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The Writing Process | 5 Steps with Examples & Tips

Published on April 24, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

The writing process steps

Good academic writing requires effective planning, drafting, and revision.

The writing process looks different for everyone, but there are five basic steps that will help you structure your time when writing any kind of text.

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Table of contents

Step 1: prewriting, step 2: planning and outlining, step 3: writing a first draft, step 4: redrafting and revising, step 5: editing and proofreading, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about the writing process.

Before you start writing, you need to decide exactly what you’ll write about and do the necessary research.

Coming up with a topic

If you have to come up with your own topic for an assignment, think of what you’ve covered in class— is there a particular area that intrigued, interested, or even confused you? Topics that left you with additional questions are perfect, as these are questions you can explore in your writing.

The scope depends on what type of text you’re writing—for example, an essay or a research paper will be less in-depth than a dissertation topic . Don’t pick anything too ambitious to cover within the word count, or too limited for you to find much to say.

Narrow down your idea to a specific argument or question. For example, an appropriate topic for an essay might be narrowed down like this:

Doing the research

Once you know your topic, it’s time to search for relevant sources and gather the information you need. This process varies according to your field of study and the scope of the assignment. It might involve:

  • Searching for primary and secondary sources .
  • Reading the relevant texts closely (e.g. for literary analysis ).
  • Collecting data using relevant research methods (e.g. experiments , interviews or surveys )

From a writing perspective, the important thing is to take plenty of notes while you do the research. Keep track of the titles, authors, publication dates, and relevant quotations from your sources; the data you gathered; and your initial analysis or interpretation of the questions you’re addressing.

Especially in academic writing , it’s important to use a logical structure to convey information effectively. It’s far better to plan this out in advance than to try to work out your structure once you’ve already begun writing.

Creating an essay outline is a useful way to plan out your structure before you start writing. This should help you work out the main ideas you want to focus on and how you’ll organize them. The outline doesn’t have to be final—it’s okay if your structure changes throughout the writing process.

Use bullet points or numbering to make your structure clear at a glance. Even for a short text that won’t use headings, it’s useful to summarize what you’ll discuss in each paragraph.

An outline for a literary analysis essay might look something like this:

  • Describe the theatricality of Austen’s works
  • Outline the role theater plays in Mansfield Park
  • Introduce the research question: How does Austen use theater to express the characters’ morality in Mansfield Park ?
  • Discuss Austen’s depiction of the performance at the end of the first volume
  • Discuss how Sir Bertram reacts to the acting scheme
  • Introduce Austen’s use of stage direction–like details during dialogue
  • Explore how these are deployed to show the characters’ self-absorption
  • Discuss Austen’s description of Maria and Julia’s relationship as polite but affectionless
  • Compare Mrs. Norris’s self-conceit as charitable despite her idleness
  • Summarize the three themes: The acting scheme, stage directions, and the performance of morals
  • Answer the research question
  • Indicate areas for further study

Once you have a clear idea of your structure, it’s time to produce a full first draft.

This process can be quite non-linear. For example, it’s reasonable to begin writing with the main body of the text, saving the introduction for later once you have a clearer idea of the text you’re introducing.

To give structure to your writing, use your outline as a framework. Make sure that each paragraph has a clear central focus that relates to your overall argument.

Hover over the parts of the example, from a literary analysis essay on Mansfield Park , to see how a paragraph is constructed.

The character of Mrs. Norris provides another example of the performance of morals in Mansfield Park . Early in the novel, she is described in scathing terms as one who knows “how to dictate liberality to others: but her love of money was equal to her love of directing” (p. 7). This hypocrisy does not interfere with her self-conceit as “the most liberal-minded sister and aunt in the world” (p. 7). Mrs. Norris is strongly concerned with appearing charitable, but unwilling to make any personal sacrifices to accomplish this. Instead, she stage-manages the charitable actions of others, never acknowledging that her schemes do not put her own time or money on the line. In this way, Austen again shows us a character whose morally upright behavior is fundamentally a performance—for whom the goal of doing good is less important than the goal of seeming good.

When you move onto a different topic, start a new paragraph. Use appropriate transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas.

The goal at this stage is to get a draft completed, not to make everything perfect as you go along. Once you have a full draft in front of you, you’ll have a clearer idea of where improvement is needed.

Give yourself a first draft deadline that leaves you a reasonable length of time to revise, edit, and proofread before the final deadline. For a longer text like a dissertation, you and your supervisor might agree on deadlines for individual chapters.

Now it’s time to look critically at your first draft and find potential areas for improvement. Redrafting means substantially adding or removing content, while revising involves making changes to structure and reformulating arguments.

Evaluating the first draft

It can be difficult to look objectively at your own writing. Your perspective might be positively or negatively biased—especially if you try to assess your work shortly after finishing it.

It’s best to leave your work alone for at least a day or two after completing the first draft. Come back after a break to evaluate it with fresh eyes; you’ll spot things you wouldn’t have otherwise.

When evaluating your writing at this stage, you’re mainly looking for larger issues such as changes to your arguments or structure. Starting with bigger concerns saves you time—there’s no point perfecting the grammar of something you end up cutting out anyway.

Right now, you’re looking for:

  • Arguments that are unclear or illogical.
  • Areas where information would be better presented in a different order.
  • Passages where additional information or explanation is needed.
  • Passages that are irrelevant to your overall argument.

For example, in our paper on Mansfield Park , we might realize the argument would be stronger with more direct consideration of the protagonist Fanny Price, and decide to try to find space for this in paragraph IV.

For some assignments, you’ll receive feedback on your first draft from a supervisor or peer. Be sure to pay close attention to what they tell you, as their advice will usually give you a clearer sense of which aspects of your text need improvement.

Redrafting and revising

Once you’ve decided where changes are needed, make the big changes first, as these are likely to have knock-on effects on the rest. Depending on what your text needs, this step might involve:

  • Making changes to your overall argument.
  • Reordering the text.
  • Cutting parts of the text.
  • Adding new text.

You can go back and forth between writing, redrafting and revising several times until you have a final draft that you’re happy with.

Think about what changes you can realistically accomplish in the time you have. If you are running low on time, you don’t want to leave your text in a messy state halfway through redrafting, so make sure to prioritize the most important changes.

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Editing focuses on local concerns like clarity and sentence structure. Proofreading involves reading the text closely to remove typos and ensure stylistic consistency.

Editing for grammar and clarity

When editing, you want to ensure your text is clear, concise, and grammatically correct. You’re looking out for:

  • Grammatical errors.
  • Ambiguous phrasings.
  • Redundancy and repetition .

In your initial draft, it’s common to end up with a lot of sentences that are poorly formulated. Look critically at where your meaning could be conveyed in a more effective way or in fewer words, and watch out for common sentence structure mistakes like run-on sentences and sentence fragments:

  • Austen’s style is frequently humorous, her characters are often described as “witty.” Although this is less true of Mansfield Park .
  • Austen’s style is frequently humorous. Her characters are often described as “witty,” although this is less true of Mansfield Park .

To make your sentences run smoothly, you can always use a paraphrasing tool to rewrite them in a clearer way.

Proofreading for small mistakes and typos

When proofreading, first look out for typos in your text:

  • Spelling errors.
  • Missing words.
  • Confused word choices .
  • Punctuation errors .
  • Missing or excess spaces.

Use a grammar checker , but be sure to do another manual check after. Read through your text line by line, watching out for problem areas highlighted by the software but also for any other issues it might have missed.

For example, in the following phrase we notice several errors:

  • Mary Crawfords character is a complicate one and her relationships with Fanny and Edmund undergoes several transformations through out the novel.
  • Mary Crawford’s character is a complicated one, and her relationships with both Fanny and Edmund undergo several transformations throughout the novel.

Proofreading for stylistic consistency

There are several issues in academic writing where you can choose between multiple different standards. For example:

  • Whether you use the serial comma .
  • Whether you use American or British spellings and punctuation (you can use a punctuation checker for this).
  • Where you use numerals vs. words for numbers.
  • How you capitalize your titles and headings.

Unless you’re given specific guidance on these issues, it’s your choice which standards you follow. The important thing is to consistently follow one standard for each issue. For example, don’t use a mixture of American and British spellings in your paper.

Additionally, you will probably be provided with specific guidelines for issues related to format (how your text is presented on the page) and citations (how you acknowledge your sources). Always follow these instructions carefully.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

  • Ad hominem fallacy
  • Post hoc fallacy
  • Appeal to authority fallacy
  • False cause fallacy
  • Sunk cost fallacy
  • Deep learning
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  • Reinforcement learning
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Revising, proofreading, and editing are different stages of the writing process .

  • Revising is making structural and logical changes to your text—reformulating arguments and reordering information.
  • Editing refers to making more local changes to things like sentence structure and phrasing to make sure your meaning is conveyed clearly and concisely.
  • Proofreading involves looking at the text closely, line by line, to spot any typos and issues with consistency and correct them.

Whether you’re publishing a blog, submitting a research paper , or even just writing an important email, there are a few techniques you can use to make sure it’s error-free:

  • Take a break : Set your work aside for at least a few hours so that you can look at it with fresh eyes.
  • Proofread a printout : Staring at a screen for too long can cause fatigue – sit down with a pen and paper to check the final version.
  • Use digital shortcuts : Take note of any recurring mistakes (for example, misspelling a particular word, switching between US and UK English , or inconsistently capitalizing a term), and use Find and Replace to fix it throughout the document.

If you want to be confident that an important text is error-free, it might be worth choosing a professional proofreading service instead.

If you’ve gone over the word limit set for your assignment, shorten your sentences and cut repetition and redundancy during the editing process. If you use a lot of long quotes , consider shortening them to just the essentials.

If you need to remove a lot of words, you may have to cut certain passages. Remember that everything in the text should be there to support your argument; look for any information that’s not essential to your point and remove it.

To make this process easier and faster, you can use a paraphrasing tool . With this tool, you can rewrite your text to make it simpler and shorter. If that’s not enough, you can copy-paste your paraphrased text into the summarizer . This tool will distill your text to its core message.

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Academic writing refers to a style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and specific areas of expertise. Characteristics of academic writing include a formal tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective (usually), a clear focus on the research problem under investigation, and precise word choice. Like specialist languages adopted in other professions, such as, law or medicine, academic writing is designed to convey agreed meaning about complex ideas or concepts within a community of scholarly experts and practitioners.

Academic Writing. Writing Center. Colorado Technical College; Hartley, James. Academic Writing and Publishing: A Practical Guide . New York: Routledge, 2008; Ezza, El-Sadig Y. and Touria Drid. T eaching Academic Writing as a Discipline-Specific Skill in Higher Education . Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2020.

Importance of Good Academic Writing

The accepted form of academic writing in the social sciences can vary considerable depending on the methodological framework and the intended audience. However, most college-level research papers require careful attention to the following stylistic elements:

I.  The Big Picture Unlike creative or journalistic writing, the overall structure of academic writing is formal and logical. It must be cohesive and possess a logically organized flow of ideas; this means that the various parts are connected to form a unified whole. There should be narrative links between sentences and paragraphs so that the reader is able to follow your argument. The introduction should include a description of how the rest of the paper is organized and all sources are properly cited throughout the paper.

II.  Tone The overall tone refers to the attitude conveyed in a piece of writing. Throughout your paper, it is important that you present the arguments of others fairly and with an appropriate narrative tone. When presenting a position or argument that you disagree with, describe this argument accurately and without loaded or biased language. In academic writing, the author is expected to investigate the research problem from an authoritative point of view. You should, therefore, state the strengths of your arguments confidently, using language that is neutral, not confrontational or dismissive.

III.  Diction Diction refers to the choice of words you use. Awareness of the words you use is important because words that have almost the same denotation [dictionary definition] can have very different connotations [implied meanings]. This is particularly true in academic writing because words and terminology can evolve a nuanced meaning that describes a particular idea, concept, or phenomenon derived from the epistemological culture of that discipline [e.g., the concept of rational choice in political science]. Therefore, use concrete words [not general] that convey a specific meaning. If this cannot be done without confusing the reader, then you need to explain what you mean within the context of how that word or phrase is used within a discipline.

IV.  Language The investigation of research problems in the social sciences is often complex and multi- dimensional . Therefore, it is important that you use unambiguous language. Well-structured paragraphs and clear topic sentences enable a reader to follow your line of thinking without difficulty. Your language should be concise, formal, and express precisely what you want it to mean. Do not use vague expressions that are not specific or precise enough for the reader to derive exact meaning ["they," "we," "people," "the organization," etc.], abbreviations like 'i.e.'  ["in other words"], 'e.g.' ["for example"], or 'a.k.a.' ["also known as"], and the use of unspecific determinate words ["super," "very," "incredible," "huge," etc.].

V.  Punctuation Scholars rely on precise words and language to establish the narrative tone of their work and, therefore, punctuation marks are used very deliberately. For example, exclamation points are rarely used to express a heightened tone because it can come across as unsophisticated or over-excited. Dashes should be limited to the insertion of an explanatory comment in a sentence, while hyphens should be limited to connecting prefixes to words [e.g., multi-disciplinary] or when forming compound phrases [e.g., commander-in-chief]. Finally, understand that semi-colons represent a pause that is longer than a comma, but shorter than a period in a sentence. In general, there are four grammatical uses of semi-colons: when a second clause expands or explains the first clause; to describe a sequence of actions or different aspects of the same topic; placed before clauses which begin with "nevertheless", "therefore", "even so," and "for instance”; and, to mark off a series of phrases or clauses which contain commas. If you are not confident about when to use semi-colons [and most of the time, they are not required for proper punctuation], rewrite using shorter sentences or revise the paragraph.

VI.  Academic Conventions Citing sources in the body of your paper and providing a list of references as either footnotes or endnotes is a key feature of academic writing. It is essential to always acknowledge the source of any ideas, research findings, data, paraphrased, or quoted text that you have used in your paper as a defense against allegations of plagiarism. Even more important, the scholarly convention of citing sources allow readers to identify the resources you used in writing your paper so they can independently verify and assess the quality of findings and conclusions based on your review of the literature. Examples of other academic conventions to follow include the appropriate use of headings and subheadings, properly spelling out acronyms when first used in the text, avoiding slang or colloquial language, avoiding emotive language or unsupported declarative statements, avoiding contractions [e.g., isn't], and using first person and second person pronouns only when necessary.

