Study Design 101: Case Report

  • Case Report
  • Case Control Study
  • Cohort Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Practice Guideline
  • Systematic Review
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Helpful Formulas
  • Finding Specific Study Types
  • Case Reports

An article that describes and interprets an individual case, often written in the form of a detailed story. Case reports often describe:

  • Unique cases that cannot be explained by known diseases or syndromes
  • Cases that show an important variation of a disease or condition
  • Cases that show unexpected events that may yield new or useful information
  • Cases in which one patient has two or more unexpected diseases or disorders

Case reports are considered the lowest level of evidence, but they are also the first line of evidence, because they are where new issues and ideas emerge. This is why they form the base of our pyramid. A good case report will be clear about the importance of the observation being reported.

If multiple case reports show something similar, the next step might be a case-control study to determine if there is a relationship between the relevant variables.

  • Can help in the identification of new trends or diseases
  • Can help detect new drug side effects and potential uses (adverse or beneficial)
  • Educational - a way of sharing lessons learned
  • Identifies rare manifestations of a disease


  • Cases may not be generalizable
  • Not based on systematic studies
  • Causes or associations may have other explanations
  • Can be seen as emphasizing the bizarre or focusing on misleading elements

Design pitfalls to look out for

The patient should be described in detail, allowing others to identify patients with similar characteristics.

Does the case report provide information about the patient's age, sex, ethnicity, race, employment status, social situation, medical history, diagnosis, prognosis, previous treatments, past and current diagnostic test results, medications, psychological tests, clinical and functional assessments, and current intervention?

Case reports should include carefully recorded, unbiased observations.

Does the case report include measurements and/or recorded observations of the case? Does it show a bias?

Case reports should explore and infer, not confirm, deduce, or prove. They cannot demonstrate causality or argue for the adoption of a new treatment approach.

Does the case report present a hypothesis that can be confirmed by another type of study?

Fictitious Example

A physician treated a young and otherwise healthy patient who came to her office reporting numbness all over her body. The physician could not determine any reason for this numbness and had never seen anything like it. After taking an extensive history the physician discovered that the patient had recently been to the beach for a vacation and had used a very new type of spray sunscreen. The patient had stored the sunscreen in her cooler at the beach because she liked the feel of the cool spray in the hot sun. The physician suspected that the spray sunscreen had undergone a chemical reaction from the coldness which caused the numbness. She also suspected that because this is a new type of sunscreen other physicians may soon be seeing patients with this numbness.

The physician wrote up a case report describing how the numbness presented, how and why she concluded it was the spray sunscreen, and how she treated the patient. Later, when other doctors began seeing patients with this numbness, they found this case report helpful as a starting point in treating their patients.

Real-life Examples

Hymes KB. Cheung T. Greene JB. Prose NS. Marcus A. Ballard H. William DC. Laubenstein LJ. (1981). Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men-a report of eight cases. Lancet. 2 (8247),598-600.

This case report was published by eight physicians in New York city who had unexpectedly seen eight male patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Prior to this, KS was very rare in the U.S. and occurred primarily in the lower extremities of older patients. These cases were decades younger, had generalized KS, and a much lower rate of survival. This was before the discovery of HIV or the use of the term AIDS and this case report was one of the first published items about AIDS patients.

Wu, E. B., & Sung, J. J. Y. (2003). Haemorrhagic-fever-like changes and normal chest radiograph in a doctor with SARS. Lancet, 361 (9368), 1520-1521.

This case report is written by the patient, a physician who contracted SARS, and his colleague who treated him, during the 2003 outbreak of SARS in Hong Kong. They describe how the disease progressed in Dr. Wu and based on Dr. Wu's case, advised that a chest CT showed hidden pneumonic changes and facilitate a rapid diagnosis.

Related Terms

Case Series

A report about a small group of similar cases.

Preplanned Case-Observation

A case in which symptoms are elicited to study disease mechanisms. (Ex. Having a patient sleep in a lab to do brain imaging for a sleep disorder).

Now test yourself!

1. Case studies are not considered evidence-based even though the authors have studied the case in great depth.

2. When are Case reports most useful?

When you encounter common cases and need more information When new symptoms or outcomes are unidentified When developing practice guidelines When the population being studied is very large

Evidence Pyramid - Navigation

  • Meta- Analysis
  • << Previous: Welcome to Study Design 101
  • Next: Case Control Study >>

Creative Commons License

  • Last Updated: Sep 25, 2023 10:59 AM
  • URL:

GW logo

  • Himmelfarb Intranet
  • Privacy Notice
  • Terms of Use
  • GW is committed to digital accessibility. If you experience a barrier that affects your ability to access content on this page, let us know via the Accessibility Feedback Form .
  • Himmelfarb Health Sciences Library
  • 2300 Eye St., NW, Washington, DC 20037
  • Phone: (202) 994-2850
  • [email protected]
  • - Google Chrome

Intended for healthcare professionals

  • Access provided by Google Indexer
  • My email alerts
  • BMA member login
  • Username * Password * Forgot your log in details? Need to activate BMA Member Log In Log in via OpenAthens Log in via your institution


Search form

  • Advanced search
  • Search responses
  • Search blogs
  • Writing a case report...

Writing a case report in 10 steps

  • Related content
  • Peer review
  • Victoria Stokes , foundation year 2 doctor, trauma and orthopaedics, Basildon Hospital ,
  • Caroline Fertleman , paediatrics consultant, The Whittington Hospital NHS Trust
  • victoria.stokes1{at}

Victoria Stokes and Caroline Fertleman explain how to turn an interesting case or unusual presentation into an educational report

It is common practice in medicine that when we come across an interesting case with an unusual presentation or a surprise twist, we must tell the rest of the medical world. This is how we continue our lifelong learning and aid faster diagnosis and treatment for patients.

It usually falls to the junior to write up the case, so here are a few simple tips to get you started.

First steps

Begin by sitting down with your medical team to discuss the interesting aspects of the case and the learning points to highlight. Ideally, a registrar or middle grade will mentor you and give you guidance. Another junior doctor or medical student may also be keen to be involved. Allocate jobs to split the workload, set a deadline and work timeframe, and discuss the order in which the authors will be listed. All listed authors should contribute substantially, with the person doing most of the work put first and the guarantor (usually the most senior team member) at the end.

Getting consent

Gain permission and written consent to write up the case from the patient or parents, if your patient is a child, and keep a copy because you will need it later for submission to journals.

Information gathering

Gather all the information from the medical notes and the hospital’s electronic systems, including copies of blood results and imaging, as medical notes often disappear when the patient is discharged and are notoriously difficult to find again. Remember to anonymise the data according to your local hospital policy.

Write up the case emphasising the interesting points of the presentation, investigations leading to diagnosis, and management of the disease/pathology. Get input on the case from all members of the team, highlighting their involvement. Also include the prognosis of the patient, if known, as the reader will want to know the outcome.

Coming up with a title

Discuss a title with your supervisor and other members of the team, as this provides the focus for your article. The title should be concise and interesting but should also enable people to find it in medical literature search engines. Also think about how you will present your case study—for example, a poster presentation or scientific paper—and consider potential journals or conferences, as you may need to write in a particular style or format.

Background research

Research the disease/pathology that is the focus of your article and write a background paragraph or two, highlighting the relevance of your case report in relation to this. If you are struggling, seek the opinion of a specialist who may know of relevant articles or texts. Another good resource is your hospital library, where staff are often more than happy to help with literature searches.

How your case is different

Move on to explore how the case presented differently to the admitting team. Alternatively, if your report is focused on management, explore the difficulties the team came across and alternative options for treatment.

Finish by explaining why your case report adds to the medical literature and highlight any learning points.

Writing an abstract

The abstract should be no longer than 100-200 words and should highlight all your key points concisely. This can be harder than writing the full article and needs special care as it will be used to judge whether your case is accepted for presentation or publication.

Discuss with your supervisor or team about options for presenting or publishing your case report. At the very least, you should present your article locally within a departmental or team meeting or at a hospital grand round. Well done!

Competing interests: We have read and understood BMJ’s policy on declaration of interests and declare that we have no competing interests.

report writing in case study

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base


  • What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on June 22, 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case, other interesting articles.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

A faster, more affordable way to improve your paper

Scribbr’s new AI Proofreader checks your document and corrects spelling, grammar, and punctuation mistakes with near-human accuracy and the efficiency of AI!

report writing in case study

Proofread my paper

Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
  • Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for future research

TipIf your research is more practical in nature and aims to simultaneously investigate an issue as you solve it, consider conducting action research instead.

Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

Example of an outlying case studyIn the 1960s the town of Roseto, Pennsylvania was discovered to have extremely low rates of heart disease compared to the US average. It became an important case study for understanding previously neglected causes of heart disease.

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.

Example of a representative case studyIn the 1920s, two sociologists used Muncie, Indiana as a case study of a typical American city that supposedly exemplified the changing culture of the US at the time.

While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.

Example of a mixed methods case studyFor a case study of a wind farm development in a rural area, you could collect quantitative data on employment rates and business revenue, collect qualitative data on local people’s perceptions and experiences, and analyze local and national media coverage of the development.

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Degrees of freedom
  • Null hypothesis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Control groups
  • Mixed methods research
  • Non-probability sampling
  • Quantitative research
  • Ecological validity

Research bias

  • Rosenthal effect
  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Selection bias
  • Negativity bias
  • Status quo bias

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, June 22). What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods. Scribbr. Retrieved October 2, 2023, from

Is this article helpful?

Shona McCombes

Shona McCombes

Other students also liked, primary vs. secondary sources | difference & examples, what is a theoretical framework | guide to organizing, what is action research | definition & examples, what is your plagiarism score.

U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

The .gov means it’s official. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.

The site is secure. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

  • Publications
  • Account settings
  • Advanced Search
  • Journal List
  • Heart Views
  • v.18(3); Jul-Sep 2017

Guidelines To Writing A Clinical Case Report

What is a clinical case report.

A case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports usually describe an unusual or novel occurrence and as such, remain one of the cornerstones of medical progress and provide many new ideas in medicine. Some reports contain an extensive review of the relevant literature on the topic. The case report is a rapid short communication between busy clinicians who may not have time or resources to conduct large scale research.


The most common reasons for publishing a case are the following: 1) an unexpected association between diseases or symptoms; 2) an unexpected event in the course observing or treating a patient; 3) findings that shed new light on the possible pathogenesis of a disease or an adverse effect; 4) unique or rare features of a disease; 5) unique therapeutic approaches; variation of anatomical structures.

Most journals publish case reports that deal with one or more of the following:

  • Unusual observations
  • Adverse response to therapies
  • Unusual combination of conditions leading to confusion
  • Illustration of a new theory
  • Question regarding a current theory
  • Personal impact.


Different journals have slightly different formats for case reports. It is always a good idea to read some of the target jiurnals case reports to get a general idea of the sequence and format.

In general, all case reports include the following components: an abstract, an introduction, a case, and a discussion. Some journals might require literature review.

The abstract should summarize the case, the problem it addresses, and the message it conveys. Abstracts of case studies are usually very short, preferably not more than 150 words.


The introduction gives a brief overview of the problem that the case addresses, citing relevant literature where necessary. The introduction generally ends with a single sentence describing the patient and the basic condition that he or she is suffering from.

This section provides the details of the case in the following order:

  • Patient description
  • Case history
  • Physical examination results
  • Results of pathological tests and other investigations
  • Treatment plan
  • Expected outcome of the treatment plan
  • Actual outcome.

The author should ensure that all the relevant details are included and unnecessary ones excluded.

This is the most important part of the case report; the part that will convince the journal that the case is publication worthy. This section should start by expanding on what has been said in the introduction, focusing on why the case is noteworthy and the problem that it addresses.

This is followed by a summary of the existing literature on the topic. (If the journal specifies a separate section on literature review, it should be added before the Discussion). This part describes the existing theories and research findings on the key issue in the patient's condition. The review should narrow down to the source of confusion or the main challenge in the case.

