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what is assignment management

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Onboard, manage, and pay multiple workers for multiple assignments

Through careful orchestration, you can effectively manage services providers who perform complex maintenance and repair tasks. With integrated assignment management, you can simplify the process to help ensure proper completion of work and accurate compensation.

Quickly onboard many workers, confirm their qualifications, assign them to one or more job orders, track hours worked, and load time card data onto service entry sheets by using the SAP Fieldglass Assignment Management solution.

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what is assignment management

Assignment Management System: How is it Beneficial For Schools?

Friday April 17, 2020

what is assignment management

In a glance…

  • What is an assignment and project management system?
  • Major benefits of Assignment Management System
  • Features of Assignment Management System
  • Highlights of Assignment Management System
  • Types of Assignments
  • How is Assignment and project management system useful for teachers
  • How the assignment and project management system work
  • How evaluation is carried out, once the assignments are done
  • Role of teachers in the Assignment Management System
  • Role of parents in the Assignment Management System
  • Role of students in the Assignment Management System
  • Edsys presenting Assignment and Project Management System …

Have you ever thought of school assignments and projects going completely online?

If yes, the time has come they have fully gone online now.

Assignment management, as you would be aware, is one of the basic activities in education.

With online classes becoming common, it has become a necessity for students and for you as a teacher to access e-learning systems from anywhere, any time.

This will allow you to handle their assignment and project in an extremely convenient way.

An efficient system provides a quality educational impression for both students as well as teachers.

It helps them to know responses immediately, share and make use of abundant online resources.

Assignments and projects can be created and managed systematically with ease.

W hat is an Assignment and Project Management System?

Assignment & Projects management help teachers to assign tasks and deadlines to students and monitor their performance on completion of these tasks.

All the assignments and projects are assigned with a start and end date , student update the task on completion. Teachers can view the status of the task and reports are being generated after evaluation.

Things are made easy using this system for both teachers and students.

what is assignment management

B enefits of Assignment and Project Management System

1) Create Assignments Easily

Assignment Management System

The teachers can create assignments without much effort.

The additional resources such as PDF’s, docs, images etc  can be attached to the same.

It provides teachers more time to teach and spent less time on these activities.

2) Time Saving

Assignment Management System

As this process requires fewer manual efforts, the system is time-saving. Assignments and projects can be assigned to the students online . No extra efforts should be spent for paper works.

“It is indeed time saving, Na?”

3) Review Assignments with Interactive Reports

Assignment Management System

Once the assignments and projects are completed by the students, it can be reviewed by teachers online. Grades can be rewarded in the system itself, accordingly.

Feedback from the educators is beneficial for students to improve themselves.

4) Instantly Access Relevant Data

Assignment Management System

The students can easily access any type of subject data . As teachers upload videos, PDF, Docs etc., students can make use of the resources instantly. So, these are the major benefits of this system.

M ajor Features of this Assignment and Project Management System

1. Student Work- Load Management

Assignment Management System

The hectic load of projects and assignments can be managed systematically by the students.

2. Flexible Grade Scaling

Flexible-grade-scaling

The grades are awarded by the teachers. Remarks and instructions for the assignments and projects will also be noted.

3. Graphical Representation of Grades

Assignment Management System

Feedback from the teachers are available in graphical representation also. It helps students to have a glance at their performance and encourage them to do better.

4. Subject Specific Assignment Types

Assignment Management System

Assignments and projects based on each subject can be viewed particularly. It is also easy for the teachers to assign topics for students from Pre-defined topics available in the system .

5. Do & Edit Assignments in a Spreadsheet like Interface

Assignment Management System

Students can do and edit assignments as required before submission. The works once submitted cannot be edited afterward.

what is assignment management

A nd so, What are the Key Highlights of Assignment & Project Management System?

  • Assign projects & Assignments to students or a group of students
  • Track the status of completed tasks(pending/completed)
  • Monitor individual student status
  • Track Student performance
  • Generate student reports
  • Email notifications can be sent for each assignments & projects
  • List of pending tasks can be viewed
  • Completed task can be closed

L et’s go through the different types of Assignments

1) Reading Assignment

In Reading Assignment, teachers can ask the students to answer to questions orally. The recorded audio files can be shared to teachers for evaluation.

Benefits of Reading Assignment

  • Students can answer the questions orally
  • Lets teachers to understand how deep a child understood the concept
  • Teachers can hear individual audios and give effective feedback
  • Helps to improve speaking skills

2) Writing Assignment

In this familiar mode of Assignments, students write and share the answer for assigned topics to teachers.

Benefits of Writing Assignment

  • Students can research and write accordingly
  • Helps to improve writing skills

3) Visual Assignment

In the visual assignments, teachers can assign tasks related to drawing, images, videos, etc.

Benefits of Visual Assignment

  • Students get an exposure to showcase their creative skills
  • A right way to speak out their minds creatively

 4) Project Assignment

This assignment is a collaboration of all the above assignments. Teachers can give any of the tasks related to audio, visual, writing or reading.

Benefits of Project Assignment

  • An effective way for students to do assignments
  • Students can choose and do any of them according to their convenience

A nd since it is about benefits & features, now we shall look “How is Assignment and Project Management System useful for teachers?”

1) Post Homework Easily

In between the tiresome works, it is sometimes hard for teachers to search and assign topics manually.

With Assignment and project management system in hand, it simplifies the work of teachers for assigning projects to students.

From the Pre-defined topics available , teachers can assign the same to students or can assign new topics according to convenience and relevance.

2) Attach Any Form of Reference

It is always bliss for students to have documents for reference. Teachers can attach any form of reference (docs, pdf’s, videos etc.) along with the task. Videos and notes can be downloaded by the students and can be used further.

3) Track Complete Status

To track individual child’s work status manually is tough and often get errors.

With this automated system, teacher can view in detail of each student’s assignment and project submission status systematically.

Last day of submission can be reminded for the students in the form of notifications and late submission can be warned by teachers.

4) Systematic Record of Completed Work

It is always good to have a systematic record of things.

Using this system, teachers, students and even parents can view the record of completed works. Teachers can have the overall access of entire class students and parents can view the completed record of their ward respectively.

5) User- Friendly

Though the system is sophisticated, it has a user-friendly interface. Students, teachers and parents can access the system without much effort. It is built in a way to meet the requirements of its users in a friendly way.

D o you know How Assignment and Project Management System Works?

Do-you-know-how-assignment-and-project-management-system-works

S o Now we shall look How Evaluation is carried out, once the Assignments are Done?

As you all know students submit assignments after completion. Teachers can view and assess grades individually. Remarks and feedback can be included along with the grades. Students can view this and it helps them to improve themselves in near future.

Parents can view the report and track their ward’s progress in curriculum.

Take a Break and Go through this Video – “ T eacher A pp – A Complete Class Schedule and Attendance Management App”

what is assignment management

H ave You Ever thought of the Necessity of Assignment Management System?

Parents, teachers and students are benefited from this system. Let us have a look at what each one can do with this system:

1) Role of Teachers in Assignment Management System

what is assignment management

Using this system, teachers can create different types of assignments, projects, homework etc and can be shared easily. They can also provide students with instructions, clarifications and details along with the tasks.

Teachers can assign the tasks either to the class assigned to him/her or can assign it class-wise, section-wise, or even to a particular group of students. Along with this, they can also attach any type of documents (like doc., pdf, jpeg formats) for reference.

Teachers can decide whether the given assignment is to be submitted either online or direct.

They can also create new tasks or add tasks to an assignment. These tasks can be created by the same teacher or by the teachers who handles the same subject

2) Role of Parents in Assignment Management System

what is assignment management

Using this system, parents can view assignments and projects assigned to their ward. They get notified regarding the grades and tasks assigned.

Time -keeping has a major role in an individual’s life and it must be nurtured in the early stage itself. They can check if the tasks are completed by their ward on time.

Parents can guide and help their child in completing the tasks and also track their ward’s achievements

3) Role of Students in Assignment Management System

assignment management system

Assignments and project management system helps students to view the assignments assigned to them online. Thus, they can do and submit the assignments and projects conveniently

Students can track the status of their tasks (whether approved/not approved by teacher) and scores and view the reference documents attached.

