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What Is Project Management?

A project is an undertaking by one or more people to develop and create a service, product or goal. Project management is the process of overseeing, organizing and guiding an entire project from start to finish. Here are more facts about project management.

Project Management Helps Teams Work Together

A competent project manager pulls together all of the people involved in a project to ensure that tasks are done cooperatively and with regard to the tasks’ effects on other people’s project outcomes. For example, when a new building is being constructed, a project manager will schedule electrical wiring installation before scheduling installation of light fixtures and electrical equipment. If the lighting crew is scheduled before the structure is wired, the lighting crew wastes time arriving on site only to find they can’t perform their work.

Project managers also schedule meetings between various teams to foster cooperation and increased communication about projects. In the example above, the project manager may schedule a meeting during which the electricians explain the wiring, wall-switch operation and receptacle layout to the lighting contractors. Both teams communicate their needs and concerns to help the project move forward without delays.

Project Management Performs Vital Processes

According to the Project Management Institute, five main management processes are used to see a project through to completion. The five processes are:

  • Monitoring and controlling

At the initiating phase, key individuals share ideas about a proposed project. In the planning stages, the project is defined and schedules are created to complete the project in a defined time frame. Execution of the project requires organizing and scheduling supplies, materials and workers to complete the project. Monitoring and controlling in project management is the process of inspecting work, crunching budget numbers and keeping track of deadlines. Closing the project involves site cleanup, turning over the project to the owner, collecting payments and scheduling meetings to discuss the lessons learned from a project.

Project Management Focuses on Key Areas of Knowledge

Project management draws on a diverse set of skills. While project managers don’t need to have in-depth knowledge of all key skill areas, they do need to have a basic understanding of the limitations and concerns of each knowledge area. Project managers need to view a project in its entirety and understand the relationships between costs, quality, supply procurement, human resources, communication, risk management and stakeholder management.

Project Management Requires Document Management

A competent project manager organizes all documentation including invoices, e-mails, bids, proposals, permits, and project changes. The project manager ensures documents are submitted on time and to the correct businesses, agencies or individuals. The project manager is also responsible for secure storage of all project documents.

Project Management Helps Meet Goals

Project management is a relatively new field of practice and study but has become a proven method to meet lofty goals and bring diverse groups of people together for a common purpose.


project on marketing management wikipedia

Marketing management

From wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Marketing management is a business discipline which is focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firm's marketing resources and activities. Marketing managers are often responsible for influencing the level, timing, and composition of customer demand accepted definition of the term. In part, this is because the role of a marketing manager can vary significantly based on a business' size, corporate culture , and industry context. For example, in a large consumer products company, the marketing manager may act as the overall general manager of his or her assigned product [ 1 ]

From this perspective, the scope of marketing management is quite broad. The implication of such a definition is that any activity or resource the firm uses to acquire customers and manage the company's relationships with them is within the purview of marketing management. Additionally, the Kotler and Keller definition encompasses both the development of new products and services and their delivery to customers.

Marketing expert Regis McKenna expressed a similar viewpoint in his influential 1991 Harvard Business Review article "Marketing is Everything." McKenna argued that because marketing management encompasses all factors that influence a company's ability to deliver value to customers, it must be "all-pervasive, part of everyone's job description, from the receptionists to the Board of Directors." [ 2 ]

This view is also consistent with the perspective of management guru Peter Drucker , who wrote: "Because the purpose of business is to create a customer, the business enterprise has two--and only these two--basic functions: marketing and innovation. Marketing and innovation produce results; all the rest are costs. Marketing is the distinguishing, unique function of the business." [ 3 ]

But because many businesses operate with a much more limited definition of marketing, such statements can appear controversial, or even ludicrous to some business executives. This is especially true in those companies where the marketing department is responsible for little more than developing sales brochures and executing advertising campaigns.

The broader, more sophisticated definitions of marketing management from Drucker, Kotler and other scholars are therefore juxtaposed against the narrower operating reality of many businesses. The source of confusion here is often that inside any given firm, the term marketing management may be interpreted to mean whatever the marketing department happens to do, rather than a term that encompasses all marketing activities -- even those marketing activities that are actually performed by other departments, such as the sales, finance, or operations departments. [ 4 ] If, for example, the finance department of a given company makes pricing decisions (for deals, proposals, contracts, etc.), that finance department has responsibility for an important component of marketing management – pricing.

[ edit ] Activities and functions

Marketing management therefore encompasses a wide variety of functions and activities, although the marketing department itself may be responsible for only a subset of these. Regardless of the organizational unit of the firm responsible for managing them, marketing management functions and activities include the following:

[ edit ] Marketing research and analysis

In order to make fact-based decisions regarding marketing strategy and design effective, cost-efficient implementation programs, firms must possess a detailed, objective understanding of their own business and the market in which they operate. [ 5 ] In analyzing these issues, the discipline of marketing management often overlaps with the related discipline of strategic planning .

Traditionally, marketing analysis was structured into three areas: Customer analysis, Company analysis, and Competitor analysis (so-called "3Cs" analysis). More recently, it has become fashionable in some marketing circles to divide these further into certain five "Cs": Customer analysis, Company analysis, Collaborator analysis, Competitor analysis, and analysis of the industry Context.

The focus of customer analysis is to develop a scheme for market segmentation , breaking down the market into various constituent groups of customers, which are called customer segments or market segments. Marketing managers work to develop detailed profiles of each segment, focusing on any number of variables that may differ among the segments: demographic, psychographic, geographic, behavioral, needs-benefit, and other factors may all be examined. Marketers also attempt to track these segments' perceptions of the various products in the market using tools such as perceptual mapping .

In company analysis, marketers focus on understanding the company's cost structure and cost position relative to competitors, as well as working to identify a firm's core competencies and other competitively distinct company resources . Marketing managers may also work with the accounting department to analyze the profits the firm is generating from various product lines and customer accounts. The company may also conduct periodic brand audits to assess the strength of its brands and sources of brand equity . [ 6 ]

The firm's collaborators may also be profiled, which may include various suppliers, distributors and other channel partners, joint venture partners, and others. An analysis of complementary products may also be performed if such products exist.

Marketing management employs various tools from economics and competitive strategy to analyze the industry context in which the firm operates. These include Porter's five forces , analysis of strategic groups of competitors, value chain analysis and others. [ 7 ] Depending on the industry, the regulatory context may also be important to examine in detail.

In Competitor analysis, marketers build detailed profiles of each competitor in the market, focusing especially on their relative competitive strengths and weaknesses using SWOT analysis . Marketing managers will examine each competitor's cost structure, sources of profits, resources and competencies, competitive positioning and product differentiation , degree of vertical integration , historical responses to industry developments, and other factors.

Marketing management often finds it necessary to invest in research to collect the data required to perform accurate marketing analysis. As such, they often conduct market research (alternately marketing research ) to obtain this information. Marketers employ a variety of techniques to conduct market research, but some of the more common include:

  • Qualitative marketing research , such as focus groups
  • Quantitative marketing research , such as statistical surveys
  • Experimental techniques such as test markets
  • Observational techniques such as ethnographic (on-site) observation

Marketing managers may also design and oversee various environmental scanning and competitive intelligence processes to help identify trends and inform the company's marketing analysis.

[ edit ] Marketing strategy

Once the company has obtained an adequate understanding of the customer base and its own competitive position in the industry, marketing managers are able to make key strategic decisions and develop a marketing strategy designed to maximize the revenues and profits of the firm. The selected strategy may aim for any of a variety of specific objectives, including optimizing short-term unit margins, revenue growth, market share , long-term profitability, or other goals.

To achieve the desired objectives, marketers typically identify one or more target customer segments which they intend to pursue. Customer segments are often selected as targets because they score highly on two dimensions: 1) The segment is attractive to serve because it is large, growing, makes frequent purchases, is not price sensitive (i.e. is willing to pay high prices), or other factors; and 2) The company has the resources and capabilities to compete for the segment's business, can meet their needs better than the competition, and can do so profitably. [ 5 ] In fact, a commonly cited definition of marketing is simply "meeting needs profitably." [ 8 ]

The implication of selecting target segments is that the business will subsequently allocate more resources to acquire and retain customers in the target segment(s) than it will for other, non-targeted customers. In some cases, the firm may go so far as to turn away customers that are not in its target segment. The doorman at a swanky nightclub, for example, may deny entry to unfashionably dressed individuals because the business has made a strategic decision to target the "high fashion" segment of nightclub patrons.

