what is a running head in a research paper

How to Write a Running Head: A Comprehensive Guide

what is a running head in a research paper


what is a running head in a research paper

Academic papers adhere to specific formatting guidelines before submitting to a journal. One such formatting element is including a running head. So, let’s explore what a running head is and its significance in journal submissions.

What is a Running Head?

A running head is a concise version of the title of your paper appearing at the top of each page of the article. The use of a running head allows the reader to identify the article. It ensures the reader’s focus remains on the content. It is generally positioned flush left at the top of the page, with the page number flush right.

What is Running Head in Journal?

In a journal article, the running head includes a shorter version of the paper’s full title. The running head fulfills the abovementioned purpose and provides information about the article. This shortened version maintains consistency and avoids overcrowding the header section.

What is a Running Head on Title Page? With Example.

The title page is the first page of your paper. It includes essential information like the title, author names, affiliations, and abstract. The running head on the title page is an abbreviated form of the title, written in uppercase letters. It usually has a limit of 50 characters with spaces and punctuation marks.

If your article’s title is “The Impact of Social Media on Youth: A Comprehensive Study,” a suitable running head might be “Social Media’s Impact on Youth.”

Running Head Example for a Research Paper

Let’s see an example of an effective running head for a research paper to better understand.

For instance, if the paper title is “The Effects of Exercise on Mental Health in College Students.” The running head could be “Exercise’s Impact on Mental Health in College Students.”

what is a running head in a research paper

A sample example of the running head is written just above the main heading.

Source: Shetty A, Rosario R, Hyder S. The impact of social media on youth. International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering. 2015;3(7):379-83.

Tips for Writing a Running Head

  • Be concise: The running head should be brief yet convey the essence of your paper.
  • Use title case: Capitalize the first letter of each significant word in the running head.
  • Maintain consistency: It should be consistent throughout the document.
  • Check the journal guidelines: Different journals may have specific requirements for running heads. So, before finalizing your running head, review the submission guidelines.
  • Proofread: Double-check the running head for spelling or grammatical errors, maintaining professionalism.

Thus, a running head is a short but informative title in a journal article that appears at the top of every page. It helps readers identify the article and maintain their focus throughout the content. When writing a running head, remember to keep it concise, use upper case, and maintain consistency throughout the document. Following these guidelines, ensure your article meets the journal’s formatting requirements. It presents your research clearly and professionally.

Remember, the running head is one aspect of a well-written paper. Pay attention to other formatting guidelines to increase your chances of publication success. Good luck with your journal submissions!

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How to Write a Running Head

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Some journals or style guides require papers to have a running head. But, what is a running head? A running head is a short version of the paper title that is printed as a heading at the top of each page. If your document includes page numbers at the top, the running head can precede the page number or appear on the opposite edge of the page. In APA style, the running head is placed in the upper left.

The publisher often requests running heads for practical reasons. It is desirable to have every page clearly labeled as being part of the paper. If your paper is printed as a hard copy and the various pages fall to the floor or are mixed up, having a running head and page number on each page helps the reader to put all the pages back in the correct order. Even readers who are viewing an electronic version of the paper may appreciate the clear labels, especially if they are sorting through many documents simultaneously.

Table of Contents

Guidelines for Writing Running Head in APA Style

The specific requirements for running heads vary.

  • In general, running heads should be brief. APA guidelines require that running heads be a maximum of 50 characters (spaces count as characters).
  • The running head is usually written in all capital letters . (For style purposes, the examples in this article use regular title case.)
  • It is placed in a header at the top of the page . Check the journal or style guidelines for any specifics on margins, spacing, or font.
Related: Ready with your running head and looking forward to manuscript submission ? Check these journal selection guidelines now!
  • In APA, the running head is introduced on the first page by the phrase “Running head” and a colon, i.e., in the following format: “Running head: SHORT VERSION OF TITLE.” Subsequent pages have only the running head itself. In other formatting styles, the running head may be introduced in this way as part of the information that appears on the title page.

Here is an example of a running head:

Original Title: “The Impact of Climate Change on Coral Reefs in the Pacific Ocean”

Running Head: “Climate Change and Pacific Coral Reefs”

In this running head example, the full title of the article is “The Impact of Climate Change on Coral Reefs in the Pacific Ocean.” The running head condenses this title down to a shorter version that still conveys the main topic of the article.

Remember, depending on the specific requirements of the journal or publication you are submitting to, the running head format may vary. Always check the guidelines provided by the publication for any specific requirements regarding running heads.

How do you create a running head?

If your paper title is already within the character limit, simply use the full title as the running head—no special changes are needed. However, if your paper title is over the limit, then you need to create a distinct running head that fits within the style guidelines.

First, identify the main part of your title. For example, if the paper is called “The Effects of Running on Heart Health in Elderly Patients,” consider using only the first part, “Effects of Running on Heart Health,” or the second part, “Heart Health in Elderly Patients.” Make the choice based on which ideas and concepts are most prominent in the paper.

If it does not make sense to take part of the title to serve as the running head, try making a few tweaks or even paraphrasing the title entirely. For instance, with the title mentioned above, the running head could be “Running and Heart Health in Elderly Patients.”

Second, eliminate articles such as the words “the” and “a.” The title “Re-examining the Literary Traditions in Ancient China” can be shortened to “Re-examining Literary Traditions in Ancient China.” In this case, simply removing the word “the” from the title creates a running head that fits within the APA’s 50-character limit.

what is a running head in a research paper

Practical tips for writing running heads in Microsoft Word

1. how to get a character count.

If you are typing your paper in Microsoft Word, use the “Word Count” function to count characters: To do this, highlight the running head and then go to the Review menu and click on “Word Count.” The results box will show the number of “Characters (no spaces)” and “Characters (with spaces).” Read the journal or style guidelines carefully to know which number you should look at. In APA, it is the second option that is relevant, as spaces are counted as characters.

2. How to add the running head as a header on each page?

Create a header by going to Insert and selecting “Header” under “Header & Footer.” A header will be created at the top of each page. Modifying the header on any page changes it on every page. If you wish to have the phrase “Running head” appear on only the first page, as required in APA style, check the option “Different first page” that appears under the Design menu when the header is inserted or edited. Checking this option allows you to edit the header on the first page independently while maintaining the headers on the second, third, and all other pages as the same.

Hume-Pratuch, Jeff. May 10, 2012. “Mysteries of the Running Head Explained.” American Psychological Association website. http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/running-heads/ (access March 13, 2017)

Lee, Chelsea. Nov. 11, 2010. “Running Head Format for APA Style Papers.” American Psychological Association website. http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/11/running-head-format-for-apa-style-papers-.html (access March 13, 2017)

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APA Running Head – Guide to the 7th Edition

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The APA style is a popular style that contains several rules, including a “running head.” Understanding the rules and updates about the APA running head is crucial for students and researchers alike, as it helps ensure that their papers meet the established standards of academic writing . Proper formatting is crucial for clear, consistent, and professional academic and scientific writing. So, let’s delve into the APA running head, which is explained in the APA 7th edition manual.


  • 1 In a nutshell: APA running head
  • 2 Definition: APA running head
  • 3 APA running head example: Title page
  • 4 APA running head example: Subsequent pages
  • 5 APA formatting checklist
  • 6 APA running head in Word and Google Docs
  • 7 Abbreviating long titles for the running head

In a nutshell: APA running head

  • The APA running head is a condensed form of the title of your paper that appears at the top of every page.
  • According to the 7th edition of the APA style guide, it is mandatory to include a running head only in professional papers and not in student papers.
  • Please ensure that the running head is positioned in the page header, aligned to the left, and written entirely in capital letters.
  • If the title of the paper is longer than 50 characters, including spaces, the running head should be abbreviated.
  • To properly format the running head in both Word and Google Docs, utilize the header function and double-check that alignment is correct.