VII.  Evidence-Based Reasoning Assignments often ask you to express your own point of view about the research problem. However, what is valued in academic writing is that statements are based on evidence-based reasoning. This refers to possessing a clear understanding of the pertinent body of knowledge and academic debates that exist within, and often external to, your discipline concerning the topic. You need to support your arguments with evidence from scholarly [i.e., academic or peer-reviewed] sources. It should be an objective stance presented as a logical argument; the quality of the evidence you cite will determine the strength of your argument. The objective is to convince the reader of the validity of your thoughts through a well-documented, coherent, and logically structured piece of writing. This is particularly important when proposing solutions to problems or delineating recommended courses of action.

VIII.  Thesis-Driven Academic writing is “thesis-driven,” meaning that the starting point is a particular perspective, idea, or position applied to the chosen topic of investigation, such as, establishing, proving, or disproving solutions to the questions applied to investigating the research problem. Note that a problem statement without the research questions does not qualify as academic writing because simply identifying the research problem does not establish for the reader how you will contribute to solving the problem, what aspects you believe are most critical, or suggest a method for gathering information or data to better understand the problem.

IX.  Complexity and Higher-Order Thinking Academic writing addresses complex issues that require higher-order thinking skills applied to understanding the research problem [e.g., critical, reflective, logical, and creative thinking as opposed to, for example, descriptive or prescriptive thinking]. Higher-order thinking skills include cognitive processes that are used to comprehend, solve problems, and express concepts or that describe abstract ideas that cannot be easily acted out, pointed to, or shown with images. Think of your writing this way: One of the most important attributes of a good teacher is the ability to explain complexity in a way that is understandable and relatable to the topic being presented during class. This is also one of the main functions of academic writing--examining and explaining the significance of complex ideas as clearly as possible.  As a writer, you must adopt the role of a good teacher by summarizing complex information into a well-organized synthesis of ideas, concepts, and recommendations that contribute to a better understanding of the research problem.

Academic Writing. Writing Center. Colorado Technical College; Hartley, James. Academic Writing and Publishing: A Practical Guide . New York: Routledge, 2008; Murray, Rowena  and Sarah Moore. The Handbook of Academic Writing: A Fresh Approach . New York: Open University Press, 2006; Johnson, Roy. Improve Your Writing Skills . Manchester, UK: Clifton Press, 1995; Nygaard, Lynn P. Writing for Scholars: A Practical Guide to Making Sense and Being Heard . Second edition. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2015; Silvia, Paul J. How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2007; Style, Diction, Tone, and Voice. Writing Center, Wheaton College; Sword, Helen. Stylish Academic Writing . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.

Strategies for...

Understanding Academic Writing and Its Jargon

The very definition of research jargon is language specific to a particular community of practitioner-researchers . Therefore, in modern university life, jargon represents the specific language and meaning assigned to words and phrases specific to a discipline or area of study. For example, the idea of being rational may hold the same general meaning in both political science and psychology, but its application to understanding and explaining phenomena within the research domain of a each discipline may have subtle differences based upon how scholars in that discipline apply the concept to the theories and practice of their work.

Given this, it is important that specialist terminology [i.e., jargon] must be used accurately and applied under the appropriate conditions . Subject-specific dictionaries are the best places to confirm the meaning of terms within the context of a specific discipline. These can be found by either searching in the USC Libraries catalog by entering the disciplinary and the word dictionary [e.g., sociology and dictionary] or using a database such as Credo Reference [a curated collection of subject encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks, guides from highly regarded publishers] . It is appropriate for you to use specialist language within your field of study, but you should avoid using such language when writing for non-academic or general audiences.

Problems with Opaque Writing

A common criticism of scholars is that they can utilize needlessly complex syntax or overly expansive vocabulary that is impenetrable or not well-defined. When writing, avoid problems associated with opaque writing by keeping in mind the following:

1.   Excessive use of specialized terminology . Yes, it is appropriate for you to use specialist language and a formal style of expression in academic writing, but it does not mean using "big words" just for the sake of doing so. Overuse of complex or obscure words or writing complicated sentence constructions gives readers the impression that your paper is more about style than substance; it leads the reader to question if you really know what you are talking about. Focus on creating clear, concise, and elegant prose that minimizes reliance on specialized terminology.

2.   Inappropriate use of specialized terminology . Because you are dealing with concepts, research, and data within your discipline, you need to use the technical language appropriate to that area of study. However, nothing will undermine the validity of your study quicker than the inappropriate application of a term or concept. Avoid using terms whose meaning you are unsure of--do not just guess or assume! Consult the meaning of terms in specialized, discipline-specific dictionaries by searching the USC Libraries catalog or the Credo Reference database [see above].

Additional Problems to Avoid

In addition to understanding the use of specialized language, there are other aspects of academic writing in the social sciences that you should be aware of. These problems include:

  • Personal nouns . Excessive use of personal nouns [e.g., I, me, you, us] may lead the reader to believe the study was overly subjective. These words can be interpreted as being used only to avoid presenting empirical evidence about the research problem. Limit the use of personal nouns to descriptions of things you actually did [e.g., "I interviewed ten teachers about classroom management techniques..."]. Note that personal nouns are generally found in the discussion section of a paper because this is where you as the author/researcher interpret and describe your work.
  • Directives . Avoid directives that demand the reader to "do this" or "do that." Directives should be framed as evidence-based recommendations or goals leading to specific outcomes. Note that an exception to this can be found in various forms of action research that involve evidence-based advocacy for social justice or transformative change. Within this area of the social sciences, authors may offer directives for action in a declarative tone of urgency.
  • Informal, conversational tone using slang and idioms . Academic writing relies on excellent grammar and precise word structure. Your narrative should not include regional dialects or slang terms because they can be open to interpretation. Your writing should be direct and concise using standard English.
  • Wordiness. Focus on being concise, straightforward, and developing a narrative that does not have confusing language . By doing so, you  help eliminate the possibility of the reader misinterpreting the design and purpose of your study.
  • Vague expressions (e.g., "they," "we," "people," "the company," "that area," etc.). Being concise in your writing also includes avoiding vague references to persons, places, or things. While proofreading your paper, be sure to look for and edit any vague or imprecise statements that lack context or specificity.
  • Numbered lists and bulleted items . The use of bulleted items or lists should be used only if the narrative dictates a need for clarity. For example, it is fine to state, "The four main problems with hedge funds are:" and then list them as 1, 2, 3, 4. However, in academic writing, this must then be followed by detailed explanation and analysis of each item. Given this, the question you should ask yourself while proofreading is: why begin with a list in the first place rather than just starting with systematic analysis of each item arranged in separate paragraphs? Also, be careful using numbers because they can imply a ranked order of priority or importance. If none exists, use bullets and avoid checkmarks or other symbols.
  • Descriptive writing . Describing a research problem is an important means of contextualizing a study. In fact, some description or background information may be needed because you can not assume the reader knows the key aspects of the topic. However, the content of your paper should focus on methodology, the analysis and interpretation of findings, and their implications as they apply to the research problem rather than background information and descriptions of tangential issues.
  • Personal experience. Drawing upon personal experience [e.g., traveling abroad; caring for someone with Alzheimer's disease] can be an effective way of introducing the research problem or engaging your readers in understanding its significance. Use personal experience only as an example, though, because academic writing relies on evidence-based research. To do otherwise is simply story-telling.

NOTE:   Rules concerning excellent grammar and precise word structure do not apply when quoting someone.  A quote should be inserted in the text of your paper exactly as it was stated. If the quote is especially vague or hard to understand, consider paraphrasing it or using a different quote to convey the same meaning. Consider inserting the term "sic" in brackets after the quoted text to indicate that the quotation has been transcribed exactly as found in the original source, but the source had grammar, spelling, or other errors. The adverb sic informs the reader that the errors are not yours.

Academic Writing. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Academic Writing Style. First-Year Seminar Handbook. Mercer University; Bem, Daryl J. Writing the Empirical Journal Article. Cornell University; College Writing. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Murray, Rowena  and Sarah Moore. The Handbook of Academic Writing: A Fresh Approach . New York: Open University Press, 2006; Johnson, Eileen S. “Action Research.” In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education . Edited by George W. Noblit and Joseph R. Neikirk. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2020); Oppenheimer, Daniel M. "Consequences of Erudite Vernacular Utilized Irrespective of Necessity: Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly." Applied Cognitive Psychology 20 (2006): 139-156; Ezza, El-Sadig Y. and Touria Drid. T eaching Academic Writing as a Discipline-Specific Skill in Higher Education . Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2020; Pernawan, Ari. Common Flaws in Students' Research Proposals. English Education Department. Yogyakarta State University; Style. College Writing. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Invention: Five Qualities of Good Writing. The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College; Sword, Helen. Stylish Academic Writing . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012; What Is an Academic Paper? Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College.

Structure and Writing Style

I. Improving Academic Writing

To improve your academic writing skills, you should focus your efforts on three key areas: 1.   Clear Writing . The act of thinking about precedes the process of writing about. Good writers spend sufficient time distilling information and reviewing major points from the literature they have reviewed before creating their work. Writing detailed outlines can help you clearly organize your thoughts. Effective academic writing begins with solid planning, so manage your time carefully. 2.  Excellent Grammar . Needless to say, English grammar can be difficult and complex; even the best scholars take many years before they have a command of the major points of good grammar. Take the time to learn the major and minor points of good grammar. Spend time practicing writing and seek detailed feedback from professors. Take advantage of the Writing Center on campus if you need help. Proper punctuation and good proofreading skills can significantly improve academic writing [see sub-tab for proofreading you paper ].

Refer to these three basic resources to help your grammar and writing skills:

  • A good writing reference book, such as, Strunk and White’s book, The Elements of Style or the St. Martin's Handbook ;
  • A college-level dictionary, such as, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary ;
  • The latest edition of Roget's Thesaurus in Dictionary Form .

3.  Consistent Stylistic Approach . Whether your professor expresses a preference to use MLA, APA or the Chicago Manual of Style or not, choose one style manual and stick to it. Each of these style manuals provide rules on how to write out numbers, references, citations, footnotes, and lists. Consistent adherence to a style of writing helps with the narrative flow of your paper and improves its readability. Note that some disciplines require a particular style [e.g., education uses APA] so as you write more papers within your major, your familiarity with it will improve.

II. Evaluating Quality of Writing

A useful approach for evaluating the quality of your academic writing is to consider the following issues from the perspective of the reader. While proofreading your final draft, critically assess the following elements in your writing.

  • It is shaped around one clear research problem, and it explains what that problem is from the outset.
  • Your paper tells the reader why the problem is important and why people should know about it.
  • You have accurately and thoroughly informed the reader what has already been published about this problem or others related to it and noted important gaps in the research.
  • You have provided evidence to support your argument that the reader finds convincing.
  • The paper includes a description of how and why particular evidence was collected and analyzed, and why specific theoretical arguments or concepts were used.
  • The paper is made up of paragraphs, each containing only one controlling idea.
  • You indicate how each section of the paper addresses the research problem.
  • You have considered counter-arguments or counter-examples where they are relevant.
  • Arguments, evidence, and their significance have been presented in the conclusion.
  • Limitations of your research have been explained as evidence of the potential need for further study.
  • The narrative flows in a clear, accurate, and well-organized way.

Boscoloa, Pietro, Barbara Arféb, and Mara Quarisaa. “Improving the Quality of Students' Academic Writing: An Intervention Study.” Studies in Higher Education 32 (August 2007): 419-438; Academic Writing. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Academic Writing Style. First-Year Seminar Handbook. Mercer University; Bem, Daryl J. Writing the Empirical Journal Article. Cornell University; Candlin, Christopher. Academic Writing Step-By-Step: A Research-based Approach . Bristol, CT: Equinox Publishing Ltd., 2016; College Writing. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Style . College Writing. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Invention: Five Qualities of Good Writing. The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College; Sword, Helen. Stylish Academic Writing . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012; What Is an Academic Paper? Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College.

Writing Tip

Considering the Passive Voice in Academic Writing

In the English language, we are able to construct sentences in the following way: 1.  "The policies of Congress caused the economic crisis." 2.  "The economic crisis was caused by the policies of Congress."

The decision about which sentence to use is governed by whether you want to focus on “Congress” and what they did, or on “the economic crisis” and what caused it. This choice in focus is achieved with the use of either the active or the passive voice. When you want your readers to focus on the "doer" of an action, you can make the "doer"' the subject of the sentence and use the active form of the verb. When you want readers to focus on the person, place, or thing affected by the action, or the action itself, you can make the effect or the action the subject of the sentence by using the passive form of the verb.

Often in academic writing, scholars don't want to focus on who is doing an action, but on who is receiving or experiencing the consequences of that action. The passive voice is useful in academic writing because it allows writers to highlight the most important participants or events within sentences by placing them at the beginning of the sentence.

Use the passive voice when:

  • You want to focus on the person, place, or thing affected by the action, or the action itself;
  • It is not important who or what did the action;
  • You want to be impersonal or more formal.

Form the passive voice by:

  • Turning the object of the active sentence into the subject of the passive sentence.
  • Changing the verb to a passive form by adding the appropriate form of the verb "to be" and the past participle of the main verb.

NOTE: Consult with your professor about using the passive voice before submitting your research paper. Some strongly discourage its use!

Active and Passive Voice. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Diefenbach, Paul. Future of Digital Media Syllabus. Drexel University; Passive Voice. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.  

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13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

Learning objectives.

  • Identify the major components of a research paper written using American Psychological Association (APA) style.
  • Apply general APA style and formatting conventions in a research paper.

In this chapter, you will learn how to use APA style , the documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, as well as MLA style , from the Modern Language Association. There are a few major formatting styles used in academic texts, including AMA, Chicago, and Turabian:

  • AMA (American Medical Association) for medicine, health, and biological sciences
  • APA (American Psychological Association) for education, psychology, and the social sciences
  • Chicago—a common style used in everyday publications like magazines, newspapers, and books
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) for English, literature, arts, and humanities
  • Turabian—another common style designed for its universal application across all subjects and disciplines

While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: APA and MLA.

If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone. Writing a good research paper is, in and of itself, a major intellectual challenge. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements.

Following these guidelines, however, serves several important purposes. First, it signals to your readers that your paper should be taken seriously as a student’s contribution to a given academic or professional field; it is the literary equivalent of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview. Second, it shows that you respect other people’s work enough to give them proper credit for it. Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic.

Furthermore, producing a letter-perfect APA-style paper need not be burdensome. Yes, it requires careful attention to detail. However, you can simplify the process if you keep these broad guidelines in mind:

  • Work ahead whenever you can. Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” includes tips for keeping track of your sources early in the research process, which will save time later on.
  • Get it right the first time. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage. Again, putting in a little extra time early on can save time later.
  • Use the resources available to you. In addition to the guidelines provided in this chapter, you may wish to consult the APA website at http://www.apa.org or the Purdue University Online Writing lab at http://owl.english.purdue.edu , which regularly updates its online style guidelines.