In conjunction with targeting decisions, marketing managers will identify the desired positioning they want the company, product, or brand to occupy in the target customer's mind. This positioning is often an encapsulation of a key benefit the company's product or service offers that is differentiated and superior to the benefits offered by competitive products. [ 9 ] For example, Volvo has traditionally positioned its products in the automobile market in North America in order to be perceived as the leader in "safety", whereas BMW has traditionally positioned its brand to be perceived as the leader in "performance."

Ideally, a firm's positioning can be maintained over a long period of time because the company possesses, or can develop, some form of sustainable competitive advantage . [ 10 ] The positioning should also be sufficiently relevant to the target segment such that it will drive the purchasing behavior of target customers. [ 9 ]

[ edit ] Implementation planning

After the firm's strategic objectives have been identified, the target market selected, and the desired positioning for the company, product or brand has been determined, marketing managers focus on how to best implement the chosen strategy. Traditionally, this has involved implementation planning across the "4Ps" of marketing: Product management , Pricing, Place (i.e. sales and distribution channels), and Promotion .

Taken together, the company's implementation choices across the 4Ps are often described as the marketing mix , meaning the mix of elements the business will employ to "go to market" and execute the marketing strategy. The overall goal for the marketing mix is to consistently deliver a compelling value proposition that reinforces the firm's chosen positioning, builds customer loyalty and brand equity among target customers, and achieves the firm's marketing and financial objectives.

Ngalax said that,

In many cases, marketing management will develop a marketing plan to specify how the company will execute the chosen strategy and achieve the business' objectives. The content of marketing plans varies from firm to firm, but commonly includes:

  • An executive summary
  • Situation analysis to summarize facts and insights gained from market research and marketing analysis
  • The company's mission statement or long-term strategic vision
  • A statement of the company's key objectives, often subdivided into marketing objectives and financial objectives
  • The marketing strategy the business has chosen, specifying the target segments to be pursued and the competitive positioning to be achieved
  • Implementation choices for each element of the marketing mix (the 4Ps)

[ edit ] Project, process, and vendor management

Once the key implementation initiatives have been identified, marketing managers work to oversee the execution of the marketing plan. Marketing executives may therefore manage any number of specific projects, such as sales force management initiatives, product development efforts, channel marketing programs and the execution of public relations and advertising campaigns. Marketers use a variety of project management techniques to ensure projects achieve their objectives while keeping to established schedules and budgets.

More broadly, marketing managers work to design and improve the effectiveness of core marketing processes , such as new product development , brand management , marketing communications , and pricing. Marketers may employ the tools of business process reengineering to ensure these processes are properly designed, and use a variety of process management techniques to keep them operating smoothly.

Effective execution may require management of both internal resources and a variety of external vendors and service providers, such as the firm's advertising agency . Marketers may therefore coordinate with the company's Purchasing department on the procurement of these services.

[ edit ] Organizational management and leadership

Marketing management usually requires leadership of a department or group of professionals engaged in marketing activities. Often, this oversight will extend beyond the company's marketing department itself, requiring the marketing manager to provide cross-functional leadership for various marketing activities. This may require extensive interaction with the human resources department on issues such as recruiting, training, leadership development, performance appraisals , compensation, and other topics.

Marketing management may spend a fair amount of time building or maintaining a marketing orientation for the business. Achieving a market orientation, also known as "customer focus" or the "marketing concept", requires building consensus at the senior management level and then driving customer focus down into the organization. Cultural barriers may exist in a given business unit or functional area that the marketing manager must address in order to achieve this goal. Additionally, marketing executives often act as a "brand champion" and work to enforce corporate identity standards across the enterprise.

In larger organizations, especially those with multiple business units, top marketing managers may need to coordinate across several marketing departments and also resources from finance, research and development, engineering, operations, manufacturing, or other functional areas to implement the marketing plan. In order to effectively manage these resources, marketing executives may need to spend much of their time focused on political issues and inte-departmental negotiations.

The effectiveness of a marketing manager may therefore depend on his or her ability to make the internal "sale" of various marketing programs equally as much as the external customer's reaction to such programs. [ 8 ]

[ edit ] Reporting, measurement, feedback and control systems

Marketing management employs is a variety of metrics to measure progress against objectives. It is the responsibility of marketing managers – in the marketing department or elsewhere – to ensure that the execution of marketing programs achieves the desired objectives and does so in a cost-efficient manner.

Marketing management therefore often makes use of various organizational control systems, such as sales forecasts, sales force and reseller incentive programs, sales force management systems , and customer relationship management tools (CRM). Recently, some software vendors have begun using the term " marketing operations management " or " marketing resource management " to describe systems that facilitate an integrated approach for controlling marketing resources. In some cases, these efforts may be linked to various supply chain management systems, such as enterprise resource planning (ERP), material requirements planning (MRP), efficient consumer response (ECR), and inventory management systems.

Measuring the return on investment (ROI) of and marketing effectiveness various marketing initiatives is a significant problem for marketing management. Various market research, accounting and financial tools are used to help estimate the ROI of marketing investments. Brand valuation , for example, attempts to identify the percentage of a company's market value that is generated by the company's brands, and thereby estimate the financial value of specific investments in brand equity. Another technique, integrated marketing communications (IMC), is a CRM database-driven approach that attempts to estimate the value of marketing mix executions based on the changes in customer behavior these executions generate. [ 11 ]

[ edit ] See also

  • Predictive analytics
  • Strategic management
  • Enterprise Marketing Management
  • Marketing Effectiveness
  • Marketing performance measurement and management
  • Commercial operations management

[ edit ] References

  • ^ Marketing Management, 12th ed. . Pearson Prentice Hall . 2006. ISBN 0-13-145757-8 .  
  • ^ McKenna, Regis (January 1991). "Marketing is Everything". Harvard Business Review .  
  • ^ Drucker, Peter F. (1993 (reprint)). Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices . HarperCollins . ISBN 0-88730-615-2 .  
  • ^ Kotler, Philip (November 1977). "From Sales Obsession to Marketing Effectiveness". Harvard Business Review .  
  • ^ a b Clancy, Kevin J.; Peter C. Kriegafsd (2000). Counterintuitive Marketing . The Free Press . ISBN 0-684-85555-0 .  
  • ^ Keller, Kevin Lane (2002). Strategic Brand Management, 2nd ed. . Prentice Hall . ISBN 0-13-041150-7 .  
  • ^ Porter, Michael (1998). Competitive Strategy (revised ed.) . The Free Press . ISBN 0-684-84148-7 .  
  • ^ a b Kotler, Philip. ; Kevin Lane Keller (2006). Marketing Management, 12th ed. . Pearson Prentice Hall . ISBN 0-13-145757-8 .  
  • ^ a b Ries, Al ; Jack Trout (2000). Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind (20th anniversary ed.) . McGraw-Hill . ISBN 0-07-135916-8 .  
  • ^ Porter, Michael (1998). Competitive Advantage (revised ed.) . The Free Press . ISBN 0-684-84146-0 .  
  • ^ Schultz, Don E. ; Philip J. Kitchen (2000). Communicating Globally . Palgrave Macmillan . ISBN 0-333-92137-2 .  

[ edit ] Further reading

  • Lenskold, James D. (2003). The Path to Campaign, Customer, and Corporate Profitability by James D. Lenskold . McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0071413634 .,+Jim.+Marketing+ROI.+Marketing+ROI:+The+Path+to+Campaign,+Customer,+and+Corporate+Profitability+By+James+Lenskold&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 . Retrieved on 2008-11-03 .  
  • Patterson, Laura (2008). Marketing Metrics in Action: Creating a Performance-Driven Marketing Organization . Racom Communications. ISBN 1933199156 . . Retrieved on 2008-11-03 .  
  • Masi, R. J.; Weidner, C. K, AS (1995). Organizational culture, distribution and amount of control, and perceptions of quality. Group & Organization Management . doi : 10.1177/1059601195202004 .   2

[ edit ] External links

  • VisionEdge Marketing – Resources and case studies on marketing management
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10 Best Wiki Software Tools for Teams in 2023

Sofia Azevedo

September 21, 2023

Despite Wikipedia being the most well-known wiki on Earth, not all wikis are public.