E dsys presenting Assignment and Project Management System …

We are one of the leading software providers for Educational Solutions for ages .

We have Edsys For Education – “a collection of top-notch educational products”. In this we provide “Assignment and Project Management System”-

what is assignment management

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what is assignment management

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Learn how Assignments works

Assignments is an add-on application for learning management systems (LMSs) to help you distribute, analyze, and grade student work with Google Workspace for Education.

For file submissions, Assignments make Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Slides, and Google Drive compatible with your LMS. You can use Assignments to save time distributing and grading student work, and analyze student submissions with originality reports to ensure authenticity.

You use Assignments as a Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI) tool integrated within your LMS. It works with any LMS that supports LTI version 1.1 or higher, such as Canvas, Schoology, Blackboard, Moodle, and others.

Adding Assignments to your LMS might require assistance from your LMS administrator. If you have never set up an add-on application or external tool for your LMS before, talk to your IT or LMS admin about setting up Assignments in Canvas, Schoology, or another LMS.

Get started with Assignments

Assignments workflow

Step 1: instructor creates an assignment.

  • (Required) Setting the point value
  • (Optional) Setting the due date
  • (Optional) Adding a grading rubric
  • (Optional) Attaching assignment files to make a copy for each student to edit and submit
  • (Optional) Enabling originality reports

Step 2: Students submit their assignments

  • Google Docs, Sheets, Slides, Sites, and Drawings
  • Microsoft®️ Word®️, Excel®️, or PowerPoint®️
  • Image files
  • Video files (WEBM, MPEG4, 3GPP, MOV, AVI, MPEG-PS, WMV, FLV, OGG)
  • They no longer have edit or comment access to their original file.
  • Assignments makes a copy of the submitted file and saves it to the student's Drive.

For more details, go to How instructors and students share files .

Step 3: Instructor grades and returns assignments

  • Ownership of the file returns to the student.
  • Assignments archives a copy of the graded file and saves it to the instructor's Drive.
  • Grades are saved to the LMS grade book.

General FAQ

Does my organization need google workspace for education to use assignments, where and in what languages is assignments available, how much does assignments cost, what browsers are supported, does assignments work on mobile devices, is assignments built for accessibility, grading faq, does assignments have plagiarism detection, does assignments support rubric grading, can i save draft grades or feedback outside the student’s view, can classwork be returned individually or all at once.

  • Leave draft grades and overall feedback.
  • Return to the list of students.
  • Check the boxes for all the students whose assignments you want to return.
  • Click Return .

Can I return classwork without a grade?

Can returned classwork be resubmitted or regraded.

  • To provide context for giving a new grade, the previous grade is displayed next to the grade field. Only the most recent grade syncs to the LMS.
  • Previous overall feedback is displayed and new overall feedback open in a separate text box.

Can co-instructors grade assignments?

Do grades sync to the lms, class management faqs, can instructors see all their linked courses & assignments, can instructors delete courses & assignments.

Instructors who own courses can delete courses and assignments. Learn how to delete courses and assignments .

Does Assignments support group assignments?

  • Tell each group to create a Google Doc and share it with group members for editing.
  • Have the owner of the file submit the assignment for grading.
  • Grade the assignment, leaving overall feedback as a margin comment or suggestion. Tip : The overall feedback field is visible only to the owner of the file and not to the group.
  • In your grade book, record the grade for the other group members.

Does Assignments support peer review of assignments?

  • Ask your students to start their assignments in Docs.
  • Tell students to share their files with their peer reviewer.
  • In Docs, peer reviewers leave margin comments and suggestions.
  • Have students turn in their assignments, leaving in the reviewer’s comments and suggestions.Alternatively, students can review, implement, and resolve reviewer comments and instructors can view version history.
  • Grade the assignments.
  • (Optional) Record a separate grade for peer reviews.

Will Assignments work in a course copied in my LMS?

  • Total points
  • Settings for originality reports
  • Attachments
  • Use Assignments LTI version 1.3 for best results.
  • Copied assignments can only be opened by students after an instructor links the Assignment to their account. Learn about linking your account to Assignments .
  • Make sure the person who copies the course is in the same Google Workspace for Education organization as the course creator or is on the organization’s allow list. Learn more about how to manage your organization’s allow lists .
  • Don’t edit or delete the original assignment or its attachments.

Need more help?

Try these next steps:.

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What Is a RACI Matrix?

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Our content and product recommendations are editorially independent. We may make money when you click links to our partners. Learn more in our  Editorial & Advertising Policy .

A RACI matrix is a document that clarifies which individuals or groups are responsible for a project’s successful completion, and the roles that each will play throughout the project. The acronym RACI stands for the different responsibility types: Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed.

Successful project management depends on a team-wide understanding of roles and responsibilities. Using a RACI matrix to assign and define each role is a great way to keep a project on track and positioned for success. When designed correctly, the RACI matrix is a way for a project manager to help ensure the success of the project before it’s even begun.

Read more: What is Project Management?

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Video: Decoding the RACI Matrix for Effective Project Management

How Does a RACI Chart Help Project Managers?

Project managers use RACI charts to keep track of team roles and relay those responsibilities to the larger team. The matrix defines clear roles and responsibilities for individual team members across the various phases of the project, breaking each role down into four types of designation: those who are Responsible and Accountable for project deliverables, those who should be Consulted as work begins, and stakeholders who need to be Informed of ongoing progress, roadblocks, and updates. 

Read more: Project Management Phases

RACI Matrix Definitions 

Responsible.

The individual(s) with responsibility for the task or deliverable is typically responsible for developing and completing the project deliverables themselves. The responsible parties are typically hands-on team members who make direct contributions toward the completion of the project. The responsible team is comprised of the project’s “doers”, working hands-on to ensure that each deliverable is completed. 

Some examples of responsible parties are:

  • Project Managers
  • Business Analysts
  • Graphic Designers
  • Copywriters

Accountable

Accountable parties ensure accountability to project deadlines, and ultimately, accountability to project completion. This group frequently also falls under the informed category.

Some examples of accountable parties are:

  • Product Owners
  • Signature Authorities
  • Business Owners
  • Key Stakeholders

Consulted individuals’ opinions are crucial, and their feedback needs to be considered at every step of the game. These individuals provide guidance that is often a prerequisite to other project tasks, for example, providing legal guidance on a project throughout the process. If you are working on new product development or expansion, this could essentially be the entire organization.

Some examples of consulted parties are:

  • Legal Experts
  • Information Security and Cybersecurity Experts
  • Compliance Consultants

Informed persons are those that need to stay in the loop of communication throughout the project. These individuals do not have to be consulted or be a part of the decision-making, but they should be made aware of all project updates. Typically, this party are business owners or stakeholders that are more interested in viewing the project at a 30,000-foot view.  Keep this group on your cc list for awareness of topics, decisions, and progress – that includes making them part of the initial project kickoff and project demos as optional attendees. This group often also falls under the accountable group.

Some examples of informed parties are:

  • Project Committee Members
  • External Stakeholders

Read more: DACI vs RACI Model Guide

Why Are RACI Roles Important?

RACI roles provide a sense of organization and clarity for teams that are looking to divide roles and keep team members accountable for their contributions. Considering that 27% of projects go over budget, for reasons like scope creep and lack of defined roles, RACI roles help position a project for success and avoid common pitfalls. 

Moreover, RACI roles help ensure that communication between all roles is ongoing. When you consider that nearly half of all project spending is at risk of being wasted due to a lack of effective team-based communication, it becomes all that more important to prioritize. Ultimately, teams who prioritize communication and well-defined roles are better off, and RACI roles help teams achieve that goal faster – while providing accountability for each team member’s unique contributions to the success of the project. 

Read More: Top 10 Main Causes of Project Failure

How to Create a RACI Matrix 

If you’re looking to implement a RACI matrix as part of your team’s project planning process, take these steps to create a RACI matrix.

Ensure that you have a thorough understanding of the project and its demands before outlining any further steps by communicating with key stakeholders and decision-makers.

Determine the list of key activities and deliverables from the director of program management or other leadership. 