General Formatting Guidelines

This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box.

These are the major components of an APA-style paper:

Body, which includes the following:

  • Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the content
  • In-text citations of research sources
  • References page

All these components must be saved in one document, not as separate documents.

The title page of your paper includes the following information:

  • Title of the paper
  • Author’s name
  • Name of the institution with which the author is affiliated
  • Header at the top of the page with the paper title (in capital letters) and the page number (If the title is lengthy, you may use a shortened form of it in the header.)

List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. Your title page should look like the following example.

Beyond the Hype: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets cover page

The next page of your paper provides an abstract , or brief summary of your findings. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis. A good abstract is concise—about one hundred fifty to two hundred fifty words—and is written in an objective, impersonal style. Your writing voice will not be as apparent here as in the body of your paper. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences.

In Chapter 12 “Writing a Research Paper” , you read a paper written by a student named Jorge, who researched the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets. Read Jorge’s abstract. Note how it sums up the major ideas in his paper without going into excessive detail.

Beyond the Hype: Abstract

Write an abstract summarizing your paper. Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research. Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words.

Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field.

Margins, Pagination, and Headings

APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper. Review the following APA guidelines.

Use these general guidelines to format the paper:

  • Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.
  • Use double-spaced text throughout your paper.
  • Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point).
  • Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. Page numbers appear flush right within your header.
  • Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting. Additional details from Jorge’s paper are provided.

Cover Page

Begin formatting the final draft of your paper according to APA guidelines. You may work with an existing document or set up a new document if you choose. Include the following:

  • Your title page
  • The abstract you created in Note 13.8 “Exercise 1”
  • Correct headers and page numbers for your title page and abstract

APA style uses section headings to organize information, making it easy for the reader to follow the writer’s train of thought and to know immediately what major topics are covered. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information.

The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance:

  • Section headings use centered, boldface type. Headings use title case, with important words in the heading capitalized.
  • Subsection headings use left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case.
  • The third level uses left-aligned, indented, boldface type. Headings use a capital letter only for the first word, and they end in a period.
  • The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized.
  • The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced.

Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” .

Table 13.1 Section Headings

A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” , but you are likely to encounter them in academic journal articles that use APA style. For a brief paper, you may find that level 1 headings suffice. Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.

Working with the document you developed in Note 13.11 “Exercise 2” , begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research paper according to APA guidelines. Include your title and at least two to three major section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. If your major sections should be broken into subsections, add those headings as well. Use your outline to help you.

Because Jorge used only level 1 headings, his Exercise 3 would look like the following:

Citation Guidelines

In-text citations.

Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. As you learned in Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” , the purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information.

In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. (When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead.) When directly quoting a source, it is also required that you include the page number where the quote appears in your citation.

This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples.

Epstein (2010) points out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Here, the writer names the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the author’s name. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence.

Addiction researchers caution that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (Epstein, 2010, p. 137).

Here, the writer provides a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence that includes the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number separated by commas. Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence.

As noted in the book Junk Food, Junk Science (Epstein, 2010, p. 137), “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive.”

Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence (an optional piece of information to include) and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase.

David Epstein’s book Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source.

Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.2 “Citing and Referencing Techniques” and Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provide extensive guidelines for citing a variety of source types.

Writing at Work

APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you may be exposed to additional styles, such as the following:

  • MLA style. Determined by the Modern Languages Association and used for papers in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities.
  • Chicago style. Outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style and sometimes used for papers in the humanities and the sciences; many professional organizations use this style for publications as well.
  • Associated Press (AP) style. Used by professional journalists.

References List

The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section. In-text citations provide basic information—the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessary—while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired.

The specific format of entries in the list of references varies slightly for different source types, but the entries generally include the following information:

  • The name(s) of the author(s) or institution that wrote the source
  • The year of publication and, where applicable, the exact date of publication
  • The full title of the source
  • For books, the city of publication
  • For articles or essays, the name of the periodical or book in which the article or essay appears
  • For magazine and journal articles, the volume number, issue number, and pages where the article appears
  • For sources on the web, the URL where the source is located

The references page is double spaced and lists entries in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. Review the following example. ( Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provides extensive guidelines for formatting reference entries for different types of sources.)

References Section

In APA style, book and article titles are formatted in sentence case, not title case. Sentence case means that only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper nouns.

Key Takeaways

  • Following proper citation and formatting guidelines helps writers ensure that their work will be taken seriously, give proper credit to other authors for their work, and provide valuable information to readers.
  • Working ahead and taking care to cite sources correctly the first time are ways writers can save time during the editing stage of writing a research paper.
  • APA papers usually include an abstract that concisely summarizes the paper.
  • APA papers use a specific headings structure to provide a clear hierarchy of information.
  • In APA papers, in-text citations usually include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
  • In-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, which provide detailed bibliographical information about a source.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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École Polytechnique

How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper (Project-Centered Course)

Taught in English

Some content may not be translated

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166,094 already enrolled

Gain insight into a topic and learn the fundamentals

Mathis Plapp

Instructor: Mathis Plapp

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There are 4 modules in this course

What you will achieve:

In this project-based course, you will outline a complete scientific paper, choose an appropriate journal to which you'll submit the finished paper for publication, and prepare a checklist that will allow you to independently judge whether your paper is ready to submit. What you'll need to get started: This course is designed for students who have previous experience with academic research - you should be eager to adapt our writing and publishing advice to an existing personal project. If you just finished your graduate dissertation, just began your PhD, or are at a different stage of your academic journey or career and just want to publish your work, this course is for you. *About Project-Centered Courses: Project-Centered Courses are designed to help you complete a personally meaningful real-world project, with your instructor and a community of learners with similar goals providing guidance and suggestions along the way. By actively applying new concepts as you learn, you’ll master the course content more efficiently; you’ll also get a head start on using the skills you gain to make positive changes in your life and career. When you complete the course, you’ll have a finished project that you’ll be proud to use and share.

Understanding academia

In this section of the MOOC, you will learn what is necessary before writing a paper: the context in which the scientist is publishing. You will learn how to know your own community, through different exemples, and then we will present you how scientific journal and publication works. We will finish with a couple of ethical values that the academic world is sharing!

What's included

8 videos 4 readings 5 quizzes 2 discussion prompts

8 videos • Total 28 minutes

  • Introduction by Mathis Plapp • 1 minute • Preview module
  • Let me walk you through the course • 3 minutes
  • French version of the class • 0 minutes
  • Why is publishing important? • 3 minutes
  • "KYC": Know Your Community • 4 minutes
  • How journals work: the review process • 4 minutes
  • Presentation of scientific journals • 4 minutes
  • Ethical Guidelines • 5 minutes

4 readings • Total 40 minutes

  • Teaching team • 10 minutes
  • Breakthroughs! • 10 minutes
  • Additional contents • 10 minutes
  • Examples of guidelines • 10 minutes

5 quizzes • Total 150 minutes

  • Why is publishing important? • 30 minutes
  • Know your community • 30 minutes
  • How journals work: the review process • 30 minutes
  • Communication with the editorial board • 30 minutes
  • Ethical Guidelines and intellectual property • 30 minutes

2 discussion prompts • Total 20 minutes

  • Your thoughts • 10 minutes
  • Compatibility between paper submission and editorial board • 10 minutes

Before writing: delimiting your scientific paper

A good paper do not loose focus throughout the entirety of its form. As such, we are going to give you a more detailed view on how to delimit your paper. We are going to lead you through your paper by taking a closer look at the paper definition which will ensure you don't loose focus. Then we will explain why the literature review is important and how to actually do it. And then we will guide you with advices as to how to find the so-what of your paper! This is important as research is all about so-what!

6 videos 1 reading 5 quizzes 4 discussion prompts

6 videos • Total 26 minutes

  • Paper definition "KYP", Know Your Paper • 3 minutes • Preview module
  • How to: the literature review 1/2: find a good literature review • 3 minutes
  • How to: the literature review 2/2: construction of your own literature review • 6 minutes
  • How to: the research design • 3 minutes
  • How to: the gap • 4 minutes
  • Presentation of Zotero: aggregate references • 4 minutes

1 reading • Total 10 minutes

  • Books and tools • 10 minutes
  • Literature Review • 30 minutes
  • Main ideas • 30 minutes
  • The Gap? • 30 minutes
  • So, what? • 30 minutes
  • Think about it • 30 minutes

4 discussion prompts • Total 40 minutes

  • Compatibility between paper and journal • 10 minutes
  • Understanding how the literature review is structured • 10 minutes
  • Finding Useful References: Difficulties & Strategies for Success. • 10 minutes
  • Comparing different research designs on the same subject • 10 minutes

Writing the paper: things you need to know

In this part of the MOOC, you will learn how to write your paper. In a first part, we will focus on the structure of the paper, and then you will be able to see how to use bibliographical tools such as zotero. Finally you will be required to write your own abstract and to do a peer review for the abstract of the others, as in real academic life!

5 videos 2 readings 2 quizzes 1 peer review 2 discussion prompts

5 videos • Total 27 minutes

  • The structure of an academic paper • 7 minutes • Preview module
  • On writing an academic paper, preliminary tips • 6 minutes
  • How to: the bibliography • 3 minutes
  • The abstract • 6 minutes
  • Zotero: online features • 3 minutes

2 readings • Total 20 minutes

  • Important readings before writing a paper • 10 minutes
  • More detailed information on how to write your article • 10 minutes

2 quizzes • Total 60 minutes

  • The bibliography • 30 minutes
  • Please, try by yourself • 30 minutes

1 peer review • Total 60 minutes

  • Peer reviewing of an abstract • 60 minutes
  • Comparing different constructions of papers • 10 minutes
  • Discussing abstracts • 10 minutes

After the writing: the check list

After writing the paper comes the time of reading your paper a few times in order to get everything perfect.In this section you will learn how to remove a lot of mistakes you might have been writing. In the end, you will have to build your own checklist corresponding to your own problems you want to avoid. After this, your article can be submitted and will hopefully be accepted!!

5 videos 3 readings 1 peer review 1 discussion prompt

5 videos • Total 36 minutes

  • How to avoid being boring? • 5 minutes • Preview module
  • The main mistakes to look for: format • 3 minutes
  • 1. The researcher • 9 minutes
  • 2. The editor • 13 minutes
  • Constructing your checklist • 4 minutes

3 readings • Total 30 minutes

  • Avoiding mistakes • 10 minutes
  • Format and Writing Readings • 10 minutes
  • Tips • 10 minutes
  • Now it is your turn: the checking list • 60 minutes

1 discussion prompt • Total 10 minutes

  • Several content worth taking a look at • 10 minutes

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write an academic paper

École polytechnique combines research, teaching and innovation at the highest scientific and technological level worldwide to meet the challenges of the 21st century. At the forefront of French engineering schools for more than 200 years, its education promotes a culture of multidisciplinary scientific excellence, open in a strong humanist tradition.\n L’École polytechnique associe recherche, enseignement et innovation au meilleur niveau scientifique et technologique mondial pour répondre aux défis du XXIe siècle. En tête des écoles d’ingénieur françaises depuis plus de 200 ans, sa formation promeut une culture d’excellence scientifique pluridisciplinaire, ouverte dans une forte tradition humaniste.

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It's a very good course. If you don't know anything about publishing scientific papers then you will gain very amazing knowledge. All in all, it is a very good course for beginners or experts.

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It was really helpful to me, I hope it will be useful to all researchers who are intensively working for publishing papers in journals. I thank all course instructors who handled the video sessions.

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I really liked the course and the contents are great. Except for the language problem, everything else is very good, and really enjoyed learning from peers and instructors. Thank you for the platform.


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How to write academic papers: a comprehensive guide.


The fact that the majority of students consider their academic papers as one of the most complex assignments does not seems surprising at all. Why is that so? Why are these assignments so complicated? There are a few main reasons. First of all, in order to provide a high-quality paper, one has to fulfill a whole list of subtasks, such as choosing the right topic, organizing the whole paper, finding relevant literature, conducting a research, etc… The actual writing is just one phase of the whole process. The problem with this phase is that it is not an easy task to provide the content that is concise and informative, but at the same time interesting and original. It seems that the writing talent is of great help in this process, but unfortunately, only a small percentage of students actually possess this kind of talent. Besides that, every academic term paper writing has to be done in accordance with a specific set of writing norms and rules (for example, APA or Chicago), so students should also get familiar with these.

The additional problem is that these obligations are very common, so they have a significant influence of the final grades. In the text below, a few tips and pieces of advice on how to provide a high-quality academic paper will be provided, so students should get familiar with these as they can be very beneficial for their future education.

Types of academic writing

Of course, there are different types of academic papers, depending on their content, research design, writing style, audience, etc… These are some of the most common types of academic papers.

            Research paper

This is one of the most common types of academic writing. This is a paper that requires the combination of creativity, research skill, and the knowledge of a particular topic. The creativity takes place at the beginning of the paper in which a student should elaborate the main idea of his research and explain why this domain is investigated. Although it is not always the case, these papers often include the actual research process, so a student has to collect his own data. This indicates that the research design has to be constructed. A research design contains information such as who will be the participants (i.e. the sample of a particular population), how the data will be collected, what instruments or questionnaire will be used, what kind of statistical analysis will be provided, etc… At the end, the results have to be interpreted and discussed.


            Essays don’t include the process of collecting the data, but it does include the literature review, i.e. the process of collecting relevant information on a particular topic. Of course, one should only use academic and reliable sources of information (scientific books, articles, scientific papers, etc…). There are 4 main types of essays:

  • The expository essay (the elaboration and explanation of a particular topic or idea; for example, “The main postulates of the Roman law”)
  • The persuasive essay (the writer aims to defend a certain claim or a point of view; “Why smoking is harmful?”);
  • The analytical essay (the process of analyzing a certain domain, such as a work of art, some natural process, etc…; “The influence of Homer’s Iliad on poetry”)
  • The argumentative essay (elaborating why a certain point of view is more accurate than the other ones; “Why are non-physical forms of punishment more effective than the physical ones?”)

Academic proposal

This type of academic paper can be considered as a concise version of the scientific paper. It represents detailed and elaborated plan of the research. Another important thing to mention is that it is submitted before the actual research takes place.

Writing pitfalls

Although every student has his own style and specific writing issues, there are a few very common pitfalls.

