions.

In addition, the platform has a pool of Python experts. They can handle a variety of assignments. They can handle basic scripting and complex algorithmic problems. Moreover, their experts provide instant help to students with 100% original solutions. That makes it a trustworthy choice for students seeking coding and programming help. For Python Assignment Help, you can visit pythonassignmenthelp.com to master in python programming language.

Exam Help Online by ExamHelp.Online

Does appearing in the exam is challenging for you? If so, then let me tell you. Exam Help Online is a platform designed to assist students in preparing for exams and quizzes. This website is one of the best online homework help websites to help students get A+ exam grades. 

You can hire exam help online experts on your behalf to give an exam for you. They will ensure that they will help you get higher academic grades. Moreover, they provide services on a wide range of important subjects such as accounting, statistics, science, finance, computer science, history, chemistry, and many more. So, don’t hesitate to reach out as their experts provide 24/7 instant solutions to students.

Final Remarks

So, there you have it, fellow students! Five online helpers are available to guide and support you. They specialize in nursing, mathematics, programming, and exam preparation. These platforms promise to provide solution without use of AI. They ensure students get genuine and unique solutions for their homework, assignments and study materials. They support students worldwide in their studies, helping them succeed.

Best 5 Online Homework Help Websites to Score A+ Grades (Updated 2024)   

Homework: Money Vocabulary

invest, hard currency, transaction, banknote, cashier...


Like many topics in English, Money comes with a wide range of complex jargon of its own. And though it may not be a subject of interest to everyone, it is nevertheless one that is relevant to most of our lives. This handy homework sheet enables students to practise Money Vocabulary through three different types of exercises.

After downloading your PDF: print it immediately or save and print later. Answers are provided for teachers on the second page.

Make your own worksheets with the free EnglishClub Worksheet Maker !


  1. 7 Types of Homework for Students (2023)

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  2. All About the Different Types of Homework That Students Must Complete

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  3. Types of Homework

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  5. 12 Ways to Make Homework Fun for Students of All Ages

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  6. 🎉 Effective types of homework. of Homework and Their Effect on Student

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  1. 🇬🇧 vs 🇺🇸Homework #school #schoollife #schoolmemes #homework #schoolmemories #students #teaching

  2. Two types of people doing homework 🤣 #funny #skits

  3. How to enjoy doing your homework #shorts #studentlife #homework #schoollife #backtoschool

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  5. Types of Children In Homework

  6. how people do school homework at different ages


  1. 7 Types of Homework for Students (2024)

    7 Types of Homework for Students By Chris Drew (PhD) / March 9, 2023 / Leave a Comment There are seven types of homework. These are practice, preparation, extension, integration, research, application, and flipped homework. Each type of homework has its own role for students learning.

  2. Types of Homework and Their Effect on Student Achievement

    Variations of homework can be classified according. to its amount, skill area, purpose, degree of individualization and choice of the student, completion deadline, and social context (Cooper et al., 2006). Purpose of the homework task: Pre-learning: This type of homework is designed to encourage students to think.

  3. How to Do Homework: 15 Expert Tips and Tricks

    You finish one episode, then decide to watch another even though you've got SAT studying to do. It's just more fun to watch people make scones. D. Start the episode, but only catch bits and pieces of it because you're reading Twitter, cleaning out your backpack, and eating a snack at the same time. 5.

  4. What Kinds of Homework Seem to be Most Effective?

    In 2012, students in three different age groups — 9, 13 and 17 — were asked, "How much time did you spend on homework yesterday?" The vast majority of 9-year-olds (79 percent) and 13-year-olds (65 percent) and still a majority of 17-year-olds (53 percent) all reported doing an hour or less of homework the day before.

  5. What's the Right Amount of Homework?

    February 23, 2018 Many teachers and parents believe that homework helps students build study skills and review concepts learned in class. Others see homework as disruptive and unnecessary, leading to burnout and turning kids off to school.

  6. Homework Strategies for Different Types of Homework

    The U.S. Department of Education describes four common types of homework: practice, preparatory, extension and integration. At Huntington, we help children of all ages become better students. Here are some of the strategies we teach for tackling different homework types: Practice - Practice homework is the most common type you'll see come home.

  7. Effective Practices for Homework

    Optimal time per night spent on homework varies with grade level. For, primary, upper elementary, middle school, and high school grades, the optimal time is about 20, 40, 60, and 90 minutes, respectively. Homework is given often. Reports indicate that students may get as many 400 assignments per year in grades 7-10.

  8. PDF Elements of Effective Homework

    INTRODUCTION Educators often treat homework as a Goldilocks problem. Grounded in the belief that homework is fundamentally good for students, teachers aim to optimize how much they assign. If they don't assign enough homework, they worry their students will not learn the subject matter.

  9. Designing Effective Homework

    In grades 1-5, homework should: Reinforce and allow students to practice skills learned in the classroom. Help students develop good study habits and routines. Foster positive feelings about school. In grades 6-12, homework should: Reinforce and allow students to practice skills learned in the classroom. Prepare students for engagement and ...

