dairy farm planning and design in india

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Dairy Farming in India: Beginner’s Guide to Start a Dairy Farm

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Dairy farming in India is an ‘all season’ business. Efficient management of a dairy farm is the key to success. In India cow farming and buffalo farming are the backbone of dairy industry. Here is the complete guide to start and manage a cattle farming business for dairy purpose.

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Table of Contents

Introduction on Dairy Farming in India

Dairy farming has been an age-old business in India passed down from generation to generation. During the late 20th century, this tradition saw a decline. However, thanks to the advancements made in science and technology, a huge progress has been made. The contribution made by Amul in the form of ‘White Revolution’ played a very important role in transforming the dairy industry in India from its stagnation level to a world leader.

A dairy farm in India

Cows farms and buffalo farms are the foundation of the dairy industry. Breeds of buffaloes like Jaffarbadi, Mehsani and Murrah are the high breeding ones while Red Sindhi, Gir, Rathi and Sahiwal are the top milk breeders from India.

Pre-Requisites for Dairy Farming

Like any other farming, dairy farming also has a list of pre-requisites. Some of these are as below:

  • Affection towards cows and buffaloes
  • Basic cleanliness practices
  • Knowledge about managing dairy farm scientifically
  • Business tactics
  • Ready to work hard day and night without a holiday

The above list is a basic list that can go endless. Commercial dairy farming is very different from the traditional farming as it has a lot of technological requirements and challenges.

Choosing Healthy Cattle for Dairy Farm

This is the first requirement for a successful cattle farming. The animals must be healthy, with good weight and build. While purchasing cattle the eyes, nose, udders, mobility, coat and other features must be carefully observed.

  • Eyes: Eyes must be clear and bright with no discharge. They must not appear bloodshot or crusty as they are indicative of infections.
  • Nose: A moist muzzle with constant licking is favorable.
  • Breathing: The breathing of the cows must be normal and not laborious or irregular. Wheezing during breathing with or without discharge suggests infection.
  • Coat: The coat must be clean and glossy with no signs of ticks and lice. In case of ticks, the coat would appear matted.
  • Udder: Udders must be healthy with prominent milk veins sitting forward. They must not be sagging or meaty in appearance. In addition the udders must not show too much sideways movement when walking.
  • Attitude: Animals are generally alert and curious with a self-contented, calm look. They move about in herd and are together. Animals that stand apart or seem disinterested in the happenings around are signs of unhealthiness.
  • Age: The age of the animal must be checked by looking at the dentition although this is not exactly a sign of good health. You must find out the age of the cattle to setting up and manage a dairy farm efficiently.
  • Mobility: Animals must rise easily from sitting position without any limps or difficulty. Sitting in hunched position, limping are signs of abnormalities or deformities.
  • History: It is important to look at the history of the animal including details like previous calvings, milk yield, hypocalcemia, etc.

Shelters in Dairy Farm

Shelters for animals are an important factor for optimizing the yield. Stress and weather changes cause a decline in productivity. The housing facilities must be clean, spacious and must allow flow of natural air and sunlight.

House Construction in Dairy Farm

The cattle shed must have a floor space of 10 feet by 5.5 feet per animal with a 1.5% slope towards the drain. The floor must be made of rough concrete material. The sheds must be at least 10 feet high. They may be constructed using bricks, RCC or can be thatched. Only the western side of the shed must be walled while the other three sides must be left open. However, the open sides must be covered with gunny cloth during winter to protect the animals from cold. There should also be a provision for sprinkling water on the animals every half hour during summer. This reduces heat stress to a great extent. The eastern side of the shed is open outdoors for free roaming space. The roaming area is covered with trees providing shade. Neem and mango trees are the most preferred trees for shade in the roaming area.

Manger Arrangement

The mangers are located on the western side of the shed. They are built 1 foot above the floor level; they are 2 feet wide and 1.5 feet deep. Drinking water must be kept beside the manger. The mangers are generally constructed along with the shed construction. At some places, they may provide a separate box as mangers.