Using complex expressions

A lot of students make mistake by thinking that they will make a positive impression by using complex expressions and complicated sentences. However, the truth is usually quite the opposite; this kind of elaboration can often represent the compensation for the lack of understanding a particular construct.

Forcing productivity

In the domain of writing, productivity is tightly connected to the creativity and inspiration, and the problem with these two is that they cannot be forced. Some students believe that they should finish their paper “in one breath”, so they force themselves to write even if they are tired. The best advice is to make a short break (preferably in a physically active manner) whenever a student feels that he is getting tired and losing his focus.

Writing in Second/Third person

Academic papers are almost always written in a third person. This way the content sounds more objective, as it can be seen in these examples.

Second person: You shouldn’t smoke because it is bad for you.

Third person: Smoking should be avoided, as it can cause serious physical consequences.

Citations and References

Every academic paper has to be written in accordance with a certain set of writing rules. The three of the most common ones are APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), and Chicago. Considering that there are minor differences between these citation styles, only one of them will be further elaborated, as it is very simple to find the examples of other two citation systems online.

APA is mostly used in psychology and education domain. Here are some examples:

In-text citation:

(Author, year of publication, page number); “People are not just on looking hosts of internal mechanisms orchestrated by environmental events” (Bandura, 2001, p.4)

Author, A. A. (Year of publication).  Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle . Location: Publisher.; Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity . New York: Springer-Verlag.

Author, A. (Publication Year). Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.; Bruer, J. T. (1997). Education and the brain: A bridge too far. Educational researcher, 26 (8), 4-16.

Writing assignments are considered to be one of the most complex academic obligations for a good reason. In this text, some of the main domains were elaborated and a few pieces of advice were provided. With dedication and these tips in hand, it is almost certain that every student can ensure a high-quality academic paper of any kind.

About the author:

Samantha Anderson is a passionate teacher. She found her destiny in developing new educational approaches. Which she kindly shares on the blog. Her free time is dedicated to writing college essays for students in order to help them find the real purpose of it. according to Samantha’s lifestyle, rock climbing is the best thing for relaxation.

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Content Writing How to Write an Academic Paper – Tips with Examples

write an academic paper

  • 1) What is An Academic Paper?
  • 2.1) Share research findings with others
  • 2.2) Establish credibility and expertise
  • 2.3) Contribute to the academic community
  • 2.4) Build Academic career
  • 2.5) Improve writing and critical thinking skills
  • 3.1) Choose a Topic
  • 3.2) Conduct Research
  • 3.3) Create an Outline
  • 3.4) Write a Thesis Statement
  • 3.5) Write the Introduction
  • 3.6) Write the Body
  • 3.7) Write the Conclusion
  • 3.8) Add References and Citations
  • 3.9) Edit and Revise
  • 4.1) APA style:
  • 4.2) MLA style:
  • 4.3) Chicago style:
  • 4.4) Harvard style:
  • 5.1) Choose the appropriate citation style:
  • 5.2) Use a citation management tool:
  • 5.3) Include in-text citations:
  • 5.4) Include a reference list or bibliography:
  • 5.5) Double-check your citations:
  • 6.1) Title page:
  • 6.2) Abstract:
  • 6.3) Introduction:
  • 6.4) Literature review:
  • 6.5) Methodology:
  • 6.6) Results:
  • 6.7) Discussion:
  • 6.8) Conclusion:
  • 6.9) References:
  • 6.10) Appendices:
  • 7.1) Do’s of Academic Writing:
  • 7.2) Don’ts of Academic Writing
  • 8.1) Research help:
  • 8.2) Organizing information:
  • 8.3) Brainstorming ideas:
  • 9) How to Write an Academic Paper – Use this Outline
  • 10) Conclusion:

Academic writing is challenging for many students. But with the right approach, you can create a well-structured and compelling paper to showcase your knowledge and research. In this blog post, we will discuss steps on how to write an academic paper with useful academic writing tips.

What is An Academic Paper?

An academic paper is a piece of writing that presents research, analysis, or a new idea on a specific topic. These papers are usually written by scholars, researchers, or students as part of their academic work and are often published in academic journals or presented at conferences.

Academic papers follow a specific format and structure, including an introduction that explains the purpose of the paper, a literature review that summarizes previous research on the topic, a methodology section that outlines how the research was conducted, a results section that presents the findings, and a conclusion that summarizes the main points and offers implications for further research.

The language used in academic papers is typically formal and technical, and the writing is often dense and complex. However, the purpose of academic papers is to communicate new ideas or research findings to a specific audience of scholars and researchers, so the language used is precise and focused on the topic at hand.

What is the Importance of Writing an Academic Paper?

Most academic paper pros write academic papers to:

Share research findings with others

Writing an academic paper is an effective way to share your research findings with others in your field. By publishing your work in academic journals or presenting it at conferences, you can contribute to the body of knowledge in your area of study.

Establish credibility and expertise

Publishing an academic paper establishes your credibility and expertise in your field. It demonstrates that you have conducted research and analysis and have a deep understanding of the subject matter.

Contribute to the academic community

Academic papers contribute to the academic community by advancing knowledge and understanding in a particular field. By publishing your work, you are helping to shape and inform future research and study in your area of expertise.

Build Academic career

Publishing academic papers helps you build your career in academia or other fields. It can lead to opportunities for further research, collaborations with other scholars, and job offers in your area of expertise.

Improve writing and critical thinking skills

Writing an academic paper requires a high level of writing and critical thinking skills. By writing academic papers, you can improve these skills and become a better communicator and researcher.

How to Write an Academic Paper – Step by Step Guide

Choose a topic.

Choosing a topic for your academic paper is the first step in writing an effective paper. The topic should be relevant to your field of study and should be interesting and engaging.

Conduct Research

Conducting research is an essential part of writing an academic paper. Research involves gathering information and data from credible sources such as academic journals, books, and reputable websites.

Create an Outline

Creating an outline helps you organize your thoughts and ideas in a logical and structured manner. It provides a roadmap for your paper and helps you stay on track.

Write a Thesis Statement

A thesis statement is the main argument or point that you will be making in your academic paper. It should be clear and concise, and it should be included in your introduction.

Write the Introduction

The introduction is the first section of your paper, and it should provide a brief overview of your topic and the purpose of your paper. It should also include your thesis statement.

Write the Body

The body of your paper should provide detailed information and analysis on your topic. It should be organized into sections and paragraphs, with each section addressing a specific point related to your thesis statement.

Write the Conclusion

The conclusion is the final section of your paper, and it should summarize your main points and restate your thesis statement in a new way. It should also provide some final thoughts and implications for future research.

Add References and Citations

Adding references and citations is an important aspect of academic writing, as it allows you to give credit to the sources you have used and also helps to strengthen the credibility of your arguments.

Edit and Revise

Editing and revising are important steps in writing an effective academic paper. You should read through your paper carefully, checking for errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. You should also make sure that your paper is well-organized and flows logically.

How to Write an Academic Paper References and Citations – Different Styles

Here are some popular styles of academic writing references and citations:

APA style: 

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely adopted style for research work in the social sciences. In-text citations in APA style include the author’s last name and the year of publication, such as (Smith, 2019). The reference list at the end of the paper should include the author’s last name, first initial, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume number, and page numbers, in that order.

MLA style: 

The Modern Language Association (MLA) style is commonly used in the humanities. In-text citations in MLA style include the author’s last name and the page number, such as (Smith 23). The cited page at the end of the paper should include the author’s last name, first name, title of the book or article, title of the journal or publisher, year of publication, and page numbers, in that order.

Chicago style: 

The Chicago style is commonly used in history, social sciences, and some humanities. In-text citations in Chicago style include the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number, such as (Smith 2019, 23). The bibliography at the end of the paper should include the author’s last name, first name, title of the book or article, title of the journal or publisher, year of publication, and page numbers, in that order.

Harvard style: 

The Harvard style is commonly used in the sciences and social sciences. In-text citations in Harvard style include the author’s last name and year of publication, such as (Smith 2019). The reference list at the end of the paper should include the author’s last name, first initial, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume number, and page numbers, in that order.

Things to Keep in Mind When Adding References and Citations

Here are some points to keep in mind when adding references and citations in an academic paper:

Choose the appropriate citation style: 

Different academic disciplines use different citation styles, so it is important to choose the appropriate style for your paper. Common citation styles include APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard. Each style has its own set of rules for formatting citations, so be sure to familiarize yourself with the guidelines before you begin.

Use a citation management tool: 

Citation management tools, such as Mendeley, Zotero, or EndNote, can be helpful in organizing and formatting your references and citations. These tools allow you to easily import and store references from different sources, and they can generate citations and bibliographies in the appropriate style.

Include in-text citations: 

In-text citations are used to indicate where you have used information from a source within your paper. They usually include the author’s last name and the year of publication, and they can be formatted differently depending on the citation style you are using.

Include a reference list or bibliography: 

A reference list or bibliography should be included at the end of your paper, and it should include all of the sources you have cited in your paper. This list should be formatted according to the citation style you are using.

Double-check your citations: 

It is important to double-check your citations to ensure that they are accurate and consistent with the guidelines of your chosen citation style. You should also make sure that you have cited all of the sources you have used in your paper.

What is the Format of an Academic Paper?

The format of an academic paper varies depending on the specific requirements of the assignment, institution, or academic discipline. However, there are some general guidelines followed in academic writing. Here are the basic elements of an academic paper format:

Title page: 

This includes the title of the paper, the author’s name, the name of the institution, and the date of submission.

This is a brief summary of the main points of the paper, typically no more than 250 words. It should provide an overview of the research question, methodology, and results.


This section provides background information on the topic, outlines the research question or problem, and sets out the objectives or hypotheses of the paper.

Literature review: 

This section provides an overview of the existing research on the topic, highlighting key studies and theories relevant to the research question.


This section outlines the research methods and techniques used in the study, including the data collection and analysis procedures.


This section presents the findings of the research, typically using tables, charts, or graphs to display the data.


This section interprets the results of the research and discusses their implications, relating the findings back to the research question and objectives.


This section summarizes the main findings of the study, highlights the implications and limitations of the research, and suggests directions for future research.


This is a list of all the sources cited in the paper, typically presented in alphabetical order according to the chosen citation style.


This section may include any additional material that is relevant to the study but not included in the main text, such as survey questionnaires or raw data.

Do’s and Don’ts of Writing an Academic Paper

Here are some do’s and don’ts of how to write an academic paper:

here are some do’s and don’ts of writing an academic paper explained in an expressive language:

Do’s of Academic Writing:

  • Do conduct thorough research: Conducting thorough research is essential to ensure that you have enough information to support your arguments and ideas.
  • Do use credible sources: Use credible sources such as academic journals, books, and reputable websites to support your arguments.
  • Do write in a formal tone: Academic papers should be written in a formal tone, using clear and concise language.
  • Do proofread your work: Proofreading your work helps to eliminate errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling.
  • Do follow the proper format and structure: Follow the proper format and structure for your particular field of study, including the appropriate citation style.
  • Do present your arguments clearly and logically: Your arguments should be presented clearly and logically to ensure that your readers can follow your thought process.

Don’ts of Academic Writing

  • Don’t plagiarize: Plagiarism is a serious offense and can result in severe consequences, including failing the course or even expulsion from school.
  • Don’t use informal language: Avoid using slang, contractions, and other informal language in your academic paper.
  • Don’t overuse quotes: Overusing quotes can make it seem like you are not providing original thought and can detract from the strength of your arguments.
  • Don’t write in a disorganized manner: Writing in a disorganized manner can make it difficult for your readers to follow your thought process and can weaken the impact of your arguments.
  • Don’t ignore the importance of editing and revising: Editing and revising are crucial steps in the writing process and can help to improve the quality and effectiveness of your academic paper.
  • Don’t rely solely on one source: Relying solely on one source can limit the depth and breadth of your research and can weaken the credibility of your arguments.

Can You Use AI For Academic Writing?

Here are some benefits of using an AI writing tool for academic writing:

Research help: 

AI-powered research tools can assist in finding relevant sources related to your topic. These tools use natural language processing (NLP) algorithms to identify key concepts in your query and search for articles that match those concepts.

Organizing information: 

AI-powered tools can assist in organizing research notes, ideas, and outlines. For example, some tools use a “networked thought” approach that allows you to create links between different ideas and concepts. Others allow you to store and organize your references and citations.

Brainstorming ideas: 

AI-powered tools can assist in generating new ideas and insights. For example, some tools use machine learning algorithms to help you cluster similar ideas together and generate new insights from your brainstorming sessions.

AI is a useful tool for academic writing research and organization, but it should not replace critical thinking, analysis, and original thought. It is always important to double-check the accuracy and relevance of the information you find using AI tools. Use AI while following ethical standards and responsibly.

How to Write an Academic Paper – Use this Outline

I. Introduction

A. Background information

B. Brief overview of the research problem

C. Thesis statement

II. Literature Review

A. Overview of research done previously on the topic

B. Gaps in the literature that your research will address

C. Theoretical framework that informs your research

III. Methodology

A. Research design

B. Data collection methods

C. Data analysis methods

IV. Results

A. Presentation of data and findings

B. Analysis of the data and findings

C. Discussion of how the results support or refute the thesis statement

V. Discussion

A. Interpretation of the results

B. Implications for future research

C. Limitations of the study

VI. Conclusion

A. Summary of the main points

B. Significance of the research

C. Recommendations for future research

VII. References

A. List of sources cited in the paper

You can produce a high-quality academic paper that meets the standards of your institution by following these tips. Remember that an academic paper should be of high quality as it demonstrates your expertise in your chosen field.

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  • November 30, 2022
  • Academic Advice

How To Write an Academic Essay: A Beginner’s Guide

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During college, you must participate in many writing assessments, one of the most important being academic essays. Unfortunately, only a few are well-informed about the process of academic writing. 

If you’re reading this, you probably want to learn how to write an academic essay. Follow our guide! Here we’ll introduce the concept of the academic essay, the five components of an academic essay, the format of an academic essay, and more.

Ready to master your academic essay writing? Let’s go!

What Is an Academic Essay?

An academic essay is writing created to initiate debate, defend an idea, or present a new point of view by supporting it with evidence. 

One of the most important components that differentiate it from typical essays you have written in high school is supporting ideas with evidence. If you claim that, for example, “divorces have a negative impact on young children,” you need to find sources that support your argument to make it more convincing.

Interpreting facts is another essential element of a successful academic piece of writing. Academic essays should be written in a formal tone, with a set structure, and have a critical, based, and objective viewpoint. You should be able to understand and transmit different points of view to your readers in a simple but formal manner. 