Knowledge-sharing and transparency practices within organizations catapulted the use of internal corporate wikis. Now, any wiki is an easy-to-create repository of information in the form of a website. And all sorts of users can maintain one.

From business to IT teams, all of them can publish content on specific pages via wiki software. They can also comment on those pages and change the content published by others.

Companies use wikis as single sources of truth for corporate procedures and policies. They build knowledge bases and manage their documents with wiki software tools. But they also use wikis to describe team processes, specify project requirements , and onboard or train new hires.

Whatever use case you think of, knowledge in team members’ heads is useless unless they apply or share it. And software for wiki repositories is the conveyor belt for disseminating organizational knowledge.

Plus, wiki tools make finding that relevant information much easier and faster. Those tools come with search, authentication, access management, and version history features to organize knowledge across the company. So read on to learn more about the best wiki software, what it is, the best features to manage projects, and the various knowledge management types.

What Is Wiki Software?

What should you look for in a wiki software, 2. confluence, 3. zoho learn, 4. helpjuice, 8. document360, 10. google drive, types of wiki software.

Wiki software sustains the development and functioning of internal or external pages to be the go-to for company knowledge or documentation of a specific subject. That can also include creating, updating, organizing (or hyperlinking), and navigating content in wiki repositories online.

But wiki content creation, or update, is collaborative, so software for wiki sites supports team collaboration . And team members only need a Web browser for access permissions to allow them to create new pages within the wiki and edit existing pages other members created.

Companies use wiki software to build internal wikis for employees and external wikis for clients or users. For instance, an external wiki could contain helpful product instructions. Summing up, wiki tools enable you to centralize organizational or product knowledge.

HISTORY OF WIKIS Wikis have been around since March 25, 1995, when Howard G. “Ward” Cunningham, an American computer programmer, published the first wiki on his consultancy firm’s website. Cunningham had been programming the wiki software that sustained his wiki, called “WikiWikiWeb,” since 1994. Fun fact : “WikiWikiWeb” means “QuickQuickWeb” in Hawaiian.

Examples of content on self-hosted wiki software

And because self-hosted wiki software is online, team members, clients, or users can access a wiki platform anytime, anywhere. A company wiki or wiki engine usually includes:

  • Company information : Mission, vision, and values statements
  • Organizational chart : Company structure, department breakdowns, and employee directories
  • Employee handbooks : Company policies, benefits, rules, and terms
  • Brand guidelines : Tone, logos, color palettes, and press materials
  • Industry data : Competitive analysis and industry surveys or reports
  • Internal content : Best practices, guides, sales sheets, and product tutorials

We already mentioned a few features of wikis, but what should your business use? Wikis have to be tailored to your organization and navigatable for everyone—especially non-technical users. Here are a few features to consider:

  • Search functions : The best wiki software lets your team, clients, or users search and find the exact information—quickly. A company wiki must have an accurate search function and intent.
  • Navigation : Organized content hierarchies are essential for users to explore content on your wiki software and through things like wiki repositories for bidirectional linking .
  • Collaboration : Creating, editing, and always updating content is a must-have for wiki software. It should be simple to format, add content, and include images, links, or code.
  • Version history : The best wiki tools track all changes to your wiki pages to ensure accountability, which is crucial for open-source wiki software. It also allows you to safely revert back to previous versions.
  • Authentication and access management : Your wiki solution may not be a public wiki and include private company information. Or it could be a mixture of both, so whatever the case, you need a tool that can make sure sensitive content stays locked.
  • Integrations : Third-party integrations between your wiki software and other applications help connect data and analytics to your pages.
  • User documentation and support : If you need to host a help center, your wiki solution should be able to work as a centralized space for your users and your content.
  • Templates and customization : If designing your wiki from scratch is challenging and even discouraging, look for wiki tools with built-in templates.

Creating notes in ClickUp Docs

Wiki templates are a great resource to kickstart your knowledge hub. To ensure the sustained success of your team’s information on a wiki, establish a strong foundation with the help of the ClickUp Wiki Template . Use this template as a quick-start guide so your team will be prepared with a well-documented information hub.

The 10 Best Wiki Software to Bring to Your Organization

ClickUp Docs

Of course, we’d start with the best knowledge base software : ClickUp! It’s the all-in-one productivity platform with everything teams need to implement and manage wikis.

Sure, it’s a solution for all things project management and productivity, plus a built-in wiki software— ClickUp Docs . But here’s the thing: ClickUp is excellent if your projects and workflows are document-intensive.

Create whiteboards and docs in ClickUp and connect project tasks with them. Then, organize all those knowledge pieces and collaborate on them, real-time or not. SOPs, meeting notes, briefs, and requirement specifications—work on all of those with ClickUp Docs.

ClickUp best features

  • In-context documents Attach documents to the projects and tasks to which they’re relevant and access them from within the project or task.
  • Document relationships : Link to a document or task from within another document.
  • Nesting pages in documents : To organize your content, break documents into subpages nested within the parent document.
  • Archived documents : Instead of deleting documents, archive them. The platform will hide those documents, yet keep them so you can find them later if you need to.
  • Rich text formatting : When documents get long, organizing them with toggle lists, colored backgrounds, and columns is pretty effective.
  • Customized access rights : Protect your docs from unwanted edits by specific audiences.
  • Real-time editing : Collaborate live with your team on content and tag members in the comments.
  • Document categories : Tag documents with categories so you can easily access and find them.
  • Templates : Save frequently used documents as templates for later. (Check out these executive summary templates !)
  • Task creation : Convert comments into tasks and assign them to your team members.
  • Support for Markdown : Keyboard and Slash Commands format content with Markdown language.
  • Code-block formatting : Improve code readability in your documentation with syntax highlighting.

ClickUp limitations

  • ClickUp offers so many possibilities for customization that you might feel a bit overwhelmed at first.
  • You won’t find all ClickUp views on the mobile app (yet).

ClickUp pricing

  • Free Forever
  • Unlimited : $7 a user per month
  • Business : $12 a user per month
  • Enterprise : contact sales

ClickUp ratings and reviews

  • G2: 4.7/5 (6,000+ reviews)
  • Capterra: 4.7/5 (3,000+ reviews)

Confluence Knowledge Base Example

Confluence wikis provide teams with workspaces for knowledge sharing and aim to promote collaboration around that knowledge. The workspaces are appropriate for teams and projects of any size and type.

Also, Confluence suits not only mission-critical projects with high-rigor practices but also teams looking for a channel to leverage information transparency.

Compare Notion Vs Confluence , Confluence Vs Teams , & Confluence Vs Google Docs !

Confluence best features

  • Page tree : A hierarchical structure of spaces and pages makes finding content quick and easy.
  • Integration with Jira : Connect Jira issues to Confluence pages. On top of that, add Jira roadmaps to Confluence pages and get them updated in real-time with the Jira Roadmap macro.
  • Integration with Trello : Embed Trello cards and boards into Confluence pages and manage them in real-time just like you’d do in Trello. Conversely, attach Confluence pages to Trello cards so you can check page changes and comments in the context of tasks.
  • Real-time editing : Co-edit pages with team members in real-time.
  • Notifications: Tag teammates or entire teams and assign them tasks.
  • Personalized feed : Confluence customizes each user’s homepage to display the spaces they recently visited, their draft pages in progress, and page activity.
  • Blogs : Create blogs and publish blog posts in Confluence.
  • Labels : Apply labels to pages and attachments to speed up searching for the content you need and find related content.

Confluence limitations

  • The level of detail in error messages sometimes falls short of the users’ expectations.
  • Text-based search results for documents could be more accurate.
  • Some users reported difficulties in pasting content from Confluence pages in third-party software.

Confluence pricing

  • Free: for ten users (monthly subscription only)
  • Standard: $5.75 per user (estimated)
  • Premium: $11 per user (estimated)
  • Enterprise: contact sales

Confluence ratings and reviews

  • G2: 4.1/5 (3,000+ reviews)
  • Capterra: 4.4/5 (2,000+ reviews)

Find the best Confluence alternatives you should know about in our guide!