Heat Stress Management in Cattle Farming

Animals are extremely sensitive to heat and heat stress affects their milk production to a great extent. Following are the noticeable symptoms of heat stress:

  • Panting fast
  • Presence of foam or drool around the mouth
  • Visible chest movement
  • Excessive drooling with open mouth
  • Extended neck

Several of the above symptoms occurring together are signs of heat stress. As said before the sheds must have adequate air circulation and sprinklers to spray water. Water evaporation from the body leads to cooling of the body. Thus the body temperature decreases and the animals are comfortable. Therefore, food energy is utilized for milk production and not in other bodily functions like blood pumping, breathing, panting, etc.

Animal Feeding in Dairy Farming

Food is one of the most basic aspects of living beings for they perish owing to lack of food. Cattle feeding cost a total of 70% of the milk production. Cattle are fed with fodder, grains, brans, green fodder, straw, oil cakes and other such cattle feed.

Fodder Provision

Hydroponic fodder in cow farming

The feed for a normal adult animal is 15-20 Kg of green fodder and 6 Kg of dry fodder per day. The green fodder is harvested during the flowering stage and the surplus fodder is preserved for hay. Preserved fodder is used during summers when fresh green fodder is unavailable. It is necessary to strike a balance between the various nutrient requirements for optimal milk production. If the animals are given an exclusive dry fodder diet, then they must be given Urea Molasses Mineral Block as the supplement. They are also fed with bypass protein feed or compound cattle feed for an efficient production of milk and better body maintenance. In case the feed needs changing, the change must take place gradually. To increase digestibility and reduce wastage, fodder is chaffed and they are fed 3-4 times a day in equal intervals. This rationing is an attempt at reducing wastage and increasing digestibility.

Water Provision

Water is needed for digestion, nutrient distribution, excretion, maintenance of body temperature and of course, milk production. Every liter of milk produced needs an additional 2.5 liters of water since milk contains 85% of water. Hence, a normal healthy adult animal requires 75 to 80 liters of water per day usually. This can increase to 100 liters during summers. They must have regular access to clean drinking water. Crossbred buffaloes and cows are given a bath twice a day during summer to maintain their body temperature.

Pregnant Animals

Female calves must be given good care and proper nutrition to ensure healthy and rapid growth. Rapid growth helps them attain puberty early. They calve at 2 to 2.5 years of age if given timely insemination. Maximum care must be taken during last three months of pregnancy since the foetus develops rapidly at this time. The daily food requirement of a pregnant animal is as below:

The following points must be considered with utmost priority while taking care of pregnant animals:

  • Provide enough space for standing and sitting comfortably.
  • They must be given adequate amounts of ration to ensure timely milk production in adequate amounts and also to reduce the possibility of milk fever, ketosis, etc. at the time of calving.
  • During pregnancy, special attention must be paid to water requirements; there should be round the clock supply of clean, drinking water.
  • During the last trimester of pregnancy, the animals must not be taken far away for grazing and uneven paths for grazing must be avoided.
  • Lactating animals must be dried within 15 days after the 7th gestation month.
  • From the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy, the cow’s body, back and udders must be massaged- this is especially in case of first or second pregnancy (heifer cows).
  • Heifer cows are tied along with the milking animals from the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy.
  • The pregnant animals are tied separately in a clean and dry area with ample sunlight about 4-5 days before calving.
  • Paddy straw is the bedding material for animals and they are spread on the ground.
  • During the last 2 days before calving the animals are kept under observation.

Post Calving Care and Nutrition

During calving, animals undergo a lot of stress. Hence they would have a low appetite and tend to eat far lesser than what their body needs. Since the appetite is low the cows and buffaloes are given boiled rice, wheat bran, wheat mixed with edible oil, jaggery, boiled millet, rice gruel, ginger, black cumin, etc. The food must be light, warm, palpable and mildly laxative. This type of diet must be given for 2-3 days after calving and it helps in early expulsion of placenta. It advisable to give the animals fresh green fodder and water. While the ration food must be warm, the water must not be boiled or hot. It should be fresh water. Clean drinking water is very necessary for milking cows else they are likely to develop diseases.

Taking Care of the Newborn

The life of a calf is divided into 2 parts as the first 24 hours after birth and the rest of the period.