Determine who is needed to be a part of the project or initiative.

Determine the project roles and responsible job titles and persons for each activity and deliverable.

Hold review sessions with key members of the team for alignment, and if you haven’t already, host a kickoff meeting with the entirety of the team and key stakeholders to unveil the matrix, address questions, and more. 

If the project has already started, it’s not too late to implement a RACI matrix.

  • Outline the story. Using research from multiple sources, do a, b, c, and d.
  • Utilize steps 2 and 3 (shown above). Ensure the right groups are assigned and engaged. 
  • Hold a review session. Ensure that the team acknowledges and discusses the plan and the roles assigned.

Read more: 8 Factors That Lead to Successful Projec ts

Examples of a RACI Matrix

RACI matrix example.

As shown above, a RACI matrix helps break down what roles individuals will play as work is carried out and to what extent they will be involved in the project overall. The horizontal axis represents each person on the project team and the vertical axis represents each task.

Each square of the matrix represents an individual, a task, and that individual’s role within the project, either responsible, accountable, consulted, or informed. In this situation, for example, the project manager is accountable for accessing risk, defining performance requirements, creating designs, executing construction, and approving construction work. However, they are only informed about approving construction work and defining functional and aesthetic needs.

Read more: Understanding Different Types of Stakeholders and Their Roles

Our FREE Downloadable RACI Matrix Template

Who creates the raci matrix.

The RACI matrix — sometimes called RACI model, RACI diagram, or simply just RAC — is created by the project manager at the start of the project as a key part of establishing the initial human resources planning for the project. Because miscommunication is a common threat to any project, RACI charts are a great asset to teams dealing with any type of project, from very simple projects to extremely complex ones. 

Common Mistakes When Creating a RACI Matrix

  • Failure to plan ahead: Utilizing a RACI matrix should not be your first step in project planning. Having a fully assembled project team and at least a general idea of a task list and project plans is a better place to start before preparing a matrix.
  • Working with too large a team: A RACI matrix is likely not the best bet for a large team, as it will make the matrix hard to understand and overly complex.
  • Not communicating with the project team: A RACI matrix should help organize tasks and responsibilities that have already been introduced to the project team – no one likes to be blindsided. Be sure to host a kickoff meeting with the team first before creating a RACI matrix.

FAQ: How do I Implement a RACI matrix?

Implementing a RACI matrix takes more than just a few emails and sporadic conversations – it takes consistent communication and planning. You should host a kickoff meeting to introduce the matrix to the team and make a plan to continue meeting at predetermined times throughout the project lifecycle. 

Here are a few more tips to keep in mind as you implement your RACI matrix within the team dynamic:

  • Get everyone prepared. Send the document around to the meeting distribution as read-ahead material, requesting feedback if there are any major concerns. 
  • Roll out each role for the team . During the meeting, conduct a review of the tasks and responsible parties. Do not rush through this review, but rather ensure enough time in your project kickoff for this important aspect. (Be certain to clarify the definitions of RACI to avoid ambiguity.)
  • Consider changes and update accordingly. After the meeting, send out the notes documenting acceptance or updates to the RACI. In addition to sending out the notes, request any corrections within a reasonable yet defined timeframe. Clarify that if no changes are requested, each person is acknowledging their role and committing to the project tasks as outlined.
  • Stay in touch. Consider a quick review with the entire team each quarter or every six months for longer projects to ensure it remains up-to-date and not simply another document in the repository but a relied-upon artifact.

FAQ: What are RACI matrix best practices?

As you implement the raci matrix….

  • Encourage teamwork and foster collaboration whenever possible.
  • Don’t fear updates – make changes and adjustments as needed (but be sure to communicate those changes clearly to all parties).
  • Earlier is better. Roll out your matrix plan to the team BEFORE you plan to implement it for the best results. 
  • Have a clear-cut understanding of the project scope and how each role connects to the overall project goal.

For “Responsible” Parties:

  • Make sure your project’s definition of Responsible is clear on who holds the “decider” role for the project or project phase’s completion, and what the dimensions of that responsibility will be.
  • Ensure that all parties are aware of their role and responsibilities within the matrix.

For “Accountable” Parties: 

  • When multiple Accountable team members must exist, use your definitions to make clear which individual is accountable for a given project element, and how that individual needs to interact with other Accountable team members.
  • Ensure that there is only one “Accountable” party assigned per task.
  • Be sure that the Accountable party has the authority and power to oversee the task as the accountable party.

For Consulted and Informed Parties: 

  • Consulted parties are often high-level decision-makers with heavy schedules. Make sure you’re clear on their availability ahead of time.
  • Similar to Consulted parties, Informed parties are often less hands-on and have less understanding of day-to-day project operations. As the project goes on, make sure to keep detailed notes to keep the Informed party up-to-date on key information. 
  • Understand the ways that these parties like to communicate and create a plan to reach them early – whether that’s over phone calls, emails, video calls, or from within your project management system’s collaboration tools.
  • Knowing the difference between who needs to be consulted versus informed can be a challenge if there is ambiguity about project roles. Consider what aspects of the project different team members need to know to do their jobs, and then bake those into your definitions.

RACI Matrix Pros & Cons

  • Increased Engagement: RACI helps engage project participants in the project lifecycle. 
  • Enhanced Project Planning: Project managers make project planning more organized, efficient, and detailed.
  • Identifiable Improvement Opportunities: Areas of improvement are more easily identified.
  • Easier Collaboration: Use of a RACI matrix creates a clear path for leadership to sign off on project steps, as project documentation in the RACI model is heavily emphasized.
  • Better Communication: Improves overall group communication as a whole.
  • Group Accountability: Assists groups, especially larger project teams, stay connected and accountable to their roles and project goals
  • Limitations on Role Scope: The RACI model does not provide details on role scope, especially for responsible parties. These gaps in detail also affect other team roles, for example, another gap in a RACI is the determination of who is responsible for verifier and signatory.
  • Limits on Task Details and Scope: While a RACI matrix can provide an overview of who is responsible for different tasks, it will not state what needs to be done.
  • Not Aligned to the Agile Methodology: Project managers using an agile methodology like scrum may find it redundant since accountability, ownership, and ongoing communication is built into the scrum framework (i.e., product owner, scrum master, and daily standups with the team). Additionally, agile focuses on team-based delivery and accountability, while the RACI framework and alternatives focus on individual responsibility and autonomous accountability.

Read more: Top 10 Causes of Project Failure

Free RACI Matrix Templates

A number of project management software solutions include a native RACI matrix template. Here are just a few we’ve found:

Colorful RACI Chart Template

We love this template from Smartsheet because it’s colorful, thorough, and includes room for every party involved in the project. 

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Pastel Colored RACI Matrix Template

This template from the Academy to Innovate HR is a great choice for project managers who want to organize their team roles with an easy-on-the-eyes chart that evolves beyond the simple spreadsheet. 

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Simple RACI Chart from Clickup

These RACI templates from Clickup have enough variety to fit any of your project needs, but are simple enough for even beginner PMs to use.

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Detailed RACI Matrix Template

This template is a great starter template for anyone looking to explore RACI charts in their project management strategy. As an added bonus – it comes with the RACI definitions already built in!

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Excel-Based RACI Chart Template

Are you an Excel or Google Sheets user looking to take advantage of the RACI matrix? An Excel-formatted template from Project Management Docs can be just the solution for you. This template is a great template for users who want a chart that comes in a pre-formatted structure.

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Managing International Assignments

International assignment management is one of the hardest areas for HR professionals to master—and one of the most costly. The expense of a three-year international assignment can cost millions, yet many organizations fail to get it right. Despite their significant investments in international assignments, companies still report a 42 percent failure rate in these assignments. 1

With so much at risk, global organizations must invest in upfront and ongoing programs that will make international assignments successful. Selecting the right person, preparing the expatriate (expat) and the family, measuring the employee's performance from afar, and repatriating the individual at the end of an assignment require a well-planned, well-managed program. Knowing what to expect from start to finish as well as having some tools to work with can help minimize the risk.