Definition: APA running head

The APA running head is a shortened version of your paper’s title that appears at the top of each page. Its purpose is to aid readers in identifying the pages of your work in case they become misplaced, and to provide a quick reference to your paper’s title. In the 7th edition of the APA style guide, the running head is mandatory only for professional papers intended for publication, not for student papers.

APA running head example: Title page

The title page of a professional APA formatted paper should feature the running head, flush left, starting with the label “Running head:”, followed by a shortened version of your title in all capital letters.


APA running head example: Subsequent pages

On subsequent pages, the running head appears without the “Running head:” label, still in all capital letters and flush left. Below you can see an example.


APA formatting checklist

  • Does your running head appear in the header, flush left, and in all caps?
  • Does your running head include the label “Running head:” on the title page, and is this label absent from subsequent pages?
  • If your paper’s title is over 50 characters, have you appropriately abbreviated it in your running head?
  • Does the running head appear on every page of your paper?

APA running head in Word and Google Docs

Microsoft Word step-by-step

  • “Insert” tab
  • Select “Header”
  • Choose “Edit Header”
  • Type your running head, ensuring its flush left and in all caps.

Google Docs step-by-step

  • Go to “Insert”
  • Click “Header & Page Number”
  • Select “Header” to begin formatting your running head


Abbreviating long titles for the running head

If your paper’s title exceeds 50 characters (including spaces), you’ll need to create an abbreviated version for your running head. This version should still capture the main idea of your paper, but do so in fewer characters.

The paper is titled:

  • “Investigating the Potential Impacts of Prolonged Drought Conditions on Midwestern Agriculture”

It could be abbreviated in the APA running head to:


Is the APA running head still required in the 7th edition?

In the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, the running head is only required for professional papers, not for student papers.

How can I format the APA running head in Word or Google Docs?

  • Navigate to the “Insert” tab
  • Then “Edit Header”
  • Type your running head, ensuring it’s flush left and in all caps.

In Google Docs:

  • Select “Insert”
  • Then “Header & Page Number”
  • Choose “Header”

How should I abbreviate a long title for the running head?

If your title exceeds 50 characters (including spaces), create an abbreviated version that still conveys the main idea of your paper.

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How to Do a Running Head: APA Style 7th Edition With Examples

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APA running head

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The APA running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and it appears at the top of each page of your paper. It's included in the page header, aligned to the left margin, and is used to help readers identify the pages of your paper in case they get separated.

As of the 7th edition of the APA manual, the running head is required only for professional papers submitted for publication, not for student papers unless specifically requested by the instructor.

Read our article to discover what APA running head includes and how you can easily make it work!


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Emma Flores knows all about formatting standards. She shares with StudyCrumb readers tips on creating academic papers that will meet high-quality standards.


APA style paper is used to design works related to Social Studies. This paper style requires a running head. Basically, it’s a short version of an article’s title that appears at the top of each page. And usually this top line contains just two things:

These small sections are mainly used in professional manuscripts. However, a student version may go without it, unless required.

Specific requirements to APA format running heads may vary. In general, you should keep them concise and to the point. Note that this referencing style is one of the most common formats in Psychology, Sociology, Business, etc. It may be pretty challenging to grasp all APA requirements right away, but with our tips below, you can easily prepare your running head!

American Psychological Association (APA)  recommends that font for your running head should preferably be Times New Roman, 12 pt. size. But any well-readable font can be used in this section. Don't forget that all APA documents should be typed with double spacing, starting with a title page and ending with a list of sources used.  

APA format needs a caption on every page. Note that you should write "Running head" before your title on the first page. But after the APA title page , these two words do not need to be written. You should only add the abbreviated title of your work. Place it on the front sheet using this format:

Just like any other section of your paper, including section headings and table of contents APA , your header should be concise. Only a shortened version of your title should appear on the consecutive pages just like in this example below.  

If your document has page numbers, this is a perfect place to put them in. Insert the page number in the right top corner. Your running head should be left-aligned. Just in case, an expert  APA paper writer might be of use to you. How? Click on the link to find out! Promise, you won't regret it!

APA running heads are written in all capital letters on every page of your document. "NAME OF DOCUMENT" is printed without indentation at the left side in capital letters. This rule covers both all-important context words of four letters or more, and minor words of three letters or fewer. Convert case easily using our simple tool. 

A top of each page should be placed with a shortened version of your document title. Pay attention that it cannot exceed 50 characters, including spaces and punctuation. If your article's title exceeds this limit, you need to create a separate phrase that follows the exact style specified below. First, define the body of your title. Here is an APA running head example, if your document is titled.  

Consider using only the first or second part:

Make your choice based on which ideas and concepts are most relevant to your article. If it doesn't make sense to use part of your title, try to make a few changes or even rephrasing the whole name. Second, exclude words such as "the" or "a". Here are incorrect and correct APA running head examples:  

In this case, simply removing "the" from your title creates a perfect fit within limits of 50 characters.

How should you add an APA running head to every page? Below you will find useful tips on how to format these small sections in Microsoft Word or Google Docs. In Microsoft Word  

In Google Docs

APA running heads are requested for practical reasons. Each page should be clearly marked as part of your article. If your piece is printed on paper and different pages fall to the floor they will be messed up. But a top line on each sheet will help any reader get all pages back in the right order. Even readers viewing an electronic version of an article can appreciate clear labelings, especially if they are sorting many documents simultaneously. The APA style is considered one of the most popular when writing works on social and psychological topics. Therefore, mistakes made in this referencing style will immediately attract attention.  

  • Page number
  • Shorten title name.
  • Choose “Insert” and click “Header or Footer”.
  • Select “Different First Page”.
  • Type "Running head", followed by your article’s title.
  • Now go to page 2 and print your title without "Running head:."
  • Then go to “Insert”, click “Page Number” and align it to the right.
  • Now it's ready! To exit, close “Header and Footer”.
  • Select "Different First Page".
  • Insert page number by clicking on "Header and Page Number."
  • Use “ Tab ” to align “Page Number” to the right.
  • Now go to page 2 and print your title without "Running head:"
  • Repeat step 5.
  • Now it's ready! You can exit “Header and Footer”.

What Is a Running Head in APA Style?

What does apa headers format require, 1. apa running head font and size, 2. "running head:" is only on the first page, 3. left and right tops in apa headers format, 4. apa running head: capitalized, 5. don't make apa running head too long, practical tips for apa headers in microsoft word and google docs, bottom line.

Running head is only on the first page

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  • A Running head is only required on papers being submitted for publication, and is not required for student papers unless requested by an instructor
  • The running head is a shortened version the paper's full title
  • Contains 50 characters max (including spaces, letters, punctuation)
  • Located on every page in the header
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Crafting an Appropriate Running Title for Your Scientific Paper

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What should your approach be to crafting a running title? Should it be catchy? Abbreviated? What do editors look for?

Updated on June 10, 2014

aje editing tips

Many journals require that a running title, also known as a running head or short title, be included in submitted manuscripts. This shortened form of the main title, usually cited at the top of each published page of an article, serves to guide readers browsing a print journal, shuffling loose printed pages, or toggling between multiple papers in PDF form. The running head may also be used in RSS feeds and mobile applications instead of the frequently more unwieldy main title.

Requirements for running titles vary between journals, but generally, they must be 50-60 characters long at most, often including spaces. To achieve brevity, these titles typically include abbreviations, even if the main title does not (or cannot , based on journal guidelines). Articles (the, a, an) may also be omitted to conserve characters, and wordy phrasing , including filler phrases , should be minimized. However, if the main title is brief enough, it can function as the running head as well.