Part 1- First 24 Hours

The first 24 hours has a deep connection with its life later. If not given proper care, the calf may develop diseases, perish or be an underperformer. The first hour after birth is called as the ‘golden hour’ since this is a critical period. The following points must be taken care of during that period:

  • Clean the mouth and nostrils to help it breathe
  • Allow the mother to lick the calf clean as it stimulates circulation and helps the calf stand up and walk.
  • Give the calf 2 litres of colostrum (first milk produced) within the first 2 hours of birth and then again 1-2 liters depending on weight of the calf within the next 10 hours.
  • The calves must be de-wormed every month upto 6 months of age once the calf is about 2 weeks old.
  • Vaccination must be done at the age of 3 months.
  • Calves must be provided with starters for good growth and early maturity from the 2nd week of birth.

Importance of Colostrum

Colostrum is an important feed for newborn milk especially is contains high amounts of proteins and antibodies which help build immunity. It helps the calf ward off infections. Most calves do not nurse adequate amount of colostrum from their mothers therefore hand feeding is necessary. This ensures that the calf has the required amount of colostrum. However, feeding colostrum after the first 24 hours has passed would not help in warding off infections or building immunity.

Diseases in Cow Farming

After calving.

After calving there is a huge demand of nutrients, minerals and other essentials requirements in the body. Unless managed properly, animals very easily develop metabolic diseases that would affect milk production drastically. If not given timely treatment it might even lead to death. The following are some of the diseases that may develop during the period after calving:

Diseases due to Faulty Feeding

The digestive system of cattle is a complex one involving four different chambers, a host of microbes, etc. Hence any change in feeding pattern would lead to imbalance in the microbes and hence different diseases like bloating, laminitis and rumen acidosis. While home remedies can take care of bloating, laminitis and acidosis need a veterinary care.

Milking machine in dairy farming

This is major disease causing heavy loss in dairy farming. It can lead to lower milk production, permanent damage to udders and even death in severe cases. This disease is on the rise owing to more and more farmers opting for crossbreeding. Exotic breeds like Jersey are also highly susceptible to mastitis. A way to deal with the disease is to understand it properly and give timely treatment. Some of the practices followed maybe:

  • Thorough cleaning of udders before milking
  • Quick, hygienic and complete milking
  • Teat dipping or spraying the teats after milking. This practice must be continued even after drying.
  • Proper fly control
  • Milk the cattle with chronic mastitis at the end.
  • Do not let the animals sit for at least half hour after milking.

Vaccination in Cattle Farming

There are some highly fatal diseases like foot and mouth diseases, black quarter, hemorrhagic septicemia, rabies, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, theileriosis and anthrax that are endemic in nature. These cause heavy losses to the dairy business. Fortunately they can be controlled by vaccination. The schedule for vaccination is as below:

Potential in Dairy Farming

Besides the raw milk there is a huge market of milk products like powdered milk, ghee, cheese etc. Even the waste in dairy farming is valuable and has good market demand. The ‘gobar’ or cow dung is the raw meterial of organic compost or vermicompost. If you’re using ‘desi cow’ or Indian cow breed in your cow farm then the cow urine is a valuable resource to make ‘panchagavya’ or natural insecticide in organic farming .

  • http://www.nddb.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/Handbook-of-Good-Dairy-Husbandry-Practices.pdf
  • http://www.iisc.ernet.in/insa/ch22.pdf
  • http://www.thecattlesite.com/diseaseinfo/194/acetonaemia-ketosis/

Leave a Reply

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My name is Lavy and I wish to start a diary farm. On my land which is about 81 kms from Mumbai or 40 kms from Panvel

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Dear Sir/Madam,

I have a land (10 Bigha) near Malanpur Industrial area. 28km from Gwalior (MP). I want a setup of Dairy farming & other related business from Agriculture.

Can you Guide me or help for setup of business ?

I can’t a big investment on this pls suggest me from small investment & profitable business.

Thanks & Regards

Gurmeet Singh

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i m interested in cow n bufello dairy farming business but i m buginner for this business…could you help me with your number so i can contact you for detail…

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requesting to send all details for new person those wants to start dairy farm with 20 cows initially.

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Nice explanation. what are best suitable breeds that can be preferred to yield more milk in Guntur area

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Dery fharming tareing

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I am interested cow farm and Buffalo farm. Please send all details

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Hi ,this is Amol From Nagpur district, I am intrested in this well business but I am freshers I don’t have any knowledge about this business, if you are really helping to business for new comers ,I will be thankful and i can start a well by your project

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I need loan diary farming

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I want to start cow dairy farming in Haryana with 10 cows I want to know more information dairy management

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I want to understand how farming business can setup in Varanasi. Please help me to understand the process and requirements.