Zoho Wiki is Zoho’s wiki software to build knowledge repositories for teams. We must warn you, though, that Zoho Wiki’s features belong to a broader platform—Zoho Learn, a learning management system. But if you think about it, a knowledge base is nothing more than a learning repository, so the nesting makes sense.

Zoho Learn best features

  • Manuals and chapters : Structure information into manuals made of multiple knowledge articles related to a topic. And if the topic is complex enough, group articles into chapters within the manual.
  • Dedicated spaces : Organize articles and manuals in spaces dedicated to specific departments or teams.
  • Collaborative wiki editor : Team members with contributor-level access privileges co-edit articles in real-time.
  • Custom templates : Save articles as templates to reuse as a starting point for other articles.

Zoho Learn limitations

  • It doesn’t integrate with Zoho Desk, Zoho’s online customer service and helpdesk software solution, where some of Zoho’s clients keep customer knowledge.
  • It lacks a more comprehensive template repository.
  • The tool doesn’t support the assignment of multiple users to each space.

Zoho Learn pricing

  • Express: $1 per user per month
  • Professional: $3 per user per month

Zoho Learn ratings and reviews

  • G2: 4.3/5 (10 reviews)
  • Capterra: 4.5/5 (2 reviews)

HelpJuice Knowledge Base Software example

Helpjuice is a wiki software that positions itself as optimized for the customer service niche. They claim their tool helps companies scale their customer service via knowledge bases in two ways.

Customers check those hubs themselves instead of contacting technical support teams. And those teams rely on internal hubs to deliver the best customer service.

Helpjuice best features

  • Tailored search : Helpjuice developed a search engine from scratch, tailored to how users search in knowledge bases.
  • On-premise knowledge bases : Helpjuice designed various custom-made themes and hand-customize each client’s knowledge management bases .
  • Comprehensive analytics : Obtain actionable insights from Helpjuice Analytics, such as how many users read each article, who they are, what articles should go into the hub, and which articles need improvement.
  • Search engine optimization : By ranking high on Google, users get to Helpjuice pages by searching on Google for the information they seek.
  • Multilanguage support : Enable customer service worldwide with knowledge bases in multiple languages. Automatically translate content on Helpjuice with machine learning and Google Translate.
  • Real-time collaboration : Comment on articles and reply to article contributors live.

Helpjuice limitations

  • Article category management takes time to grasp.
  • The learning curve to understand some article templates is a little steep.
  • The administration interface would benefit from a visual design uplift.

Helpjuice pricing

  • Starter: $120 per month (up to 4 users)
  • Run-Up: $200 per month (up to 16 users)
  • Premium Limited: $289 per month (up to 60 users)
  • Premium Unlimited: $499 per month (unlimited users)

Helpjuice ratings and reviews

  • G2: 4.3/5 (16 reviews)
  • Capterra: 4.7/5 (92 reviews)

Slab Wiki Software Example

Slab markets itself as an enterprise wiki software well-suited to technical and non-technical teams. It’s best for companies with multiple teams who need visual wikis and formatting capabilities.

Slab best features

  • Visual design : Slab bet on offering content with a high visual appeal, reducing the need for extensive formatting.
  • Topics : Their wikis organize content by topic, facilitating knowledge browsing and discovering.
  • Unified search : Users searching for information on Slab wikis get results across Slab and all the tools Slab’s clients integrated with it.

Slab limitations

  • The hierarchy of projects and posts is unclear for beginners.
  • Cross-referencing specific headings in posts is a bit complex from an interaction design point of view.
  • Navigating between different topics is sometimes challenging.

Slab pricing

  • Startup: $6.67 per user per month
  • Business: $12.5 per user per month

Slab ratings and reviews

  • G2: 4.6/5 (200+ reviews)
  • Capterra: 4.8/5 (39 reviews)

GitBook Docs Product Example

GitBook developed Public Docs, a wiki software dedicated to publishing technical knowledge. Specially designed as a documentation platform, Public Docs is appropriate for sharing product documentation and building internal knowledge bases and APIs.

GitBook best features

  • Change requests : Track changes to each page, compare versions, merge, and revert changes.
  • Secure authentication : Customers and partners can view documentation securely through multiple authentication platforms and single sign-on.
  • Support for developer documentation . Include code blocks, videos, and live sandbox environments in your documentation.
  • Comments and discussions : Leave inline comments on pages and turn those comments into discussion threads.
  • Notifications : In-app and email notifications about new content, important changes to content, or changes in documents’ visibility.
  • Git Sync : Developer documentation synchronized with the corresponding codebases.

GitBook limitations

  • The platform doesn’t allow users to customize it that much.
  • The export function requires some improvement in terms of formatting.
  • GitBook doesn’t provide an onboarding experience and documentation tailored to beginners and users unfamiliar with Git.

GitBook pricing

  • Personal: $0
  • Plus: $6.7 per user per month
  • Pro: $12.5 per user per month

GitBook ratings and reviews

  • G2: 4.7/5 (81 reviews)
  • Capterra: 4.5/5 (15 reviews)

notion-docs example

Notion Wikis don’t target a specific industry niche or kind of documentation. Instead, they adapt to fit varied types of knowledge bases, such as company information pages and repositories for brand guidelines, engineering teams, and employee onboarding.

Notion best features

  • Versatility : Can meet the requirements of content teams with a high-production pace, large projects, and HR departments that need to centralize their training materials.
  • Synced Blocks : Automatic content updates change across all spaces.
  • Integrations : Slack, Figma, Jira, and more

Notion limitations

  • Sometimes, notifications are inaccurate.
  • Setting up recurring reminders for subtasks is a little daunting.
  • It doesn’t support recurring tasks and lacks task-oriented features.

Notion pricing

  • Plus: $8 per user per month
  • Business: $15 per user per month

Notion ratings and reviews

  • G2: 4.6/5 (1000+ reviews)
  • Capterra: 4.7/5 (1000+ reviews)

Looking for Notion alternatives ? Check out our extensive guide!

document360 example image

Document360 is an enterprise wiki software to build knowledge bases for the customers and employees of growing companies. And those knowledge bases can be anything from online user guides, tutorials, and release notes to FAQ pages, employee handbooks, and sales or marketing handbooks.

Document360 best features

  • Knowledge Base Assistant : A widget embeddable in SaaS products or websites shows Document360 knowledge bases on them.
  • Knowledge Base Portal : Enables content writers and content editors to work together in the same environment.
  • Integrations and extensions : Connect with help desks, chatbots, translation tools, analytics software, and team collaboration systems.
  • Platform API : API grants read and write access to knowledge bases.

Document360 limitations

  • The user interface isn’t that intuitive.
  • Users reported that the software is sometimes slow to edit or save articles.

Document360 pricing

  • Standard: $149 per project per month
  • Professional: $299 per project per month
  • Business: $399 per project per month
  • Enterprise: $599 per project per month
  • Enterprise Plus: contact sales

Document360 ratings and reviews

  • G2: 4.7/5 (325 reviews)
  • Capterra: 4.7/5 (157 reviews)

Nuclino Docs Product Example

Nuclino is a wiki software focused on simplicity. But whereas it’s clean and clutter-free, it’s also comprehensive enough to include project management features.

Nuclino best features

  • Support for Markdown : Format content with Markdown keyboard commands.
  • Auto-saving : Saves changes automatically and syncs content across devices.
  • Multiple views : Displays knowledge and documents organized in views, such as lists or graphs.
  • Export : Save content in varied formats, such as PDF, Word, and Markdown.

Nuclino limitations

  • Some Nuclino users don’t recommend the tool for large wikis.
  • It doesn’t integrate with project management software other than Jira.
  • The home pages of collections could benefit from being editable.

Nuclino pricing

  • Standard: $5 per user per month
  • Premium: $10 per user per month

Nuclino ratings and reviews

  • G2: 4.7/5 (20 reviews)
  • Capterra: 4.7/5 (49 reviews)

Bonus: Checkout the top 10 Nuclino Alternatives and Competitors

Google Drive Product Example

You might have never thought about Google Drive this way, but you can use it to create knowledge bases. In fact, a lot of companies use Google Drive as their wiki software to keep employees on the same page.