Are you still trying to figure out what steps you should take to start writing? Keep scrolling!  

How To Write an Academic Essay

write an academic paper

Writing an academic essay can initially seem intimidating, especially if you are unfamiliar with the rules and requirements. 

The time and effort spent on the writing task might differ depending on the topic, word limit, deadline, and other factors. However, the key steps, including preparing for the writing, creating a thesis statement, introduction, conclusion, and editing process, must be included in every academic writing style. 

By following the detailed list of actions below, you can start and finish your essay in no time.

Prepare to write your essay

Before going into the technical part of the writing process, one piece of advice you should keep in mind is planning. Planning is as important as the writing process. If you plan correctly, you will have sufficient time to perform every step successfully. Failure to plan will lead to a messy essay and, worst-case scenario, an unfinished writing piece. 

Understand your assignment

First and foremost, before you take any action regarding writing your essay, you must ensure you have clearly understood every tiny detail that your instructor has provided you—this step will determine your academic essay’s effectiveness. But why is that? Understanding the assignment in detail will leave no space for any irrelevant information that would lead to wasted time and, ultimately, a lower grade. 

Develop your essay topic

If your instructor doesn’t give you a specific topic, you should spend some time finding a topic that fits the requirements. Finding a topic sounds easy, but finding the right one requires more than just a simple google search.

So, ensure you develop an original topic, as it adds more value to your academic writing. However, ensure that there is enough evidence from other sources to help you back up your arguments. You can do this by researching similar topics from trusted sources.

Do your research and take notes

Once you determine the topic, go on and do some research. This part takes a lot of effort since there are countless sources online, and obviously, you have to choose some of the best. 

Depending on your topic, there might be cases where online sources are not available, and you’ll also have to visit local libraries. Whatever the case, you need to take notes and highlight the components you want to include in your essay. 

A quick tip: Go back to your topic often to avoid getting swayed or influenced by other less relevant ideas. 

Come up with a clear thesis statement

An excellent academic essay contains a strong thesis statement. A strong thesis statement successfully narrows your topic into a specific area of investigation. It should also intrigue your readers and initiate debate. 

A good thesis statement is:

  • NOT a question  
  • NOT a personal opinion

Create a structure

After gathering all the necessary information, you can begin outlining your main ideas. The primary academic essay structure is classified into the following 

  • Introduction

Failure to maintain these three components in your academic essay will result in a poorly written assignment. Luckily, you can easily avoid that by following our guide.

Writing the introduction


Your essay will be divided into paragraphs of equal importance, but the introductory part should always stand out. You must make your introduction as presentable as possible and get the reader’s attention. Work on it as if you were to get graded only by the evaluation of that first paragraph. 

The purpose of the introduction is to demonstrate that your thoughts and ideas are logical and coherent. Also, depending on the word limit, you can use more than one paragraph.  

Hook the reader

All forms of writing benefit from an attractive hook. If you have no idea of how to hook the reader, you can go the safe way and choose a recent fact or statistic. Statistics will give your essay credibility, surprise the readers, and make them want to keep reading.  

Give background on the topic

Now that you have the reader’s attention, you should strive to expand the essay’s key points but to a limit since the introduction is only one part of the whole essay. You should generally explain what gaps from previous sources you will cover and what others have covered so far. 

Present your thesis statement

When introducing your thesis statement, you can present it as a statement of fact or controversial. If you decide to give a statement fact, it will be challenging to keep your audience engaged since facts can be easily proven. But presenting it more controversially will keep your audience awake and can even result in a better grade overall.

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Writing the body of your essay


The body part of your essay is where you’ll expand all of your ideas presented in the introduction. It’s essential to stay consistent and not include irrelevant information. Since it is the longest part of your essay, you can easily get lost, and to prevent that, it would be best to map an internal outline specific to each paragraph. This way, you know what to include and where. 

Paragraph structure

Each paragraph should follow a specific structure. It should begin with an introductory sentence that tells the reader the main ideas you will discuss in the paragraph. It’s advisable to point back to your thesis statement to identify the relationship between it and the existing idea. Also, ensure that each paragraph demonstrates new ideas.  

Length of the body paragraphs

Depending on the topic and the arguments you’ve gathered, it’s advisable not to exceed 200 words per paragraph in academic writing. If your paragraphs are too long and contain unnecessary wording, it will become difficult for the reader to follow your point. So keep them clear and concise.

Writing the conclusion

Congratulation, now you’ve made it to the last paragraph of your essay. The conclusion’s primary purpose is to summarize the ideas presented throughout your essay. Writing a good conclusion should take little time since you know what the essay contains. However, be aware of what points you should or shouldn’t include.

What to include in your conclusion 

A strong conclusion needs to have an introductory sentence. In some cases, if your instructor approves, it can include other areas that need to be investigated in the future. But at its core, it should only remind the reader about the main arguments discussed.

What not to include in your conclusion 

You should at all times refrain from including new ideas. Since the essay ends with the conclusion, don’t go into details or support new points. Doing that will confuse the reader and result in a poor grade. 

Editing your essay


Without a doubt, editing is just as important as writing. No matter how careful you are during writing, there’s a high possibility that there will be some slip-ups. These can range from spelling mistakes to grammar, punctuation, and so on. We suggest you spend time doing other things and return to the essay again. This will help you notice errors that you otherwise wouldn’t. 

Tips for Writing a Great College Essay

Now that you have a clear idea of the process of writing an academic essay, we have a few more tips: 

  • Always cite your sources
  • Gather enough sources to support your thesis statement
  • Keep your sentences short and comprehensive
  • Start the research as early as possible 
  • Do not skip revising 

The Bottom Line

Writing an academic essay is a complex task. But with the right tools, guidance, and willingness to learn from your mistakes, you will master academic writing in no time. Make sure to follow each of the abovementioned steps and practice as much as possible. And don’t forget to edit!

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Research Method

Home » Academic Paper – Format, Example and Writing Guide

Academic Paper – Format, Example and Writing Guide

Table of Contents

Academic Paper

Academic Paper


Academic paper is a written document that presents the findings of a research study or scholarly inquiry in a formal manner. It is typically written by researchers or scholars and is intended to communicate their research findings to their peers or the academic community at large.

Types of Academic Paper

There are several types of academic papers that are commonly assigned in academic settings, including:

  • Research papers : These are papers that involve the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data to answer a research question or test a hypothesis.
  • Review papers: These are papers that synthesize and analyze existing research on a particular topic to provide a comprehensive overview of the field.
  • Case studies: These are papers that examine a particular instance or example in-depth, often used in business or law settings.
  • Essays : These are papers that provide a well-organized argument or analysis of a topic, often used in literature or philosophy courses.
  • Lab reports : These are papers that document experiments conducted in a laboratory setting and include detailed observations, methods, results, and conclusions.
  • Thesis and dissertations : Thesis are long-form research papers that are typically required for advanced degrees, such as a Master’s or PhD.
  • White papers : These are papers that provide detailed information about a particular product, service, or issue, often used in marketing or policy settings.
  • Position papers : These are papers that present a particular point of view or stance on a controversial issue, often used in political or social settings.
  • Literature reviews : These are papers that critically evaluate and summarize the research literature on a particular topic, often used in social and health sciences.
  • Conference papers : These are papers presented at academic conferences, which typically focus on recent research and developments in a particular field.
  • Book reviews: These are papers that provide a critical analysis and evaluation of a book, often used in literature or history courses.
  • Personal statements : These are papers that are used in applications for academic programs or scholarships, in which the author describes their background, interests, and qualifications.
  • Reflection papers: These are papers in which the author reflects on their own experiences or observations related to a particular topic, often used in education or social work courses.
  • Policy papers : These are papers that provide recommendations or proposals for addressing a particular policy issue, often used in political science or public policy courses.
  • Technical reports : These are papers that provide detailed information about a technical project or process, often used in engineering or computer science settings.

Academic Paper Format

Academic papers typically follow a specific format, although it can vary depending on the discipline or journal. Here is a general outline of the components that are commonly included:

  • Title page : This should include the title of the paper, the author’s name, and their affiliation (e.g. university or organization).
  • Abstract : This is a brief summary of the paper, typically around 150-250 words. It should provide an overview of the research question, methods, results, and conclusions.
  • Introduction : This section should introduce the topic of the paper and provide some background information. It should also include a clear research question or hypothesis.
  • Literature review : This section should review the existing research on the topic and explain how the current study contributes to the field.
  • Methodology : This section should describe the methods used in the study, including the sample, measures, and procedures.
  • Results : This section should present the findings of the study, typically using tables and figures to display the data.
  • Discussion : This section should interpret the results and discuss their implications. It should also address the research question or hypothesis and explain how the findings contribute to the field.
  • Conclusion : This section should summarize the main findings and their implications, and suggest directions for future research.
  • References: This section should list all the sources cited in the paper, following a specific citation style (e.g. APA, MLA).

Example of Academic Paper

Example Sample of Academic Paper is as follows:

Title Page:

  • Running head: TITLE OF PAPER
  • Title of paper
  • Author’s name
  • Institutional affiliation
  • A brief summary of the paper’s main points, including the research question, methods, results, and conclusions
  • Should be no more than 250 words


  • Introduce the research question and provide background information
  • Discuss the significance of the research question and how it relates to previous research in the field
  • Provide a clear and concise thesis statement
  • Describe the research design, including the participants, procedures, and materials used
  • Explain how data was collected and analyzed
  • Present the findings of the study in a clear and organized manner
  • Use tables and figures to visually represent the data

Discussion :

  • Interpret the results and explain their significance
  • Discuss how the findings relate to the research question and previous research in the field
  • Identify limitations of the study and suggest directions for future research


  • List all sources cited in the paper, formatted according to APA style guidelines.

When to Write Academic Paper

There are several occasions when you might want to write an academic paper, including:

  • Coursework : In many academic programs, you’ll be required to write papers as part of your coursework. This may include essays, research papers, case studies, or other types of academic writing.
  • Conference presentations: If you’re a researcher, you may want to present your work at academic conferences. Writing an academic paper can help you organize your thoughts and prepare for your presentation.
  • Journal publications: Publishing a paper in a peer-reviewed academic journal is an important way to share your research with the broader academic community. This can help you build your reputation as a scholar and may be required for promotion or tenure.
  • Grant proposals: When applying for research funding, you may need to submit a proposal that includes a research paper outlining your research question, methodology, and expected results.
  • Thesis or dissertation: If you’re pursuing a graduate degree, you’ll likely need to write a thesis or dissertation, which will require extensive research and academic writing.

Purpose of Academic Paper

Academic papers serve several purposes, including:

  • Contribution to knowledge : One of the primary purposes of academic papers is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on a particular topic. By conducting research and presenting new findings, scholars and researchers can build upon previous work and expand our understanding of a subject.
  • Communication: Academic papers allow researchers to communicate their findings to a wider audience, including other scholars, students, and policymakers. Through publications, academic papers can reach a broader audience and have a greater impact on society.
  • Validation and peer review: Academic papers are subjected to rigorous peer review by other experts in the field. This process helps ensure the accuracy and validity of the research and helps maintain the quality of academic work.
  • Career advancement : Publishing academic papers is often a requirement for career advancement in academia. Researchers who publish frequently are more likely to receive grants, promotions, and tenure.
  • Preservation of knowledge : Academic papers are often archived and made available for future generations to study and learn from. They can provide a record of research and scholarship that can be used to build upon in the future.
  • Development of critical thinking skills : The process of writing an academic paper requires careful analysis, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. By engaging in this process, researchers can develop their abilities to think deeply and systematically about complex topics.
  • Influence on policy: Academic papers can have a significant impact on policy decisions. Policymakers often rely on academic research to inform their decisions, and researchers who are able to communicate their findings effectively can have a real-world impact.
  • Advancement of science and technology : Many academic papers are focused on advancing science and technology. By publishing research on new technologies or breakthroughs in scientific understanding, researchers can help drive innovation and progress in these fields.
  • Education and training: Academic papers are often used as educational resources in universities and other academic settings. They can provide students with valuable insights into research methods, data analysis, and academic writing.
  • Building collaborations: Collaborations and partnerships can be built through academic papers. Researchers working on similar topics can connect through publications, leading to further research and collaboration opportunities.

Advantages of Academic Paper

Academic papers have several advantages, including:

  • Sharing knowledge : Academic papers are an effective way to share knowledge with other scholars and researchers in a particular field. Through publication, ideas and findings can be disseminated to a wider audience and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in a particular discipline.
  • Building credibility : Publishing academic papers can help researchers establish credibility and demonstrate expertise in their field. By contributing to the scholarly conversation, researchers can gain recognition and respect from their peers.
  • Facilitating collaboration: Academic papers can foster collaboration between researchers who share similar interests and can lead to new research partnerships and collaborations.
  • Providing feedback: Academic papers often go through a peer-review process, which allows for constructive feedback from other experts in the field. This feedback can help researchers refine their ideas, strengthen their arguments, and improve the quality of their work.
  • Career advancement: Publishing academic papers can be important for career advancement in academia. It is often a requirement for promotion and tenure, and can also help researchers secure funding for future research projects.
  • Preservation of knowledge : Academic papers are often archived and preserved, ensuring that the knowledge and findings they contain are accessible to future generations of researchers and scholars.

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Writing an Academic Paper: A Beginner’s Guide

Catherine Miller

An academic paper might be quite different from other writing you’ve done before. But never fear — with my experience of writing as an undergraduate, Master’s student, and teacher, I’m here to help you understand the ins and outs of writing an academic paper so you’ll ace your next assignment. 

Academic writing is done by scholars for an audience of other scholars. This means your audience is likely to be quite informed about your field of study, so you won’t need to start from the absolute basics. But, it also means your piece needs to be well-researched, with a clearly thought-out argument or informative literature review supported by academic sources. 

In this article, I’ll give you a step-by-step guide to putting together an academic paper that will get you a top grade. 

write an academic paper

Topic Selection

If you need to write an academic paper as part of your class assignment, you might have clear instructions on what the topic needs to be. This could be a question to answer, an argument statement to support or refute, or a general topic area to research which you can then develop your own specific paper title for. Make sure you double check the grading requirements and any other guidelines provided by your teacher or institution.

If you’ve got some freedom to come up with your own ideas, spending some time reading around your subject and brainstorming potential topics could be a good place to start.

Brainstorming Ideas

It’s wise to start by reading the recommended course material, especially the key texts. If you’re not sure what the best books and articles for additional reading might be, ask your professor for some recommendations. 