Finally, the case report should be connected to the existing literature, mentioning the message that the case conveys. The author should explain whether this corroborates with or detracts from current beliefs about the problem and how this evidence can add value to future clinical practice.

A case report ends with a conclusion or with summary points, depending on the journal's specified format. This section should briefly give readers the key points covered in the case report. Here, the author can give suggestions and recommendations to clinicians, teachers, or researchers. Some journals do not want a separate section for the conclusion: it can then be the concluding paragraph of the Discussion section.

Notes on patient consent

Informed consent in an ethical requirement for most studies involving humans, so before you start writing your case report, take a written consent from the patient as all journals require that you provide it at the time of manuscript submission. In case the patient is a minor, parental consent is required. For adults who are unable to consent to investigation or treatment, consent of closest family members is required.

Patient anonymity is also an important requirement. Remember not to disclose any information that might reveal the identity of the patient. You need to be particularly careful with pictures, and ensure that pictures of the affected area do not reveal the identity of the patient.

  • Research design
  • Research data management
  • Research collaborations
  • Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) Guidelines
  • Fundamentals of manuscript preparation
  • Writing skills
  • Technical writing skills
  • Book writing
  • Fundamentals of publishing
  • Research metrics
  • Finding the right journal
  • Open science
  • How to publish in premium journals
  • Publishing in the Chemical Sciences
  • Certified Peer Reviewer Course
  • Fundamentals of peer review
  • Becoming a peer reviewer
  • Going through peer review
  • Social impact
  • Ensuring visibility
  • Inclusion and Diversity for Researchers
  • Career path

How to write case reports

About this video.

Case reports provide valuable information by throwing light on rare and unusual clinical presentations, symptoms or diseases. They show doctors how fellow practitioners have acted in similar situations and thus aid in the decision-making process by sharing best practices. 

The importance of case reports is resonated in the number of high-quality journals solely devoted to publishing case reports. However, the publication of the case reports is highly dependent on the contribution they make and their quality.

In this webinar, two editors of Medical Mycology Case Reports journal provide a guide to writing case reports and encourage you to summarize your clinical experiences while getting a publication in the process. You will come away with the knowledge of setting up and writing a case report, ethical issues to be considered before the publication and how to select an appropriate journal to publish your case report.

About the presenter


Prof. Oliver Kurzai, M.D, University of Würzburg, Germany, Editor in Chief, Medical Mycology Case Reports

Prof. Oliver Kurzai is Chair for Medical Microbiology and Mycology at the University of Würzburg. He holds an MD with a specialist recognition for microbiology, virology and infection epidemiology. His clinical focus is the diagnosis of fungal infections in the immuno-compromised host. Together with his team of scientists he addresses fundamental principles of invasive fungal infections with a focus on understanding the immunobiology of these infections and identifying new diagnostic targets. He is head of the German National Reference Center for Invasive Fungal Infections (NRZMyk) and serves as Editor in Chief of Medical Mycology Case Reports on behalf of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM).


Professor MRC Centre for Medical Mycology

Prof Warris is a paediatric infectious diseases specialist with a specific interest in medical mycology. She is co-director of the MRC Centre for Medical Mycology at the University of Aberdeen. Prof Warris’ research profile has a strong translational focus and specific areas of interest include the host-fungus interaction in specific patient groups, the development of new management strategies for invasive fungal disease, paediatric antifungal stewardship and the epidemiology of fungal infections in children. Prof Warris chairs the European Paediatric Mycology Network (EPMyN).

Systematic reviews

Systematic reviews 101

Data & methods

Make the most of your research: publish your data & methods

How to design effective figures for review articles

How to design effective figures for review articles

An editor’s guide to writing a review article

An editor’s guide to writing a review article

Why write a book?

Why write a book?

Starting your case: a seven point checklist for writing your case report, case reports webinar slides, get noticed - factsheet.


The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case report guideline development

  • Utility Menu

University Logo


school logo

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Case-Based Teaching & Learning Initiative

Teaching cases & active learning resources for public health education, writing a case.

An overview of the case planning and writing process, by experienced case-writer and CBTL workshop leader Kirsten Lundberg.

2019. The Case Centre . Visit website A non-profit clearing house for materials on the case method, the Case Centre holds a large and diverse collection of cases, articles, book chapters and teaching materials, including the collections of leading business schools across the globe.

Abell, D. , 1997. What makes a good case? . ECCHO–The Newsletter of the European Case Clearing House , 17 (1) , pp. 4-7. Read online "Case writing is both art and science. There are few, if any, specific prescriptions or recipes, but there are key ingredients that appear to distinguish excellent cases from the run-of-the-mill. This technical note lists ten ingredients to look for if you are teaching somebody else''s case - and to look out for if you are writing it yourself."

Roberts, M.J. , 2001. Developing a teaching case (abridged) , Harvard Business School Publishing. Publisher's Version A straightforward and comprehensive overview of how to write a teaching case, including sections on what makes a good case; sources for and types of cases; and steps in writing a case.

  • Writing a case (8)
  • Writing a teaching note (4)
  • Active learning (12)
  • Active listening (1)
  • Asking effective questions (5)
  • Assessing learning (1)
  • Engaging students (5)
  • Leading discussion (10)
  • Managing the classroom (4)
  • Planning a course (1)
  • Problem-based learning (1)
  • Teaching & learning with the case method (14)
  • Teaching inclusively (3)
  • Monash Online

Student Academic Success

  • 1:1 Consultation 1:1 Consultation
  • Study better Study better
  • Build digital capabilities Build digital capabilities
  • Understand assessments Understand assessments
  • Excel at writing Excel at writing
  • Enhance your thinking Enhance your thinking
  • Present confidently Present confidently
  • Collaborate with others Collaborate with others
  • Improve your academic English Improve your academic English
  • Maintain academic integrity Maintain academic integrity
  • Advance your graduate studies Advance your graduate studies
  • Workshops Workshops
  • Feedback studio Feedback studio
  • About us About us

It is the University’s expectation that only those who are well and not presenting with COVID-19 symptoms attend a Monash campus or location. View our latest updates .

  • Skip to content
  • Skip to navigation

Writing a case study

What is a case study.

A case study requires you to analyse a specific situation and discuss how its different elements relate to theory. The case can refer to a real-life or hypothetical event, organisation, individual or group of people and/or issue. Depending upon your assignment, you will be asked to develop solutions to problems or recommendations for future action.

Generally, a case study is either formatted as an essay or a report. If it is the latter, your assignment is often divided into sections with headings and subheadings to ensure easy access to key points of interest.

There are different approaches to case studies, so always check the specific instructions you have been given. There are two main types of case studies: descriptive and problem-solving .

Case study types accordion

Descriptive case studies.

  • ask you to explore a specific event or issue to identify the key facts, what happened and who was/is involved.
  • can be used to compare two instances of an event to illustrate how one is similar to the other.
  • generally does not include solutions or recommendations as its main purpose is to help the reader or stakeholder to gain greater insight into the different dimensions of the event, etc. and/or to make an informed decision about the event, etc.

For example:

  • In Nursing, you could be asked to select a medical clinic or hospital as your case study and then apply what you have studied in class about wound care approaches. You would then identify and apply the relevant theories of wound care management discussed in class to your case.

Problem-solving case studies

  • ask you to critically examine an issue related to a specific individual or group, and then recommend and justify solutions to the issue, integrating theory and practice.
  • In Business and Economics, you could be asked to describe a critical incident in the workplace. Your role as the manager is to apply your knowledge and skills of key intercultural communication concepts and theories in management to determine the causes of the conflict and propose relevant communication strategies to avoid and/or resolve it.

Tips for undertaking a problem-based case study View

Writing to your audience.

Your language expression should be persuasive and user-centred communication. To do this, you need to carefully research your audience, or your stakeholders . Your stakeholders are not only those people who will read your writing, but also people who will be impacted by any decisions or recommendations you choose to include. In other words, your audience may be varied with different needs and perspectives. This applies to both your case study as an assessment task and a report in your workplace.

Understanding your audience will help you to edit how you express your information, including tailoring your language expression, tone and style to meet the expectations of your stakeholders. For example, if your case study is written for the Minister of Health, then your tone will need to be formal, ensuring that any technical terms are clearly and concisely explained with concrete examples.

Questions to ask yourself:

  • Who will read my case study and why?
  • What are the stakeholders’ needs, preferences, expectations and goals?
  • How can I write clearly and concisely for this particular audience?
  • How will the stakeholders use my case study in their work?
  • What are the relevant technical terms and have I explained them in clear and concise language?

Writing up your case study

If your case study is in the form of a report, you can divide it into 8 main sections, as outlined below. However, these vary depending on discipline-specific requirements and assessment criteria.

1. Executive Summary/Synopsis

  • Introduce the topic area of the report.
  • Outline the purpose of the case study.
  • Outline the key issue(s) and finding(s) without the specific details.
  • Identify the theory used.
  • Summarise recommendations.

2. Introduction

  • Summarise the your task
  • Briefly outline the case to identify its significance.
  • State the report's aim(s).
  • Provide the organisation of the main ideas in the report.
  • Briefly describe the key problem and its significance (You usually do not need to provide details of findings or recommendations. However, it is best to first check your assessment task instructions.)

3. Findings

  • presenting the central issue(s) under analysis,
  • providing your reasoning for your choices such as supporting your findings with facts given in the case, the relevant theory and course concepts
  • highlighting any underlying problems.
  • Identify and justify your methodology and analytical tools.This might not be applicable to your assessment, so you will need to check your assessment instructions.

This section is often divided into sub-sections. Your headings and subheadings need to be ​​informative and concise as they act as a guide for the reader to the contents of that section.

4. Discussion

  • Summarise the major problem(s).
  • Identify alternative solutions to these major problem(s).
  • Briefly outline each alternative solution where necessary and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages.
  • Depending on your assessment criteria, you might need to refer to theory or professional practice here.

Note that as a case study is based on a specific situation, it is difficult to generalise your findings to other situations. Make sure that your discussion focuses on your case and what can be learnt from your specific case analysis for your stakeholders.

5. Conclusion

  • Restate the purpose of the report
  • Sum up the main points from the findings, discussion and recommendations.
  • Restate the limitations if required.

6. Recommendations

  • Choose which of the alternative solutions should be adopted.
  • Briefly justify your choice, explaining how it will solve the major problem/s.
  • Remember to integrate theory and practice as discussed in your unit with respect to the case.
  • If needed, suggest an action plan, including who should take action, when and what steps, and how to assess the action taken.
  • If appropriate include a rough estimate of costs (both financial and time).

This section is sometimes divided into Recommendations and Implementation with details of the action plan placed in the Implementation section.

Recommendations should be written in a persuasive, audience-centred style that communicates your suggestions clearly, concisely and precisely .

7. References

  • List in alphabetical order all the references cited in the report.
  • Make sure to accurately format your references according to the specified referencing style for your unit.

8. Appendices (if any)

  • Attach any original data that relates to your analysis and the case but which would have interrupted the flow of the main body.

Reference list

Ivančević-Otanjac, M., & Milojević, I. (2015). Writing a case report in English. Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo , 143 (1-2), 116-118.

Take it further

Buseco: report writing.

This resource is designed to assist you in completing a business report. It provides a guide to approaching and structuring your report and includes annotated examples with written feedback.

Engineering: Lab report

This resource expands on the general report structure and provides useful tips and examples on how to turn practical work and lab experiments into a written lab report.

Engineering: Technical report

This resource expands on the general report structure and provides useful tips and examples on how to write a report for key stakeholders, using experimental and practical data.

This resource provides information about what reports look like in IT, and how you might consider structuring your IT report. It includes student samples for each possible section of an IT report, along with video and written feedback.

MNHS: Health sciences case report

This resource provides a guide to approaching and structuring a patient-based case report. It includes an annotated example with written feedback.

MNHS: Comparative report

This resource is designed to assist you in completing your Comparative Report [CR] for Integrating Science and Practice [iSAP] assessment tasks. It provides a guide to approaching and structuring your report and includes an annotated example with written feedback.