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i want project report for 60 cow with shed drawing and others for bank loan so please give details in your project report contains all thinks like shed, milking machine, space for calf, and milking animal and non milking animal, fodder storage space and other utilities which is required but i required in Guajarati, please

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Dikshu C. Kukreja

Digitalisation of India's Dairy Farming

Digitalisation of India's Dairy Farming

  • Jan 19, 2021, 08:01
  • Agriculture

Milk Production – Overview

dairy farm planning and design in india

The Problem

Unlike the West, India’s dairy industry is highly unorganised. About 60% surplus milk is handled by the unorganised sector (milkmen), while the remaining 40% is procured by the organised sector comprising dairy co-operatives and private companies. In developed countries, about 90% surplus milk is handled through the organised sector.

As the dairy industry is unorganised, technology advancements in the sector have been minimal. Lack of technology in this sector has resulted in high wastage and inconsistent quality & quantity of milk for many small farmers. According to research conducted by the Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (Assocham) and MRSS estimates, about 3% of the milk produced gets wasted annually.

dairy farm planning and design in india

The Solution

dairy farm planning and design in india

Digitalisation will have a profound impact on the ‘Milk Production’ segment in the value chain. In India, dairy farming is unorganised, so technology penetration is relatively less; however, in the last five years, a few start-ups have mushroomed in this space. These firms aim to increase farmer productivity and reduce wastage.

Cattle management is one of the key areas where digitalisation can have a significant impact. By leveraging the Internet of Things and advanced analytics, farmers can track the feeding pattern of cattle and monitor their health. This is likely to improve cattle productivity and increase milk yield. However, cattle monitoring through AI-based solutions is still at a nascent stage in India and only a few companies are offering this solution.

One such company offering cattle management solution is Prompt Equipments. The company tied up with the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, to offer a wearable belt ‘BovSmart’. The belt utilises AI and the IoT to monitor cattle breeding and send timely alerts to farmers. Another company, Stellapps Technologies (Stellapps), provides a similar mooOn TM solution, which helps in maximising cattle productivity and herd management through a wearable device for cattle and a mobile application, which provides recommendations to optimise herd performance. According to Stellapps, milk yield can be increased by 20% and cattle health expenses can be reduced up to 50% through this solution. About 4.5 lakh cattle are monitored through Stellapps solution.

Apart from cattle management, the other potential areas of dairy digitalisation are supply chain and farmer payments. Supply chain of the Indian dairy industry is quite complex owing to its dependency on various factors such as ambient temperature, availability of cold chains and short shelf life. The fragmented Indian dairy industry further adds to the complexity. Digitalisation solutions such as the IoT and advanced analytics can help by sharing real-time data with different stakeholders, and detecting any deviations in the quality and quantity of milk during phases of transportation in the value chain.

Another potential benefit of digitalising dairy supply chain is better decision-making. Real-time data and advanced analytics help automate activities such as order tracking, inventory management, payments tracking and sales growth and facilitate better understanding of customer purchase patterns. A few start-ups digitalising dairy supply chain in India include Stellapps, Mr. MilkMan and Trinetra Wireless.

Dairy co-operatives and milk unions are also focussing on introducing digital payments to farmers as opposed to using the traditional cash mode. As a large chunk of India’s dairy industry is controlled by small farmers, the process of digital payments has its own set of challenges as most small farmers do not have a bank account. However, dairy co-operatives such as the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), famously known as ‘Amul’, are opening bank accounts for dairy farmers and instantly transferring payments to them. In 2017, Fino Payments Bank also tied up with Gokul Dairy and Mother Dairy to digitise payments in the milk industry.

Digitising payments should not stop only at depositing money to farmer bank accounts. Considering the Indian dairy industry is majorly controlled by small farmers, it is imperative for corporates to develop solutions to provide farmers access to low-cost financing and insurance.

India’s dairy sector is unorganised and so, its future rests on supporting small dairy farmers. Advent of the latest technology and digitalisation have been slow in the sector, resulting in lower productivity and wastage. However, the scenario is changing with start-ups entering the space and bridging gaps in cattle management and supply chain. The future looks bright for the Indian dairy sector, as digitalisation is expected to usher in a new phase of growth.