Unlike for the manuscript title itself, being catchy is not a priority for a running title. Rather, because it is so abbreviated, clarity and accuracy should be priorities. Some also suggest that as much content as possible should be preserved from the main title, although in practice, this approach is not widespread; authors instead tend to include only what they deem most important to highlight.

The following is an example of effective title abridgment, drawn from a recently published article (Lambert et al., 2013; CC-BY license ):

  • Manuscript title: Dendritic Cell Immunoreceptor Is a New Target for Anti-AIDS Drug Development: Identification of DCIR/HIV-1 Inhibitors (117 ch with spaces, 103 ch without spaces)
  • Running title: Inhibitors of DCIR Limit HIV-1 Infection (40 characters with spaces, 35 characters without spaces)

The authors combined a few strategies here to reduce the title length by two thirds, applying the abbreviation “DCIR,” omitting articles (“DCIR” instead of “the DCIR”), and focusing on what they judged to be the central concept (the limitation of HIV-1 infection by the inhibitors, rather than the novelty of the target, the application in drug development, or the identification process). Of course, this task may be easier for papers with a narrower and more descriptive focus, such as review articles.

We hope that this editing tip has clarified what a running title is and how to approach writing one. Please email us with any questions or comments. We wish you the best in your manuscript writing!

Michaela Panter, Writing Support Consultant at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, PhD, Immunobiology, Yale University

Michaela Panter, PhD

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Please note the running head is optional in a student paper. Check with your instructor to see if it's a requirement.

Inserting the Running Head

How to insert a running head and page number for APA papers in Word 2016

When APA format requires a running head at the top of the first page the following instructions will work.  These instructions assume you are adding the running head to a completed paper (or one that has at least 2 existing pages).

Follow these steps:

  • Click on the Insert tab on the toolbar.
  • In Header & Footer click on Header then click on Blank .
  • On the first (title) page of your paper at the left margin type: ABBREVIATED TITLE IN UPPER CASE
  • Tab once or twice to right margin. Click Page number then click Current position then click Plain number . 
  • Close the Header & Footer .
  • APA sample Title page and running head A quick PPT that demonstrates the layout of the title page, where to add page numbers and if requested, include a running head.
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  • Last Updated: May 9, 2024 2:00 PM
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what is a running head in a research paper

How the brain is flexible enough for a complex world (without being thrown into chaos)

Many neurons exhibit “mixed selectivity,” meaning they can integrate multiple inputs and participate in multiple computations. Mechanisms such as oscillations and neuromodulators recruit their participation and tune them to focus on the relevant information.

Every day our brains strive to optimize a trade-off: With lots of things happening around us even as we also harbor many internal drives and memories, somehow our thoughts must be flexible yet focused enough to guide everything we have to do. In a new paper in Neuron, a team of neuroscientists describes how the brain achieves the cognitive capacity to incorporate all the information that’s relevant without becoming overwhelmed by what’s not.

The authors argue that the flexibility arises from a key property observed in many neurons: “mixed selectivity.” While many neuroscientists used to think each cell had just one dedicated function, more recent evidence has shown that many neurons can instead participate in a variety of computational ensembles, each working in parallel. In other words, when a rabbit considers nibbling on some lettuce in a garden, a single neuron might be involved in not only assessing how hungry it feels but also whether it can hear a hawk overhead or smell a coyote in the trees and how far away the lettuce is.

The brain does not multitask, said paper co-author Earl K. Miller , Picower Professor in The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory at MIT and a pioneer of the mixed selectivity idea, but many cells do have the capacity to be roped into multiple computational efforts (essentially “thoughts”). In the new paper the authors describe specific mechanisms the brain employs to recruit neurons into different computations and to ensure that those neurons represent the right number of dimensions of a complex task.

“These neurons wear multiple hats,” Miller said. “With mixed selectivity you can have a representational space that’s as complex as it needs to be and no more complex. That’s what flexible cognition is all about.”

Co-author Kay Tye , Professor at The Salk Institute and the University of California at San Diego, said mixed selectivity among neurons particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex is key to enabling many mental abilities.

"The mPFC is like a hum of whispers that represents so much information through highly flexible and dynamic ensembles," Tye said. “Mixed selectivity is the property that endows us with our flexibility, cognitive capacity, and ability to be creative.  It is the secret to maximizing computational power which is essentially the underpinnings of intelligence."

Origins of an idea

The idea of mixed selectivity germinated in 2000 when Miller and colleague John Duncan defended a surprising result from a study of cognition in Miller’s lab. As animals sorted images into categories, about 30 percent of the neurons in the prefrontal cortex of the brain seemed to be involved. Skeptics who believed that every neuron had a dedicated function scoffed that the brain would devote so many cells to just one task. Miller and Duncan’s answer was that perhaps cells had the flexibility to be involved in many computations. The ability to serve on one cerebral task force, as it were, did not preclude them from being able to serve many others.

But what benefit does mixed selectivity convey? In 2013 Miller teamed up with two co-authors of the new paper, Mattia Rigotti of IBM Research and Stefano Fusi of Columbia University, to show how mixed selectivity endows the brain with powerful computational flexibility. Essentially, an ensemble of neurons with mixed selectivity can accommodate many more dimensions of information about a task than a population of neurons with invariant functions.

“Since our original work, we've made progress understanding the theory of mixed selectivity through the lens of classical machine learning ideas,” Rigotti said. “On the other hand, questions dear to experimentalists about the mechanisms implementing it at a cellular level had been comparatively under-explored. This collaboration and this new paper set out to fill that gap.”

In the new paper the authors imagine a mouse who is considering whether to eat a berry. It might smell delicious (that’s one dimension). It might be poisonous (that’s another). Yet another dimension or two of the problem could come in the form of a social cue. If the mouse smells the berry scent on a fellow mouse’s breath, then the berry is probably OK to eat (depending on the apparent health of the fellow mouse). A neural ensemble with mixed selectivity would be able to integrate all that.

Recruiting neurons

While mixed selectivity has the backing of copious evidence—it has been observed across the cortex and in other brain areas such as the hippocampus and amygdala—there are still open questions. For instance, how are neurons recruited to tasks and how do neurons that are so “open-minded” remain tuned only to what really matters to the mission?

In the new study, the researchers who also include Marcus Benna of UC San Diego and Felix Taschbach of The Salk Institute, define the forms of mixed selectivity that researchers have observed, and argue that when oscillations (also known as “brain waves”) and neuromodulators (chemicals such as serotonin or dopamine that influence neural function) recruit neurons into computational ensembles, they also help them “gate” what’s important for that purpose.

To be sure, some neurons are dedicated to a specific input, but the authors note they are an exception rather than the rule. The authors say these cells have “pure selectivity.” They only care if the rabbit sees lettuce. Some neurons exhibit “linear mixed selectivity,” which means their response predictably depends on multiple inputs adding up (the rabbit sees lettuce and feels hungry). The neurons that add the most dimensional flexibility are the “nonlinear mixed selectivity” ones that can account for multiple independent variables without necessarily summing them. Instead they might weigh a whole set of independent conditions (e.g. there’s lettuce, I’m hungry, I hear no hawks, I smell no coyotes, but the lettuce is far and I see a pretty sturdy fence).

So what brings neurons into the fold to focus on the salient factors, however many there are? One mechanism is oscillations, which are produced in the brain when many neurons all maintain their electrical activity at the same rhythm. This coordinated activity enables information sharing, essentially tuning them together like a bunch of cars all playing the same radio station (maybe the broadcast is about a hawk circling overhead). Another mechanism the authors highlight is neuromodulators. These are chemicals that upon reaching receptors within cells can influence their activity as well. A burst of acetylcholine, for instance, might similarly attune neurons with the right receptors to certain activity or information (like maybe that feeling of hunger).