MNHS: Psychology case report

This resource provides detailed guidance on the structure and content of the psychology case report, with numerous examples from the recommended reading.

Science: Lab report

Your feedback matters.

We want to hear from you! Let us know what you found most useful or share your suggestions for improving this resource.

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
  • Group Presentations
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • Types of Structured Group Activities
  • Group Project Survival Skills
  • Leading a Class Discussion
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Works
  • Writing a Case Analysis Paper
  • Writing a Case Study
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Reflective Paper
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • Acknowledgments

Definition and Introduction

Case analysis is a problem-based teaching and learning method that involves critically analyzing complex scenarios within an organizational setting for the purpose of placing the student in a “real world” situation and applying reflection and critical thinking skills to contemplate appropriate solutions, decisions, or recommended courses of action. It is considered a more effective teaching technique than in-class role playing or simulation activities. The analytical process is often guided by questions provided by the instructor that ask students to contemplate relationships between the facts and critical incidents described in the case.

Cases generally include both descriptive and statistical elements and rely on students applying abductive reasoning to develop and argue for preferred or best outcomes [i.e., case scenarios rarely have a single correct or perfect answer based on the evidence provided]. Rather than emphasizing theories or concepts, case analysis assignments emphasize building a bridge of relevancy between abstract thinking and practical application and, by so doing, teaches the value of both within a specific area of professional practice.

Given this, the purpose of a case analysis paper is to present a structured and logically organized format for analyzing the case situation. It can be assigned to students individually or as a small group assignment and it may include an in-class presentation component. Case analysis is predominately taught in economics and business-related courses, but it is also a method of teaching and learning found in other applied social sciences disciplines, such as, social work, public relations, education, journalism, and public administration.

Ellet, William. The Case Study Handbook: A Student's Guide . Revised Edition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 2018; Christoph Rasche and Achim Seisreiner. Guidelines for Business Case Analysis . University of Potsdam; Writing a Case Analysis . Writing Center, Baruch College; Volpe, Guglielmo. "Case Teaching in Economics: History, Practice and Evidence." Cogent Economics and Finance 3 (December 2015). doi:

How to Approach Writing a Case Analysis Paper

The organization and structure of a case analysis paper can vary depending on the organizational setting, the situation, and how your professor wants you to approach the assignment. Nevertheless, preparing to write a case analysis paper involves several important steps. As Hawes notes, a case analysis assignment “ useful in developing the ability to get to the heart of a problem, analyze it thoroughly, and to indicate the appropriate solution as well as how it should be implemented” [p.48]. This statement encapsulates how you should approach preparing to write a case analysis paper.

Before you begin to write your paper, consider the following analytical procedures:

  • Review the case to get an overview of the situation . A case can be only a few pages in length, however, it is most often very lengthy and contains a significant amount of detailed background information and statistics, with multilayered descriptions of the scenario, the roles and behaviors of various stakeholder groups, and situational events. Therefore, a quick reading of the case will help you gain an overall sense of the situation and illuminate the types of issues and problems that you will need to address in your paper. If your professor has provided questions intended to help frame your analysis, use them to guide your initial reading of the case.
  • Read the case thoroughly . After gaining a general overview of the case, carefully read the content again with the purpose of understanding key circumstances, events, and behaviors among stakeholder groups. Look for information or data that appears contradictory, extraneous, or misleading. At this point, you should be taking notes as you read because this will help you develop a general outline of your paper. The aim is to obtain a complete understanding of the situation so that you can begin contemplating tentative answers to any questions your professor has provided or, if they have not provided, developing answers to your own questions about the case scenario and its connection to the course readings,lectures, and class discussions.
  • Determine key stakeholder groups, issues, and events and the relationships they all have to each other . As you analyze the content, pay particular attention to identifying individuals, groups, or organizations described in the case and identify evidence of any problems or issues of concern that impact the situation in a negative way. Other things to look for include identifying any assumptions being made by or about each stakeholder, potential biased explanations or actions, explicit demands or ultimatums , and the underlying concerns that motivate these behaviors among stakeholders. The goal at this stage is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the situational and behavioral dynamics of the case and the explicit and implicit consequences of each of these actions.
  • Identify the core problems . The next step in most case analysis assignments is to discern what the core [i.e., most damaging, detrimental, injurious] problems are within the organizational setting and to determine their implications. The purpose at this stage of preparing to write your analysis paper is to distinguish between the symptoms of core problems and the core problems themselves and to decide which of these must be addressed immediately and which problems do not appear critical but may escalate over time. Identify evidence from the case to support your decisions by determining what information or data is essential to addressing the core problems and what information is not relevant or is misleading.
  • Explore alternative solutions . As noted, case analysis scenarios rarely have only one correct answer. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that the process of analyzing the case and diagnosing core problems, while based on evidence, is a subjective process open to various avenues of interpretation. This means that you must consider alternative solutions or courses of action by critically examining strengths and weaknesses, risk factors, and the differences between short and long-term solutions. For each possible solution or course of action, consider the consequences they may have related to their implementation and how these recommendations might lead to new problems. Also, consider thinking about your recommended solutions or courses of action in relation to issues of fairness, equity, and inclusion.
  • Decide on a final set of recommendations . The last stage in preparing to write a case analysis paper is to assert an opinion or viewpoint about the recommendations needed to help resolve the core problems as you see them and to make a persuasive argument for supporting this point of view. Prepare a clear rationale for your recommendations based on examining each element of your analysis. Anticipate possible obstacles that could derail their implementation. Consider any counter-arguments that could be made concerning the validity of your recommended actions. Finally, describe a set of criteria and measurable indicators that could be applied to evaluating the effectiveness of your implementation plan.

Use these steps as the framework for writing your paper. Remember that the more detailed you are in taking notes as you critically examine each element of the case, the more information you will have to draw from when you begin to write. This will save you time.

NOTE : If the process of preparing to write a case analysis paper is assigned as a student group project, consider having each member of the group analyze a specific element of the case, including drafting answers to the corresponding questions used by your professor to frame the analysis. This will help make the analytical process more efficient and ensure that the distribution of work is equitable. This can also facilitate who is responsible for drafting each part of the final case analysis paper and, if applicable, the in-class presentation.

Framework for Case Analysis . College of Management. University of Massachusetts; Hawes, Jon M. "Teaching is Not Telling: The Case Method as a Form of Interactive Learning." Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education 5 (Winter 2004): 47-54; Rasche, Christoph and Achim Seisreiner. Guidelines for Business Case Analysis . University of Potsdam; Writing a Case Study Analysis . University of Arizona Global Campus Writing Center; Van Ness, Raymond K. A Guide to Case Analysis . School of Business. State University of New York, Albany; Writing a Case Analysis . Business School, University of New South Wales.

Structure and Writing Style

A case analysis paper should be detailed, concise, persuasive, clearly written, and professional in tone and in the use of language . As with other forms of college-level academic writing, declarative statements that convey information, provide a fact, or offer an explanation or any recommended courses of action should be based on evidence. If allowed by your professor, any external sources used to support your analysis, such as course readings, should be properly cited under a list of references. The organization and structure of case analysis papers can vary depending on your professor’s preferred format, but its structure generally follows the steps used for analyzing the case.


The introduction should provide a succinct but thorough descriptive overview of the main facts, issues, and core problems of the case . The introduction should also include a brief summary of the most relevant details about the situation and organizational setting. This includes defining the theoretical framework or conceptual model on which any questions were used to frame your analysis.

Following the rules of most college-level research papers, the introduction should then inform the reader how the paper will be organized. This includes describing the major sections of the paper and the order in which they will be presented. Unless you are told to do so by your professor, you do not need to preview your final recommendations in the introduction. U nlike most college-level research papers , the introduction does not include a statement about the significance of your findings because a case analysis assignment does not involve contributing new knowledge about a research problem.

Background Analysis

Background analysis can vary depending on any guiding questions provided by your professor and the underlying concept or theory that the case is based upon. In general, however, this section of your paper should focus on:

  • Providing an overarching analysis of problems identified from the case scenario, including identifying events that stakeholders find challenging or troublesome,
  • Identifying assumptions made by each stakeholder and any apparent biases they may exhibit,
  • Describing any demands or claims made by or forced upon key stakeholders, and
  • Highlighting any issues of concern or complaints expressed by stakeholders in response to those demands or claims.

These aspects of the case are often in the form of behavioral responses expressed by individuals or groups within the organizational setting. However, note that problems in a case situation can also be reflected in data [or the lack thereof] and in the decision-making, operational, cultural, or institutional structure of the organization. Additionally, demands or claims can be either internal and external to the organization [e.g., a case analysis involving a president considering arms sales to Saudi Arabia could include managing internal demands from White House advisors as well as demands from members of Congress].

Throughout this section, present all relevant evidence from the case that supports your analysis. Do not simply claim there is a problem, an assumption, a demand, or a concern; tell the reader what part of the case informed how you identified these background elements.

Identification of Problems

In most case analysis assignments, there are problems, and then there are problems . Each problem can reflect a multitude of underlying symptoms that are detrimental to the interests of the organization. The purpose of identifying problems is to teach students how to differentiate between problems that vary in severity, impact, and relative importance. Given this, problems can be described in three general forms: those that must be addressed immediately, those that should be addressed but the impact is not severe, and those that do not require immediate attention and can be set aside for the time being.

All of the problems you identify from the case should be identified in this section of your paper, with a description based on evidence explaining the problem variances. If the assignment asks you to conduct research to further support your assessment of the problems, include this in your explanation. Remember to cite those sources in a list of references. Use specific evidence from the case and apply appropriate concepts, theories, and models discussed in class or in relevant course readings to highlight and explain the key problems [or problem] that you believe must be solved immediately and describe the underlying symptoms and why they are so critical.

Alternative Solutions

This section is where you provide specific, realistic, and evidence-based solutions to the problems you have identified and make recommendations about how to alleviate the underlying symptomatic conditions impacting the organizational setting. For each solution, you must explain why it was chosen and provide clear evidence to support your reasoning. This can include, for example, course readings and class discussions as well as research resources, such as, books, journal articles, research reports, or government documents. In some cases, your professor may encourage you to include personal, anecdotal experiences as evidence to support why you chose a particular solution or set of solutions. Using anecdotal evidence helps promote reflective thinking about the process of determining what qualifies as a core problem and relevant solution .

Throughout this part of the paper, keep in mind the entire array of problems that must be addressed and describe in detail the solutions that might be implemented to resolve these problems.

Recommended Courses of Action

In some case analysis assignments, your professor may ask you to combine the alternative solutions section with your recommended courses of action. However, it is important to know the difference between the two. A solution refers to the answer to a problem. A course of action refers to a procedure or deliberate sequence of activities adopted to proactively confront a situation, often in the context of accomplishing a goal. In this context, proposed courses of action are based on your analysis of alternative solutions. Your description and justification for pursuing each course of action should represent the overall plan for implementing your recommendations.

For each course of action, you need to explain the rationale for your recommendation in a way that confronts challenges, explains risks, and anticipates any counter-arguments from stakeholders. Do this by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each course of action framed in relation to how the action is expected to resolve the core problems presented, the possible ways the action may affect remaining problems, and how the recommended action will be perceived by each stakeholder.

In addition, you should describe the criteria needed to measure how well the implementation of these actions is working and explain which individuals or groups are responsible for ensuring your recommendations are successful. In addition, always consider the law of unintended consequences. Outline difficulties that may arise in implementing each course of action and describe how implementing the proposed courses of action [either individually or collectively] may lead to new problems [both large and small].

Throughout this section, you must consider the costs and benefits of recommending your courses of action in relation to uncertainties or missing information and the negative consequences of success.

The conclusion should be brief and introspective. Unlike a research paper, the conclusion in a case analysis paper does not include a summary of key findings and their significance, a statement about how the study contributed to existing knowledge, or indicate opportunities for future research.