  10. The role of homework

    Types of homework; Conclusion; Reasons for homework. Homework is expected by students, teachers, parents and institutions. ... Motivating students to do homework is an ongoing process, and encouragement may be given by commenting and asking questions either verbally or in written form in order to demonstrate interest on the teacher's part ...

  11. High-quality homework: How to assign the right amount, and the most

    What is the most effective type of homework? Existing studies have found that student performance is most positively affected when homework is used to build fluency, master new concepts, and proficiency. Students retain information better when the practice is conducted over several shorter sessions, rather than through one marathon session.

  12. Homework

    Evidence also suggests that how homework relates to learning during normal school time is important. In the most effective examples homework was an integral part of learning, rather than an add-on. To maximise impact, it also appears to be important that students are provided with high quality feedback on their work (see Feedback).

  13. The Homework Challenge and How to Change It

    There are four types of meaningful homework assignments: Practice When students apply a concept or skill learned in class. Practice assignments engage students in reading, writing, or problem-solving tasks that they've learned in class and can apply through different examples. Practice tasks help students internalize the concepts and skills ...

  14. Homework challenges and strategies

    The challenge: Managing time and staying organized. Some kids struggle with keeping track of time and making a plan for getting all of their work done. That's especially true of kids who have trouble with executive function. Try creating a homework schedule and set a specific time and place for your child to get homework done.

  15. Homework

    Homework is work assigned to students, by teachers, to be completed outside of the school. "It is used as an instructional supplement to classroom teaching." ... Types of Homework. Homework is assigned in a multitude of varieties. Some assignments include reading specific content, problems at the end of a chapter, worksheets, research ...

  16. PDF Increasing the Effectiveness of Homework for All Learners in the ...

    tween the amount of homework students do and their academic achievement. On the opposite side of the argument, researchers such as Kohn (2006), Bennet ... 2011, p. 239). Teachers are faced with the challenge of educating all types of students in inclusive settings, including students who have undiagnosed learn - ing disabilities. "Research ...

  17. Types of Homework and Their Effect on Student Achievement

    The literature review in Chapter 2 describes homework trends over the years, different types of homework, what constitutes worthy homework, reasons for homework incompletion, homework completion strategies, parent involvement, positive and negative effects of homework, and recommended time spent on homework for students today in high school, mid...

  18. 10 Helpful Homework Ideas and Tips for Primary School Teachers

    Firstly, divide your class into smaller ability groups, 3 or 4 groups would work. Each group can be given their own coloured homework basket. You then fill the coloured homework baskets with activities, games and task cards that the students can take home and play with parents, carers or older siblings throughout the week.

  19. Homework Pros and Cons

    From dioramas to book reports, from algebraic word problems to research projects, whether students should be given homework, as well as the type and amount of homework, has been debated for over a century. []While we are unsure who invented homework, we do know that the word "homework" dates back to ancient Rome. Pliny the Younger asked his followers to practice their speeches at home.

  20. The 5 Top Types of DIY Homework Assignments That ESL Students Love

    By Brandon Harville Last updated: July 28, 2023 The 5 Top Types of DIY Homework Assignments That ESL Students Love Did you ever have that one teacher who went the extra mile? When I had a teacher who devoted their time to developing exciting material, I was much more engaged in the learning experience.

  21. The Pros and Cons: Should Students Have Homework?

    1. Homework Encourages Practice Many people believe that one of the positive effects of homework is that it encourages the discipline of practice. While it may be time consuming and boring compared to other activities, repetition is needed to get better at skills.

  22. The Pros and Cons of Homework

    Pro 1: Homework Helps to Improve Student Achievement Homework teaches students various beneficial skills that they will carry with them throughout their academic and professional life, from time management and organization to self-motivation and autonomous learning.

  23. PDF Suitable Homework Boosts Highschool Learning Effects

    target can accomplish its aim thoroughly. Homework has multiple purposes, and depends on the situation and students' academic level. Homework assignments rarely reflect a single purpose (Cooper, 2006). In general there are four types of homework: a) Practice, b) Preparatory, c) Extension, and Integration.

  24. Homework as a Mental Health Concern

    Elementary school students who are doing homework for the first time may need more direct involvement than older students. HOMEWORK "TIPS" Specific methods have been developed for encouraging the optimal parental involvement in homework. ... the focus here is on other types of activity. Students can be encouraged to pursue such activity with ...

  25. The 'Homework Gap' Is About to Get Worse. What Should Schools Do?

    "Many schools rely on online communications platforms to communicate with parents and guardians about their student's progress, school activities, and other important information. If families ...

  26. Best 5 Online Homework Help Websites to Score A+ Grades (Updated ...

    Discover the top 5 websites for online homework help. These websites guarantee solutions that are 100% free of AI and plagiarism. Get expert help now! As the academic landscape evolves, students ...

  27. Homework: Money Vocabulary

    This handy homework sheet enables students to practise Money Vocabulary through three different types of exercises. ⬇ Download. After downloading your PDF: print it immediately or save and print later. Answers are provided for teachers on the second page. Back to Homework. Make your own worksheets with the free EnglishClub Worksheet Maker!