“These two mechanisms likely work together to dynamically form functional networks,” the authors write.

Understanding mixed selectivity, they continue, is critical to understanding cognition.

“Mixed selectivity is ubiquitous,” they conclude. “It is present across species and across functions from high-level cognition to ‘automatic’ sensorimotor processes such as object recognition. The widespread presence of mixed selectivity underscores its fundamental role in providing the brain with the scalable processing power needed for complex thought and action.”

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  • Published: 06 May 2024

Electrophysiological signatures of veridical head direction in humans

  • Benjamin J. Griffiths   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-8600-4480 1 , 2 ,
  • Thomas Schreiner   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-2030-5998 1 ,
  • Julia K. Schaefer   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-9246-267X 1 ,
  • Christian Vollmar 3 ,
  • Elisabeth Kaufmann   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-7582-2215 3 ,
  • Stefanie Quach   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-2914-3649 4 ,
  • Jan Remi 3 ,
  • Soheyl Noachtar 3 &
  • Tobias Staudigl   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-2885-1280 1  

Nature Human Behaviour ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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Information about heading direction is critical for navigation as it provides the means to orient ourselves in space. However, given that veridical head-direction signals require physical rotation of the head and most human neuroimaging experiments depend upon fixing the head in position, little is known about how the human brain is tuned to such heading signals. Here we adress this by asking 52 healthy participants undergoing simultaneous electroencephalography and motion tracking recordings (split into two experiments) and 10 patients undergoing simultaneous intracranial electroencephalography and motion tracking recordings to complete a series of orientation tasks in which they made physical head rotations to target positions. We then used a series of forward encoding models and linear mixed-effects models to isolate electrophysiological activity that was specifically tuned to heading direction. We identified a robust posterior central signature that predicts changes in veridical head orientation after regressing out confounds including sensory input and muscular activity. Both source localization and intracranial analysis implicated the medial temporal lobe as the origin of this effect. Subsequent analyses disentangled head-direction signatures from signals relating to head rotation and those reflecting location-specific effects. Lastly, when directly comparing head direction and eye-gaze-related tuning, we found that the brain maintains both codes while actively navigating, with stronger tuning to head direction in the medial temporal lobe. Together, these results reveal a taxonomy of population-level head-direction signals within the human brain that is reminiscent of those reported in the single units of rodents.

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Human cortical dynamics during full-body heading changes

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Population dynamics of head-direction neurons during drift and reorientation

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Heading direction with respect to a reference point modulates place-cell activity

Data availability.

Data acquired from the healthy participants are available at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität via https://data.ub.uni-muenchen.de/439/ (ref. 87 ). Due to privacy laws, data acquired from the patients are not openly available, though (subject to privacy laws) can be provided by contacting the corresponding author. Source data are provided with this paper.

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Openly available at GitHub via https://github.com/benjaminGriffiths/human-hd (ref. 88 ).

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NITRIC https://www.nitrc.org/projects/wfu_pickatlas/

GitHub https://github.com/circstat/circstat-matlab

Staudigl, T. Data for: Griffiths et al.: Electrophysiological signatures of veridical head direction in humans (Nature Human Behaviour, 2024). (Open Data LMU, 2024). https://doi.org/10.5282/ubm/data.439

GitHub https://github.com/benjaminGriffiths/human-hd

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This work was supported by the European Research Council ( https://erc.europa.eu/ , starting grant 802681 awarded to T. Schreiner) and the Leverhulme Trust ( https://www.leverhulme.ac.uk/ , early career fellowship ECF-2021-628 awarded to B.J.G.). We thank all participants and in particular all patients who volunteered to participate in this study. We thank the staff and physicians at the Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, for assistance. We thank A. Chowdhury for valuable input. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

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Department of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany

Benjamin J. Griffiths, Thomas Schreiner, Julia K. Schaefer & Tobias Staudigl

Centre for Human Brain Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Benjamin J. Griffiths

Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany

Christian Vollmar, Elisabeth Kaufmann, Jan Remi & Soheyl Noachtar

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany

Stefanie Quach

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B.J.G.: conceptualization, methodology, software, validation and formal analysis; investigation; data curation; writing—original draft; writing—review and editing; and visualization. T. Schreiner: conceptualization, methodology, investigation, data curation and writing—review and editing. J.K.S.: investigation, data curation and writing—review and editing. C.V.: resources and writing—review and editing. E.K.: resources and writing—review and editing. S.Q.: resources and writing—review and editing. J.R.: resources and writing—review and editing. S.N.: resources and writing—review and editing. T. Staudigl: conceptualization, methodology and investigation; writing—original draft; and writing—review and editing, supervision, project administration and funding acquisition.

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The latest on the massive solar storm

By Angela Fritz, Elise Hammond and Chris Lau, CNN

Incredible lighthouse picture from Maine

From CNN's Chris Lau

A long-exposure photo shows the aurora borealis over Portland, Maine, on May 10.

Among a flurry of surreal images capturing the dazzling auroras is one taken by Benjamin Williamson of a lighthouse in Portland, Maine.

"It's one of the most incredible things I've ever seen, the awe and wonder," Williamson told CNN.

He said he used a long-exposure technique to snap the shot, but did not edit it.

Watch the full interview with Williamson here .

Things could be about to ramp up

If you still haven't seen the aurora, hold on for another 30 minutes to an hour, according to CNN meteorologist Chad Myers.

The next wave of coronal mass ejections, or CMEs, which cause the aurora, is about to arrive, he said.

"Just wait a minute because things are going to start to ramp up here," he said, adding that the increase could arrive "anytime now." "When it comes, get outside, get ready, put your coat on."

For those who are too busy to witness the phenomenon tonight, Myers said the aurora is expected to last three nights.

Why does the aurora last for a weekend?

By CNN's Chris Lau

The northern lights can be seen from Eaton Rapids, Michigan, on May 10.

Generally, it takes just eight minutes for light to travel 93 million miles to the Earth from the sun, but astrophysicist Janna Levin said the energized particles causing the current wave of aurora travel a lot slower, causing the phenomenon to last for the weekend.

"Some of these mass ejections are trillions of kilograms," she said. "They're slower. So they're taking longer, but still hours, maybe tens of hours."

Here's how the solar storm looks in the South and on the East Coast

The aurora was visible across the East Coast and in the South Friday.

Here's how it looked in Chester, South Carolina.

Down in Florida, waves of color swam through the sky.

Up north in New Jersey, a purple-ish haze could be seen in the sky.

Will solar storms get more intense and risky in the future?

The answer is probably not in the short term, according to astrophysicist Hakeem Oluseyi.

He said scientists study what is constantly happening on the surface of the sun and have found a pattern.

“Geological data shows us that in the past the sun was way more active than it is today. It has cycles where it goes very quiet ... and you have events that show that the solar activity was much, much greater,” he told CNN. “So there's no evidence that we're going to see those big maxima this cycle." 

But the astrophysicist also spoke of a caveat - the limitations of modern science.

“Even though it's predictable in the short term, we still don't quite understand what creates the magnetic fields in the sun,” he said, adding: “That's why NASA has so many satellites looking at the sun.”

In Pictures: Auroras light the sky during rare solar storm

From CNN Digital's Photo Team

The northern lights glow in the night sky in Brandenburg, Germany, on May 10.

A series of solar flares and coronal mass ejections from the sun are creating dazzling auroras across the globe .

The rare solar storm may also disrupt communications. The last time a solar storm of this magnitude reached Earth was in October 2003, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Weather Prediction Center.

See more photos of the aurora from tonight.

Behind dazzling aurora could lie “real danger,” Bill Nye the Science Guy says

Bill Nye the Science Guy speaks to CNN on Friday, May 10.