Business Case

As more companies expand globally, they are also increasing international assignments and relying on expatriates to manage their global operations. According to KPMG's 2021 Global Assignment Policies and Practices Survey, all responding multinational organizations offered long-term assignments (typically one to five years), 88 percent offered short-term assignments (typically defined as less than 12 months), and 69 percent offered permanent transfer/indefinite length.

Managing tax and tax compliance, cost containment and managing exceptions remain the three principal challenges in long-term assignment management according to a 2020 Mercer report. 2

Identifying the Need for International Assignment

Typical reasons for an international assignment include the following:

  • Filling a need in an existing operation.
  • Transferring technology or knowledge to a worksite (or to a client's worksite).
  • Developing an individual's career through challenging tasks in an international setting.
  • Analyzing the market to see whether the company's products or services will attract clients and users.
  • Launching a new product or service.

The goal of the international assignment will determine the assignment's length and help identify potential candidates. See Structuring Expatriate Assignments and the Value of Secondment and Develop Future Leaders with Rotational Programs .

Selection Process

Determining the purpose and goals for an international assignment will help guide the selection process. A technical person may be best suited for transferring technology, whereas a sales executive may be most effective launching a new product or service.

Traditionally, organizations have relied on technical, job-related skills as the main criteria for selecting candidates for overseas assignments, but assessing global mindset is equally, if not more, important for successful assignments. This is especially true given that international assignments are increasingly key components of leadership and employee development.

To a great extent, the success of every expatriate in achieving the company's goals in the host country hinges on that person's ability to influence individuals, groups and organizations that have a different cultural perspective.

Interviews with senior executives from various industries, sponsored by the Worldwide ERC Foundation, reveal that in the compressed time frame of an international assignment, expatriates have little opportunity to learn as they go, so they must be prepared before they arrive. Therefore, employers must ensure that the screening process for potential expatriates includes an assessment of their global mindset.

The research points to three major attributes of successful expatriates:

  • Intellectual capital. Knowledge, skills, understanding and cognitive complexity.
  • Psychological capital. The ability to function successfully in the host country through internal acceptance of different cultures and a strong desire to learn from new experiences.
  • Social capital. The ability to build trusting relationships with local stakeholders, whether they are employees, supply chain partners or customers.

According to Global HR Consultant Caroline Kersten, it is generally understood that global leadership differs significantly from domestic leadership and that, as a result, expatriates need to be equipped with competencies that will help them succeed in an international environment. Commonly accepted global leadership competencies, for both male and female global leaders, include cultural awareness, open-mindedness and flexibility.

In particular, expatriates need to possess a number of vital characteristics to perform successfully on assignment. Among the necessary traits are the following:

  • Confidence and self-reliance: independence; perseverance; work ethic.
  • Flexibility and problem-solving skills: resilience; adaptability; ability to deal with ambiguity.
  • Tolerance and interpersonal skills: social sensitivity; observational capability; listening skills; communication skills.
  • Skill at handling and initiating change: personal drivers and anchors; willingness to take risks.

Trends in international assignment show an increase in the younger generation's interest and placement in global assignments. Experts also call for a need to increase female expatriates due to the expected leadership shortage and the value employers find in mixed gender leadership teams. See Viewpoint: How to Break Through the 'Mobility Ceiling' .

Employers can elicit relevant information on assignment successes and challenges by means of targeted interview questions with career expatriates, such as the following:

  • How many expatriate assignments have you completed?
  • What are the main reasons why you chose to accept your previous expatriate assignments?
  • What difficulties did you experience adjusting to previous international assignments? How did you overcome them?
  • On your last assignment, what factors made your adjustment to the new environment easier?
  • What experiences made interacting with the locals easier?
  • Please describe what success or failure means to you when referring to an expatriate assignment.
  • Was the success or failure of your assignments measured by your employers? If so, how did they measure it?
  • During your last international assignment, do you recall when you realized your situation was a success or a failure? How did you come to that determination?
  • Why do you wish to be assigned an international position?

Securing Visas

Once an individual is chosen for an assignment, the organization needs to move quickly to secure the necessary visas. Requirements and processing times vary by country. Employers should start by contacting the host country's consulate or embassy for information on visa requirements. See Websites of U.S. Embassies, Consulates, and Diplomatic Missions .

Following is a list of generic visa types that may be required depending on the nature of business to be conducted in a particular country:

  • A work permit authorizes paid employment in a country.
  • A work visa authorizes entry into a country to take up paid employment.
  • A dependent visa permits family members to accompany or join employees in the country of assignment.
  • A multiple-entry visa permits multiple entries into a country.

Preparing for the Assignment

An international assignment agreement that outlines the specifics of the assignment and documents agreement by the employer and the expatriate is necessary. Topics typically covered include:

  • Location of the assignment.
  • Length of the assignment, including renewal and trial periods, if offered.
  • Costs paid by the company (e.g., assignment preparation costs, moving costs for household goods, airfare, housing, school costs, transportation costs while in country, home country visits and security).
  • Base salary and any incentives or allowances offered.
  • Employee's responsibilities and goals.
  • Employment taxes.
  • Steps to take in the event the assignment is not working for either the employee or the employer.
  • Repatriation.
  • Safety and security measures (e.g., emergency evacuation procedures, hazards).

Expatriates may find the reality of foreign housing very different from expectations, particularly in host locations considered to be hardship assignments. Expats will find—depending on the degree of difficulty, hardship or danger—that housing options can range from spacious accommodations in a luxury apartment building to company compounds with dogs and armed guards. See Workers Deal with Affordable Housing Shortages in Dubai and Cairo .

Expats may also have to contend with more mundane housing challenges, such as shortages of suitable housing, faulty structures and unreliable utility services. Analyses of local conditions are available from a variety of sources. For example, Mercer produces Location Evaluation Reports, available for a fee, that evaluate levels of hardship for 14 factors, including housing, in more than 135 locations.

Although many employers acknowledge the necessity for thorough preparation, they often associate this element solely with the assignee, forgetting the other key parties involved in an assignment such as the employee's family, work team and manager.

The expatriate

Consider these points in relation to the assignee:

  • Does the employee have a solid grasp of the job to be done and the goals established for that position?
  • Does the employee understand the compensation and benefits package?
  • Has the employee had access to cultural training and language instruction, no matter how similar the host culture may be?
  • Is the employee receiving relocation assistance in connection with the physical move?
  • Is there a contact person to whom the employee can go not only in an emergency but also to avoid becoming "out of sight, out of mind"?
  • If necessary to accomplish the assigned job duties, has the employee undergone training to get up to speed?
  • Has the assignee undergone an assessment of readiness?

To help the expatriate succeed, organizations are advised to invest in cross-cultural training before the relocation. The benefits of receiving such training are that it: 3

  • Prepares the individual/family mentally for the move.
  • Removes some of the unknown.
  • Increases self-awareness and cross-cultural understanding.
  • Provides the opportunity to address questions and anxieties in a supportive environment.
  • Motivates and excites.
  • Reduces stress and provides coping strategies.
  • Eases the settling-in process.
  • Reduces the chances of relocation failure.

See Helping Expatriate Employees Deal with Culture Shock .

As society has shifted from single- to dual-income households, the priorities of potential expatriates have evolved, as have the policies organizations use to entice employees to assignment locations. In the past, from the candidate's point of view, compensation was the most significant component of the expatriate package. Today more emphasis is on enabling an expatriate's spouse to work. Partner dissatisfaction is a significant contributor to assignment failure. See UAE: Expat Husbands Get New Work Opportunities .

When it comes to international relocation, most organizations deal with children as an afterthought. Factoring employees' children into the relocation equation is key to a successful assignment. Studies show that transferee children who have a difficult time adjusting to the assignment contribute to early returns and unsuccessful completion of international assignments, just as maladjusted spouses do. From school selection to training to repatriation, HR can do a number of things to smooth the transition for children.

Both partners and children must be prepared for relocation abroad. Employers should consider the following:

  • Have they been included in discussions about the host location and what they can expect? Foreign context and culture may be more difficult for accompanying family because they will not be participating in the "more secure" environment of the worksite. Does the family have suitable personal characteristics to successfully address the rigors of an international life?
  • In addition to dual-career issues, other common concerns include aging parents left behind in the home country and special needs for a child's education. Has the company allowed a forum for the family to discuss these concerns?