As you read, keep an eye out for ideas that might be ripe for exploration. If your paper is supposed to be an argument, look out for areas of the topic that seem to generate debate. 

It’s a good idea to make notes as you go, keeping track of potential citations and the information you’ll need to include in your bibliography. Organized notes can make all the difference when it comes to putting your finished paper together! You could do this using software like Notion , Evernote , or Google Keep , a spreadsheet, or even good old pen and paper.

Selecting a Focused Topic

Most academic papers will require you to come up with an argument, and a good place to start is narrowing down your thesis statement, i.e. the main point of your paper. This needs to be a defendable statement, so picking something for the sake of being controversial might leave you in a tricky position if there aren’t enough sources to back it up. Additionally, it needs to be something focused enough to explore in a few pages, rather than needing a whole book to explain. 

For example ‘ The economic situation of 1930s Germany was the key reason for Hitler’s rise to power.’ The thesis statement takes a clear position, can be defended, and isn’t too wide-ranging. 

Your own opinion on what you’ve read will be important, but you should also engage with the existing scholarship in the field. Whether you decide to stick with the consensus, or go against the grain, you will need to have a good understanding of what others have said.

Exploring the Background Information

Once you’ve reviewed any provided course materials and recommended reading, it’s important to recognize and address any glaring gaps in your knowledge. Are there any terms you don’t understand? Do you need to build an understanding of any particular events, people, or themes? Check the citations and bibliography of your readings to find and jump off to other works to build an understanding of how scholarship on the topic has progressed. 

Finding Scholarly Sources for Research

Depending on your subject area, you may need to find and use both primary and secondary sources for your research. Primary sources may include:

  • Newspaper articles
  • Historical documents
  • Eyewitness accounts or interviews
  • Documentary materials
  • Photographs
  • Novels, plays, and/or poems 
  • Pieces of art
  • Government reports
  • Lab data/reports

Secondary sources are usually other academic papers, critical works, or books that review a range of evidence and comment upon primary sources. These can include textbooks, biographies, literary criticism, etc., depending on your field of study. 

Your college library is a great place to start your research, especially if you need to use works that are not yet available digitally. However, many academic journals are now online, meaning you can find a wealth of other papers to read and reference within a few clicks. You should check which journals your college subscribes to, and you can search sites like JSTOR and Google Scholar .

Read the full article -  Best Research Tools of 2023

Outline Creation

Before you start writing, it’s a good idea to create a paper outline. This will help you fix your structure, clarify your points, and can ultimately make it quicker to write up the final piece.

Read the full article -  Creating an Outline with AI .

Creating an Overall Structure

The structure of an academic paper is likely to be more complex and developed than essays you may have written for school. You will need to make your thesis statement clear and support this with both evidence and analysis, as well as refuting other, competing ideas. Your work should reach a clear conclusion that leaves your reader in no doubt of your main argument. Nailing down your thesis statement, the key supporting points, and the main points you want to refute, should provide you with an overall structure for your academic paper.

Identifying and Summarizing Key Points

As you read around the topic, you should start to find repeated ideas that will become the main themes of your work. For example, if you are exploring how a theme is presented by a particular poet, you might find five or six ways the writer handles this idea. You will need to decide which one you find most persuasive by deciding which one has the most compelling evidence. This will become your thesis statement. The other ideas can be refuted as you develop your argument.

It’s a good idea to create a summary of each main idea you want to include by boiling it down into a few sentences at most. You can use software like Wordtune Read to help you. This AI (artificial intelligence) reader automatically summarizes longer documents to make it easier for you to condense the main ideas you will later re-expand. 

As you write out your plan, these summaries will form kernels of your developed paragraphs, saving you lots of time in writing the final piece.

write an academic paper

Essential Steps of the Writing Process

Writing up your academic paper might feel intimidating, but once you’ve got your structure plotted out, fleshing out the bones of the argument is the fun part. Make sure you leave enough time to write the paper and review it in plenty of time before the deadline, ideally taking some time away from the paper so you can come back to it with fresh ideas (which makes it easier to see any mistakes!).

Thesis Statement

Your thesis statement should come towards the start of your academic paper. This sets up the purpose of your paper, and establishes a trail of thought that your reader should be able to follow throughout the piece. It’s good practice to return to the thesis statement regularly throughout your work, and make sure you restate it in the conclusion (paraphrased if necessary to avoid robotic repetition). 

Before you begin writing the whole paper, work on your thesis statement by condensing the main argument of your paper into just one sentence. If you’re not sure if you have enough evidence for the argument you want to make by the time you finish your plan, you might need to revise your thesis statement before you write the whole paper. Trust me: it’s easier to change the thesis before you write all the paragraphs.

Read the full article -  How to Write a Thesis Statement with AI

Writing an Introduction

The introduction of an academic paper must make your argument clear, and should be concise and free of any fluff. You need to clearly lay out your argument, but should also set the scene for your work by summarizing the major scholarship, or history of the field, which most writers do first. You should also consider if the information you include in the introduction is definitely relevant to or necessary for the rest of the piece. For example, throwing in dates or definitions at this point may well be a distraction. Someone should be able to read just your introduction and already have a clear idea of your argument.

Additionally, your introduction needs to engage the audience by giving them a hint of the argument to come and suggesting why this topic is important. From a pile of 200+ papers, will your professor enjoy reading yours? A good introduction can help you to make a great first impression.

Read the full article - A Step-by-Step Guide to Writing Compelling Introductions

Body Paragraphs

Each paragraph of your paper should clearly support your thesis statement, or refute an alternative idea. Topic sentences (sentences that lay out the main point of each paragraph, before you go on to flesh out the detail) can be a good way to establish a clear thrust for each paragraph. However, it’s better to avoid formulaic or repetitive paragraph structures where you can. 

The key idea of each paragraph should be supported by evidence, which you will want to comment on, either to establish how you agree with it or to argue against it. Drawing connections between different pieces of evidence, or synthesizing and/or comparing ideas, can make your use of evidence more complex and nuanced, and therefore more effective.

Consider how the paragraphs flow into one another. Referencing the previous paragraph and setting up the purpose of the next can create a more coherent structure for your paper and therefore make it easier to follow. 

Drafting a Conclusion

The conclusion should bring the reader back to your thesis statement, and leave them in no doubt as to the strength of your argument. This is not a place to introduce new information or ideas at any length, although you may want to suggest further areas of study or research. 

Keep your conclusion concise, too. If possible, finishing with a memorable closing sentence can round off your paper with a flourish and leave a lasting impression on your audience. 

Don’t forget that revising your work is a crucial step! You should re-read your work a number of times to check if the structure and argument work well. You could try re-summarizing each paragraph, too, to make sure your points are clear. 

Once you are confident that the content of the paper is solid, it’s time to look at the technical construction of your phrases and sentences, which is where editing and proofreading come in. 

Editing and proofreading

Editing and proofreading are very important. The last thing you want to do is hand in a paper that’s difficult to read and follow because of technical errors. However, for many people, this is also an intimidating step.

One technique to try with your paper is to read it aloud. This can often highlight phrases or sentences that don’t work well or that don’t feel natural. You could also try reading your paper backwards, sentence by sentence. This forces your eye to stop skimming the page, which can lead to you missing mistakes. 

It’s not just technical features that may need editing. As you re-read, you might notice words and phrases that can be upgraded to make your ideas stronger, or to help you communicate in a more engaging way. Luckily, you don’t need to do this all yourself; a digital tool like Wordtune can help you improve your work by suggesting alternative ways to express your ideas. You can even direct it to make suggestions in a particular tone (for example, more or less formal). Wordtune will also check your work for spelling and grammar mistakes, which can also save you time and stress. 

write an academic paper

Including Citations

The evidence you use in your academic paper needs to be cited correctly. Check the guidelines your institution follows for citation, as there are a few different models out there. However, most models will share the following in common:

  • For each quotation from a source, provide the author’s name, date of publication, and page number (this can be in-text or as a footnote, depending on style guidelines). Some models also like you to provide the title of the text and the location of production.
  • Use quotation marks to indicate where you have taken text from another source (to avoid plagiarism) 
  • To include a bibliography at the end of your paper (a full list of works cited). This should only include the texts you have cited, and usually references the title of the academic journal or book, date of publication, volume number (if it’s a journal), page numbers (if referencing a chapter or article), publishing company and location of production.

Citing correctly is a crucial part of how to write an academic paper, but it can also be fiddly and time consuming. Keeping accurate and organized notes while you research can make this bit easier. 

Practice makes perfect

Learning how to write an academic paper is a process, so give yourself plenty of time to write your first one. As you progress in your studies, you will become more efficient and quicker at writing papers. And, don’t forget, you’re not alone! There are loads of resources out there to help you write an academic paper, including digital tools like Wordtune, online help guides, and support from your professor and institution, too. Before you know it, you’ll be turning in high quality, engaging academic papers that will help you ace your courses.

P.S. This article was co-written with Wordtune . Wordtune didn’t write the whole piece. Instead, it contributed ideas, suggested rephrasing alternatives, maintained consistency in tone, and of course - made the process much more fun for the writer.

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How to Write an Ultimate Guide (and Why You Should Call It Something Else)

How to Write an Ultimate Guide (and Why You Should Call It Something Else)

An ultimate guide is a piece of written content that goes deep and wide on a topic. It answers basic, foundational questions about the topic., but also goes a step further to provide more depth and insight. Let's learn how to create one, shall we?

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6 Examples of Powerful Copywriting (That Gets Results!)

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“How I Overcame My AI Aversion with Wordtune” – A Writer Explains

“How I Overcame My AI Aversion with Wordtune” – A Writer Explains

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  • how to write an academic paper
  • How to Write Good Academic Papers: Easy Guide for Beginners

How to Write Good Academic Papers: Easy Guide for Beginners

How to Write Academic Paper: Main Points to Consider

General principles, essential steps of the writing process, thesis statement, introduction, body paragraphs, editing and proofreading.

Have no idea how start an engaging introduction paragraph in your history essay? Need advice on how to write good academic paper  - you are not alone. Academic writing is an important skill for the success in higher education and in any career field but many university students find their written assignments too challenging and often consider them to be a form of a medieval torture.

Why is it so? The problem is that a lot of high school graduates enter colleges and universities having no idea how to complete grammatically correct sentences that make sense, to say nothing about writing a college-level academic paper because no one taught them how to do it right and present a clear, logical and convincing argument.

If you struggle with similar issues, read this article where you will find a complete guide on how to write good academic papers. We will provide you with all necessary information. You can order a well-written model essay on our website to have a better understanding of the general rules of academic writing and the proper paper structure and format.  

Many young people have difficulties with academic paper writing. This type of writing is specific and differs a lot from what you were asked to produce in high school because it involves a lot of reading, doing in-depth research of scholarly literature, planning, revising, making changes in content and structure, rewriting, editing, proofreading, and formatting. Don’t be scared. Writing is a skill that any student can learn and master. We hope that this short guide will explain everything you need to succeed.

What is an academic paper ? This type of writing can be defined in many ways and your instructors can give different names to these assignments – essay, term paper, analysis essay but all of them have the same purpose and are based on the same principles.

The goal of completing written assignments is to show that you have a profound knowledge of a specific topic and to share your own thoughts about a scientific question or an issue that may be of interest to your audience – students, your professor, and other scholars. You have to demonstrate your critical thinking skills.

Take into account 8 key principle of academic writing.

  • Your papers must have a clear purpose (inform, analyze, synthesize or persuade) and answer your topic question.
  • Your papers must present your original point of view.
  • Your writing must have a single focus – all paragraphs have to include relevant evidence (facts, expert opinions, quotations, examples) to support your thesis statement.
  • You must follow a standard organizational pattern. Every academic text must include the following parts: an introduction, the main body, and a conclusion. Some papers may require an abstract .
  • As an author, you need to provide clear, logical, and simple explanations to your reader.
  • You should refer to a number of scholarly sources. You need to integrate source materials into your discussion. Take care to include all sources (books, articles from a scientific journal, publications on online resources) that you cite, introduce, analyze or explain on a reference list in the bibliography page.
  • To ensure academic integrity, all college essays should be formatted in accordance with the requirements of one of the specific citation styles – APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago that determine the rules for in-text citations, paper sections, format, reference list.
  • You need to use your own words. Don’t try to be too formal or you may sound boring to your readers. Use natural language, common for conversations.

Writing an academic paper can be done step-by-step. If you are a beginner, you can follow these steps that have worked for millions of college students; they can save you a lot of time.

  • Select an interesting topic. If you lack ideas, you may search the internet using Google, look through your lecture notes, and consider your course readings or current news.
  • Do research and record sources’ information. Keep in mind that you may need to continue research as you discover thesis, make an outline, write and revise the document.
  • Formulate a strong thesis statement that you will argue.
  • Plan your essay and make a basic outline. Take notes from your sources and add details to your outline and make sure that you have supporting evidence for your points.
  • Write the first draft of your essay. You can start from any part and you shouldn’t worry about grammar, punctuation and spelling as you construct your sentences. You will fix it later.
  • Revise your first draft and improve the content, logic, and the flow. Make transitions between your ideas. Make changes to improve the content and rewrite your draft. You may need to do it more than once.
  • Edit and proofread your final draft to ensure that your essay is flawless.

These are basic steps. When you gain experience, you may think about a different order that can work best for you. Find that this process complicated? Buy a professionally written sample to analyze it and see how your essay should look like!

Let’s discuss the major steps of the writing process.

A thesis statement determines the main argument of your essay. A good thesis statement expresses the main idea of your essay, presents your own point of view, and gives an answer to your research question. The success of your entire project depends on your thesis and you need to do your best to ensure that it is debatable, specific, and concise. Try to write your thesis early. It will help you stay focused when you do research and take notes.

Introductions and conclusions are very important. The introduction introduces your argument to your reader and convinces them why they should care about reading your paper. Your task is to engage your audience. Wondering how to do it? Check this useful article on our blog that discusses engaging strategies for starting an essay .

Start your introduction with attention grabber and provide background information about the significance of your topic, introduce a subject, and give some definitions of the key terms. End your introduction with a thesis statement.

Start each body paragraph with a topic sentence; don’t begin a paragraph with a fact. The topic sentence should present the main idea of the paragraph and express your point of view. In the next sentences, you should support the topic sentence with additional supporting ideas, specific details, interesting facts, statistics, clear explanations, relevant examples. All supporting sentences should be logical. You should make sure they are connected with connection words to help your reader follow your argument.