The massive solar storm could present “a real danger,” especially with the modern world relying so much on electricity, according to Bill Nye the Science Guy , a science educator and engineer.

Scientists are warning an increase in solar flares and coronal mass ejections from the sun have the potential to disrupt communication on Earth into the weekend. Solar flares can affect communications and GPS almost immediately because they disrupt Earth’s ionosphere, or part of the upper atmosphere. Energetic particles released by the sun can also disrupt electronics on spacecraft and affect astronauts without proper protection within 20 minutes to several hours.

In comparison to tonight's event, Nye drew comparisons with another incident in 1859, known as the Carrington Event, when telegraph communications were severely affected.

“The other thing, everybody, that is a real danger to our technological society, different from 1859, is how much we depend on electricity and our electronics and so on,” Nye said. "None of us really in the developed world could go very long without electricity."

He noted that there are systems in place to minimize the impact, but “stuff might go wrong,” stressing that not all transformers are equipped to withstand such a solar event.

“It depends on the strength of the event and it depends on how much of our infrastructures are prepared for this the sort of thing,” he said.

Bill Nye breaks down significance of the solar storm | CNN

Bill Nye breaks down significance of the solar storm | CNN

This post has been updated with more details on solar flares' impact on electronics.

Here's where clouds will block the view of the northern lights in the US

From CNN's Angela Fritz

An infrared satellite image taken around 10:30 p.m. ET.

After an incredibly stormy week, most of the Lower 48 has clear skies to see the northern lights. But there are some areas where clouds and rainy weather are spoiling the view.

A deck of clouds is blocking the sky in the Northeast, from parts of Virginia into Maine, as an area of low pressure spins off the East Coast.

In the Midwest, the aurora will be hard to see through thick clouds in parts of Wisconsin, Michigan — including the Upper Peninsula — and Illinois.

A stripe of clouds is tracking across Texas, including Dallas-Forth Worth, and into Louisiana.

And in the Southwest, patchy clouds across the the Four Corners region could make the northern lights difficult to spot.

Aurora seen at least as far south as Georgia

Barely visible to the naked eye, the aurora can be seen in Atlanta in the 10 p.m. ET hour. 

It is easier to see through photographs using a long exposure. The photos below, taken by CNN's Eric Zerkel and Emily Smith, used 3- and 10-second exposures.

Aurora seen in Atlanta around 10:15 p.m. ET.

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A Plan to Remake the Middle East

While talks for a cease-fire between israel and hamas continue, another set of negotiations is happening behind the scenes..

This transcript was created using speech recognition software. While it has been reviewed by human transcribers, it may contain errors. Please review the episode audio before quoting from this transcript and email [email protected] with any questions.

From New York Times, I’m Michael Barbaro. This is The Daily.


Today, if and when Israel and Hamas reach a deal for a ceasefire fire, the United States will immediately turn to a different set of negotiations over a grand diplomatic bargain that it believes could rebuild Gaza and remake the Middle East. My colleague Michael Crowley has been reporting on that plan and explains why those involved in it believe they have so little time left to get it done.

It’s Wednesday, May 8.

Michael, I want to start with what feels like a pretty dizzying set of developments in this conflict over the past few days. Just walk us through them?

Well, over the weekend, there was an intense round of negotiations in an effort, backed by the United States, to reach a ceasefire in the Gaza war.

The latest ceasefire proposal would reportedly see as many as 33 Israeli hostages released in exchange for potentially hundreds of Palestinian prisoners.

US officials were very eager to get this deal.

Pressure for a ceasefire has been building ahead of a threatened Israeli assault on Rafah.

Because Israel has been threatening a military offensive in the Southern Palestinian city of Rafah, where a huge number of people are crowded.

Fleeing the violence to the North. And now they’re packed into Rafah. Exposed and vulnerable, they need to be protected.

And the US says it would be a humanitarian catastrophe on top of the emergency that’s already underway.

Breaking news this hour — very important breaking news. An official Hamas source has told The BBC that it does accept a proposal for a ceasefire deal in Gaza.

And for a few hours on Monday, it looked like there might have been a major breakthrough when Hamas put out a statement saying that it had accepted a negotiating proposal.

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu says the ceasefire proposal does not meet his country’s requirements. But Netanyahu says he will send a delegation of mediators to continue those talks. Now, the terms —

But those hopes were dashed pretty quickly when the Israelis took a look at what Hamas was saying and said that it was not a proposal that they had agreed to. It had been modified.

And overnight —

Israeli troops stormed into Rafah. Video showing tanks crashing over a sign at the entrance of the city.

— the Israelis launched a partial invasion of Rafah.

It says Hamas used the area to launch a deadly attack on Israeli troops over the weekend.

And they have now secured a border crossing at the Southern end of Gaza and are conducting targeted strikes. This is not yet the full scale invasion that President Biden has adamantly warned Israel against undertaking, but it is an escalation by Israel.

So while all that drama might suggest that these talks are in big trouble, these talks are very much still alive and ongoing and there is still a possibility of a ceasefire deal.

And the reason that’s so important is not just to stop the fighting in Gaza and relieve the suffering there, but a ceasefire also opens the door to a grand diplomatic bargain, one that involves Israel and its Arab neighbors and the Palestinians, and would have very far-reaching implications.

And what is that grand bargain. Describe what you’re talking about?

Well, it’s incredibly ambitious. It would reshape Israel’s relationship with its Arab neighbors, principally Saudi Arabia. But it’s important to understand that this is a vision that has actually been around since well before October 7. This was a diplomatic project that President Biden had been investing in and negotiating actually in a very real and tangible way long before the Hamas attacks and the Gaza war.

And President Biden was looking to build on something that President Trump had done, which was a series of agreements that the Trump administration struck in which Israel and some of its Arab neighbors agreed to have normal diplomatic relations for the first time.

Right, they’re called the Abraham Accords.

That’s right. And, you know, Biden doesn’t like a lot of things, most things that Trump did. But he actually likes this, because the idea is that they contribute to stability and economic integration in the Middle East, the US likes Israel having friends and likes having a tight-knit alliance against Iran.

President Biden agrees with the Saudis and with the Israelis, that Iran is really the top threat to everybody here. So, how can you build on this? How can you expand it? Well, the next and biggest step would be normalizing relations between Israel and Saudi Arabia.

And the Saudis have made clear that they want to do this and that they’re ready to do this. They weren’t ready to do it in the Trump years. But Mohammed bin Salman, the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, has made clear he wants to do it now.

So this kind of triangular deal began to take shape before October 7, in which the US, Israel, and Saudi Arabia would enter this three way agreement in which everyone would get something that they wanted.

And just walk through what each side gets in this pre-October 7th version of these negotiations?

So for Israel, you get normalized ties with its most important Arab neighbor and really the country that sets the tone for the whole Muslim world, which is Saudi Arabia of course. It makes Israel feel safer and more secure. Again, it helps to build this alliance against Iran, which Israel considers its greatest threat, and it comes with benefits like economic ties and travel and tourism. And Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has been very open, at least before October 7th, that this was his highest diplomatic and foreign policy priority.

For the Saudis, the rationale is similar when it comes to Israel. They think that it will bring stability. They like having a more explicitly close ally against Iran. There are economic and cultural benefits. Saudi Arabia is opening itself up in general, encouraging more tourism.

But I think that what’s most important to the Crown Prince, Mohammed bin Salman, is what he can get from the United States. And what he has been asking for are a couple of essential things. One is a security agreement whose details have always been a little bit vague, but I think essentially come down to reliable arms supplies from the United States that are not going to be cut off or paused on a whim, as he felt happened when President Biden stopped arms deliveries in 2021 because of how Saudi was conducting its war in Yemen. The Saudis were furious about that.