Begin by synthesizing the core problems presented in the case and the relevance of your recommended solutions. This can include an explanation of what you have learned about the case in the context of your answers to the questions provided by your professor. The conclusion is also where you link what you learned from analyzing the case with the course readings or class discussions. This can further demonstrate your understanding of the relationships between the practical case situation and the theoretical and abstract content of assigned readings and other course content.

Problems to Avoid

The literature on case analysis assignments often includes examples of difficulties students have with applying methods of critical analysis and effectively reporting the results of their assessment of the situation. A common reason cited by scholars is that the application of this type of teaching and learning method is limited to applied fields of social and behavioral sciences and, as a result, writing a case analysis paper can be unfamiliar to most students entering college.

After you have drafted your paper, proofread the narrative flow and revise any of these common errors:

  • Unnecessary detail in the background section . The background section should highlight the essential elements of the case based on your analysis. Focus on summarizing the facts and highlighting the key factors that become relevant in the other sections of the paper by eliminating any unnecessary information.
  • Analysis relies too much on opinion . Your analysis is interpretive, but the narrative must be connected clearly to evidence from the case and any models and theories discussed in class or in course readings. Any positions or arguments you make should be supported by evidence.
  • Analysis does not focus on the most important elements of the case . Your paper should provide a thorough overview of the case. However, the analysis should focus on providing evidence about what you identify are the key events, stakeholders, issues, and problems. Emphasize what you identify as the most critical aspects of the case to be developed throughout your analysis. Be thorough but succinct.
  • Writing is too descriptive . A paper with too much descriptive information detracts from your analysis of the complexities of the case situation. Questions about what happened, where, when, and by whom should only be included as essential information leading to your examination of questions related to why, how, and for what purpose.
  • Inadequate definition of a core problem and associated symptoms . A common error found in case analysis papers is recommending a solution or course of action without adequately defining or demonstrating that you understand the problem. Make sure you have clearly described the problem and its impact and scope within the organizational setting. Ensure that you have adequately described the root causes w hen describing the symptoms of the problem.
  • Recommendations lack specificity . Identify any use of vague statements and indeterminate terminology, such as, “A particular experience” or “a large increase to the budget.” These statements cannot be measured and, as a result, there is no way to evaluate their successful implementation. Provide specific data and use direct language in describing recommended actions.
  • Unrealistic, exaggerated, or unattainable recommendations . Review your recommendations to ensure that they are based on the situational facts of the case. Your recommended solutions and courses of action must be based on realistic assumptions and fit within the constraints of the situation. Also note that the case scenario has already happened, therefore, any speculation or arguments about what could have occurred if the circumstances were different should be revised or eliminated.

Bee, Lian Song et al. "Business Students' Perspectives on Case Method Coaching for Problem-Based Learning: Impacts on Student Engagement and Learning Performance in Higher Education." Education & Training 64 (2022): 416-432; The Case Analysis . Fred Meijer Center for Writing and Michigan Authors. Grand Valley State University; Georgallis, Panikos and Kayleigh Bruijn. "Sustainability Teaching using Case-Based Debates." Journal of International Education in Business 15 (2022): 147-163; Hawes, Jon M. "Teaching is Not Telling: The Case Method as a Form of Interactive Learning." Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education 5 (Winter 2004): 47-54; Georgallis, Panikos, and Kayleigh Bruijn. "Sustainability Teaching Using Case-based Debates." Journal of International Education in Business 15 (2022): 147-163; .Dean,  Kathy Lund and Charles J. Fornaciari. "How to Create and Use Experiential Case-Based Exercises in a Management Classroom." Journal of Management Education 26 (October 2002): 586-603; Klebba, Joanne M. and Janet G. Hamilton. "Structured Case Analysis: Developing Critical Thinking Skills in a Marketing Case Course." Journal of Marketing Education 29 (August 2007): 132-137, 139; Klein, Norman. "The Case Discussion Method Revisited: Some Questions about Student Skills." Exchange: The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal 6 (November 1981): 30-32; Mukherjee, Arup. "Effective Use of In-Class Mini Case Analysis for Discovery Learning in an Undergraduate MIS Course." The Journal of Computer Information Systems 40 (Spring 2000): 15-23; Pessoa, Silviaet al. "Scaffolding the Case Analysis in an Organizational Behavior Course: Making Analytical Language Explicit." Journal of Management Education 46 (2022): 226-251: Ramsey, V. J. and L. D. Dodge. "Case Analysis: A Structured Approach." Exchange: The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal 6 (November 1981): 27-29; Schweitzer, Karen. "How to Write and Format a Business Case Study." ThoughtCo. (accessed December 5, 2022); Reddy, C. D. "Teaching Research Methodology: Everything's a Case." Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods 18 (December 2020): 178-188; Volpe, Guglielmo. "Case Teaching in Economics: History, Practice and Evidence." Cogent Economics and Finance 3 (December 2015). doi:

Writing Tip

Ca se Study and Case Analysis Are Not the Same!

Confusion often exists between what it means to write a paper that uses a case study research design and writing a paper that analyzes a case; they are two different types of approaches to learning in the social and behavioral sciences. Professors as well as educational researchers contribute to this confusion because they often use the term "case study" when describing the subject of analysis for a case analysis paper. But you are not studying a case for the purpose of generating a comprehensive, multi-faceted understanding of a research problem. R ather, you are critically analyzing a specific scenario to argue logically for recommended solutions and courses of action that lead to optimal outcomes applicable to professional practice.

To avoid any confusion, here are twelve characteristics that delineate the differences between writing a paper using the case study research method and writing a case analysis paper:

  • Case study is a method of in-depth research and rigorous inquiry ; case analysis is a reliable method of teaching and learning . A case study is a modality of research that investigates a phenomenon for the purpose of creating new knowledge, solving a problem, or testing a hypothesis using empirical evidence derived from the case being studied. Often, the results are used to generalize about a larger population or within a wider context. The writing adheres to the traditional standards of a scholarly research study. A case analysis is a pedagogical tool used to teach students how to reflect and think critically about a practical, real-life problem in an organizational setting.
  • The researcher is responsible for identifying the case to study; a case analysis is assigned by your professor . As the researcher, you choose the case study to investigate in support of obtaining new knowledge and understanding about the research problem. The case in a case analysis assignment is almost always provided, and sometimes written, by your professor and either given to every student in class to analyze individually or to a small group of students, or students select a case to analyze from a predetermined list.
  • A case study is indeterminate and boundless; a case analysis is predetermined and confined . A case study can be almost anything [see item 9 below] as long as it relates directly to examining the research problem. This relationship is the only limit to what a researcher can choose as the subject of their case study. The content of a case analysis is determined by your professor and its parameters are well-defined and limited to elucidating insights of practical value applied to practice.
  • Case study is fact-based and describes actual events or situations; case analysis can be entirely fictional or adapted from an actual situation . The entire content of a case study must be grounded in reality to be a valid subject of investigation in an empirical research study. A case analysis only needs to set the stage for critically examining a situation in practice and, therefore, can be entirely fictional or adapted, all or in-part, from an actual situation.
  • Research using a case study method must adhere to principles of intellectual honesty and academic integrity; a case analysis scenario can include misleading or false information . A case study paper must report research objectively and factually to ensure that any findings are understood to be logically correct and trustworthy. A case analysis scenario may include misleading or false information intended to deliberately distract from the central issues of the case. The purpose is to teach students how to sort through conflicting or useless information in order to come up with the preferred solution. Any use of misleading or false information in academic research is considered unethical.
  • Case study is linked to a research problem; case analysis is linked to a practical situation or scenario . In the social sciences, the subject of an investigation is most often framed as a problem that must be researched in order to generate new knowledge leading to a solution. Case analysis narratives are grounded in real life scenarios for the purpose of examining the realities of decision-making behavior and processes within organizational settings. A case analysis assignments include a problem or set of problems to be analyzed. However, the goal is centered around the act of identifying and evaluating courses of action leading to best possible outcomes.
  • The purpose of a case study is to create new knowledge through research; the purpose of a case analysis is to teach new understanding . Case studies are a choice of methodological design intended to create new knowledge about resolving a research problem. A case analysis is a mode of teaching and learning intended to create new understanding and an awareness of uncertainty applied to practice through acts of critical thinking and reflection.
  • A case study seeks to identify the best possible solution to a research problem; case analysis can have an indeterminate set of solutions or outcomes . Your role in studying a case is to discover the most logical, evidence-based ways to address a research problem. A case analysis assignment rarely has a single correct answer because one of the goals is to force students to confront the real life dynamics of uncertainly, ambiguity, and missing or conflicting information within professional practice. Under these conditions, a perfect outcome or solution almost never exists.
  • Case study is unbounded and relies on gathering external information; case analysis is a self-contained subject of analysis . The scope of a case study chosen as a method of research is bounded. However, the researcher is free to gather whatever information and data is necessary to investigate its relevance to understanding the research problem. For a case analysis assignment, your professor will often ask you to examine solutions or recommended courses of action based solely on facts and information from the case.
  • Case study can be a person, place, object, issue, event, condition, or phenomenon; a case analysis is a carefully constructed synopsis of events, situations, and behaviors . The research problem dictates the type of case being studied and, therefore, the design can encompass almost anything tangible as long as it fulfills the objective of generating new knowledge and understanding. A case analysis is in the form of a narrative containing descriptions of facts, situations, processes, rules, and behaviors within a particular setting and under a specific set of circumstances.
  • Case study can represent an open-ended subject of inquiry; a case analysis is a narrative about something that has happened in the past . A case study is not restricted by time and can encompass an event or issue with no temporal limit or end. For example, the current war in Ukraine can be used as a case study of how medical personnel help civilians during a large military conflict, even though circumstances around this event are still evolving. A case analysis can be used to elicit critical thinking about current or future situations in practice, but the case itself is a narrative about something finite and that has taken place in the past.
  • Multiple case studies can be used in a research study; case analysis involves examining a single scenario . Case study research can use two or more cases to examine a problem, often for the purpose of conducting a comparative investigation intended to discover hidden relationships, document emerging trends, or determine variations among different examples. A case analysis assignment typically describes a stand-alone, self-contained situation and any comparisons among cases are conducted during in-class discussions and/or student presentations.

The Case Analysis . Fred Meijer Center for Writing and Michigan Authors. Grand Valley State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Ramsey, V. J. and L. D. Dodge. "Case Analysis: A Structured Approach." Exchange: The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal 6 (November 1981): 27-29; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2017; Crowe, Sarah et al. “The Case Study Approach.” BMC Medical Research Methodology 11 (2011):  doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-100; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 4th edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing; 1994.

  • << Previous: Reviewing Collected Works
  • Next: Writing a Case Study >>
  • Last Updated: Sep 15, 2023 9:37 AM
  • URL:

CHM Office of Reseach

Writing a Case Report

This page is intended for medical students, residents or others who do not have much experience with case reports, but are planning on writing one.  

What is a case report?  A medical case report, also known as a case study, is a detailed description of a clinical encounter with a patient.  The most important aspect of a case report, i.e. the reason you would go to the trouble of writing one, is that the case is sufficiently unique, rare or interesting such that other medical professionals will learn something from it.   

Case reports are commonly of the following categories :

- Rare diseases

- Unusual presentation of disease

- Unexpected events

- Unusual combination of diseases or conditions

- Difficult or inconclusive diagnosis

- Treatment or management challenges

- Personal impact

- Observations that shed new light on a disease or condition

- Anatomical variations

It is important that you recognize what is unique or interesting about your case, and this must be described clearly in the case report.

Case reports generally take the format of :

1. Background

2. Case presentation

3. Observations and investigation

4. Diagnosis

5. Treatment

7. Discussion

Does a case report require IRB approval?

Case reports typically discuss a single patient. If this is true for your case report, then it most likely does not require IRB approval because it not considered research.    If you have more than one patient, your study could qualify as a Case Series, which would require IRB review.  If you have questions, you chould check your local IRB's guidelines on reviewing case reports.

Are there other rules for writing a case report?