Finish every paragraph with a concluding sentence. It should be your own idea and not a source citation. The last sentence in a paragraph should review the key points you have discussed in it, emphasize your main idea or your thesis statement, and prepare your audience to the points that you are going to discuss in the next paragraph.

This part of your paper is the most important. Actually, readers remember the first and the last parts of what they read; a conclusion is your last chance to make an impression and show the significance of your findings. How can you achieve that? When writing a conclusion, you need to provide connections to the previous ideas, briefly summarize your findings or restate the thesis. You shouldn’t include any new information. Finish your essay with a strong concluding statement that your readers will remember.  

No one can write a perfect first draft. It’s impossible - revising is critical if you want to impress your professor and get a high grade for your work. You should start revising the content at least a week before your paper is due. You can use another strategy as well - revise individual paragraphs as you write them. Be ready that you may need to write more than one draft or revise your paper several times.

Read your paper and make changes to fix it and make impeccable. You can do it in a number of ways.

  • Eliminate irrelevant ideas and unnecessary information
  • Add new explanations, details, points to ensure additional support for your argument
  • Rewrite paragraphs and sentences to present your ideas better
  • Re-organize paragraphs and sentences to make your paper logical

Do you like your essay’s content? If you do, it’s time to edit it and add finishing touches. The goal of editing is making your writing clearer, more precise to ensure that your readers will be able to understand it.

How should you do it? You may ask someone to read your essay and request their feedback. You can read your college paper aloud yourself to hear the lack of clarity, repetition, wordiness, grammar mistakes and correct them. Use English dictionaries and grammar books.

You should use the following editing strategies to make your essay as best as it can be.

  • Fix sentences with the passive voice
  • Improve word choice by replacing long words with shorter ones
  • Improve sentence structure and word order – correct run-ons and fragments
  • Fix the logic, flow, and connections between ideas
  • Rewrite long sentences and make them concise; eliminate unnecessary sentences in paragraphs if they don’t convey new messages
  • Fix repetition and use thesaurus to find synonyms

When you finish editing, proofread your essay and fix minor errors, careless mistakes, typos. Check punctuation and spelling. Use the printed copy to notice mistakes you may overlook on a computer screen. Start proofreading with the last sentence and go backward; in this way, you will focus on spelling and grammar and not on the content.

We have discussed how to write academic paper. Let’s talk about another important aspect of your future essay – citations. To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit to other people whose ideas you use in your own work.

You have the right to express your opinions. You have the right to use ideas of people to support your argument and draw conclusions, but it’s your responsibility to inform your audience which ideas in your essay are not yours and which are your own. With proper citations, you demonstrate that you understand the significance of other people’s research, findings, and ideas in developing your own argument.

How to cite your sources? You should include in-text citations in accordance with the guidelines of the citation style recommended by your instructor. You are required to include a list of the sources you have cited at the end of your paper. Don’t cite works that are not in your bibliography.

Follow these guidelines and useful tips to create great papers and impress your professor. Need interesting topic ideas for your projects? Check other articles on our blog.

Writing academically on a college level is a hard work that requires a lot of time and effort. You can’t become a confident writer in a few days if you just read grammar and style guides no matter how full and detailed they are. You have to practice a lot. It means working for many hours every day.

If you are not sure that you can cope with your complicated assignment on your own, you can pay to get professional help in any subject from experts on our site.  Our writers can provide you with quality sample papers on different topics that will be perfect in content and style. They are sure to be free of errors. You can use paid custom papers as good templates you can follow when creating your own works and understand how to write good academic papers. In this way, you can easily improve your analytical, critical and writing skills and become a successful student who gets high grades.   

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The Best College Paper Writing Services for Busy Students

Posted: November 9, 2023 | Last updated: November 9, 2023

Embarking on the journey of higher education is akin to setting sail on a vast sea of knowledge—thrilling yet fraught with challenges. As students navigate the rigorous demands of college life, the academic load can often swell to seemingly impossible heights. One of the most daunting tasks is the crafting of research papers and essays, particularly on intricate topics, which demands an investment of time and intellect that can heavily burden an already stretched-thin student. Amidst this academic tempest, the allure of a professional college paper writing service becomes a beacon of relief. By enlisting such support, students can effectively unburden themselves from the stress of complex writing assignments. This article illuminates the path to academic ease and excellence by reviewing the top 4 paper writing services for college students 2023, offering a lifeboat in the sea of academic obligations.

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99papers.com: Best Paper Writing Service

Website Link: 99papers.com

In a landscape of academic demands, 99papers.com emerges as an invaluable ally for college students. Since its inception, 99papers has been working to alleviate academic pressure, positioning itself as a reliable pillar in the custom writing service industry. With years of steadfast service, it has honed its craft, evolving with the needs and feedback of a diverse student body.

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Established with the intent to cater to the burgeoning needs of students, 99papers.com has weathered the dynamic changes in academic requirements over the years. It has successfully carved a niche by consistently delivering bespoke educational content that echoes the individuality and intellect of its clients.

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Understanding the multifaceted nature of college assignments, 99papers boasts a vast repertoire of writing services. From the more traditional essays, term papers, and research papers to the more complex dissertations and theses, their offerings encompass every academic writing need. Moreover, they assist with homework and projects and even cater to specific requests for help with annotations and bibliographies.

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Sensitivity to a student’s financial situation is apparent, as 99papers.com regularly offers discount codes to alleviate the cost burden. New customers are greeted with welcome discounts while returning students benefit from a loyalty program that rewards their continued patronage with incremental savings.

In Their Own Words: Testimonials That Matter

The accurate measure of 99papers’ impact is reflected in the testimonials of its users. These personal accounts often highlight the stress-relieving aspect of the service, the impeccable quality of writing, and the punctual delivery. It's not uncommon to read testimonies of students who credit 99papers with not just their A-grades but also with providing them with the breathing room to enjoy college life beyond the confines of their study desks.

Through its comprehensive service offerings, steadfast dedication to quality, and empathetic pricing, 99papers.com stands out as a top-tier academic writing service. It is more than just a tool for achieving top grades; it's a strategic academic partner for navigating the rigours of college education in 2023.

Essaybox.org: Professional Paper Writing Service

Website Link: EssayBox.org

Essaybox.org is a testament to excellence in the custom essay writing service industry. With a significant history of serving students worldwide, it has become a trusted name for those seeking a blend of quality, reliability, and integrity in their academic submissions.

Provenance and Expertise

Over the years, Essaybox.org has built its reputation on a foundation of trust and professionalism, emerging as a premier service that understands the nuanced needs of the collegiate community. It has dedicated itself to supporting students through the stress of academic life, ensuring they have the resources to excel.

Wide-Ranging Paper Solutions

This platform caters to a comprehensive array of academic needs. Whether it's crafting detailed research papers, engaging essays, insightful case studies, or assisting with coursework, Essaybox.org's suite of services is designed to cover the full spectrum of academic writing. They extend their expertise to book reports, speeches, and articles, ensuring that quality writing is accessible for every assignment type.

Key Benefits: A Trifecta of Assurances

  • Expert ENL Writers : Essaybox.org takes pride in its team of experienced native English-speaking writers, ensuring that every paper is of the highest linguistic standard. The eloquence and command over the language these writers possess are evident in the articulate and nuanced documents they produce.
  • Customer Satisfaction : The platform has consistently maintained high customer satisfaction rates, reflecting its commitment to meeting the specific requirements of each assignment with a personalised touch.
  • Plagiarism-Free Content : Originality is a non-negotiable aspect of academic integrity, and Essaybox.org underscores this by conducting thorough plagiarism checks. Each paper is guaranteed to be unique, fostering confidence in the students who use their services.

Discount Codes and Budget-Friendly Options

Recognising the economic constraints of student life, Essaybox.org offers various discount codes. These discounts aim to make their services more affordable, ensuring that financial limitations do not impede access to quality writing assistance.

Accolades from Users: Testimonials

The real merit of Essaybox.org’s services shines through in the glowing testimonials from satisfied students. These testimonials often speak of the impeccable research, attention to detail, and impeccable customer service that defines the Essaybox.org experience. For many, it's not just about submitting assignments on time but about learning from the well-crafted papers they receive, which can serve as excellent study materials.

In the domain of academic writing services, Essaybox.org distinguishes itself by offering an intersection of skilled ENL writers, guaranteed customer satisfaction, and rigorous plagiarism checks, all the while being mindful of the student's budget. Its solid track record and commendable customer feedback solidify its status as a go-to resource for students aiming for academic excellence in 2023.

Bookwormlab.com: College Paper Writing Service

Website Link: BookwormLab.com

Bookwormlab.com has etched its name in the domain of academic writing services with a consistent presence that resonates with reliability and dedication. Serving as an educational cornerstone for students across the globe, it has spent years perfecting the art of customised paper writing.

Stalwart Academic Companion

Throughout its operational years, Bookwormlab.com has grown in stature and capability, becoming a stalwart companion to students needing writing assistance. Its longevity in the business is a testament to its unwavering commitment to student success and its adaptability to the evolving landscapes of education.

A Library of Paper Options

The service extends its expertise across many paper types, accommodating many student needs. From essays, reports, and term papers to more specialised formats like presentations and lab reports, Bookwormlab.com's repertoire is designed to cater to various academic levels and subjects.

Prime Benefits for Academic Success

  • Round-the-Clock Support : Accessibility is critical at Bookwormlab.com, so they offer 24/7 customer support. Students grappling with time zone differences or last-minute inquiries find solace in the constant availability of professional assistance.
  • Money-Back Assurance : Confidence in their service is underscored by a robust money-back guarantee. This assurance serves as a safety net for students, promising a refund should the service not meet their specified requirements.
  • Confidentiality is Paramount : Understanding the sensitivity of academic integrity, Bookwormlab.com enforces a strict confidentiality policy. The anonymity and privacy of every client are safeguarded, ensuring a discreet service from start to finish.

Financial Considerations and Discounts

In tune with the budget constraints typical of student life, Bookwormlab.com offers a range of discount codes. These financial incentives are a boon for students, easing the burden on their wallets while accessing professional writing aid.

Praise from Patrons: Testimonials

Endorsements from users serve as the backbone of Bookwormlab.com's reputation. Testimonials frequently emphasise the attentive customer service, the quality of work received, and the impactful difference it has made in their academic pursuits. Many reflect on the stress relief that comes with knowing they have a trusted service on standby, ready to assist at any hour.

With its established history, breadth of writing services, and core benefits that speak directly to student needs, Bookwormlab.com holds a premier position in the academic writing industry. Its commitment to support, quality, and confidentiality makes it a wise choice for students seeking a reliable partner in their educational journey in 2023.

EssayFactory.uk: Custom Paper Writing Service in the UK

Website Link: EssayFactory.uk

Storied British Excellence

Nestled within the heart of academic tradition, EssayFactory.uk has served students with academic writing assistance for years. This UK-based service has carved out a significant niche in the market by upholding the rich educational heritage of its surroundings and offering assistance that adheres to the rigorous standards expected by British institutions.

A Diverse Writing Portfolio

From the classic essay to comprehensive dissertations, EssayFactory.uk provides an extensive array of services. Their offerings include but are not limited to reflective writing, argumentative articles, literature reviews, and research papers, each tailored to the specific directives of their clients' academic needs.

Key Advantages of a Seamless Experience

  • New Customer Incentives : Embracing newcomers is part of the ethos at EssayFactory.uk, which is why they offer attractive discounts for those testing their services for the first time. This welcoming gesture not only lowers the barrier of entry but also demonstrates their commitment to student satisfaction from the outset.
  • Rewards for Loyalty : Recognizing and appreciating returning scholars, EssayFactory.uk has a loyalty program that offers cumulative benefits. This approach keeps students engaged with the service, ensuring they feel valued over the long term.
  • Exemplary Samples as Standard : To exhibit the calibre of their writing, EssayFactory.uk provides a selection of sample essays. These examples serve as benchmarks of quality and a preview of the professional standards students can expect.

Promotional Savings with Discount Codes

In understanding the budgetary constraints many students face, EssayFactory.uk extends a series of discount codes, providing a cost-effective solution to those seeking professional writing services without compromising quality.

Client Accolades and Testimonials

The praise garnered in customer testimonials speaks volumes about EssayFactory.uk's reputation. Students frequently commend the calibre of writing, the reliability of service, and the impactful contributions the work has made to their academic progress. The consistent mention of user-friendly service, coupled with intellectual integrity, reaffirms their standing as a distinguished provider of educational writing assistance.

Essays.io: Online Paper Writing Service

Website Link: Essays.io

Essays.io has rapidly ascended the ranks to become a prominent player in academic writing services. Although relatively new, it has been substantially impacted by delivering tailored writing solutions to a growing clientele of college students.

Innovative Approach in a Competitive Field

Since its launch, Essays.io has distinguished itself with a fresh approach to academic assistance, embracing innovation and customer-focused services. By responding to the unique needs of modern education, it has established a reputation for excellence and reliability among its users.

Varied Academic Offerings

Essays.io boasts many paper types, accommodating various academic disciplines and writing formats. From analytical essays to persuasive pieces and detailed case studies to reflective journals, the service ensures that every educational endeavour is supported.

Strategic Benefits for Student Success

  • Welcoming Discounts : To ease the initiation into their services, Essays.io offers enticing discounts for first-time customers. This approach not only makes professional writing services more accessible but also demonstrates confidence in the value they provide.
  • Loyalty Program Rewards : Acknowledging the value of repeat business, Essays.io has a loyalty program that rewards returning customers. This program builds a lasting relationship with students, offering them cost-saving benefits as they continue to engage with the service.
  • Sample Essays as a Resource : To showcase their expertise and writing quality, Essays.io provides sample essays. These samples testify to their writing standards and offer potential clients a glimpse of what they can expect.

Savings with a Purpose: Discount Codes

Understanding the financial constraints of its clientele, Essays.io extends discount codes that make its services even more attractive. These discounts are strategically designed to align with the needs of students managing tight budgets.

Affirmations of Quality: Testimonials

The effectiveness and impact of Essays.io are echoed in the testimonials of its users. Clients often express their satisfaction with the seamless process, the calibre of writing, and the tangible benefits reflected in their academic performance. For many, the availability of sample essays and the rewards of the loyalty program have been pivotal in their continued use of the service.

With its dynamic approach to student needs, range of writing services, and an eye for affordability, Essays.io has carved out a unique space for itself. It caters not just to the academic demands of its customers but also to the broader quest for value, making it a noteworthy option for students in 2023.