The work team

Whether the new expatriate will supervise the existing work team, be a peer, replace a local national or fill a newly created position, has the existing work team been briefed? Plans for a formal introduction of the new expatriate should reflect local culture and may require more research and planning as well as input from the local work team.

The manager/team leader

Questions organization need to consider include the following: Does the manager have the employee's file on hand (e.g., regarding increases, performance evaluations, promotions and problems)? Have the manager and employee engaged in in-depth conversations about the job, the manager's expectations and the employee's expectations?

Mentors play an important role in enhancing a high-performing employee's productivity and in guiding his or her career. In a traditional mentoring relationship, a junior executive has ongoing face-to-face meetings with a senior executive at the corporation to learn the ropes, set goals and gain advice on how to better perform his or her job.

Before technological advances, mentoring programs were limited to those leaders who had the time and experience within the organization's walls to impart advice to a few select people worth that investment. Technology has eliminated those constraints. Today, maintaining a long-distance mentoring relationship through e-mail, telephone and videoconferencing is much easier. And that technology means an employer is not confined to its corporate halls when considering mentor-mentee matches.

The organization

If the company is starting to send more employees abroad, it has to reassess its administrative capabilities. Can existing systems handle complicated tasks, such as currency exchanges and split payrolls, not to mention the additional financial burden of paying allowances, incentives and so on? Often, international assignment leads to outsourcing for global expertise. Payroll, tax, employment law, contractual obligations, among others, warrant an investment in sound professional advice.

Employment Laws

Four major U.S. employment laws have some application abroad for U.S. citizens working in U.S.-based multinationals:

  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act.
  • The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA).
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
  • The Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA).

Title VII, the ADEA and the ADA are the more far-reaching among these, covering all U.S. citizens who are either:

  • Employed outside the United States by a U.S. firm.
  • Employed outside the United States by a company under the control of a U.S. firm.

USERRA's extraterritoriality applies to veterans and reservists working overseas for the federal government or a firm under U.S. control. See Do laws like the Fair Labor Standards Act and the Family and Medical Leave Act apply to U.S. citizens working in several other countries?

Employers must also be certain to comply with both local employment law in the countries in which they manage assignments and requirements for corporate presence in those countries. See Where can I find international employment law and culture information?

Compensation

Companies take one of the following approaches to establish base salaries for expatriates:

  • The home-country-based approach. The objective of a home-based compensation program is to equalize the employee to a standard of living enjoyed in his or her home country. Under this commonly used approach, the employee's base salary is broken down into four general categories: taxes, housing, goods and services, and discretionary income.
  • The host-country-based approach. With this approach, the expatriate employee's compensation is based on local national rates. Many companies continue to cover the employee in its defined contribution or defined benefit pension schemes and provide housing allowances.
  • The headquarters-based approach. This approach assumes that all assignees, regardless of location, are in one country (i.e., a U.S. company pays all assignees a U.S.-based salary, regardless of geography).
  • Balance sheet approach. In this scenario, the compensation is calculated using the home-country-based approach with all allowances, deductions and reimbursements. After the net salary has been determined, it is then converted to the host country's currency. Since one of the primary goals of an international compensation management program is to maintain the expatriate's current standard of living, developing an equitable and functional compensation plan that combines balance and flexibility is extremely challenging for multinational companies. To this end, many companies adopt a balance sheet approach. This approach guarantees that employees in international assignments maintain the same standard of living they enjoyed in their home country. A worksheet lists the costs of major expenses in the home and host countries, and any differences are used to increase or decrease the compensation to keep it in balance.

Some companies also allow expatriates to split payment of their salaries between the host country's and the home country's currencies. The expatriate receives money in the host country's currency for expenses but keeps a percentage of it in the home country currency to safeguard against wild currency fluctuations in either country.

As for handling expatriates taxes, organizations usually take one of four approaches:

  • The employee is responsible for his or her own taxes.
  • The employer determines tax reimbursement on a case-by-case basis.
  • The employer pays the difference between taxes paid in the United States and the host country.
  • The employer withholds U.S. taxes and pays foreign taxes.

To prevent an expatriate employee from suffering excess taxation of income by both the U.S. and host countries, many multinational companies implement either a tax equalization or a tax reduction policy for employees on international assignments. Additionally, the United States has entered into  bilateral international social security agreements  with numerous countries, referred to as "totalization agreements," which allow for an exemption of the social security tax in either the home or host country for defined periods of time.

A more thorough discussion of compensation and tax practices for employees on international assignment can be found in SHRM's Designing Global Compensation Systems toolkit.

How do we handle taxes for expatriates?

Can employers pay employees in other countries on the corporate home-country payroll?

Measuring Expatriates' Performance

Failed international assignments can be extremely costly to an organization. There is no universal approach to measuring an expatriate's performance given that specifics related to the job, country, culture and other variables will need to be considered. Employers must identify and communicate clear job expectations and performance indicators very early on in the assignment. A consistent and detailed assessment of an expatriate employee's performance, as well as appraisal of the operation as a whole, is critical to the success of an international assignment. Issues such as the criteria for and timing of performance reviews, raises and bonuses should be discussed and agreed on before the employees are selected and placed on international assignments.

Employees on foreign assignments face a number of issues that domestic employees do not. According to a 2020 Mercer report 4 , difficulty adjusting to the host country, poor candidate selection and spouse or partner's unhappiness are the top three reasons international assignments fail. Obviously, retention of international assignees poses a significant challenge to employers.

Upon completion of an international assignment, retaining the employee in the home country workplace is also challenging. Unfortunately, many employers fail to track retention data of repatriated employees and could benefit from collecting this information and making adjustments to reduce the turnover of employees returning to their home country.

Safety and Security

When faced with accident, injury, sudden illness, a disease outbreak or politically unstable conditions in which personal safety is at risk, expatriate employees and their dependents may require evacuation to the home country or to a third location. To be prepared, HR should have an evacuation plan in place that the expatriate can share with friends, extended family and colleagues both at home and abroad. See Viewpoint: Optimizing Global Mobility's Emergency Response Plans .

Many companies ban travel outside the country in the following circumstances:

  • When a travel advisory is issued by the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, International SOS or a government agency.
  • When a widespread outbreak of a specific disease occurs or if the risk is deemed too high for employees and their well-being is in jeopardy.
  • If the country is undergoing civil unrest or war or if an act of terrorism has occurred.
  • If local management makes the decision.
  • If the employee makes the decision.

Once employees are in place, the decision to evacuate assignees and dependents from a host location is contingent on local conditions and input from either internal sources (local managers, headquarters staff, HR and the assignee) or external sources (an external security or medical firm) or both. In some cases, each host country has its own set of evacuation procedures.

Decision-makers should consider all available and credible advice and initially transport dependents and nonessential personnel out of the host country by the most expeditious form of travel.

Navigating International Crises

How can an organization ensure the safety and security of expatriates and other employees in high-risk areas?

The Disaster Assistance Improvement Program (DAIP)

Repatriation

Ideally, the repatriation process begins before the expatriate leaves his or her home country and continues throughout the international assignment by addressing the following issues.

Career planning. Many managers are responsible for resolving difficult problems abroad and expect that a well-done job will result in promotion on return, regardless of whether the employer had made such a promise. This possibly unfounded assumption can be avoided by straightforward career planning that should occur in advance of the employee's accepting the international assignment. Employees need to know what impact the expatriate assignment will have on their overall advancement in the home office and that the international assignment fits in their career path.

Mentoring. The expatriate should be assigned a home-office mentor. Mentors are responsible for keeping expatriates informed on developments within the company, for keeping the expatriates' names in circulation in the office (to help avoid the out-of-sight, out-of-mind phenomenon) and for seeing to it that expatriates are included in important meetings. Mentors can also assist the expatriate in identifying how the overseas experience can best be used on return. Optimum results are achieved when the mentor role is part of the mentor's formal job duties.