Google best features

  • Security : Built-in protections against malware, ransomware, and spam. It also provides encrypted access to files and scans documents for malware, ransomware, spam, and phishing.
  • Integrations : Connect with other Google products like Sheets, Docs, and Slides
  • Support for multiple file types : Edit PDF files and export documents to file types such as PDF.
  • Google Search : The search technology you rely on in Google is embedded in Drive.

Google limitations

  • For complex content, it’s better to work on a desktop computer instead of a mobile device, especially for the best wiki software options
  • There’s no end-to-end encryption, meaning Google can access the information stored in Drive.

Google pricing

  • For Personal: $0
  • Business Standard: $12 per user per month

Google ratings and reviews

  • Capterra: 4.8/5 (26,000+ reviews)

We classify software for wiki sites according to three criteria: who can access the wikis they underpin, the purpose of those wikis, and who maintains the wiki software. And these are the types:

Public or private wikis

Public wiki tools sustain public wikis, whereas private wiki tools power private wikis. And the difference between public and private wikis lies in how users access them and who those users are.

Public wikis—such as Wikipedia—are accessible to anyone online. On the other hand, private wikis—or internal wikis—are accessible to a limited number of people via authentication.

Companies use private wikis to share knowledge among their employees. But a company could also use public wikis to communicate product information with users and project information with clients.

Personal or corporate wikis

Similarly to public and private wiki software, personal and corporate wiki tools underpin personal or corporate wikis, respectively. Corporate wikis might serve a business purpose and belong to an organization but a wiki could serve a recreational purpose and belong to an individual.

Cloud-hosted or self-hosted wiki

If you pick a self-hosted wiki software, you must install it on your servers. You must also build a dedicated team of IT professionals to maintain it. And the team members must be able to customize and further develop open-source wiki software, which is costly.

However, hosting companies provide cloud-hosted wiki software, which is software as a service. Hosting providers ensure the security of the information you keep on your cloud-hosted wiki site. And they also maintain that software regularly by updating it and developing new features or improving existing ones.

Which Wiki Software is Best for Your Team?

Choosing the best wiki software tools is no small feat. You need complex wiki software for a more advanced and sophisticated user experience and knowledge hub.

It’s smart to choose your wiki software that best enables users to create and edit pages with ease, even for large and complex projects. That’s where ClickUp is key!

With powerful features such as version control, access control, and search capabilities, users can efficiently manage and navigate through a vast amount of information in ClickUp Docs.

Additionally, ClickUp works as a great wiki software option because it can provide advanced customization options, allowing users to tailor the platform to their specific needs and preferences.

Want to see how ClickUp works as your wiki? Create your free workspace today !

Questions? Comments? Visit our Help Center for support.

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What is Marketing Management?

project on marketing management wikipedia

Everything you need to know about marketing management. Marketing Management performs all managerial functions in the field of marketing.

Marketing Management identifies market opportunities and comes out with appropriate strategies for exploring those opportunities profitably.

It has to implement marketing programme and evaluate continuously the effectiveness of marketing-mix. It has to remove the deficiencies observed in the actual execution of marketing plans, policies, and procedures. It looks after the marketing system of the enterprise.

Management is the process of getting things done in an organised and efficient manner. Marketing management aims at efficient operation of marketing activities.


Marketing management smoothen the process of exchange of ownership of goods and services from seller to the buyer. Marketing management, like all other areas of management comprises of the function of planning, organising, directing coordinating and controlling.

Learn about:- 1. Definition of Marketing Management 2. Marketing Concept 3. Features 4. Importance 5. Functions 6. Process 7. Scope 8. Marketing Mix 9. Marketing Decision Making 10. Orientation 11. Issues.

What is Marketing Management: Introduction, Definition, Concept, Importance, Functions and Process

  • Introduction to Marketing Management
  • Definition of Marketing Management
  • Marketing Concept
  • Features of Marketing Management
  • Importance of Marketing Management
  • Functions of Marketing Management
  • Process of Marketing Management
  • Scope of Marketing Management
  • Marketing Mix
  • Marketing Decision Making
  • Marketing Management Orientation
  • Issues of Marketing Management

What is Marketing Management – Introduction

In considering how the individual selling unit in the marketing system operates, we will investigate the question- What is market­ing management? Some readers will be students who intend to be in marketing management, others already are marketing manag­ers, and still others may be in related activities that bear on mar­keting management in either a managerial or a regulative capacity.

To meet all their needs our main objective is to develop a structure, a “theory”, of managerial marketing around which they can organize their reading and experience in order to arrive at a better understanding of it.

This understanding can serve two objectives. First, it will help them obtain new insights from the experiences they will be acquir­ing on the job in the future. Inevitably they will develop from experience some such structure to serve this crucial need anyway, so they can profit from new experience and new knowledge. To acquire such a structure from experience alone, however, is a slow and often uncertain process. Formal education can help them to speed this up so they grow in marketing skill much faster.

Second, understanding of marketing management will permit a better grasp of the role of marketing in economic development, which many countries are so earnestly seeking. This structure is culture- free and can be applied to any environment. In general, study of marketing management leads to a better evaluation of marketing activity in terms of its performance in meeting the consumer’s needs.

Marketing management is the process of decision making, planning, and controlling the marketing aspects of a company in terms of the marketing concept, somewhere within the marketing system. Before proceeding to examine some of the details of this process, com­ments on two aspects will be helpful background.

The marketing concept is simple in principle but often very diffi­cult, if not impossible, to fully implement. Adam Smith’s com­ment cited above is most consistent with it. The concept is that a company can more effectively serve its own objectives if it will integrate the various aspects of its marketing activities explicitly so as to meet the preferences of its customers.

To one unfamiliar with company practice the need for implementing the concept and the capacity to do it would seem to be so obvious as not to merit discussion.

This process of marketing management takes place “some­where” within the marketing system. Having seen the marketing system portrayed, you know that “somewhere” can be within any of the many, many companies—manufacturing, wholesaling and retailing—that make it up. Marketing management is practiced in every one of them.

Assume, to simplify, that we are concerned only with the man­ufacturing level in a direct sense because the manager we are considering occupies a marketing management position there.

What is the nature of each of the three elements making up the marketing management process – decision making, planning, and control?

What is Marketing Management – Definition: Provided by Institute of Marketing Management and Philip Kotler

Traditionally, markets were viewed as a place for exchange of goods and services between sellers and buyers to the mutual benefit of both. Today, marketing is exchange of values between the seller and the buyer. Value implies worth related to the goods and services being exchanged. The buyer will be ready to pay for the goods if they have some value for him.

Marketing is the business function that controls the level and composition of demand in the market. It deals with creating and maintaining demand for goods and services of the organization.

Marketing management is “planning, organising, controlling and implementing of marketing programmes, policies, strategies and tactics designed to create and satisfy the demand for the firms’ product offerings or services as a means of generating an acceptable profit.”

It deals with creating and regulating the demand and providing goods to customers for which they are willing to pay a price worth their value.

Marketing Management performs all managerial functions in the field of marketing. Marketing Management identifies market opportunities and comes out with appropriate strategies for exploring those opportunities profitably. It has to implement marketing programme and evaluate continuously the effectiveness of marketing-mix. It has to remove the deficiencies observed in the actual execution of marketing plans, policies, and procedures. It looks after the marketing system of the enterprise.

Institute of Marketing Management, England, has defined Marketing Management as “Marketing Management is the creative management function which promotes trade and employment by assessing consumer needs and initiating research and development to meet them. It co-ordinates the resources of production and distribution of goods and services, determines and directs the total efforts required to sell profitably to ultimate user”.

According to Philip Kotler, “Marketing Management is the art and science of choosing target markets and building profitable relationship with them. Marketing management is a process involving analysis, planning, implementing and control and it covers goods, services, ideas and the goal is to produce satisfaction to the parties involved”.

From the above definitions, we can conclude that Marketing Management is the process of management of marketing programmes for accomplishing organizational goals and objectives.