First, you will be collecting protected health information, thus HIPAA applies to case reports.   Spectrum Health has created a very helpful guidance document for case reports, which you can see here:   Case Report Guidance - Spectrum Health

While this guidance document was created by Spectrum Health, the rules and regulations outlined could apply to any case report.  This includes answering questions like: Do I need written HIPAA authorization to publish a case report?  When do I need IRB review of a case report?  What qualifies as a patient identifier?

How do I get started?

1. We STRONGLY encourage you to consult the CARE Guidelines, which provide guidance on writing case reports -

Specifically, the checklist -  - which explains exactly the information you should collect and include in your case report.  

2. Identify a case.  If you are a medical student, you may not yet have the clinical expertise to determine if a specific case is worth writing up.  If so, you must seek the help of a clinician.  It is common for students to ask attendings or residents if they have any interesting cases that can be used for a case report. 

3. Select a journal or two to which you think you will submit the case report.   Journals often have specific requirements for publishing case reports, which could include a requirement for informed consent, a letter or statement from the IRB and other things.  Journals may also charge publication fees (see Is it free to publish? below)   

4. Obtain informed consent from the patient (see " Do I have to obtain informed consent from the patient? " below).  Journals may have their own informed consent form that they would like you to use, so please look for this when selecting a journal.

Once you've identified the case, selected an appropriate journal(s), and considered informed consent, you can collect the required information to write the case report.

How do I write a case report?

Once you identify a case and have learned what information to include in the case report, try to find a previously published case report.  Finding published case reports in a similar field will provide examples to guide you through the process of writing a case report.    

One journal you can consult is BMJ Case Reports .  MSU has an institutional fellowship with BMJ Case Reports which allows MSU faculty, staff and students to publish in this journal for free.  See this page for a link to the journal and more information on publishing-

There are numerous other journals where you can find published case reports to help guide you in your writing. 

Do I have to obtain informed consent from the patient?

The CARE guidelines recommend obtaining informed consent from patients for all case reports.  Our recommendation is to obtain informed consent from the patient.  Although not technically required, especially if the case report does not include any identifying information, some journals require informed consent for all case reports before publishing.  The CARE guidelines recommend obtaining informed consent AND the patient's perspective on the treatment/outcome (if possible).  Please consider this as well.  

If required, it is recommended you obtain informed consent before the case report is written.

An example of a case report consent form can be found on the BMJ Case Reports website, which you can access via the MSU library page - .  Go to "Instructions for Authors" and then "Patient Consent" to find the consent form they use.  You can create a similar form to obtain consent from your patient.  If you have identified a journal already, please consult their requirements and determine if they have a specific consent form they would like you to use.

Seek feedback

Once you have written a draft of the case report, you should seek feedback on your writing, from experts in the field if possible, or from those who have written case reports before.   

Selecting a journal

Aside from BMJ Case Reports mentioned above, there are many, many journals out there who publish medical case reports.   Ask your mentor if they have a journal they would like to use.  If you need to select on your own, here are some strategies:

1. Do a PubMed search.

   a. Do a search for a topic, disease or other feature of your case report 

   b. When the results appear, on the left side of the page is a limiter for "article type".  Case reports are an article type to which you can limit your search results.  If you don't see that option on the left, click "additional filters". 

   c. Review the case reports that come up and see what journals they are published in.

2. Use JANE -

3. Check with specialty societies.  Many specialty societies are affiliated with one or more journal, which can be reviewed for ones that match your needs

4. Search through individual publisher journal lists.  Elsevier publishes many different medical research journals, and they have a journal finder, much like JANE  ( ).  This is exclusive to Elsevier journals.  There are many other publishers of medical journals for review, including Springer, Dove Press, BMJ, BMC, Wiley, Sage, Nature and many others.

Is it free to publish ?

Be aware that it may not be free to publish your case report.  Many journals charge publication fees. Of note, many open access journals charge author fees of thousands of dollars.  Other journals have smaller page charges (i.e. $60 per page), and still others will publish for free, with an "open access option".  It is best practice to check the journal's Info for Authors section or Author Center to determine what the cost is to publish.  MSU-CHM does NOT have funds to support publication costs, so this is an important step if you do not want to pay out of pocket for publishing

*A more thorough discussion on finding a journal, publication costs, predatory journals and other publication-related issues can be found here:

Gagnier JJ, Kienle G, Altman DG, Moher D, Sox H, Riley D. 2013. The CARE guidelines: Consensus-based clinical case reporting guideline development.  Glob Adv Health Med . 2:38-43. doi:  10.7453/gahmj.2013.008

Riley DS, Barber MS, Kienle GS, AronsonJK, von Schoen-Angerer T, Tugwell P, Kiene H, Helfand M, Altman DG, Sox H, Werthmann PG, Moher D, Rison RA, Shamseer L, Koch CA, Sun GH, Hanaway P, Sudak NL, Kaszkin-Bettag M, Carpenter JE, Gagnier JJ. 2017.  CARE guidelines for case reports: explanation and elaboration document . J Clin Epidemiol . 89:218-234. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.04.026 

Guidelines to writing a clinical case report. 2017. Heart Views . 18:104-105. doi:  10.4103/1995-705X.217857

Ortega-Loubon C, Culquichicon C, Correa R. The importance of writing and publishing case reports during medical education. 2017. Cureus. 9:e1964. doi:  10.7759/cureus.1964

Writing and publishing a useful and interesting case report. 2019. BMJ Case Reports.

Camm CF. Writing an excellent case report: EHJ Case Reports , Case of the Year 2019. 2020. European Heart Jounrnal. 41:1230-1231.  

*content developed by Mark Trottier, PhD

report writing in case study

All You Wanted to Know About How to Write a Case Study

report writing in case study

What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.

What Is a Case Study?

A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.

What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?

While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.

Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.

The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.

Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:

Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.

Types of Case Studies

The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:

Types of Case Studies

  • Historical case studies are great to learn from. Historical events have a multitude of source info offering different perspectives. There are always modern parallels where these perspectives can be applied, compared, and thoroughly analyzed.
  • Problem-oriented case studies are usually used for solving problems. These are often assigned as theoretical situations where you need to immerse yourself in the situation to examine it. Imagine you’re working for a startup and you’ve just noticed a significant flaw in your product’s design. Before taking it to the senior manager, you want to do a comprehensive study on the issue and provide solutions. On a greater scale, problem-oriented case studies are a vital part of relevant socio-economic discussions.
  • Cumulative case studies collect information and offer comparisons. In business, case studies are often used to tell people about the value of a product.
  • Critical case studies explore the causes and effects of a certain case.
  • Illustrative case studies describe certain events, investigating outcomes and lessons learned.

Case Study Format

The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:

  • Executive Summary. Explain what you will examine in the case study. Write an overview of the field you’re researching. Make a thesis statement and sum up the results of your observation in a maximum of 2 sentences.
  • Background. Provide background information and the most relevant facts. Isolate the issues.
  • Case Evaluation. Isolate the sections of the study you want to focus on. In it, explain why something is working or is not working.
  • Proposed Solutions. Offer realistic ways to solve what isn’t working or how to improve its current condition. Explain why these solutions work by offering testable evidence.
  • Conclusion. Summarize the main points from the case evaluations and proposed solutions. 6. Recommendations. Talk about the strategy that you should choose. Explain why this choice is the most appropriate.
  • Implementation. Explain how to put the specific strategies into action.
  • References. Provide all the citations.

How to Write a Case Study

Let's discover how to write a case study.

How to Write a Case Study

Setting Up the Research

When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:

  • Define your objective. Explain the reason why you’re presenting your subject. Figure out where you will feature your case study; whether it is written, on video, shown as an infographic, streamed as a podcast, etc.
  • Determine who will be the right candidate for your case study. Get permission, quotes, and other features that will make your case study effective. Get in touch with your candidate to see if they approve of being part of your work. Study that candidate’s situation and note down what caused it.
  • Identify which various consequences could result from the situation. Follow these guidelines on how to start a case study: surf the net to find some general information you might find useful.
  • Make a list of credible sources and examine them. Seek out important facts and highlight problems. Always write down your ideas and make sure to brainstorm.
  • Focus on several key issues – why they exist, and how they impact your research subject. Think of several unique solutions. Draw from class discussions, readings, and personal experience. When writing a case study, focus on the best solution and explore it in depth. After having all your research in place, writing a case study will be easy. You may first want to check the rubric and criteria of your assignment for the correct case study structure.


Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:

  • Correctly identify the concepts, theories, and practices in the discipline.
  • Identify the relevant theories and principles associated with the particular study.
  • Evaluate legal and ethical principles and apply them to your decision-making.
  • Recognize the global importance and contribution of your case.
  • Construct a coherent summary and explanation of the study.
  • Demonstrate analytical and critical-thinking skills.
  • Explain the interrelationships between the environment and nature.
  • Integrate theory and practice of the discipline within the analysis.

Need Case Study DONE FAST?

Pick a topic, tell us your requirements and get your paper on time.

Case Study Outline

Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.


  • Statement of the issue: Alcoholism is a disease rather than a weakness of character.
  • Presentation of the problem: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there.
  • Explanation of the terms: In the past, alcoholism was commonly referred to as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction. Alcoholism is now the more severe stage of this addiction in the disorder spectrum.
  • Hypotheses: Drinking in excess can lead to the use of other drugs.
  • Importance of your story: How the information you present can help people with their addictions.
  • Background of the story: Include an explanation of why you chose this topic.
  • Presentation of analysis and data: Describe the criteria for choosing 30 candidates, the structure of the interview, and the outcomes.
  • Strong argument 1: ex. X% of candidates dealing with anxiety and depression...
  • Strong argument 2: ex. X amount of people started drinking by their mid-teens.
  • Strong argument 3: ex. X% of respondents’ parents had issues with alcohol.
  • Concluding statement: I have researched if alcoholism is a disease and found out that…
  • Recommendations: Ways and actions for preventing alcohol use.

Writing a Case Study Draft

After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:

How to Write a Case Study

  • Your draft should contain at least 4 sections: an introduction; a body where you should include background information, an explanation of why you decided to do this case study, and a presentation of your main findings; a conclusion where you present data; and references.
  • In the introduction, you should set the pace very clearly. You can even raise a question or quote someone you interviewed in the research phase. It must provide adequate background information on the topic. The background may include analyses of previous studies on your topic. Include the aim of your case here as well. Think of it as a thesis statement. The aim must describe the purpose of your work—presenting the issues that you want to tackle. Include background information, such as photos or videos you used when doing the research.
  • Describe your unique research process, whether it was through interviews, observations, academic journals, etc. The next point includes providing the results of your research. Tell the audience what you found out. Why is this important, and what could be learned from it? Discuss the real implications of the problem and its significance in the world.
  • Include quotes and data (such as findings, percentages, and awards). This will add a personal touch and better credibility to the case you present. Explain what results you find during your interviews in regards to the problem and how it developed. Also, write about solutions which have already been proposed by other people who have already written about this case.
  • At the end of your case study, you should offer possible solutions, but don’t worry about solving them yourself.

Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study

Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :

‍ With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.

Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.

Finalizing the Draft: Checklist

After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:

  • Check that you follow the correct case study format, also in regards to text formatting.
  • Check that your work is consistent with its referencing and citation style.
  • Micro-editing — check for grammar and spelling issues.
  • Macro-editing — does ‘the big picture’ come across to the reader? Is there enough raw data, such as real-life examples or personal experiences? Have you made your data collection process completely transparent? Does your analysis provide a clear conclusion, allowing for further research and practice?

Problems to avoid:

  • Overgeneralization – Do not go into further research that deviates from the main problem.
  • Failure to Document Limitations – Just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study, you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis.
  • Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications – Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings.

You can always buy an essay on our site. Just leave a request ' do my homework ' and we'll help asap.

How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study

Let's see how to create an awesome title page.

Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:

  • A title that attracts some attention and describes your study
  • The title should have the words “case study” in it
  • The title should range between 5-9 words in length
  • Your name and contact information
  • Your finished paper should be only 500 to 1,500 words in length. With this type of assignment, write effectively and avoid fluff.

Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:

There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.