Communication. An effective global communication plan will help expatriates feel connected to the home office and will alert them to changes that occur while they are away. The Internet, e-mail and intranets are inexpensive and easy ways to bring expatriates into the loop and virtual meeting software is readily available for all employers to engage with global employees. In addition, organizations should encourage home-office employees to keep in touch with peers on overseas assignments. Employee newsletters that feature global news and expatriate assignments are also encouraged.

Home visits. Most companies provide expatriates with trips home. Although such trips are intended primarily for personal visits, scheduling time for the expatriate to visit the home office is an effective method of increasing the expatriate's visibility. Having expatriates attend a few important meetings or make a presentation on their international assignment is also a good way to keep them informed and connected.

Preparation to return home. The expatriate should receive plenty of advance notice (some experts recommend up to one year) of when the international assignment will end. This notice will allow the employee time to prepare the family and to prepare for a new position in the home office. Once the employee is notified of the assignment's end, the HR department should begin working with the expatriate to identify suitable positions in the home office. The expatriate should provide the HR department with an updated resume that reflects the duties of the overseas assignment. The employee's overall career plan should be included in discussions with the HR professional.

Interviews. In addition to home leave, organizations may need to provide trips for the employee to interview with prospective managers. The face-to-face interview will allow the expatriate to elaborate on skills and responsibilities obtained while overseas and will help the prospective manager determine if the employee is a good fit. Finding the right position for the expatriate is crucial to retaining the employee. Repatriates who feel that their new skills and knowledge are underutilized may grow frustrated and leave the employer.

Ongoing recognition of contributions. An employer can recognize and appreciate the repatriates' efforts in several ways, including the following:

  • Hosting a reception for repatriates to help them reconnect and meet new personnel.
  • Soliciting repatriates' help in preparing other employees for expatriation.
  • Asking repatriates to deliver a presentation or prepare a report on their overseas assignment.
  • Including repatriates on a global task force and asking them for a global perspective on business issues.

Measuring ROI on expatriate assignments can be cumbersome and imprecise. The investment costs of international assignments can vary dramatically and can be difficult to determine. The largest expatriate costs include overall remuneration, housing, cost-of-living allowances (which sometimes include private schooling costs for children) and physical relocation (the movement to the host country of the employee, the employee's possessions and, often, the employee's family).

But wide variations exist in housing expenses. For example, housing costs are sky-high in Tokyo and London, whereas Australia's housing costs are moderate. Another significant cost of expatriate assignments involves smoothing out differences in pay and benefits between one country and another. Such cost differences can be steep and can vary based on factors such as exchange rates (which can be quite volatile) and international tax concerns (which can be extremely complex).

Once an organization has determined the costs of a particular assignment, the second part of the ROI challenge is calculating the return. Although it is relatively straightforward to quantify the value of fixing a production line in Puerto Rico or of implementing an enterprise software application in Asia, the challenge of quantifying the value of providing future executives with cross-cultural perspectives and international leadership experience can be intimidating.

Once an organization determines the key drivers of its expatriate program, HR can begin to define objectives and assess return that can be useful in guiding employees and in making decisions about the costs they incur as expatriates. Different objectives require different levels and lengths of tracking. Leadership development involves a much longer-term value proposition and should include a thorough repatriation plan. By contrast, the ROI of an international assignment that plugs a skills gap is not negatively affected if the expatriate bolts after successfully completing the engagement.

Additional Resources

International Assignment Management: Expatriate Policy and Procedure

Introduction to the Global Human Resources Discipline

1Mulkeen, D. (2017, February 20). How to reduce the risk of international assignment failure. Communicaid. Retrieved from https://www.communicaid.com/cross-cultural-training/blog/reducing-risk-international-assignment-failure/

2Mercer. (2020). Worldwide Survey of International Assignment Policies and Practices. Retrieved from https://mobilityexchange.mercer.com/international-assignments-survey .

3Dickmann, M., & Baruch, Y. (2011). Global careers. New York: Routledge.

4Mercer. (2020). Worldwide Survey of International Assignment Policies and Practices. Retrieved from https://mobilityexchange.mercer.com/international-assignments-survey

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Management : meaning, characteristics, objectives, and importance.

  • Difference between Efficiency and Effectiveness
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  • Functions of Management - Planning, Organising, Staffing, Directing and Controlling
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Chapter 2: Principles of Management

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Chapter 4: Planning

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  • Organising : Meaning, Importance and Process
  • Types of Organisation Structure
  • Difference between Functional Structure and Divisional Structure
  • Formal and Informal Organisation
  • Difference between Formal and Informal Organisation
  • Elements and Importance of Delegation
  • Difference between Authority, Responsibility and Accountability
  • Centralization and Decentralization
  • Difference between Centralization and Decentralization
  • Difference between Delegation and Decentralization

Chapter 6: Staffing

  • Staffing : Meaning, Definition, Features and Importance
  • Staffing and Human Resource Management
  • Staffing Process
  • Sources of Recruitment (Internal and External: Meaning, Merits and Demerits)
  • Difference between Internal Recruitment and External Recruitment
  • Steps in Selection Process
  • Difference between Recruitment and Selection
  • Importance of Training and Development to Organisation and Employees
  • Methods of Training: On-the-Job Methods and Off-the-Job Methods
  • Difference between On-the-Job Training Methods and Off-the-Job Training Methods
  • Difference between Training and Development
  • Difference between Training, Development and Education

Chapter 7: Directing

  • Directing: Meaning, Characteristics and Importance
  • Principles and Elements of Directing
  • Importance of Supervision
  • Features and Importance of Motivation
  • Process of Motivation
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
  • Financial and Non-Financial Incentives
  • Difference between Financial and Non-financial Incentives
  • Features and Importance of Leadership
  • Types of Leadership Styles
  • 10 Qualities of a Good Leader
  • Which is more effective Push or Pull marketing ?
  • Communication: Meaning, Definition, Features and Importance
  • Elements of Communication Process
  • Communication Channels | Formal and Informal
  • Formal Communication: Meaning, Types, Merits and Demerits
  • Informal Communication: Meaning, Networks, Merits and Demerits
  • Barriers to Effective Communication
  • Measures to improve Communication Effectiveness

Chapter 8: Controlling

  • Controlling: Nature, Importance, and Limitations
  • Relationship between Planning and Controlling
  • Process of Controlling

Chapter 9: Financial Management

  • Role and Objectives of Financial Management
  • Types of Financial Decisions
  • Investment Decision: Meaning and Factors affecting Investment Decision
  • Financing Decision: Meaning and Factors affecting Financing Decision
  • Dividend Decision: Meaning and Factors affecting Dividend Decision
  • Financial Planning: Objectives and Importance
  • What is Capital Structure?
  • Factors affecting the choice of Capital Structure
  • What is Fixed Capital and Working Capital?
  • Factors Affecting the Fixed Capital
  • Factors Affecting the Working Capital

Chapter 10: Financial Markets

  • Financial Market : Meaning, Functions, and Classification
  • Instruments of Money Market
  • What is Capital Market?
  • Difference between Money Market and Capital Market
  • What are the different Methods of Floatation of Securities in Primary Market?
  • Difference between Primary Market and Secondary Market
  • What is Stock Exchange?
  • Trading Procedure on a Stock Exchange
  • Basic Stock Market Terms | Common Terms in Stock Exchange
  • Depository System: Meaning, Services and Constituents
  • Demat Account: Types, Importance & How to Open
  • What is National Stock Exchange of India (NSEI)?
  • What is Over the Counter Exchange of India (OTCEI)?
  • Difference between NSEI and OTCEI
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI): Objectives and Functions

Chapter 11: Marketing

  • Marketing: Features and Functions
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Commercial Paper
  • Marketing Management Philosophies
  • Elements of Marketing Mix : 4Ps
  • What is Product Mix?
  • Classification of Products
  • Difference between Convenience Products, Shopping Products and Speciality Products
  • Difference between Consumer Products and Industrial Products
  • What is Branding?
  • Packaging: Levels, Importance and Functions
  • What is Labelling?
  • Price Mix: Meaning and Factors Affecting Price Determination
  • What is Place/Physical Distribution Mix?
  • Types of Distribution Channels
  • Factors Determining Choice of Channels of Distribution
  • Components of Physical Distribution
  • What is Promotion Mix?
  • Advertising : Features, Merits and Demerits
  • Objections to Advertising
  • Personal Selling: Features, Merits and Role
  • Qualities of a Good Salesman
  • Difference between Advertising and Personal Selling
  • Sales Promotion: Merits, Demerits and Activities/ Techniques
  • Public Relations (PR) : Meaning, Importance, Roles and Tools

Chapter 12: Consumer Protection

  • Consumer Protection: Meaning, Importance and Means
  • Consumer Rights and Responsibilities
  • Who is a Consumer?
  • Consumer Protection Act 1986 v/s Consumer Protection Act 2019
  • Redressal Agencies under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019
  • Remedies available to Consumers under Consumer Protection Act 2019

What is Management?