Marketing Management Involves:

1. The setting of marketing goals and objectives,

2. Developing the marketing plan,

3. Organising the marketing function,

4. Putting the marketing plan into action and

5. Controlling the marketing programme.

Marketing Management is both a science as well as an art. Those responsible for marketing should have good understanding of the various concepts and practices in marketing, communication, and analytical skills and ability to maintain effective relationship with customers, which will enable them to plan and execute marketing plans.

Continuous practice in the areas of personal selling, sales promotion, advertising, etc. would enable them to become artists. Scientific and artistic aspects of marketing would influence each other, leading to a new generation of marketing managers.

What is Marketing Management – Concept

This concept advocates that a manufacturer should begin his task with the consumer focus. He has to primarily study the consumer and understand the needs, desires, requirements and conveniences of the latter. A manufacturer should design a new product or improve an existing one strictly keeping in mind the needs, desires etc. of the consumer. The product should exactly satisfy the consumer.

Therefore, a manufacturer should design and manufacture a product which will be accepted by the consumer rather than the one which can be manufactured by him easily. A consumer is basically fastidious and fickle minded. This makes that task of understanding the consumer and designing an appropriate product much more difficult, however this is the only way a manufacturer can succeed in a competitive market.

Selling should be preceded by customer study, marketing research and product development. The entire focus should be on the consumer and his needs.

“There will always, one can assume, be need for some selling. But the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the consumer so well that that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. All that should be needed then is to make the product or service available” – Peter Drucker.

This concept is also called customer orientation.

The marketing concept which is also called the modern marketing concept as practised by most of the firms in the present situation is actually a combination of all the other concepts. The modern marketing concept consists of an integrated effort on the part of the marketer to identify the consumer needs and satisfy them through appropriately designed products and for this task use all the marketing techniques related to product, selling, market study, consumer behavior, product designing, pricing etc.

“The Marketing concept is a customer orientation backed by integrated marketing aimed at generating customer satisfaction as the key to satisfying organizational goals”. – Philip Kotler

“Modern marketing concept is a corporate state of mind that insists on the integration and co-ordination of all marketing functions which in turn are welded with the other corporate functions for the basic objective of producing maximum long range corporate profits.” -Felton

The following are the features of marketing concept (modern marketing concept, integrated marketing concept, customer orientation):

i. Focus on customer needs – The needs of the consumer are studied and these become the basis of all product related activities such as designing, pricing, distribution, packaging etc.

ii. Providing consumer satisfaction – Every organization aims at providing maximum consumer satisfaction by understanding his needs and designing an appropriate product. The success of an organization is directly related to the consumer satisfaction it provides.

iii. Integrated Marketing Management – Marketing management is only a part of the total managerial functions of an organization such as finance management, production management, human resources management etc. All these functions are integrated in order to provide maximum satisfaction to the consumer. Thus all the functional areas of an organization are integrated.

iv. Achieving organizational goals – Modern marketing states that an organization must aim at maximizing consumer satisfaction and in the process enable itself to achieve its goals such as growth, market share and reasonable amount of profit or return on investment.

v. Innovation – Innovation is an important tool to provide consumer satisfaction. Innovative methods must be used to understand the consumer, design an appropriate product and offer it to the consumer.

What is Marketing Management – Features: Managerial Process, Consumer Centric, Research Analysis, Planning and Development and a Few Others

1. Managerial Process :

Marketing management is a managerial process involving planning, organising, decision making, forecasting, directing, coordinating and controlling. Stanley Vance defines management as the process of decision making and controlling. Every aspect of marketing, starting with identifying the consumer’s need and wants, identifying the targeted customer, product planning, development, pricing, promotion, distribution process requires planning, decision making, coordination and controlling.

2. Consumer Centric :

All marketing activities are consumer centric. The consumers are the king. Marketing activities are based on the premise of “make what the market wants”. The principal objective of marketing is to create new customers and to retain current customer. Marketing management performs the task of converting the potential customers into actual customer.

This is possible through satisfaction of customer’s needs and wants by delivering them, appropriate goods and services according to their needs and wants, at right time and through convenient channel.

3. Research Analysis :

The basis function of marketing is identification of consumer’s needs and wants .This requires continuous and systematic collection of data, analysis and reporting of data relevant to marketing activities. This helps the management to understand consumer’s needs, wants, preferences and behaviour of the consumer towards firm’s marketing mix strategies. This helps in forecasting and planning future course of action.

4. Planning and Development :

Marketing involves planning and development of goods and services. Organizations make a continuous endeavour towards planning, development and innovation of product and services so as to meet the changing demand, taste and preferences of the consumers.

5. Building Marketing Framework :

Marketing activities are not just selling and distribution of ownership of goods and services from the producer to the ultimate consumer. But it involves a series of activities like research analysis, production, development and innovation, advertisement and promotion pricing decision, selling and distribution, customer relationship and after sales service.

All these functional areas of marketing must be effectively planned, organised and built effectively to achieve best results. Marketing structure depends upon the size of the enterprise, geographical coverage of the operation, number of product lines, nature of product, size of customers.

6. Organizational Objectives :

All marketing activities are based on overall organisational objectives. The marketer bridges the gap between overall organisational objectives of achieving high profit and maximization of sales and consumer’s interest of satisfying needs.

7. Promotional and Communication Process :

The ultimate objective of a firm is to maximise sales volume and profit. This can be achieved through promotion and communication about the goods and services. This function of marketing management enables the firm to provide information about the product to the customers.

8. Controlling of Activities :

Marketing management performs the function of controlling of marketing activities. Marketing management evaluates the effectiveness of marketing activities, to judge the efficiency of marketing personnel and the plans. This process involves measuring the actual performance with the standard and identifying the deviations and taking corrective actions.

What is Marketing Management – Importance: Analysing Market Opportunities, Determination of Target Market, Planning and Decision Making and a Few More

Marketing management smoothen the process of exchange of ownership of goods and services from seller to the buyer.

1. Analysing Market Opportunities :

Marketing management collects and analyses information related to consumer’s needs, wants and demands, competitor’s marketing strategies, changing market trends and preferences. This helps to identify market opportunities.

2. Determination of Target Market :

Marketing management helps to identify the target market that the organization wishes to offer its product.

3. Planning and Decision Making :

Marketing management helps to prepare future course of action. Planning relates to product introduction, diversification. Decision making regarding pricing, selection of promotional mix, selection of distribution channel is taken by the marketing management.

4. Creation of Customer :

Consumers determine the future of the market .Therefore providing the best product to the consumer according to their preference is the important task of marketing. Marketing management helps in creation of new customers and retention of current customers.

5. Helps in Increasing Profit :

Marketing caters to the varied and unlimited needs of consumers. Marketing management helps to increase profit and sales volume. This is achieved by expansion of market and increasing customers.

6. Improvement in Quality of Life :

Marketing management aims at providing innovative product and services to the customers. Marketers continuously strive to incorporate new technology and mechanism in their product to provide more satisfaction to customers than before. This improves quality of life and makes life of consumers easier than before.

7. Employment Opportunities :

Marketing process is a combination of different activities like research work to assess the marketing environment, product planning and development, promotion, distribution of product to customers and after sales service. Marketing process requires researcher, production engineer, different distribution intermediaries, sales personnel also creates employment opportunities in advertisement section. Thus marketing management opened up different employment avenues thus creating employment opportunities.

What is Marketing Management – Functions: Assessing the Marketing Opportunities, Planning the Marketing Activities, Organising the Marketing Activities and a Few Others

Marketing is related to markets and therefore marketing management calls for integration of the various elements of market. It has the task of organising these elements into an effective operating system so that it can serve both customer and business enterprise effectively.

Various functions of marketing management are:

1. Assessing the Marketing Opportunities :

Determination of marketing objectives and assessment of the marketing opportunities for the firm, is an important function of marketing management. The constantly changing market conditions and opportunities make it imperative for the marketing management to come out with planned progammes to meet the challenges, and reap the opportunities.

2. Planning the Marketing Activities :

Planning is an important managerial function. Planning of marketing activities is a crucial task and involves numerous steps. It involves planning effective strategies to achieve the desired marketing objectives. It is concerned with formulation of policies relating to product, price, channels of distribution, promotional measures, forecast of target sales etc. Planning provides the basis for an effective marketing for the enterprise.