Saudi Arabia also wants to start a domestic nuclear power program. They are planning for a very long-term future, possibly a post-oil future. And they need help getting a nuclear program off the ground.

And they want that from the US?

And they want that from the US.

Now, those are big asks from the us. But from the perspective of President Biden, there are some really enticing things about this possible agreement. One is that it will hopefully produce more stability in the region. Again, the US likes having a tight-knit alliance against Iran.

The US also wants to have a strong relationship with Saudi Arabia. You know, despite the anger at Mohammed bin Salman over the murder of the Saudi dissident Jamal Khashoggi, the Biden administration recognizes that given the Saudis control over global oil production and their strategic importance in the Middle East, they need to have a good relationship with them. And the administration has been worried about the influence of China in the region and with the Saudis in particular.

So this is an opportunity for the US to draw the Saudis closer. Whatever our moral qualms might be about bin Salman and the Saudi government, this is an opportunity to bring the Saudis closer, which is something the Biden administration sees as a strategic benefit.

All three of these countries — big, disparate countries that normally don’t see eye-to-eye, this was a win-win-win on a military, economic, and strategic front.

That’s right. But there was one important actor in the region that did not see itself as winning, and that was the Palestinians.


First, it’s important to understand that the Palestinians have always expected that the Arab countries in the Middle East would insist that Israel recognize a Palestinian state before those countries were willing to essentially make total peace and have normal relations with Israel.

So when the Abraham Accords happened in the Trump administration, the Palestinians felt like they’d been thrown under the bus because the Abraham Accords gave them virtually nothing. But the Palestinians did still hold out hope that Saudi Arabia would be their savior. And for years, Saudi Arabia has said that Israel must give the Palestinians a state if there’s going to be a normal relationship between Israel and Saudi Arabia.

Now the Palestinians see the Saudis in discussions with the US and Israel about a normalization agreement, and there appears to be very little on offer for the Palestinians. And they are feeling like they’re going to be left out in the cold here.

Right. And in the minds of the Palestinians, having already been essentially sold out by all their other Arab neighbors, the prospect that Saudi Arabia, of all countries, the most important Muslim Arab country in the region, would sell them out, had to be extremely painful.

It was a nightmare scenario for them. And in the minds of many analysts and US officials, this was a factor, one of many, in Hamas’s decision to stage the October 7th attacks.

Hamas, like other Palestinian leaders, was seeing the prospect that the Middle East was moving on and essentially, in their view, giving up on the Palestinian cause, and that Israel would be able to have friendly, normal relations with Arab countries around the region, and that it could continue with hardline policies toward the Palestinians and a refusal, as Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has said publicly, to accept a Palestinian state.

Right. So Michael, once Hamas carries out the October 7th attacks in an effort to destroy a status quo that it thinks is leaving them less and less relevant, more and more hopeless, including potentially this prospect that Saudi Arabia is going to normalize relations with Israel, what happens to these pre-October 7th negotiations between the US, Saudi Arabia, and Israel?

Well, I think there was a snap assumption that these talks were dead and buried. That they couldn’t possibly survive a cataclysm like this.

But then something surprising happened. It became clear that all the parties were still determined to pull-off the normalization.

And most surprisingly of all, perhaps, was the continued eagerness of Saudi Arabia, which publicly was professing outrage over the Israeli response to the Hamas attacks, but privately was still very much engaged in these conversations and trying to move them forward.

And in fact, what has happened is that the scope of this effort has grown substantially. October 7th didn’t kill these talks. It actually made them bigger, more complicated, and some people would argue, more important than ever.

We’ll be right back.

Michael, walk us through what exactly happens to these three-way negotiations after October 7th that ends up making them, as you just said, more complicated and more important than ever?

Well, it’s more important than ever because of the incredible need in Gaza. And it’s going to take a deal like this and the approval of Saudi Arabia to unlock the kind of massive reconstruction project required to essentially rebuild Gaza from the rubble. Saudi Arabia and its Arab friends are also going to be instrumental in figuring out how Gaza is governed, and they might even provide troops to help secure it. None of those things are going to happen without a deal like this.


But this is all much more complicated now because the price for a deal like this has gone up.

And by price, you mean?

What Israel would have to give up. [MUSIC PLAYING]

From Saudi Arabia’s perspective, you have an Arab population that is furious at Israel. It now feels like a really hard time to do a normalization deal with the Israelis. It was never going to be easy, but this is about as bad a time to do it as there has been in a generation at least. And I think that President Biden and the people around him understand that the status quo between Israel and the Palestinians is intolerable and it is going to lead to chaos and violence indefinitely.

So now you have two of the three parties to this agreement, the Saudis and the Americans, basically asking a new price after October 7th, and saying to the Israelis, if we’re going to do this deal, it has to not only do something for the Palestinians, it has to do something really big. You have to commit to the creation of a Palestinian state. Now, I’ll be specific and say that what you hear the Secretary of State, Antony Blinken, say is that the agreement has to include an irreversible time-bound path to a Palestinian state.

We don’t know exactly what that looks like, but it’s some kind of a firm commitment, the likes of which the world and certainly the Israelis have not made before.

Something that was very much not present in the pre-October 7th vision of this negotiation. So much so that, as we just talked about, the Palestinians were left feeling completely out in the cold and furious at it.

That’s right. There was no sign that people were thinking that ambitiously about the Palestinians in this deal before October 7th. And the Palestinians certainly felt like they weren’t going to get much out of it. And that has completely changed now.

So, Michael, once this big new dimension after October 7th, which is the insistence by Saudi Arabia and the US that there be a Palestinian state or a path to a Palestinian state, what is the reaction specifically from Israel, which is, of course, the third major party to this entire conversation?

Well, Israel, or at least its political leadership, hates it. You know, this is just an extremely tough sell in Israel. It would have been a tough sell before October 7th. It’s even harder now.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is completely unrepentantly open in saying that there’s not going to be a Palestinian state on his watch. He won’t accept it. He says that it’s a strategic risk to his country. He says that it would, in effect, reward Hamas.

His argument is that terrorism has forced a conversation about statehood onto the table that wasn’t there before October 7th. Sure, it’s always in the background. It’s a perennial issue in global affairs, but it was not something certainly that the US and Israel’s Arab neighbors were actively pushing. Netanyahu also has — you know, he governs with the support of very right-wing members of a political coalition that he has cobbled together. And that coalition is quite likely to fall apart if he does embrace a Palestinian state or a path to a Palestinian state.

Now, he might be able to cobble together some sort of alternative, but it creates a political crisis for him.

And finally, you know, I think in any conversation about Israel, it’s worth bearing in mind something you hear from senior US officials these days, which is that although there is often finger pointing at Netanyahu and a desire to blame Netanyahu as this obstructionist who won’t agree to deals, what they say is Netanyahu is largely reflecting his population and the political establishment of his country, not just the right-wingers in his coalition who are clearly extremist.

But actually the prevailing views of the Israeli public. And the Israeli public and their political leaders across the spectrum right now with few exceptions, are not interested in talking about a Palestinian state when there are still dozens and dozens of Israeli hostages in tunnels beneath Gaza.

So it very much looks like this giant agreement that once seemed doable before October 7th might be more important to everyone involved than ever, given that it’s a plan for rebuilding Gaza and potentially preventing future October 7th’s from happening, but because of this higher price that Israel would have to pay, which is the acceptance of a Palestinian state, it seems from everything you’re saying, that this is more and more out of reach than ever before and hard to imagine happening in the immediate future. So if the people negotiating it are being honest, Michael, are they ready to acknowledge that it doesn’t look like this is going to happen?