A universal concept that is needed in every organisation whether it is a business organisation or a non-business organisation such as hospital school, etc., is known as Management. An organisation’s success depends on the successful functioning of its management and is always required whenever human and non-human resources of an organisation work together for the accomplishment of any objective. In present times, with an increase in the size and complexities of modern organisations. the concept of management has gained immense importance. 

The definition of Management varies with the context in which it is used. In a broader sense, Management can be defined as per Traditional Approach and Modern Approach.

Traditional Definitions of Management “Management consists of getting things done through others. A manager is one who accomplishes objectives by directing efforts of others.” – C.S. George “Management is the art of getting things done through others.” – Follett

The traditional definitions of Management were vague as they were unable to identify the functions, a manager has to perform to get things done through others. Besides, these definitions gave an impression of the manipulative practice of management and ignored the needs of workers and treated them as a means for getting results in any way. 

Modern Definitions of Management “Management is the creation of an internal environment where individuals working in a group can perform effectively and efficiently for the achievement of organisational goals.” – Koontz and Donnell “Management is defined as the process of planning, organising, actuating, and controlling of an organisation’s operations in order to achieve coordination of the human and material resources essential in the effective and efficient attainment of objectives.” – Trewelly and Newport “Management is the process of working with and through others to effectively achieve organisational objectives by efficiently using limited resources in the changing environment.” – Kreitner

Table of Content

Modern Concept of Management

Characteristics of management, objectives of management, importance of management.

Management is a process through which an organisation designs and maintains an environment in which individuals work together with the motive of achieving organisational goals effectively and efficiently. The three essential elements that come under the modern concept of Management are as follows:

1. Management is a ‘Process’: Management involves a series of int-related functions like planning, organising, staffing, directing, and controlling, which makes it a process. Every manager performs these functions to achieve goals.

2. Management requires Effective Performance: Effectiveness in Management means achieving goals on time. In simple terms, it aims at end result. For example, if an organisation achieves its sales target within time, it is said to be effective. 

3. Management needs Efficiency: Efficiency in Management means doing tasks correctly and with minimum cost. It is not enough to just complete the task on time, it should be accurate also. Besides, management also aims at using its resources efficiently as it reduces the cost of the firm ultimately resulting in higher profits. 

 Management

1. Continuous Process: Management is a continuous process. It means that the process of business management goes on until the company exists, as it helps in achieving the organisational goals. Every manager of an organisation has to perform the different functions of management in a series ( planning, organising, staffing, directing, and controlling ).

2. Goal-oriented: Every organisation has a set of predetermined goals or objectives that it aims to accomplish during its existence. Every organisation has different goals. Hence, management helps these organisations in fulfilling their goals by utilising the given limited resources in the best optimum manner. For example, If the objective of Airtel is to add a billion Airtel Xtreme customers in a year, then all of its managerial activities will be directed toward the achievement of this objective.

3. All Pervasive: The process of business management is universal in nature. Every organisation, whether small scale, large scale, economic, social, etc., uses the process of management at every level or stage. Besides, the activities involved in the management of an organisation are common for all whether it is a social, political, or economic enterprise. 

4. Multidimensional: Management is a multidimensional process as it does not involve only one activity. The three main activities involved in management are Management of Work, Management of People, and Management of Operations.

  • Management of Work: Every organisation is set up to perform some work or goal, and the management aims at achieving these goals or tasks. The work of an organisation depends upon the nature of Business; for example, work to be fulfilled in a hospital is treating patients, in a university is educating students, etc. 
  • Management of People: People are the most essential assets of an organisation and refer to human resources. It is the duty of the management to get the work completed through human resources/people by making their strengths effective and weaknesses irrelevant. Managing people have two dimensions; viz., Taking care of a group of people and Taking care of employees’ individual needs.
  • Management of Operations: Operations are the activities of an organisation’s production cycle, like purchasing inputs, converting them into semi-finished goods, and finished goods. Simply put, Management of operations consists of a mix of Management of Work and Management of People, and decides what work has to be done, how it has to be done, and who will do it. 

5. Dynamic Function: There are different internal and external factors that affect the working of an organisation. An organisation has to change and adapt itself on the basis of changing environment to accomplish the organisational goals and objectives. Hence, management is a dynamic function.

6. Management is a Group Activity: Management involves a group of people performing managerial activities. The functions of management can be executed only when every individual performs his/her role their respective status and department. And as the result of management affects every individual and every department of an organisation, it always refers to a group effort. 

7. Management is an Intangible Force: Management is a function that cannot be physically seen but its presence can be felt by watching the orderliness and coordination in work environment and happy faces of the employees when the task is completed. 

Coordination is the essence of management. It helps in synchronizing the different activities of all departments and functions of management. The managers at each level of the organisation have to ensure proper coordination for better results and accomplishment of organisational goals. 

1. Social Objectives: These refer to the objectives which are desired to be achieved for the benefit of society. Every organisation has a social responsibility to fulfill during its existence. Some of the social obligations of an organisation include implementing environment friendly practices in the production process, providing basic amenities to employees such as healthcare, education, etc., and providing the unprivileged sections of society with employment opportunities.

2. Organisational Objectives: With the help of management, every organisation sets and achieves organisational goals. The three major organisational objectives are survival, profit, and growth. 

  • Survival: One of the basic objectives of every organisation is survival. It does so by making positive decisions for the organisation with the help of the business management process.
  • Profit: Survival is not enough for an organisation; it has to earn profits to grow and expand in the future. Hence, every organisation has to ensure its profit so that it can cover its costs and risks.
  • Growth: Besides earning a profit, an organisation has to grow in order to remain in the industry. For this purpose, the management of an organisation has to exploit its resources effectively and efficiently.

3. Personal or Individual Objectives: As discussed earlier, people are the main asset of an organisation having different goals, backgrounds and personalities. It is the duty of the managers to ensure that the personnel objectives are aligned with the organisational objectives. Individual or Personal Objectives of an organisation consist of satisfying needs like Social Needs, Financial Needs, Good and Healthy Working Conditions, and Higher Level Needs. 

1. Increases Efficiency: The management process of an organisation increases its efficiency by reducing cost and increasing productivity by utilisation of the available resources in the best possible and optimum way.

2. Helps in Achieving Group Goals: Effective management process creates teamwork and builds coordination among the members of an organisation. The managers provide a common path or direction to their employees for the accomplishment of the overall objectives of the organisation.

3. Creates a Dynamic Organisation: Every organisation works in a changing environment. The managers of an organisation have to help their members adapt to the changing environment, which ultimately helps them ensure the survival and growth of the organisation. Besides, the management convinces the employees that the changes brought in the organisation will benefit their future prospects. 

4. Development of Society: Every organisation has various objectives toward different groups of society. Along with the development of the organisation, its management has to develop the society too. To do so, the management helps the organisation produce good quality products, adopt new technologies, and provide employment opportunities to the weaker sections of society. 

5. Helps in Achieving Personal Objectives: Every individual or employee of an organisation has different objectives or goals they wish to accomplish while doing their jobs. Management helps these employees in fulfilling their personal objectives along with the organisational objectives.

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Assignment Method: Examples of How Resources Are Allocated

what is assignment management

What Is the Assignment Method?

The assignment method is a way of allocating organizational resources in which each resource is assigned to a particular task. The resource could be monetary, personnel , or technological.

Understanding the Assignment Method

The assignment method is used to determine what resources are assigned to which department, machine, or center of operation in the production process. The goal is to assign resources in such a way to enhance production efficiency, control costs, and maximize profits.