3. Organising the Marketing Activities :

Another significant function of marketing is organising it implies determination of various activities to be performed and assigning these activities to right person, so that marketing objectives are achieved. In the light of the changing concept of marketing, it is necessary that the organisation structure is flexible and accommodative. This will help in better interaction between organisation and environment.

4. Co-Ordinating Different Activities of Enterprise :

Even the best of planning will not be rewarding if there is improper coordination between different activities of the organisation. Marketing involves various activities and these are inter-related and interdependent. Product decisions, pricing strategies, channel structure research activities all require proper coordination. Only then the objectives can be achieved.

5. Directing and Motivating the Employee :

A good direction is a must for effective performance of marketing functions. Direction helps in rightful performance of the work. Different leadership style are practised to guide the subordinates. A leader directs his subordinates and ensures through effective supervision, that the performance is as per planned specification. At the same time, it is necessary that employers are properly motivated. Motivation not only helps in better performance by the employee but also holds him back to the organisation for longer periods.

These days organisations are very serious as far as their motivation policies are concerned. New ways of motivation are being introduced so that the employee gives his best of services.

6. Evaluating and Controlling Marketing Efforts:

In order to have a profitable venture, marketing manager must on a continuous basis, evaluate the marketing efforts. This will help him in knowing the deficiencies if any, which can be corrected beforehand only and proper adjustments can be made with the changing environment. Controlling is a managerial function concerned with comparison of actual performance with the standard performance and locating the shortcomings if any, finally corrective measures are taken to overcome the shortcomings.

What is Marketing Management – Process

Marketing Management process involves the following:

1. Managerial marketing process starts with the determination of mission and goals of the entire enterprise and then defines the marketing objectives to be accomplished.

2. Evaluate corporate capabilities on the basis of our strengths and weaknesses.

3. Determine marketing opportunities which have to be capitalised. We have to identify and evaluate unsatisfied and potential customers’ needs and desires. Market segmentation will enable us to select target markets on which we can concentrate our efforts. Marketing opportunities are influenced by marketing environment, competition, government policies, mass-media, consumerism, public opinion, distribution structure, etc.

4. Once the company has full information regarding marketing opportunities, they can formulate marketing strategies in the form of dynamic action-oriented formal plans to achieve mission, goal, and objectives. A strategy is a pattern of purposes and policies, a planned course of action in pursuit of clearly stated objectives in the face of limited resources, and intelligent competition.

Marketing strategy points out the level, mix, and allocation of marketing efforts in marketing action plans. The company has appropriate marketing-mix for each target market. The marketing-mix is expected to sell more than competitors.

5. Marketing action plans or programmes are to be implemented through proper communication, coordination as well as motivation of marketing personnel.

6. Performance according to plan is duly assured by effective marketing control. An effective control system is essential to measure and evaluate the actual results of the marketing strategy. The results are evaluated against our desired objectives. Feedback of evaluation enables marketing management to revise, adopt, or modify goals and objectives and replan on the basis of feedback of evaluation.

7. Marketing process is on-going or dynamic and it must adapt itself to the ever-changing environmental needs.

1. Marketing programme starts from the product concept and it does not end until customer wants are adequately satisfied.

2. Profitable sales over the long-run and repeat-purchase by customers are vital to success in marketing.

3. Marketing research and marketing information service alone can act as effective tool in all decisions of Marketing Management

4. Marketing policies cover marketing analysis and research, product analysis, marketing channels, personal selling, sales promotion and advertising, pricing and non-price competition.

What is Marketing Management – Scope: Marketing Research, Determination of Objectives, Planning Marketing Activities, Pricing of Product and a Few Others

Marketing management, like all other areas of management comprises of the function of planning, organising, directing coordinating and controlling.

1. Marketing research :

Marketing research involves identification of needs, wants taste and preferences of the targeted customer. Marketing management conducts a continuous analysis of consumer’s behaviour towards firm’s marketing mix strategies, business environment; competitor’s marketing strategies in order to plan effectively the marketing activities of future.

2. Determination of Objectives :

Marketing management performs the task of setting marketing objectives. The marketing objectives are set in accordance with the overall organisational objectives of profit maximization. Marketing objectives relates to attracting new customers, retention of current customer, expansion of customer base, introduction of new product, improvement of old product and so on. Marketing management aims at maximising the customer’s value by providing high satisfaction to the customers.

3. Planning Marketing Activities :

Planning involves determining the future course of action. Planning helps in accomplishment of objectives in a systematic manner. Planning of marketing activities relates to determining product line strategies, planning for product diversification, advertisement and promotional activities, planning related to selling and distribution process.

Planning may be conducted on short term, medium term and long term basis depending upon the requirements. Plans should be flexible so as to adjust with the changing business environment.

4. Product Planning and Development :

Product is the basic element of marketing. Products are goods or services that are offered to the customer for satisfying their needs and wants. Products are customer oriented and offered to the customer’s as per their requirement and preferences. Product planning involves new product development, product innovation, product diversification plan.

5. Pricing of Product :

Pricing is a complex function of marketing management. In most of the cases prices form the decision making criterion for purchase decision. Pricing decisions are based on cost of the manufacturing and distribution of product, competitor’s pricing strategies, customer’s willingness to pay for the product, customer’s perception about the product.

6. Promotion :

Promotion and advertisement are essential in order to maximise sales. Promotion and advertisement is essential to provide information to the customers about the product, to attract new customers, to provide reminder to customers about the product and to continue purchase, to provide information about product improvement or introduction of new brand. Marketing management develops new techniques and tools for promotion of their product.

7. Distribution :

Distribution process facilitates easy availability of goods and services to the customers at right time and at right and convenient location. Selection of distribution channel depends upon the nature of the product, price of the product, availability of intermediaries for distribution and cost involved in the distribution process.

8. Evaluation and Controlling of Marketing Activities :

Marketing management performs the task of evaluation and controlling of the marketing activities. Evaluation enables identification of effectiveness of marketing plans and actions.

What is Marketing Management – Marketing Mix: Product Mix, Pricing Mix and Promotion Mix

The marketing manager makes marketing plans within the framework of controllable and non-controllable variables. The non-controllable variables are social, technological, political, cultural and legal factors which affect the marketing strategies. Controllable factors are the product, price, promotion and channels of distribution. Marketing mix is the combination of four controllable variables that make a successful marketing programme.

(a) Product Mix:

It deals with physical attributes of the product and the benefits associated with use of that product. Ownership of the product gives a sense of pride and satisfaction to the consumer and, therefore, the product should be properly designed, coloured and packed.

(b) Pricing Mix:

Pricing is an important decision made by the marketing manager. While pricing a product, managers consider factors such as costs, legal framework, prices charged by competitors and the prices that consumers are ready to pay. Managers must price the product to recover the costs and earn a reasonable return on capital. This ensures long-run survival and growth of the enterprise.

(c) Promotion Mix:

It refers to firm’s communication with the consumers regarding the product. It motivates them to buy the goods.

Sales can be promoted in three ways:

(i) Advertisement:

It presents the product details to consumers through media. It is a non-personal means of communication.

(ii) Personal Selling:

The seller directly contacts the buyer and convinces him to buy the goods and services.

(iii) Sales Promotion:

It supplements advertisement and personal selling as a means of promoting sales. It increases sales by holding contests, lotteries etc.

Different combinations of sales promotion techniques can be used at a point of time.

(d) Channel Mix:

After the product is designed, priced and advertised, it arouses consumers’ interest to buy it. The channel mix identifies the path or the route through which goods are transferred from sellers to buyers. The seller may sell directly to the buyer or through intermediation of wholesalers and retailers. More than one channel of distribution can be adopted at the same time; for example, a wholesaler can sell through retailers and also directly to consumers.

The channel mix not only selects a channel of distribution, it also maintains it to ensure consistency in the selling practices followed by the sales people.

What is Marketing Management – Marketing Decision Making: Product Variation, Marketing Channels, Prices and Promotion

The manager makes decisions about things he can control—the controllable. In very general terms, what does he decide? Roughly, he decides the kind of a product to produce, the kind of a distribu­tion system to use, the price to charge, advertising messages and media, and the salesmen’s message to customers on whom they call.