Citation Example in MLA ‍ Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA ‍ Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.

Case Study Examples

To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.

Eastman Kodak Case Study

Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany

To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .

Get Help Form Qualified Writers

Crafting a case study is not easy. You might want to write one of high quality, but you don’t have the time or expertise. If you’re having trouble with your case study, help with essay request - we'll help. EssayPro writers have read and written countless case studies and are experts in endless disciplines. Request essay writing, editing, or proofreading assistance from our writing service, and all of your worries will be gone.

Don't Know Where to Start?

Crafting a case study is not easy. You might want to write one of high quality, but you don’t have the time or expertise. Request essay writing, editing, or proofreading assistance from our writing service.

Related Articles

cause and effect

  • Introduction
  • About Case Study Reports

Section A: Overview

  • Section B: Planning and Researching
  • Section C: Parts of a Case Study
  • Section D: Reviewing and Presenting
  • Section E: Revising Your Work
  • Section F: Resources
  • Your Workspace
  • Guided Writing Tools

Reflective Writing guide

  • About Lab Reports
  • Section C: Critical Features
  • Section D: Parts of a Lab Report

Reflective Writing guide

  • About Literature Review
  • Section C: Parts of a Literature Review
  • Section D: Critical Writing Skills

Lab Report writing guide

  • About Reflective Writing
  • Section B: How Can I Reflect?
  • Section C: How Do I Get Started?
  • Section D: Writing a Reflection

Write Online Help

Case Study Report Prepared by University of Guelph

This section will provide you with an overview of case study reports and what components you should include when writing them.

What Will I Learn?

By successfully completing this section, you should be able to:

  • describe what a case study report is and how it is used,
  • identify the components of a case study and how they fit together, and
  • explain why case studies are popular in business education.

Female student writing a case study report.

Prepared by

University of Guelph

In general, a case study is a historical or fictional description of a business situation. Case studies are stories that contain a particular management problem or decision that needs to be made. They are usually very detailed and contain information about key stakeholders, organizational processes, products, markets, financials, and so on.

The case study method of teaching plays an important role in management education (e.g., Banning, 2003) and is commonly used in management education programs (e.g., Conger & Xin, 2000). Case studies present vivid and engaging examples of realistic business situations that allow students to apply theoretical concepts (Barkley, Cross, & Major, 2005).

A Case Study Is:

a partial, historical, clinical study of a situation which has confronted a practising administrator or managerial group. Presented in a narrative form to encourage student involvement, it provides data—substantive and process—essential to analysis of a specific situation, for the framing of alternative action programs, and for their implementation, recognising the complexity and ambiguity of the practical world.

(Barnes, Christensen, and Hansen, 1994, p. 44)

As Barnes et al. (1994) explain in the definition above, an engaging case study will provide a managerial dilemma that models the complexity of real world business decisions. Moreover, these decisions need to be made considering the analysis of data, assessment of viable alternatives, proposed recommendations, and associated implementation plan.

Components of A Case Study Report

What should a case study report include.

The components of a case study report will vary depending on the preferences of your institution and instructor. Be sure to refer to your assignment instructions to find out what will be required in your context.

Most case study reports will include the following major sections and components:

  • Cover page including basic student and class information
  • Table of contents showing where key parts of the report can be found
  • Executive summary of the key recommendations and points of the report
  • Introduction to the report and identification of the focal problem being faced
  • Analysis of the problem and application of course/program content
  • Decision criteria and possible alternatives for solving the problem
  • Recommendation for solving the problem
  • Implementation plan for executing the recommendation and ensuring its success
  • Exhibits that help to elaborate upon the content included in the report
  • Reference list of any sources that were used at any point in the case study project

There are many possible subsections within these components. The following information provides a more detailed explanation of each component as well as specific strategies to help with writing.

Case Study Report Template

What are the components of a case study presentation.

The components of a case study presentation will likely also vary depending on the preferences of your institution and instructor; however, most case study presentations will likely include an oral as well as a visual (e.g., PowerPoint) summary of the 10 major sections and components. The case study report template provided will give you with a method for presenting your case study project as well as specific strategies to help with presenting the various sections.

Case Study Report Outline Template

This outline sample of a Case Study Report should serve as a useful guide to help you get started.

Download PDF

Download the Case Study Report Outline Template .

Preview: PDF Worksheet

Case Study Sample: Cover Page

Business Courses and Case Studies

Why do business courses use case studies.

This short video introduces business case study reports by highlighting why case studies are popular in business education and what you can expect as a learner completing a case study report.

Section Photo

Business Case Studies

Video : Four awesome things about business case studies.

Business Case Studies | MP4 Video (01:03)

Four awesome things about business case studies. Number one; case studies give you a chance to examine business problems you might actually encounter in real life. Cases are based on real situations or realistic scenarios simulating complex and ambiguous problems from the business world. Number two; case studies can help you strengthen your critical thinking and problem-solving skills. You'll get practice analyzing stakeholders, organizational processes, and financial constraints. And you'll learn how to make decisions and solve problems in a safe and transparent environment. Number three; case studies are not lectures [snoring]. Enough said. Number four; case study assignments combine writing, research and oral presentation sells. All stuff you want to get better, right?

Self Assessment

  • Which of the following was part of the definition of a case study as presented in this section?
  • Which of the following was not one of the major sections and components mentioned in this section?
  • Case studies were first developed as:
  • The components of a case study report will likely be exactly the same across institutions and instructors.

Key Takeaways and References

Key takeaways & references, key takeaways.

  • Case studies are rich, vivid situational exercises that can be used to make decisions and solve problems in a safe and transparent environment.
  • Most case study reports follow an established pattern of core components with some variations depending on the context of the report.
  • Case study reports allow business students an opportunity to hone their critical thinking skills for the complex and ambiguous situations that they are likely to encounter at work.

Banning, K. (2003). The effect of the case method on tolerance for ambiguity . Journal of Management Education, 27, 556–568.

Barkley, E. F, Cross, K. P. & Major, C. H. (2005). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty . San-Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Barnes, L. B., Christensen, C. R., & Hansen, A. B. (1994). Teaching and the case method (3rd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Conger, J. A., & Xin, K. (2000). Executive education in the 21st century . Journal of Management Education, 24, 73–101.

Redpath, L. (2012). Confronting the bias against on-line learning in management education . Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11, 125–140.

University of Guelph. (2015). Four awesome things about business case studies [WriteOnline_GUELPHIntro.mp4]. Published with GoAnimate:

University of Guelph. (2015). Case Study Report Outline Template . (PDF).

Young, S. (2006). Student views of effective online teaching in higher education . The American Journal of Distance Education, 20, 65–77.

Next Section Overview

In Section B: Planning and Researching, we will explore how to analyze your case study report assignment and create a writing plan.

report writing in case study

  • Free Case Studies
  • Business Essays

Write My Case Study

Buy Case Study

Case Study Help

  • Case Study For Sale
  • Case Study Service
  • Hire Writer

Case Study Report: Difine, Structure and How To Write

Case report study is a document that reflects the execution of the research program, contains the data obtained, their analysis, conclusions and practical recommendations flowing from them. Careful analysis (and not just a description) of the figures and facts obtained is the main task, or rather, the purpose of the report.

Case Study Report Structure

A case study report structure is determined by the purpose of the research, its tasks (purely marketing or more general, theoretical), and its immediate addressee. Logic, the sequence of the description of the data obtained, of course, is related to the sequence of questions in the questionnaire or form, with the sequence of various research procedures but not always exactly repeats it. The author should not miss the data that is momentous both for the researchers themselves and for those who will get acquainted with the results of the research. Building the text, the researcher, proceeds from the logic of the program. He tells how exactly and with what results the tasks set in it are solved. If the program formulated hypotheses, it is necessary to present (based on the received data) their proof or refutation.

A thorough analysis of all available data, identification and detailed description of the most interesting, significant facts and connections is needed. The authors need to pay special attention to the consistency, clarity, literacy of the presentation. An ill-conceived, careless description of the results of the procedure of the investigation itself may misrepresent even a successful work, and the credibility of its authors will disappear. Particularly clearly the shortcomings of the presentation will be visible to those who did not take the direct part in the study. After all, they can not know what you mean or think is not so momentous to specifically talk about it. Business case study report should not be cluttered with numbers; it is better to submit only those data that reveal significant facts and links in the text.

Some tables, lists, other materials can be given in the appendix. It’s also logical to present documentation (questionnaires, interview forms, demand analysis forms), a list of used literature in this part.On the other hand, the actual text part should be supplemented and “backed up” with tables, graphs, diagrams. They will make statements, comparisons, observations more demonstrative, visual and precise and. When listing tables, an author should carefully monitor the correctness of their description.

In many cases, it is useful to include the data about the difficulties encountered by researchers, the impact of these difficulties on the results obtained, and how mistakes and failures will be taken into account in further scientific and practical work.

How to Write a Case Study Report

There is no the universal advice how to write a case study report. However, a standard structure should be followed.

  • It is logical to begin with a cover page that includes a topic of a case study, names of investigators and the topic of
  • The next part is a summary where a researcher should say in few words about the goal of his work, methods he used and the results received.

In some cases, it is especially momentous to talk in detail about who initiated the study, how it was organized, who helped collect materials on the ground. It should be said when and where the study was conducted; if necessary, this part also explains why this particular place and time was chosen. In this part of the report, data processing methods are usually also characterized. Special attention should be paid to respondents who took part in a study. Depending on the purpose, objectives, and subject of the research, the characteristics of the respondents can be included both in the introductory part of the report and in the next, directly describing and analyzing the data obtained. The first option is usually chosen when the topic of the survey is of an overview nature.

  • References and appendixes are additional parts of a case study report. The format for case study report, as a rule, corresponds to the format in conformity with a research itself was made.

How to Present a Case Study Report

In order for the report to be presented in the most favorable light, it is necessary to correctly structure the data obtained during the research and highlight the main points.

For clarity, the text should also include graphics and tables, but should not be oversaturated with them. If this is a marketing study of the target audience using sociological methods, the report becomes more interesting if the classified data and statements based on them (and, in the future, conclusions, and recommendations) are supplemented with concrete names, facts, and live statements of the respondents.

Related posts:

  • Case Study Writing Structure
  • How to Write a Case Study on a Disease
  • How to Write a Case Study on a Company
  • Case Study on Organizational Structure
  • Supply Chains – Report Structure
  • How to Write a Report for Orientation
  • How to Write a Case Study?

' src=

Quick Links

Privacy Policy

Terms and Conditions


Our Services

Case Study Writing Service

Case Studies For Sale

Our Company

Welcome to the world of case studies that can bring you high grades! Here, at, we deliver professionally written papers, and the best grades for you from your professors are guaranteed!

[email protected] 804-506-0782 350 5th Ave, New York, NY 10118, USA © 2007-2019 All rights reserved.

report writing in case study

Hi! I'm Anna

Would you like to get a custom case study? How about receiving a customized one?

Haven't Found The Case Study You Want?

For Only $13.90/page

report writing in case study

How to Write a Case Report


A case report describes a medical article written to highlight a particular clinical case. For example, a doctor might write about an unusual presentation of a clinical condition, an unexplained set of symptoms that signify an unrecognized disease, or adverse effects from a course of medical treatment. Medical imaging and radiology journals also publish case studies about the novel use of imaging equipment to diagnose diseases.

report writing in case study

Your writing, at its best

Compose bold, clear, mistake-free, writing with Grammarly's AI-powered writing assistant

What is the Purpose of a Case Report?

Case reports give doctors a chance to exchange information. The substance of the report should be unique, building upon or providing nuance to existing published material. Whether the author writes about rare cases or gives recommendations for improving physical examinations, the report must add to the body of scientific literature on a given topic. No medical journal would publish a case report describing a standard presentation of a well-known disease, diagnosed using the traditional methods. In order to merit publication, a case study must raise important questions or present new solutions.

report writing in case study

How is a Case Report Structured?

A case report must be written in a concise, streamlined style. Usually, a case report consists of the following elements:

Title | The title should contain relevant keywords so that readers can find the report through open access search engines like PubMed and Google Scholar . 