The assignment method has various applications in maximizing resources, including:

  • Allocating the proper number of employees to a machine or task
  • Allocating a machine or a manufacturing plant and the number of jobs that a given machine or factory can produce
  • Assigning a number of salespersons to a given territory or territories
  • Assigning new computers, laptops, and other expensive high-tech devices to the areas that need them the most while lower priority departments would get the older models

Companies can make budgeting decisions using the assignment method since it can help determine the amount of capital or money needed for each area of the company. Allocating money or resources can be done by analyzing the past performance of an employee, project, or department to determine the most efficient approach.

Regardless of the resource being allocated or the task to be accomplished, the goal is to assign resources to maximize the profit produced by the task or project.

Example of Assignment Method

A bank is allocating its sales force to grow its mortgage lending business. The bank has over 50 branches in New York but only ten in Chicago. Each branch has a staff that is used to bring in new clients.

The bank's management team decides to perform an analysis using the assignment method to determine where their newly-hired salespeople should be allocated. Given the past performance results in the Chicago area, the bank has produced fewer new clients than in New York. The fewer new clients are the result of having a small market presence in Chicago.

As a result, the management decides to allocate the new hires to the New York region, where it has a greater market share to maximize new client growth and, ultimately, revenue.

what is assignment management

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1.4: Assignment- Primary Functions of Management

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Preparation

Our text describes the four important and dynamic primary functions of management as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. In this assignment you will identify, describe, and differentiate the four functions. The following steps will help you prepare for your written assignment:

  • Carefully consider the four primary functions of management in the context of a business you know. This could be your workplace, Nokia or ThyssenKrupp introduced to you earlier, or another selected business you are familiar with.
  • Select one of the four functions of management that your reading and consideration leads you to believe is the most important. If you believe no single function stands out, then you may select the interoperability of all four.

Write a three-paragraph essay describing your chosen function, and why you rank its importance so highly. Your essay must include three properly referenced and defined terms from the module reading. For example, if you select Controlling, you could include the definition of feedback loop . Answer and address these questions:

  • What is the primary function you selected?
  • How does it interact with the other functions?
  • What would happen to “management” without your selected function?
  • What factors cause you to rank its importance above the others?

In addition to the text, you are encouraged to research your topic using reliable and properly cited Internet resources.

Contributors and Attributions

  • Assignment: Primary Functions of Management. Authored by : Betty Fitte and Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution

Faculty Resources

Assignments.

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The assignments in this course are openly licensed, and are available as-is, or can be modified to suit your students’ needs. Selected answer keys are available to faculty who adopt Waymaker, OHM, or Candela courses with paid support from Lumen Learning. This approach helps us protect the academic integrity of these materials by ensuring they are shared only with authorized and institution-affiliated faculty and staff.

If you import this course into your learning management system (Blackboard, Canvas, etc.), the assignments will automatically be loaded into the assignment tool.

Half of the written assignments are based on a fictional business called “Sun City Boards.” The business is initially profiled in the Why It Matters and Putting It Together sections of the Planning and Mission module. Additional information about the business appears in the Scenario and Preparation sections of each assignment. While these assignments work well together as a common framework for applying knowledge and skills developed through the course, it is not required to use all of the Sun City Boards assignments. Each assignment can stand on its own with the background information provided in previous assignments.

The other written assignments and discussions use a variety of approaches, depending on the subject and learning outcome being assessed; many ask students to go beyond course content to form connections between research topics and what they’ve learned in class. We recommend assigning  one discussion OR one assignment per chapter , rather than all of them.

You can view them below or throughout the course.

*This discussion invites conversation on race, which might require additional monitoring and involvement from instructors. This blog post from the Choices Program at Brown University contains links to helpful resources to facilitate talking about race in the classroom: “Approaching Race in the Classroom, Actively”

Rubrics for Written Assignments and Discussion Posts

For faculty using the assignments or discussions included here, there are also rubrics to assist you in grading. Instructors may download and modify these guidelines or use their own.

Grading Rubric for Discussion Posts

Written Assignment Rubric

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  • Pencil Cup. Authored by : IconfactoryTeam. Provided by : Noun Project. Located at : https://thenounproject.com/term/pencil-cup/628840/ . License : CC BY: Attribution

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what is assignment management

Microsoft 365 Life Hacks > Organization > What is resource management and why is it important?

What is resource management and why is it important?

When it comes to managing a project or an organization, it’s vital to keep track of all the tools, objectives, and moving parts that are involved. Learn about the significance of resource management and why it is so important for achieving long-term goals.

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How can resource management help your organization?

Resource management refers to the process of planning, allocating, and overseeing resources to achieve specific objectives. These resources can encompass a wide range of assets, including financial capital, human talent, time, technology, and physical infrastructure. The primary goal of resource management is to optimize the utilization of these assets to ensure that they are allocated efficiently to meet organizational goals and objectives.

Types of resource management

There are many types of resource management, and each type plays an important role in an organization. Here’s how each type works:

Financial resource management

Effective handling of financial resources is a key part of resource management. Organizations must carefully plan and allocate their budgets to cover operating expenses, investments, and unforeseen circumstances. By applying budgetary controls, organizations can prevent wasteful spending, enhance financial stability, and allocate funds strategically to areas that will yield the highest return on investment.

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Human resource management

The success of any organization is closely tied to the performance and well-being of its people. Human resource management involves recruiting, training, and retaining talented individuals while maintaining a positive work environment. Effective human resource management ensures that employees are well-equipped to perform their tasks, which in turn helps with reducing turnover rates and enhancing overall productivity.

Time management

Effective time management is important for organizational success. Planning and prioritizing tasks, setting realistic deadlines , and optimizing workflow processes are integral aspects of time management. When time is managed effectively, projects are completed in a timely manner to help reduce bottlenecks and increase efficiency. Time management can also help with preventing burnout among employees, as a well-balanced workload contributes to a healthier and more productive workforce.

Technological resource management

Efficient management of technological resources involves keeping up with the latest technological advancements, investing in the right tools, and ensuring that technology is aligned with organizational goals. This ensures that the organization remains competitive, adaptable to industry changes, and capable of leveraging technology for improved efficiency and innovation.

The benefits of implementing resource management

Proper resource management can lead to good results throughout your organization. Some potential benefits of resource management include the following:

  • Optimized efficiency: Resource management allows organizations to identify inefficiencies in their operations and streamline processes for improved productivity. Using a digital project management tool can increase efficiency and make it easier to share information on resources.
  • Cost reduction: Effective resource management leads to cost reduction by cutting down on wasteful spending and optimizing resource allocation. This, in turn, contributes to improved financial stability and sustainability.
  • Strategic planning: By aligning resource allocation with organizational goals, businesses can ensure that their efforts are directed towards achieving long-term success.
  • Risk mitigation: Careful resource management helps organizations anticipate and mitigate potential risks. Whether financial, human, or technological, having a good understanding of resource utilization enables risk management.
  • Competitive advantage: In a highly competitive business environment, effective resource management can provide a significant competitive advantage. Organizations that allocate resources strategically are better positioned to adapt to market changes and capitalize on emerging opportunities.

Keep your organization in check with resource management

Knowing how to manage your resources is a big part of organizational success. Effective management ensures that all assets are properly utilized to achieve long-term goals. Prioritizing resource management and other project management techniques in your organization is essential for sustainable growth, competitiveness, and overall success.

Looking for more ways to efficiently manage your team? Browse our organization tips to find more ideas for making sure things are running smoothly.

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  9. Assignment: Primary Functions of Management

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  18. What Is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)?

    What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) in project management? A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) in project management, also known as a RACI chart or RACI matrix, details all the necessary stakeholders and clarifies responsibilities amongst cross-functional teams and their involvement level in a project. RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed and each ...

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  22. Assignments

    Module 1: Introduction to Management. Assignment: Primary Functions of Management. Discussion: The Importance of "Why". Module 2: History of Management. Assignment: History of Management. Discussion: How the Past Influences the Present. Module 3: Planning and Mission. Assignment: Creating a Plan for Sun City Boards.

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