Overview of College Paper Writing Services

College paper writing services operate as a lifeline in the vast ocean of academic requirements students face. These services provide custom-written research papers, term papers, essays, and many other academic assignments, meticulously crafted to meet the exact specifications and requirements set by the student or their institution. These bespoke papers are tailored to align not just with the topic but also with the required academic level, ensuring that the content is appropriately sophisticated and well-researched.

The benefits of engaging with such services are multifaceted. Principally, they save invaluable time for students, who often find themselves in a bind, attempting to balance coursework, part-time jobs, and personal commitments. This time-saving aspect can significantly reduce the high-stress levels that students experience during their college years. Moreover, these services provide direct access to expert writers who are not only adept in various academic fields but also skilled in the art of writing and research. This expertise ensures that the final product is not just content-rich but also adheres to the highest standards of academic writing.

While exact statistics vary, reports suggest a growing trend in using these services by students. It's estimated that a significant proportion of college students, at least once in their academic career, have sought the help of professional writing services. These numbers are indicative of the increasingly essential role such services play in the modern educational ecosystem, helping students to navigate the rigorous demands of college education.

What to Look for in a College Paper Writing Service

When selecting a college paper writing service, discerning students should prioritise several key features distinguishing between a mediocre experience and exceptional support in their academic journey.

First and foremost, services that employ English Native Language (ENL) writers should be at the top of the list. These writers bring an innate understanding of the nuances of the language, ensuring that the papers are fluent, coherent, and free of grammatical errors. Moreover, a thorough plagiarism check with accompanying guarantees is crucial. It not only ensures the originality and integrity of the work submitted but also protects students from the severe consequences associated with academic dishonesty.

Equally important is a money-back guarantee, which provides a safety net for students should the service fail to meet their expectations or specific requirements. This feature speaks volumes about the service’s confidence in its quality and commitment to customer satisfaction.

Around-the-clock customer support is another pillar of reliability. Whether clarifying doubts, tracking progress, or addressing last-minute changes, 24/7 availability ensures that help is always available, regardless of time zone differences or unexpected urgencies.

The availability of discounts and loyalty programs is a significant consideration for budget-conscious students. These financial incentives make it more viable for students to access quality writing assistance throughout their academic careers.

Secure payment methods are a must to protect financial information, while strict confidentiality and privacy protections ensure that personal details and academic endeavours remain secure and private.

By ensuring these features are present, students can confidently entrust their academic assignments to a writing service, knowing they have chosen a reliable partner to support them in achieving their educational goals.

FAQs About College Paper Writing Services

Is it legal to use college paper writing services.

Yes, using college paper writing services is legal. These companies operate within the legal framework, providing writing, research, and editing services. However, how students use these papers is critical. They are meant to serve as model papers or references for your work, not to be submitted verbatim as your own.

Will it get me in trouble for plagiarism?

A reputable writing service provides original content that should pass plagiarism checks. However, to ensure you don't get in trouble, it's essential to use these services responsibly. Many services offer plagiarism reports as proof of the originality of their work. It's also advisable to review and modify the provided work to make it fit your style and understanding before submission.

How do I know the paper will be high quality?

To gauge the quality, you can look at samples provided by the service, read customer testimonials, and check the qualifications of their writers. Most credible services have a selection process for writers and a quality control system. Always ensure they promise revisions or a money-back guarantee if standards are not met.

How do I keep my use of the service confidential?

Confidentiality is a fundamental feature of professional writing services. They typically assure your anonymity and handle personal information with the utmost discretion. Ensure the service has a clear privacy policy outlining how they protect your data and confirm that they do not share your information with third parties.

In summary, navigating the demanding landscape of college academics can be significantly eased with the assistance of top-tier paper writing services. These services not only offer a reprieve from the constant pressure of deadlines but also pave the way for achieving top grades. With benefits like ENL writers, plagiarism checks, money-back guarantees, constant support, and confidentiality, exemplary service can be an invaluable ally in your educational journey. If you find yourself needing help to keep up with your course load, consider reaching out to one of the top 4 paper writing services reviewed above. By doing so, you can secure custom, high-quality papers tailored to your needs, allowing you to focus on mastering your subjects and excelling in your academic career.

Embarking on the journey of higher education is akin to setting sail on a vast sea of knowledge—thrilling yet fraught with challenges. As students navigate the rigorous demands of college life, the academic load can often swell to seemingly impossible heights.

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The best AI tools for writing a research paper

man studying in cafe on laptop

Research papers may be the most dreaded of academic assignments, even before you hit the Master’s or PhD level, never mind your post-grad career. Thankfully there are now a number of generative AI tools that can speed up research writing, and we’ve gathered some of the better ones into a handy list.

While you’ll see some familiar names on here, it’s worth reminding everyone that in an academic environment, AI can potentially be a minefield. Some uses of it are considered cheating or otherwise unethical, especially if you plagiarize content. When that worry is eliminated, you still need to doublecheck the style, grammar, facts, and/or sources of any AI output.


Grammarly for Chrome

Grammarly’s main purpose is of course correcting spelling, grammar, and punctuation. But it can also recommend changes to the tone or formality of your language, and most importantly for research papers, there’s a beta citation generator. That feature supports APA, MLA, and Chicago styles, so as a student at least, you should be covered.

Note that while there’s a free version of Grammarly, you’ll need to upgrade to a Premium plan to get things like full-sentence rewrites, formatting help, and plagiarism detection. The upgraded version can even help with English fluency if that’s a second language and you’re not used to cultural conventions. Premium further bumps up the number of AI prompts you can use from 100 per month to 1,000.


This tool focuses exclusively on paper discovery. On top of enabling manual searches and a personal library, though, it can also recommend related papers and authors, and update you on the latest material connected to your research. If you like, you can collaborate with others, or check out a visual map of a paper’s links.

The best part is that ResearchRabbit is entirely supported by donations, so if you’re a struggling grad student, there’s no need to pay for the convenience. Go ahead and save your cash for food, rent, and student loans.


Scholarcy promises to do the hard part with a lot of outside source material — summarize it so you get the gist. The tool is said to work with books and papers alike, and extract vital information such as findings, limitations, and data analyses. The result is a flashcard, but with links to sources, and the ability to choose what appears. If you need the tables from scientific papers, for instance, you can force Scholarcy to include them.

An extension for Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge supports open repositories like arXiv and biorXiv. In fact you can use this for free, though you’re limited to small- to medium-sized documents, and you’ll need to sign up for a subscription if you want to save summaries to your Scholarcy Library. A subscription also gets you sharing, annotation, and export options, as well as the ability to import from Dropbox, Google Drive, or custom RSS feeds.


While Scite might in some ways serve same purpose as ResearchRabbit — hunting down papers — it goes a lot further. You can ask it general knowledge questions and get answers with cited sources, or doublecheck the sources for claims you’ve read elsewhere, such as ChatGPT . When searching for material, you can apply numerous filters including authorship, institutional affiliation, or how many citations mention, support, or contrast a particular paper.

You can even check how often your own material is being cited, or get aggregate insights and notifications based on your collections. It’s serious stuff, and once your trial period expires, you’ll need to pay $144 per year or $20 per month unless you’re lucky enough to fall under a university or corporate plan.


If Scite can be considered a step up from ResearchRabbit, the same might be said about Trinka versus Grammarly. Trinka is specifically aimed at fixing academic and technical writing, including style, grammar, and jargon issues. It’s based on the APA and AMA style guides, and it always aims for a formal tone. 

There’s a host of additional features here, including paraphrasing, citation and plagiarism checking, and analysis to find an ideal journal to publish in. Plug-ins are available for Chrome, Edge, Firefox, and Microsoft Word. A Safari plug-in is promised sometime in the future.

If all you want is small-scale help with grammar, paraphrasing, and plagiarism, there’s a free version of Trinka which supports Chrome, Edge, and Firefox. You’ll need to upgrade to a paid plan, however, if you want to lift usage caps and take advantage of Word integration.

Centre for Community Partnerships

write an academic paper

How do you write an academic essay?

When you need research papers, there are hundreds and thousands of different websites to get your research papers from. In general, the process of choosing a website can take quite some time and may cost you cost money, especially if you discover a fly-by-night website. This is why we put together this list of the most reputable research paper writing firms, with short descriptions for each. First off, The U. K.’s most popular research paper writing service teste de velocidade de click is Thesis Composer. Here’s what they can offer.

Best Research Paper Writing Services – Thesis Composer offers a whole host of different templates for you to use. You can select from different fonts and layout styles to suit your needs. Additionally, they also offer a huge number of samples that you can use to gather ideas and see what professional, high quality papers look. In addition, Thesis Composer is one of a few online service providers that offer high quality printing and delivery services to their customers and also provide the services of proofreading services. Overall, they are one of the best research paper writing services that are available.

University Learning – University Learning is an online service that provides research paper writing services. Their success lies in the fact that they have hundreds of different templates to select from. Each template is completely customized according to your specifications. University Learning offers a wide variety of sample templates you can download. University Learning is the best service for research paper writing. It offers a wide selection of templates and samples.

A4papers Review – This is a popular online provider of research papers. A4papers Review is a great choice because it provides excellent value and a variety of useful features. A4papers Review provides a step-by-step guide to help users write a great research paper. In addition, A4papers Review provides its customers with other useful features, including a variety of sample papers, a variety of styles for papers, suggestions and advice regarding improving the quality of the paper, and other features.

Review Sites – Many people wonder where they can find reliable research paper writing services especially when there are so many. One of the best places to look out for these providers is through review sites. Many review sites specialize in certain areas of paper production, like APA style MLA style, APA style as well as Chicago style. If you’re seeking a paper service that provides excellent service, but also has a specialization in specific formats, then you should consider searching for a particular type of paper creation at review websites.

Original Research – If your student has written original research papers in the past you’re an excellent candidate for writing original research papers. Since original research paper writing involves writing about research papers that have been written and reviewed so that you can to benefit from valuable experience. You will benefit from the experience of writing your own research papers. You will be aware of the importance of original research in academic writing and editing. Because only by submitting original research papers can scholars develop their research methods and contribute significantly to academic research.

Support – If you’re looking for help with your research paper writing, then you may require some help. You can seek the help of an expert or ask for help from other sources, such as professors or school administrators. Many schools and colleges offer various services to help students complete their papers. For instance, some schools offer support groups for students so that they can be taught how to write their essay in the order they should write it, and how to write it so that it’s well-written and researched. Certain research papers include whole teams and departments that focus on different topics and research these topics to assist with the main subject.

The Introduction The Introduction is the most important section of an academic paper. The introduction is usually written by the first author. It addresses kohi click test the audience who will be reading the article. It is usually written within the context of the body of the research paper. However, the introduction is not all that important, as it is as long as the other parts in the body of the paper are written properly, the introduction has no significance whatsoever.

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  1. 8+ Academic Paper Templates

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  2. Academic Essay Examples

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  3. Academic paper template in Word and Pdf formats

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  4. A Short Guide Of How To Write A Research Paper Outline

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  1. PDF The Structure of an Academic Paper

    tutorial. That said, writing conventions vary widely across countries, cultures, and even disciplines. For example, although the hourglass model introduces the most important point right from the beginning as a guide to the rest of the paper, some traditions build the argument gradually and deliver the main idea as a punchline.

  2. How to Write a Research Paper

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    exceptions to the rules in academic writing. - Practicums: These boxes give step-by-step instructions to help you build ideas and write papers. - The Writing Process: These features show all the steps taken to write a paper, allowing you to follow it from initial idea to published article.

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    The main guidelines for writing a paper in Chicago style (also known as Turabian style) are: Use a standard font like 12 pt Times New Roman. Use 1 inch margins or larger. ... MLA format for academic papers and essays Apply MLA format to your title page, header, and Works Cited page with our 3-minute video, template, and examples.

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    Step 1: Prewriting. Step 2: Planning and outlining. Step 3: Writing a first draft. Step 4: Redrafting and revising. Step 5: Editing and proofreading. Other interesting articles. Frequently asked questions about the writing process.

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    Citing sources in the body of your paper and providing a list of references as either footnotes or endnotes is a key feature of academic writing. It is essential to always acknowledge the source of any ideas, research findings, data, paraphrased, or quoted text that you have used in your paper as a defense against allegations of plagiarism.

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    Academic writing is black-tie writing. Think of an academic paper as a formal event. Your writing needs to show up "dressed appropriately.". This means: conforming to the style guide, using formal language, and absolutely avoiding slang and colloquial expressions.

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    Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch. Use double-spaced text throughout your paper. Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point). Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section.

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    Module 1 • 3 hours to complete. In this section of the MOOC, you will learn what is necessary before writing a paper: the context in which the scientist is publishing. You will learn how to know your own community, through different exemples, and then we will present you how scientific journal and publication works.

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    This is one of the most common types of academic writing. This is a paper that requires the combination of creativity, research skill, and the knowledge of a particular topic. The creativity takes place at the beginning of the paper in which a student should elaborate the main idea of his research and explain why this domain is investigated.

  17. How to Write an Academic Paper

    By writing academic papers, you can improve these skills and become a better communicator and researcher. How to Write an Academic Paper - Step by Step Guide Choose a Topic. Choosing a topic for your academic paper is the first step in writing an effective paper. The topic should be relevant to your field of study and should be interesting ...

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    General Principles. Take into account 8 key principle of academic writing. Your papers must have a clear purpose (inform, analyze, synthesize or persuade) and answer your topic question. Your papers must present your original point of view. Your writing must have a single focus - all paragraphs have to include relevant evidence (facts, expert ...

  24. Writing Center

    Schedule appointments in I-Plan. Hours may vary: Monday - Thursday, 7:00am - 11:30pm. Friday, 7:00am - 9:00pm. Saturday, 9:00am - 9:00pm. (Closed for devotional and forum hour) Learn more about how to improve your writing or request help with an assignment from a Writing Center tutor.

  25. The Best College Paper Writing Services for Busy Students

    Amidst this academic tempest, the allure of a professional college paper writing service becomes a beacon of relief. By enlisting such support, students can effectively unburden themselves from ...

  26. The best AI tools for writing a research paper

    Trinka is specifically aimed at fixing academic and technical writing, including style, grammar, and jargon issues. It's based on the APA and AMA style guides, and it always aims for a formal tone.

  27. Is Using AI for School Cheating?

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. Every day examples of AI include Google Maps, you social media algorithms, face ID for unlocking your phone, autocorrect on your phone and computer, customer service chatbots, and Siri and Alexa.

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    Since original research paper writing involves writing about research papers that have been written and reviewed so that you can to benefit from valuable experience. You will benefit from the experience of writing your own research papers. You will be aware of the importance of original research in academic writing and editing. Because only by ...