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Team Pashudhan Praharee


Model Layouts of Dairy Farms of Various Sizes

Model layouts for the construction of various farm buildings have been prepared under loose system of housing. The loose system of housing dairy animals has been recommended for most of the agro-climatic zones of the country with minor modifications except in heavy rainfall regions and the high altitude regions where winters are very harsh. The dairy animals under lose system of housing are grouped together based on their age in case of growing animals and based on their physiological condition when they are adults. The various categories of dairy animals may be formed such as milking cows, dry and pregnant cows, down-calvers, bulls, heifers and the calves. All these animals need to be housed in separate sheds and the provision in the layout has to be made accordingly.

Apart from the animal sheds the certain other ancillary buildings/structures are also required to be constructed such as chaff cutter shed, feed store, implements store, straw store, milking parlour, milk room, silo pits and manure pits apart from the office, lawns. The large sized dairy farms may also need overhead water storage tank, a small sized workshop and parking space.

The farm building may be arranged in such a manner that they result in higher animal productivity and labour efficiency with minimum movement of people and the animals. For example, the milking parlour may be situated close to the milking cows shed; the milk room may be adjacent to the milking parlour, the feed storage room also should be close to the milking parlour as the compound feed in mostly fed in the milking parlour during milking. The calf shed should be close to the milking cows shed if weaning of calves is practiced. The farm building should be constructed using cheaper locally available construction materials so that the construction cost is minimized.

Given under are some model layouts of dairy farms of various sizes for the setting up of commercial dairy farms.

Housing for Dairy Cattle

An efficient management of cattle will be incomplete without a well-planned and adequate housing of cattle. Improper planning in the arrangement of animal housing may result in additional labour charges and that curtail the profit of the owner. During erection of a house for dairy cattle, care should be taken to provide comfortable accommodation for individual cattle. No less important is the proper sanitation, durability and arrangements for the production of clean milk under convenient and economic conditions, etc.

Location of dairy buildings

The points which should be considered before the erection of dairy buildings are as follows.

Topography and Drainage

  • A dairy building should be at a higher elevation than the surrounding ground to offer a good slope for rainfall and drainage for the wastes of the dairy to avoid stagnation within.
  • A leveled area requires less site preparation and thus lesser cost of building.
  • Low lands and depressions and proximity to places of bad odor should be avoided.
  • Fertile soil should be spared for cultivation.
  • Foundation soils as far as possible should not be too dehydrated or desiccated.
  • Such a soil is susceptible to considerable swelling during rainy season and exhibit numerous cracks and fissures.

Exposure to the sun and protection from wind

  • A dairy building should be located to a maximum exposure to the sun in the north and minimum exposure to the sun in the south and protection from prevailing strong wind currents whether hot or cold.
  • Buildings should be placed so that direct sunlight can reach the platforms, gutters and mangers in the cattle shed.
  • As far as possible, the long axis of the dairy barns should be set in the north-south direction to have the maximum benefit of the sun.


  • Easy accessibility to the buildings is always desirable.
  • Situation of a cattle shed by the side of the main road preferably at a distance of about 100 meters should be aimed at.

Durability and attractiveness

  • It is always attractive when the buildings open up to a scenic view and add to the grandeur of the scenery. Along with this, durability of the structure is obviously an important criterion in building dairy

Water supply

  • Abundant supply of fresh, clean and soft water should .be available at a cheap rate.


  • Areas infested with wild animals and dacoits should be avoided.
  • Narrow gates, high manger curbs, loose hinges, protruding nails, smooth finished floor in the areas where the cows move and other such hazards should be eliminated.
  • Honest, economic and regular supply of labour is available.
  • Dairy buildings should only be in those areas from where the owner can sell his products profitably and regularly.
  • He should be in a position to satisfy the needs of the farm within no time and at reasonable price.


  • Electricity is the most important sanitary method of lighting a dairy.
  • Since a modem dairy always handles electric equipment’s which are also economical, it is desirable to have an adequate supply of electricity.