Abstract | In 100 words or less, the author describes the subject of the case report and its high-level findings. Again, this section will appear in a medical literature search, so it should contain as many search terms that relate to the case as possible.

Introduction | This section of the case report explains why the case presentation is unique. Along with a brief description of the case, the introduction contains a justification of why the case warranted special publication as a case study. The author answers the question, “What makes this patient case report of special interest to the medical world?”

Case Description | This section contains a summary of the case and a detailed description of the patient’s medical history. Usually, the author presents the patient’s notes in chronological order: presentation of symptoms, examination, imaging, laboratory results, treatment, diagnosis, and follow-up. All personal information should be removed from the published material. 

Discussion | As in the introduction, the discussion section should reiterate the reason that the case warranted publication. This section provides the author with an opportunity to explain what makes the case unique and share any valuable lessons learned from the case. 

Most case studies also include separate sections for references and figures and tables.

Who Is Qualified to Write a Case Report?

Case reports are usually written by doctors or by medical students. Sometimes, a student prepares a case report, then an attending physician reviews the report and receives a credit as a co-author. Before publishing, the author(s) of the report should obtain the patient’s consent. Often, patient consent is required by law; however, even when it’s not legally required, a consent form helps show that the author has obtained the patient’s permission to publish the report. Most journals and periodicals require informed consent. 

The Case for Case Reports

An article by Zhonghua Sun in the Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences explains how case reports fit into the publication pecking order: “In the hierarchy of evidence-based medicine, randomized controlled trials are placed at the top, superseded by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, followed by prospective experimental trials, then observational studies, case–control studies, and case series at the bottom.” Many journals refuse to publish case studies because they negatively impact their credibility, as measured by “ impact factor ” rankings. Because case studies don’t receive as much attention as trials and other types of articles, publishers may be hesitant to include them. 

That said, case reporting can be very important to the field of medicine. In an article titled The Process of Writing a Case Report , the authors explain the value of first-hand anecdotes: “While case reports are somewhat falling out of favor within the medical literature community…the things we remember best are often attached to patient stories.” An interesting case report may have the power to inspire further research, new care guidelines, and faster and more accurate diagnoses. 

Publishing Case Reports

Publications each have specific requirements for formatting clinical case reports. Here is a small sampling of the guidelines provided by different journals and periodicals. Before submitting your case report, be sure to adapt the formatting of your report to fit the publisher’s requirements. 

  • American Academy of Pediatrics
  • Case Reports in Gastroenterology
  • Journal of The American Academy of Dermatology (JAAD)
  • Journal of Medical Case Reports
  • Journal of Neurological Surgery
  • Journal of Surgical Case Reports
  • The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Reports

Most journals and periodicals have a peer review process to ensure the quality of any reports they publish. When it comes to peer reviewing a case report, the Journal of Medical Case Reports suggests that editorial feedback should be completed with an eye for novelty, authenticity, ethics, competing interests, impact, and patient consent. Their guidelines explain, “The peer review process is an essential part of ethical and scientific writing.” In addition to editing a manuscript for clarity, peer reviewers must ensure that the clinical information presented in a case report is both honest and ethically obtained. 

Before writing case reports, we recommend taking a look at some examples of the format. The descriptions below have been taken from published case reports, and they link to full-length reports.

Example 1 | Cardiac involvement in malignant lymphoma is one of the least investigated subjects in oncology. This article reports a case of cardiac involvement in Hodgkin’s lymphoma which presented as heart failure.

Example 2 | This is a case report of a 55-year-old male, with COVID-19 pneumonia who has received convalescent plasma as part of a treatment plan which showed significant radiological and clinical improvement post-treatment.

Example 3 | Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most frequent autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease of the skin. We report on a BP patient with lesions involving the nail unit, which resulted in a peculiar and as yet rarely recognized complication of BP, pterygium unguis.



Kari Lisa Johnson

I’m an award-winning playwright with a penchant for wordplay. After earning a perfect score on the Writing SAT, I worked my way through Brown University by moonlighting as a Kaplan Test Prep tutor. I received a BA with honors in Literary Arts (Playwriting)—which gave me the opportunity to study under Pulitzer Prize-winner Paula Vogel. In my previous roles as new media producer with Rosetta Stone, director of marketing for global ventures with The Juilliard School, and vice president of digital strategy with Up & Coming Media, I helped develop the voice for international brands. From my home office in Maui, Hawaii, I currently work on freelance and ghostwriting projects.

Recent Posts

Patent Meaning: Here’s What It Means and How to Use It

Patent Meaning: Here’s What It Means and How to Use It

report writing in case study

Republic Meaning: Here’s What It Means and How to Use It

Rickrolled Meaning: Here’s What It Means and How to Use It

Rickrolled Meaning: Here’s What It Means and How to Use It

report writing in case study

Platonic Meaning: Here’s What It Means and How to Use It

Essay Assignment Writing Tips for Students of MBA, Masters, PhD Level

How to Write a Case Study Report Sample?

Share on Facebook

The colleges and universities commonly give the case study reports to the students for testing their analytical skills. In a case study, a specific industry-related issue is given to solve. It needs a lot of professional touches and experience to write a good case study report.

report writing in case study

Investigating as well writing the case study report needs certain specific stages. , To write the best case study report, you can seek an online Case Study Analysis Help Service . The various stages of case study report writing are discussed in this blog.

Various Stages of Writing a Case Study Report

1..  First, you need to read the case and the given instructions. Read the given checklist very carefully and take a printout

2..  Consider the analysis tools and theories that are applicable to the institution:

  • Your textbooks, course notes, as well readings need to indicate the methodology for the case study paper.
  • In the initial analysis, you need to identify the main problems in the case. Try to uncover the history of the given organization with successes and failures related to the case.
  • You can also use mind maps in such situation, using the problems, issues, and processes. By using the mind map, you can separate the problem elements and note down the major relationships.
  • If the documents, notes and the consequences of the given issues in the case give you the basic ideas to find the possible solutions.
  • There are several tools for case study analysis in Engineering and Management The student needs to evaluate all these tools and apply the best ones to address the given problem.
  • It is always a critical task to document your ideas and results. Thus, you need to record all your findings and your ideas in the case study report. You also need document all the specifications, calculations and testing that are related to the identification of the solutions given by you. A Case Study Assignment Help Online service can guide you in this regard.

3..  Making the recommendations and forming the conclusions

  • Recommendations are the clear statements in textual or table formats of the actions that are to be taken for minimizing or solving the case study problems. The recommendations require an action plan for implementing any particular statement from a set of possible solutions for the future events.
  • The conclusions are usually drawn from your assessment and analysis. Sometimes, you might get confused in this part. Thus, a case study solutions online service can help you in this regard.

4..   Writing the Case Study Report:

  • Planning the report: Before starting the report writing, it is important for you to plan the report structure.
  • First, outline a mind-map or list format with main headings as well subheadings in your project. Then, you need to add all the ideas and notes to outline what you aim to achieve in each of the sections. Use this outline for considering what information is needed to be included. You can also change these outlines while developing more ideas. Finally, you can also convert these headings and subheadings into contents of your case study reports.
  • Schedule the writing time: You need to schedule a separate time slot for editing various sections of the case study paper. The Preliminary sections are the introduction and the executive summary. The supplementary sections are the appendices, reference list, and conclusions.

5..  Preparing the Draft Report:

  • Students need to write multiple drafts of their case study report and select the best from them. You need to plan very carefully and edit for ensuring the best professional standard of your case study report.
  • Revise your task: You can d this by keeping the reader’s needs as well the report objectives in your mind.
  • Try to be selective: This can be done by taking the notes including all the necessary dart and information gathered by you. Review these notes and select only the important and relevant sections.

6..  Preparing a Reference List : It is a list of all the sources referred to you in the case study report. You always need to refer your information sources to make your case study assignment a success.

7..  Preparing The Cover or Title Page: You need to check the course requirements of the case study content and make the layout of the cover/title page. Here the next thing is required to be included:

  • Institutions where the author is affiliated with
  • Name of the author
  • The course name along with code
  • Date of document submission

8..   The Final Editing: A final editing and proofreading are very necessary for your case study paper. It makes the writing flawless and fees for any mistakes. You need to allow a separate schedule for the editing work. It requires the following tasks:

  • Re-read your assignment guidelines for making the whole task fresh in mind. Reread the entire case study report to check the structure and flow.
  • Check every section of the report including, introduction, executive summary, and the conclusion.
  • Make all the necessary changes in the story if needed.

If you avail the number one case study homework help online service from the top provider, the writing experts can help you with all the tips mentioned above.

Writing proper case study report is a critical task for students at any stream of study. It is a major task essentially for the MBA students with a marketing specialization. The case study report is to be written in a specific format and guideline. An Online MBA Case Study Help service can guide you in this regard.

You can also get a crystal clear ideal on how to write a perfect case study report from the case study assignment sample available for free on the official website of any reputed MBA assignment help online service provider.

Why to choose

We are the number one Case Study Solutions MBA , online service providers in the world. Our writers assure you of the top grades in your case study reports.

Please write report. Case study - Adventure tours australia digital...

Please write report.

Case study - Adventure tours australia digital strategy Adventure Tours Australia is a leading travel company based in Sydney, offering Adventure Tours Australia to various locations around the world. The company has a well-established digital strategy, which includes a website, social media, CRM and other digital elements. The business plan and marketing plan outline the main activities of the company including the digital component of operations. The current digital strategy is over two years old and contains DISCUSSION CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS

Answer & Explanation

Report on Adventure Tours Australia Digital Strategy

Introduction: Adventure Tours Australia is a prominent travel company headquartered in Sydney, specializing in offering adventure tours to diverse global destinations. In today's digital age, a robust digital strategy is imperative for the success and growth of any travel company. This report evaluates Adventure Tours Australia's existing digital strategy, assesses its effectiveness, and provides recommendations for improvement.


Current Digital Strategy: Adventure Tours Australia's digital strategy encompasses various components, including a website, social media presence, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system, and other digital assets. This strategy has been in place for over two years and plays a vital role in the company's operations.

Website: The company's website serves as a central hub for customers to explore tour offerings, make bookings, and access essential information. It is user-friendly and well-designed, enhancing the user experience. However, it is essential to regularly update content, ensure mobile responsiveness, and optimize for search engines (SEO) to maintain its effectiveness.

Social Media: Adventure Tours Australia maintains an active presence on popular social media platforms, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. These channels are crucial for engaging with the audience, sharing travel stories, and showcasing destinations. However, content consistency and a robust social media calendar could enhance the strategy's impact.

CRM System: The CRM system aids in managing customer relationships, tracking interactions, and personalizing marketing efforts. It is effective in retaining customers and fostering loyalty. Regular data analysis can help identify trends and further improve the customer experience.

Marketing Plan: The digital strategy is well-aligned with the broader business and marketing plans, ensuring that online activities complement overall goals and objectives.

Conclusion: Adventure Tours Australia's current digital strategy is commendable, with a strong online presence, an engaging website, and effective CRM utilization. However, in the ever-evolving digital landscape, periodic updates and enhancements are essential to stay competitive.


  • Content Refresh: Regularly update website content to reflect current offerings, prices, and promotions. Implement an SEO strategy to improve organic search visibility.
  • Social Media Calendar: Develop a comprehensive social media calendar to ensure consistent and engaging content across platforms. Leverage user-generated content and storytelling.
  • Data Analysis: Invest in data analytics tools to gain insights into customer behavior, preferences, and trends. Use this information to tailor marketing efforts and tour offerings.
  • Mobile Optimization: Ensure the website is fully optimized for mobile devices to capture the growing mobile user market.
  • Innovative Technologies: Explore emerging technologies such as Virtual Reality (VR) or Augmented Reality (AR) to provide immersive experiences to potential customers.
  • Customer Feedback: Collect and act upon customer feedback to continuously improve the digital experience and tour offerings.
  • Competitor Analysis: Regularly assess competitors' digital strategies and identify opportunities for differentiation.