Well, not quite yet. As time goes by, they certainly say it’s getting harder and harder, but they’re still trying, and they still think there’s a chance. But both the Saudis and the Biden administration understand that there’s very little time left to do this.

Well, what do you mean there’s very little time left? It would seem like time might benefit this negotiation in that it might give Israel distance from October 7th to think potentially differently about a Palestinian state?

Potentially. But Saudi Arabia wants to get this deal done in the Biden administration because Mohammed bin Salman has concluded this has to be done under a Democratic president.

Because Democrats in Congress are going to be very reluctant to approve a security agreement between the United States and Saudi Arabia.

It’s important to understand that if there is a security agreement, that’s something Congress is going to have to approve. And you’re just not going to get enough Democrats in Congress to support a deal with Saudi Arabia, who a lot of Democrats don’t like to begin with, because they see them as human rights abusers.

But if a Democratic president is asking them to do it, they’re much more likely to go along.

Right. So Saudi Arabia fears that if Biden loses and Trump is president, that those same Democrats would balk at this deal in a way that they wouldn’t if it were being negotiated under President Biden?

Exactly. Now, from President Biden’s perspective, politically, think about a president who’s running for re-election, who is presiding right now over chaos in the Middle East, who doesn’t seem to have good answers for the Israeli-Palestinian question, this is an opportunity for President Biden to deliver what could be at least what he would present as a diplomatic masterstroke that does multiple things at once, including creating a new pathway for Israel and the Palestinians to coexist, to break through the logjam, even as he is also improving Israel’s relations with Saudi Arabia.

So Biden and the Crown Prince hope that they can somehow persuade Bibi Netanyahu that in spite of all the reasons that he thinks this is a terrible idea, that this is a bet worth taking on Israel’s and the region’s long-term security and future?

That’s right. Now, no one has explained very clearly exactly how this is going to work, and it’s probably going to require artful diplomacy, possibly even a scenario where the Israelis would agree to something that maybe means one thing to them and means something else to other people. But Biden officials refuse to say that it’s hopeless and they refuse to essentially take Netanyahu’s preliminary no’s for an answer. And they still see some way that they can thread this incredibly narrow needle.

Michael, I’m curious about a constituency that we haven’t been talking about because they’re not at the table in these discussions that we are talking about here. And that would be Hamas. How does Hamas feel about the prospect of such a deal like this ever taking shape. Do they see it as any kind of a victory and vindication for what they did on October 7th?

So it’s hard to know exactly what Hamas’s leadership is thinking. I think they can feel two things. I think they can feel on the one hand, that they have established themselves as the champions of the Palestinian people who struck a blow against Israel and against a diplomatic process that was potentially going to leave the Palestinians out in the cold.

At the same time, Hamas has no interest in the kind of two-state solution that the US is trying to promote. They think Israel should be destroyed. They think the Palestinian state should cover the entire geography of what is now Israel, and they want to lead a state like that. And that’s not something that the US, Saudi Arabia, or anyone else is going to tolerate.

So what Hamas wants is to fight, to be the leader of the Palestinian people, and to destroy Israel. And they’re not interested in any sort of a peace process or statehood process.

It seems very clear from everything you’ve said here that neither Israel nor Hamas is ready to have the conversation about a grand bargain diplomatic program. And I wonder if that inevitably has any bearing on the ceasefire negotiations that are going on right now between the two of them that are supposed to bring this conflict to some sort of an end, even if it’s just temporary?

Because if, as you said, Michael, a ceasefire opens the door to this larger diplomatic solution, and these two players don’t necessarily want that larger diplomatic solution, doesn’t that inevitably impact their enthusiasm for even reaching a ceasefire?

Well, it certainly doesn’t help. You know, this is such a hellish problem. And of course, you first have the question of whether Israel and Hamas can make a deal on these immediate issues, including the hostages, Palestinian prisoners, and what the Israeli military is going to do, how long a ceasefire might last.

But on top of that, you have these much bigger diplomatic questions that are looming over them. And it’s not clear that either side is ready to turn and face those bigger questions.

So while for the Biden administration and for Saudi Arabia, this is a way out of this crisis, these larger diplomatic solutions, it’s not clear that it’s a conversation that the two parties that are actually at war here are prepared to start having.

Well, Michael, thank you very much. We appreciate it.

On Tuesday afternoon, under intense pressure from the US, delegations from Israel and Hamas arrived in Cairo to resume negotiations over a potential ceasefire. But in a statement, Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu made clear that even with the talks underway, his government would, quote, “continue to wage war against Hamas.”

Here’s what else you need to know today. In a dramatic day of testimony, Stormy Daniels offered explicit details about an alleged sexual encounter with Donald Trump that ultimately led to the hush money payment at the center of his trial. Daniels testified that Trump answered the door in pajamas, that he told her not to worry that he was married, and that he did not use a condom when they had sex.

That prompted lawyers for Trump to seek a mistrial based on what they called prejudicial testimony. But the judge in the case rejected that request. And,

We’ve seen a ferocious surge of anti-Semitism in America and around the world.

In a speech on Tuesday honoring victims of the Holocaust, President Biden condemned what he said was the alarming rise of anti-Semitism in the United States after the October 7th attacks on Israel. And he expressed worry that too many Americans were already forgetting the horrors of that attack.

The Jewish community, I want you to know I see your fear, your hurt, and your pain. Let me reassure you, as your president, you’re not alone. You belong. You always have and you always will.

Today’s episode was produced by Nina Feldman, Clare Toeniskoetter, and Rikki Novetsky. It was edited by Liz O. Baylen, contains original music by Marion Lozano, Elisheba Ittoop, and Dan Powell, and was engineered by Alyssa Moxley. Our theme music is by Jim Brunberg and Ben Landsverk of Wonderly.

That’s it for The Daily. I’m Michael Barbaro. See you tomorrow.

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  • May 8, 2024   •   28:28 A Plan to Remake the Middle East
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Hosted by Michael Barbaro

Featuring Michael Crowley

Produced by Nina Feldman ,  Clare Toeniskoetter and Rikki Novetsky

Edited by Liz O. Baylen

Original music by Marion Lozano ,  Elisheba Ittoop and Dan Powell

Engineered by Alyssa Moxley

Listen and follow The Daily Apple Podcasts | Spotify | Amazon Music | YouTube

If and when Israel and Hamas reach a deal for a cease-fire, the United States will immediately turn to a different set of negotiations over a grand diplomatic bargain that it believes could rebuild Gaza and remake the Middle East.

Michael Crowley, who covers the State Department and U.S. foreign policy for The Times, explains why those involved in this plan believe they have so little time left to get it done.

On today’s episode

what is a running head in a research paper

Michael Crowley , a reporter covering the State Department and U.S. foreign policy for The New York Times.

A young man is looking out at destroyed buildings from above.

Background reading :

Talks on a cease-fire in the Gaza war are once again at an uncertain stage .

Here’s how the push for a deal between Israel and Saudi Arabia looked before Oct. 7 .

From early in the war, President Biden has said that a lasting resolution requires a “real” Palestinian state .

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  1. APA Formatting and Citation (7th Ed.)

    what is a running head in a research paper

  2. How to Write a Running Head: A Comprehensive Guide

    what is a running head in a research paper

  3. APA running head example

    what is a running head in a research paper

  4. Running head for research papers

    what is a running head in a research paper

  5. Setting word header on first page only

    what is a running head in a research paper

  6. Running Head: Research Paper

    what is a running head in a research paper


  1. Running Head New Obby

  2. The Hunt: Escape Running Head #roblox #gaming #trending #escaperunninghead

  3. How to Write Objectives in Thesis in APA 7?

  4. Escape running head stage 3

  5. 02_How to Set the Background of Your Article, Write Rationale and Objective(s)?