In making these decisions he learns from experience to use an operating principle which simplifies his task and avoids substan­tial frustration. It might be called the “law” of marketing manage­ment, like other rules of behaviour such as Aristotle’s Golden Mean and the Golden Rule.

This “law” of marketing management states- Since some things are controllable and others are not, sepa­rate the controllable from the uncontrollable and don’t waste your time and energy trying to change the uncontrollable. Rather attempt to understand it so you can adapt the controllable to the uncontrollable in such a way as to satisfy your company’s needs as effectively as possible. The application of this law is an art in which analytic tools from science can aid.

As suggested by the discussion of the marketing system, there is a complex of more or less uncontrollable forces operating on the manager. These can be summarized, as in the outer hexagon of Figure 6, as competition, demand, non-marketing cost, structure of distribution, public policy, and company organization. Underlying these are, of course, the much more fundamental forces of techno­logical, social, political, and economic change. While over the long term these factors will share the nature of the uncontrollable forces, the manager is forced by such aspects as convenience and lack of adequate data to concern himself mainly with the immedi­ate uncontrollable item.

project on marketing management wikipedia

Types of wiki software

A hosted wiki software includes SaaS tools that don’t require internal developer time. Knowledge security and software maintenance of a hosted wiki are managed by the hosting company. There is usually a little less flexibility with the layout of the wiki, however, less work is required to manage the wiki itself, so you can spend more time focusing on the content that lives within it.


Self-hosted wiki software (e.g. MediaWiki) is open-source and requires ongoing developer involvement to maintain the security and organization of the platform. Usually, self-hosted wiki software is more customizable for each unique user, with the catch being they are usually much more work to maintain. 

Why use wiki software?

Centralize company information.

Searching through countless sources to find a single piece of information is a familiar time suck for most of us. This is time that could be better spent collaborating with colleagues and creatively solving problems. Wiki software centralizes all company information into a single source of truth–everyone knows exactly where to go to find reliable and relevant information. 

End information overload

Bite-sized pieces of knowledge are the name of the game when communicating important information across an entire organization. Too many pieces of long-form information ask employees to read and remember more than they can realistically retain. This makes for a quick trip to information overload . When employees are provided with bite-sized information and they can access it again whenever they need it, information overload becomes a thing of the past. 

Bring everyone the information they need to excel in their job - anywhere

Everyone wants to feel that they’re armed with the information they need to do their job well. Lacking the resources one needs to feel supported in their role is one of the main catalysts of burnout. A wiki software provides everyone with the information they need whenever they need to access it. They won’t have to nudge subject matter experts for answers to their questions, rather they can find all the knowledge they need in their company wiki. 

Deliver a single source of truth the team actually uses

Without a wiki software as a single source of truth, you run the risk of using duplicate and unreliable information to inform decisions and processes. Send everyone to one place for information and make sure to keep that information up to date. It’s a simple solution that keeps everyone on the same page. 

Power effortless collaboration

Good internal communication leads to seamless collaboration that in turn leads to smooth and successful company operations. A wiki software invites everyone at the company to create and edit information, turning the wiki into a home for effortless collaboration. Every subject matter expert is contributing their expertise to a single source of information that is accessible to everyone. Goodbye, information silos! 

Seamlessly keep company information up-to-date

The best kinds of wiki software have a content verification system built in. This allows the creator of the information to set a timer for when they need to re verify that information is still accurate. This ensures that company information stays up to date and relevant, while preventing someone from unknowingly referencing unreliable knowledge. 

Ensure expert-verified product information is in the hands of everyone in support, sales, and marketing

As updates are made to products, everyone needs to be in the loop. This includes technical support, sales, marketing, product specialists, and more. Let the subject matter experts document and verify their information, so everyone else knows the knowledge they’re reading is accurate and reliable. 

Empowers support agents to deliver world-class customer service

Easy access to information benefits support agents in two ways. First, it allows them to be kept up to date, providing customers with the information that is the most relevant to them. Second, it provides quick access to knowledge so support agents can answer questions in real time–removing lag time between a customer’s question and support’s answer. 

What makes a good wiki software?

Not all wiki software is made the same. There are few key characteristics to keep in mind when choosing the best wiki software for your team. 

Easy to use

Adding a new tool to any workflow is dreaded by most–it’s just another thing to learn on top of daily tasks. Wiki softwares should solve problems, not create additional headaches. They should have an intuitive design and content hierarchy that promotes an ease of use and content creation.  


No one has time to come up with precise keywords to search in order to find the right information. A wiki software needs to have smart search functionality that allows it to provide results related to your search and doesn’t rely on exact keywords. A good wiki software will not require multiple searches to find answers. 

Knowledge base 

Excellent wiki software acts as a knowledge base for all important information. It can be internally- or externally-facing, relaying information to that audience. It’s a reliable source for knowledge that readers can trust to use regularly. It’s the first place people think to visit when searching for an answer. 


Don’t navigate away from your workflow to search for information, rather bring that information into your workflow. A wiki software should integrate into your existing workflow through browser extensions to promote ease in accessing information. Find the information you need without leaving your work zone. 

Learning features

Wiki software should be able to cater to its user. Based on your role or information you’ve referenced historically, a wiki software should suggest content that might be relevant to your role. For further support, wiki software should also have a help center or guides series where documentation is easily accessible. 


There is generally no one-size-fits-all model for wiki softwares. Whether you are storing internal knowledge or building an external knowledge base, you need to be able to customize information in a way that works well for you. Start with the provided framework, but take advantage of the flexibility. 

When you have analytics available through a wiki software, you can see which content is finding the most traction or what is being searched for the most. This can help you spot gaps in your company knowledge as well as see what information has proven to be the most useful to employees. 

The best wiki software tools & examples

At Guru, we practice what we preach when it comes to great wiki software. Guru is the modern wiki that integrates into your workflow to live where you already work. You can assign content experts , ensuring all content stays up to date, send announcements to share information fast, and recommend content based on the content already on your screen. Learn more about how Guru works for teams of every size and choose your plan .

project on marketing management wikipedia

2. MediaWiki

Here is the most popular open-source wiki software out there. It’s ideal for anyone managing large amounts of content that needs to be accessed by a lot of people. It does, however, require slightly more technical knowledge to get up and running. Still, MediaWiki is one of the most trusted wikis and it’s completely free. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

3. DokuWiki

DokuWiki is simple and effective. It’s an open-source wiki layout that has thousands of contributors and no limit to the number of pages that you can save. Built-in authentication makes it suitable for large companies trying to get a lot of important information out to their employees or customers fast, and it’s free. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

4. Confluence

Confluence is one of the most popular kinds of wiki software used in the technical space. It syncs with Jira, the project management software, to make creating and updating content easy. Confluence requires precise keyword searches to find content and is free for up to 10 users. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

Tettra works well for teams with little or no technical knowledge. Set up, maintenance, and use are intuitive–it also integrates with the tools you already work in. Teams across an entire organization are able to organize their knowledge in a way that makes the most sense for them. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

Notion is a highly-customizable wiki software that allows both remote and in-person teams to collaborate more effectively. Due to its flexible design, learning how to use Notion well can be a steep learning curve and tends to be challenging for large teams to use. Notion is free for individual use. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

Slite is designed for teams that work remotely. Multiple people can edit documents at the same time and each document can include quotes, charts, graphics, and more. Each user opens the day with a “Catch-up” screen that captures new information that could be relevant to their role. It’s free for up to 50 documents. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

Because of its smooth and intuitive design, Nuclino a wiki software that is ideal for non-technical users. The layout is easy to learn. It can be used solely as a company wiki, or be used to manage projects, share ideas, and more. Nuclino is free for up to 50 items. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

Slab is an intuitive knowledge management wiki software that is ideal for teams who want an easy set up. It comes with data analytics, so moderators can easily see what information is the most popular. Slab is free for up to 10 users. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

10. Document360

Document360 is an intuitive WYSIWYG editor that invites collaboration and knowledge sharing. It integrates well with most apps and offers analytics that allows you to see what information is the most valued. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

11. Wiki.js

Wiki.js is open-source and can be used on any platform in a public, private, or both medium. As another free option, this one allows you to create and store information in a fully customizable content layout. Analytics are also available. Wiki.js is less ideal for those with little-to-no technical experience or knowledge. 

project on marketing management wikipedia

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