Conclusion: Adventure Tours Australia's digital strategy has a strong foundation but requires continuous evolution to meet changing customer expectations and industry trends. By implementing these recommendations, the company can maintain its competitive edge and continue providing exceptional adventure tour experiences to travelers worldwide.

Introduction: In this introductory section, the report sets the stage by introducing Adventure Tours Australia, emphasizing the significance of a well-structured digital strategy for a travel company. It hints at the key components of the report, which include evaluating the current digital strategy, discussing its effectiveness, and providing recommendations.

Current Digital Strategy: Here, the report begins its analysis by outlining the various facets of Adventure Tours Australia's existing digital strategy. It emphasizes that the strategy has been in operation for over two years and is a crucial element of the company's operations.

Website: The discussion then delves into the company's website, highlighting its central role in customer engagement and bookings. The report mentions specific attributes of the website, such as user-friendliness and design quality. It also provides suggestions for improvement, stressing the importance of regular content updates, mobile responsiveness, and search engine optimization (SEO).

Social Media: Moving on, the report evaluates the company's presence on social media platforms. It acknowledges the value of these channels for engaging with the audience and showcasing destinations. However, it identifies a potential area for enhancement, which is content consistency and the need for a structured social media calendar.

CRM System: The report recognizes the significance of Adventure Tours Australia's Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system in managing customer relationships. It notes its effectiveness in retaining customers but also hints at the need for continuous data analysis to further improve customer experiences.

Marketing Plan: This section applauds the alignment between the digital strategy and broader business and marketing plans, emphasizing that online activities support overall objectives.

Conclusion: In the conclusion, the report provides a succinct summary of its findings. It acknowledges the effectiveness of the current digital strategy but also underscores the necessity for periodic updates to stay competitive in the dynamic digital landscape.

Recommendations: This part of the report presents actionable suggestions for enhancing the digital strategy:

  • Content Refresh: It recommends keeping website content up to date and optimizing for SEO.
  • Social Media Calendar: The report suggests creating a structured social media calendar for consistent and engaging content.
  • Data Analysis: It advises investing in data analytics to gain insights into customer behavior.
  • Mobile Optimization: Ensuring the website's mobile optimization to cater to mobile users is proposed.
  • Innovative Technologies: The report suggests exploring emerging technologies like VR or AR for immersive experiences.
  • Customer Feedback: It stresses the importance of collecting and acting upon customer feedback.
  • Competitor Analysis: Regularly analyzing competitors' strategies to identify differentiation opportunities is recommended.

Conclusion: The report concludes by reiterating the need for the digital strategy's continuous evolution to meet changing customer expectations and industry trends. It highlights that implementing the recommendations will enable Adventure Tours Australia to maintain competitiveness and provide exceptional travel experiences.

In essence, this report follows a structured format, providing an introduction, detailed discussion, recommendations, and a concluding summary. It maintains a balance between acknowledging the current strengths of the digital strategy and offering actionable steps for improvement, making it a valuable resource for Adventure Tours Australia's digital strategy assessment and enhancement.

Related Q&A

  • Q calculations with no explosions are not acceptpal please        . WPS Office W takehomequiz2..5fall2023ques Q X - Sign i... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q Writing Persuasive Messages Assignment:    A persuasive message is a central email that intrigues, informs, convinces, o... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q  . Suppose that at each birth, having a girl is not as likely as having a boy. The probability assignments for Number of... Answered 17d ago
  • Q This is using the 6809 Assembly language. Here is a link to the 6809 assembly tables provided by the professor: https://... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q Mr. D.S. has been admitted to the neurology ICU for the past four days. His neurological status has not improved. He is ... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q here is the link to the article : Answered 5d ago
  • Q Set up a resource file consisting of songs, fingerplays, movement activity ideas games, etc. This will be a collection o... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q Psych 105 Guided Learning Questions  Lesson 6 Get a (psychology) Job!  What is the difference between aligned and misali... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q  . A sample of size n = 47 has sample mean x = $7.6 and sample standard deviation s = 9.5. Part: 0 / 2 Part 1 of 2 (a) C... Answered 62d ago
  • Q Do you think that Thoman provides good support for her point of view about how advertisements affect our everyday lives?... Answered 32d ago
  • Q Help needed on 28 and 29  . Dose of drug 0.225 mmHg _ _ __ _ 1 (Limin) 1' Rate of blood flow from the heart I Blood pres... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q Apply some certain consumer behavior theories including concepts and models to analyze the evidence of TESLA Company cur... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q Explain three self-leadership approaches that John F. Kennedy and Dwight D. Eisenhower may need to improve and whose beh... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q What are the adult principle of learning? 2 points     Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and skills.     Le... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q Reflect on bias regarding using a collective bargaining agreement and its impact on union and nonunion workers' position... Answered over 90d ago
  • Q Could you please answer the following questions? Thanks a lot!!!  . Problem . Name the following IUPAC naming ) -CI . Dr... Answered over 90d ago
  • googletag.cmd.push(function () { googletag.display('footerCliffsnotesAd'); }); CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. About CliffsNotes


  1. 7+ Case Study Report Templates in Google Docs

    report writing in case study

  2. 49 Free Case Study Templates ( + Case Study Format Examples + )

    report writing in case study

  3. 😀 Sample medical case study template. Transcribed Medical Transcription

    report writing in case study

  4. FREE 47+ Report Format Samples in PDF

    report writing in case study

  5. Case Study Report Format Guideline

    report writing in case study

  6. 🏷️ Case study paper format. Medical Case Study. 2022-11-16

    report writing in case study



  2. report writing part1(2)

  3. Report Writing ( Part

  4. 19 AUGUST 2023 #Exam Writing Case Note With Answer

  5. 1 6 Writing 6 Report Writing

  6. Report writing tips of a psychosocial assessment @marymashaba6528


  1. Writing a Case Study

    A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions.

  2. Case Report

    An article that describes and interprets an individual case, often written in the form of a detailed story. Case reports often describe: Unique cases that cannot be explained by known diseases or syndromes. Cases that show an important variation of a disease or condition. Cases that show unexpected events that may yield new or useful information.

  3. Guideline on writing a case report

    Case report, with its main components, should be focused and delivers a clear message. In this article, the key components of a case report were described with the aim of providing guidance to novice authors to improve the quality of their reporting. Keywords: Case report, education, guideline, publication, research, writing Go to: INTRODUCTION

  4. Writing a Case Study Analysis

    Writing a Case Study Analysis A case study analysis requires you to investigate a business problem, examine the alternative solutions, and propose the most effective solution using supporting evidence. Preparing the Case Before you begin writing, follow these guidelines to help you prepare and understand the case study:

  5. Writing a case report in 10 steps

    First steps Begin by sitting down with your medical team to discuss the interesting aspects of the case and the learning points to highlight. Ideally, a registrar or middle grade will mentor you and give you guidance. Another junior doctor or medical student may also be keen to be involved.

  6. What Is a Case Study?

    Step 1: Select a case Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions, you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to: Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories

  7. Guidelines To Writing A Clinical Case Report

    The most common reasons for publishing a case are the following: 1) an unexpected association between diseases or symptoms; 2) an unexpected event in the course observing or treating a patient; 3) findings that shed new light on the possible pathogenesis of a disease or an adverse effect; 4) unique or rare features of a disease; 5) unique therap...

  8. How to write case reports

    About this video. Case reports provide valuable information by throwing light on rare and unusual clinical presentations, symptoms or diseases. They show doctors how fellow practitioners have acted in similar situations and thus aid in the decision-making process by sharing best practices. The importance of case reports is resonated in the ...

  9. Writing a case

    Writing a case. Farooqui, S., 2021. A Short Guide to Writing and Teaching Inclusive Cases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Developed by 2020-2021 Harvard Chan Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Fellow Sana Farooqui (MPH 2021), this guide provides suggestions for case writers and course instructors on writing and selecting cases ...

  10. Case study

    The case can refer to a real-life or hypothetical event, organisation, individual or group of people and/or issue. Depending upon your assignment, you will be asked to develop solutions to problems or recommendations for future action. Generally, a case study is either formatted as an essay or a report. If it is the latter, your assignment is ...

  11. How To Write a Case Study: Definition, Tips and Example

    Updated May 10, 2023 A case study proposes, examines and resolves a problem, and many companies use case studies as evidence to demonstrate the value of a product or service. Case studies are common in industries like health care to help doctors provide better care.

  12. Writing a Case Analysis Paper

    Case analysis is a problem-based teaching and learning method that involves critically analyzing complex scenarios within an organizational setting for the purpose of placing the student in a "real world" situation and applying reflection and critical thinking skills to contemplate appropriate solutions, decisions, or recommended courses of action.

  13. How to Write a Case Study

    Proofreading and editing your draft. After writing a draft, the case study writer or team should have 2-3 people, unfamiliar with the draft, read it over. These people should highlight any words or sentences they find confusing. They can also write down one or two questions that they still have after reading the draft.

  14. Writing A Case Report

    How do I write a case report? Once you identify a case and have learned what information to include in the case report, try to find a previously published case report. Finding published case reports in a similar field will provide examples to guide you through the process of writing a case report.

  15. PDF 10. Guideline and Template for Writing a Case Report/Case Series

    By following these ten steps, you now have a complete set of notes and references for your case report. What you need to do next is put it all together and format it as a case report. This time you will arrange your manuscript differently. Part Two: Writing your second draft Step 11: Start by writing the entire text and listing the references.

  16. How to Write a Case Study: from Outline to Examples

    February 15, 2023 11 min read What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation.

  17. PDF How to write a case study

    How to write a case study This guide explains how to write a descriptive case study. A descriptive case study describes how an organization handled a specific issue. Case studies can vary in length and the amount of details provided. They can be fictional or based on true events. Why should you write one? Case studies can help others (e.g ...

  18. Write Online: Case Study Report Writing Guide

    Summary of Resources. Within this section, we have provided you with. our sample case study report, typical structure of a case study report, all of the handouts found within this guide, external links and resources, and. activities and exercises. Prepared by.

  19. Write Online: Case Study Report Writing Guide

    The case study report template provided will give you with a method for presenting your case study project as well as specific strategies to help with presenting the various sections. Case Study Report Outline Template. This outline sample of a Case Study Report should serve as a useful guide to help you get started. Download PDF.

  20. How to Write a Case Study (+10 Examples & Free Template!)

    1. Make it as easy as possible for the client. Just like when asking for reviews, it's important to make the process as clear and easy as possible for the client. When you reach out, ask if you can use their story of achievement as a case study for your business. Make the details as clear as possible, including:

  21. Case Study Report: Difine, Structure and How To Write

    Case report study is a document that reflects the execution of the research program, contains the data obtained, their analysis, conclusions and practical recommendations flowing from them. Careful analysis (and not just a description) of the figures and facts obtained is the main task, or rather, the purpose of the report.

  22. How to Write a Case Report

    A case report must be written in a concise, streamlined style. Usually, a case report consists of the following elements: Title | The title should contain relevant keywords so that readers can find the report through open access search engines like PubMed and Google Scholar . Abstract | In 100 words or less, the author describes the subject of ...

  23. How To Write a Case Report in 7 Steps (And Why They Are Important)

    A case report is a document that defines and details a certain symptom, illness, injury, diagnosis, treatment or recovery of a patient. Many students, doctors or nurses may write case reports when they notice a patient undergoing an unusual medical experience. A medical student or professional may choose to publish a case report for certain reasons, including:

  24. How to Write a Case Study Report Sample?

    Various Stages of Writing a Case Study Report 1.. First, you need to read the case and the given instructions. Read the given checklist very carefully and take a printout 2.. Consider the analysis tools and theories that are applicable to the institution:

  25. Please write report. Case study

    Please write report. Case study - Adventure tours australia digital strategy Adventure Tours Australia is a leading travel company based in Sydney, offering Adventure Tours Australia to various locations around the world. The company has a well-established digital strategy, which includes a website, social media, CRM and other digital elements.