  1. APA Running Head

    To set up an APA running head in Google Docs: Click on "Insert" > "Headers and footers" > "Header". Insert your (abbreviated) paper title in capital letters. To insert automatic page numbering: Click on "Insert" > "Page numbers". Choose the option with page numbers in the top-right corner on all the pages. Prevent plagiarism.

  2. Running head or no running head? For student papers, APA Style says bye

    The running head should be a shortened version of your paper title. If the paper title is already short, the running head can be the same as the paper title. Write the running head in all-capital letters and place it left-justified in the page header, across from the right-justified page number. Ensure the running head is no more than 50 ...

  3. APA Style 6th Edition Blog: Running heads

    (The header by nature is situated within the top margin of your paper; all the margins themselves should be set to 1 inch.) On the first page of the paper only, the running head is preceded by the words Running head and a colon. On all other pages, just the running head itself and the page number appear, without the label Running head:.

  4. How to Write a Running Head: A Comprehensive Guide

    The running head on the title page is an abbreviated form of the title, written in uppercase letters. It usually has a limit of 50 characters with spaces and punctuation marks. If your article's title is "The Impact of Social Media on Youth: A Comprehensive Study," a suitable running head might be "Social Media's Impact on Youth.".

  5. Running Head Format for APA Style Papers

    (The header by nature is situated within the top margin of your paper; all the margins themselves should be set to 1 inch.) On the first page of the paper only, the running head is preceded by the words Running head and a colon. On all other pages, just the running head itself and the page number appear, without the label Running head:.

  6. How to Write a Running Head?

    In APA, the running head is introduced on the first page by the phrase "Running head" and a colon, i.e., in the following format: "Running head: SHORT VERSION OF TITLE.". Subsequent pages have only the running head itself. In other formatting styles, the running head may be introduced in this way as part of the information that appears ...

  7. APA Style 6th Edition Blog: Mysteries of the Running Head Explained

    The running head is a shortened form of the title of your paper that appears in uppercase letters at the top left of each page of your manuscript. It helps to identify the pages of your paper and keep them together (without using your name, in case you're submitting it for blind review). When your paper is published, this short title will ...

  8. APA Running Head ~ Guide To The 7th Edition

    The APA style is a popular style that contains several rules, including a "running head." Understanding the rules and updates about the APA running head is crucial for students and researchers alike, as it helps ensure that their papers meet the established standards of academic writing.Proper formatting is crucial for clear, consistent, and professional academic and scientific writing.

  9. APA Format Running Head: How to Do + Examples

    Choose "Insert" and click "Header or Footer". Select "Different First Page". Type "Running head", followed by your article's title. Insert page number by clicking on "Header and Page Number." Use " Tab " to align "Page Number" to the right. Now go to page 2 and print your title without "Running head:"


    1. Annotated APA Sample Paper and Style Guide for Student Writers (6th Edition) Center and double-space your title, author(s), and institutional affiliation in the top half of your first page (p. 23). If your title runs more than one line (here and on page 3), you may insert a break wherever you want or can just let your title wrap onto a new ...


    The abstract is a brief summary of the paper, allowing readers to quickly review the main points and purpose of the paper. Abstract. This paper explores four published articles that report on results from research conducted. on online (Internet) and offline (non-Internet) relationships and their relationship to.

  12. APA the title page and the running head

    APA Title Page and Running Head A separate title page is required for all APA Styled papers. Students should first check with their instructors regarding what is required for their title page, but typically it is: title of the paper, name of the author, course name and number, instructor name, assignment due date and page number in the top ...

  13. Page header

    Align the running head to the left margin of the page header, across from the right-aligned page number. View the sample papers to see how the running head and page number appear in APA Style papers. The page header appears within the top margin of every page of the paper. For student papers, the page header consists of the page number only.

  14. Running head

    The running head is a shortened version the paper's full title Contains 50 characters max (including spaces, letters, punctuation) Located on every page in the header

  15. Crafting an Appropriate Running Title for Your Scientific Paper

    Many journals require that a running title, also known as a running head or short title, be included in submitted manuscripts. This shortened form of the main title, usually cited at the top of each published page of an article, serves to guide readers browsing a print journal, shuffling loose printed pages, or toggling between multiple papers in PDF form.

  16. PDF How to Create a Running Head (APA)

    How to Create a Running Head (APA) A running head, also called a page header, is a line at the top of each page of a document that gives the reader important information. For APA format, the running head includes a shortened version (no more than 50 characters) of the title of the document IN CAPITAL LETTERS, as well as the page number.

  17. Title page & running head

    When APA format requires a running head at the top of the first page the following instructions will work. These instructions assume you are adding the running head to a completed paper (or one that has at least 2 existing pages). Follow these steps: Click on the Insert tab on the toolbar. In Header & Footer click on Header then click on Blank.

  18. Changes in the 7th Edition

    Running heads are no longer required for student papers. Professional papers include a running head on every page, including the title page. However, the "Running head:" label used in the sixth edition is no longer used. The running head is written in all capital letters. The running head should either be identical to the paper's title ...

  19. General Format

    General APA Guidelines. Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides. Include a page header (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page. For a professional paper, this includes your paper title and the page number. For a student paper, this only includes the ...

  20. Writing a Running Head in a Research Paper

    Running heads make sorting of the papers easier, both for the reader an... "Some journals and publishers prefer manuscripts with running heads and page numbers.

  21. PDF Student Paper Setup Guide, APA Style 7th Edition

    Indent the first line of every paragraph of text 0.5 in. using the tab key or the paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program. Page numbers: Put a page number in the top right corner of every page, including the title page or cover page, which is page 1. Student papers do not require a running head on any page.

  22. How the brain is flexible enough for a complex world (without being

    In 2013 Miller teamed up with two co-authors of the new paper, Mattia Rigotti of IBM Research and Stefano Fusi of Columbia University, to show how mixed selectivity endows the brain with powerful computational flexibility. Essentially, an ensemble of neurons with mixed selectivity can accommodate many more dimensions of information about a task ...

  23. Free AI Paraphrasing Tool

    The easiest, quickest way to create a paraphrase is to use a free paraphrase generator like the one at the top of this page. To use this paraphrasing tool, paste in your source text, then click the "Paraphrase it" button.If you'd like to write a paraphrase from scratch, first read the original text closely.


    running head in all caps without "Running head." The title should be centered on the page, typed in 12-point Times New Roman Font. It should not be spaced a bolded, underlined, or italicized. The author's name and institution should be double-nd centered. The running head is a shortened version of the paper's full title, and it is used ...

  25. AI Has Already Figured Out How to Deceive Humans

    A new research paper found that various AI systems have learned the art of deception. Deception is the "systematic inducement of false beliefs." This poses several risks for society, from fraud to ...

  26. Electrophysiological signatures of veridical head direction in humans

    a, Participants completed a series of orientation tasks presented across five computer monitors.The participants began by fixating on a cross on the centre screen. This cross then moved to one of ...

  27. Aurora lights up the sky in geomagnetic storm

    Aurora seen in Atlanta area around 10:30 p.m. ET. (Emily Smith/CNN) A stunning aurora, caused by a severe geomagnetic storm, is painting the sky shades of pink, purple and green as it spreads into ...

  28. Dr. Barbara O'Neill

    This is called hypoglycemia, very low blood sugar. In fact, if it gets too low, the person can pass out. So, very quickly, the brain says, pancreas, stop the quick, release glucagon. Now, glucagon is the other hormone that the pancreas makes and it's designed to get the blood sugar level up again.

  29. A Plan to Remake the Middle East

    This transcript was created using speech recognition software. While it has been reviewed by human transcribers, it may contain errors. Please review the episode audio before quoting from this ...