Facilities, Labour, Food

Cattle yards should be so constructed and situated in relation to feed storages, hay stacks, silo and manure pits as to affect the most efficient utilization of labour. Sufficient space per cow and well-arranged feeding mangers and resting are contributing not only to greater milk yield of cows and make the work of the operator easier also minimizes feed expenses. The relative position of the feed stores should be quite adjacent to the cattle barn. Note : Worthy features of feed stores are given:

  • Feed storages should be located at hand near the center of the cow barn.
  • Milk-house should be located almost at the center of the barn.
  • Centre cross-alley should be well designed with reference to feed storage, the stall area and the milk house.

Types of Housing

The most widely prevalent practice in our country is to tie the cows with rope on a Katcha floor except some organized dairy farms belonging to government, co-operatives or military where proper housing facilities exist. It is quite easy to understand that unless cattle are providing with good housing facilities, the animals will move too far in or out of the standing space, defecating all round and even causing trampling and wasting of feed by stepping into the mangers. The animals will be exposed to extreme weather conditions all leading to bad health and lower production. Dairy cattle may be successfully housed under a wide variety of conditions, ranging from close confinement to little restrictions except at milking time. However, two types of dairy barns are in general use at the present time.

  • The loose housing barn in combination with some type of milking barn or parlor.
  • The conventional dairy barn.
  • Loose Housing System
  • Loose housing may be defined as a system where animals are kept loose except milking and at the time of treatment. The system is most economical. Some features of loose housing system are as follows.
  • Cost of construction is significantly lower than conventional type.
  • It is possible to make further expansion without change
  • Facilitate easy detection of animal in heat.
  • Animals feel free and therefore, proves more profitable with even minimum grazing
  • Animals get optimum excise which is extremely important for better health production.
  • Over all better management can be rendered.

Conventional Dairy Barn

  • The conventional dairy barns are comparatively costly and are now becoming less popular day by day. However, by this system cattle are more protected from adverse climatic condition.
  • The following barns are generally needed for proper housing of different classes

Dairy Stock in the Farm

  • Cow houses or sheds
  • Calving box
  • Isolation box
  • Sheds for young stocks
  • Bull or bullock sheds
  • Cow sheds can be arranged in a single row if the numbers of cows are small.
  • Say less than 10 or in a double row if the herd is a large one.
  • Ordinarily, not more than 80 to 100 cows should be placed in one building.
  • In double row housing, the stable should be so arranged that the cows face out (tails to tail system) or face in (head to head system) as preferred.


  • The inside floor of the barn should be of some impervious material which can be easily kept clean and dry and is not slippery.
  • Paving with bricks can also serve ones purpose. Grooved cement concrete floor is still better.
  • The surface of the cowshed should be laid with a gradient of 1″ to 1.25″ from manger to excreta channel. An overall floor space of 65 to 70 sq.feets. Per adult cow should be satisfactory.
  • The inside of the walls should have a smooth hard· finish of cement, which will not allow any lodgment of dust and moisture.
  • Comers should be round.
  • For plains, dwarf walls about 4 to 5 feet in height and roofs supported by masonry work or iron pillars will be best or more suitable.
  • The open space in between supporting pillars will serve for light and air circulation.
  • Roof of the barn may be of asbestos sheet or tiles.
  • Corrugated iron sheets have the disadvantage of making extreme fluctuations in the inside temperature of the barn in different seasons.
  • However, iron sheets with aluminum painted tops to reflect sun rays and bottoms provided with wooden insulated ceilings can also achieve the objective.
  • A height of 8 feet at the sides and 15 feet at the ridge will be sufficient to give the necessary air space to the cows.
  • An adult cow requires at least about 800 cubic feet of air space under tropical conditions.
  • To make ventilation more effective a continuous ridge ventilation is considered most desirable.
  • Cement concrete continuous manger with removable partitions is the best from the point of view of durability and cleanliness.
  • A height of 1′-4″ for a high front manger and 6″ to 9″ for a low front manger is considered sufficient. Low front mangers are more comfortable for cattle but high front mangers prevent feed wastage.
  • The height at the back of the manger should be kept at 2′-6″ to 3″.
  • An overall width of 2′ to 2.5′ is sufficient for a good manger.
  • The central walk should have a width of 5′-6′ exclusive of gutters when cows face out, and 4′-5′ when they face in.
  • The feed alley, in case of a face out system should be 4′ wide, and the central walk should show a slope of 1″ from the center towards the two gutters running parallel to each other, thus forming a crown at the center.

Manure Gutter

  • The manure gutter should be wide enough to hold all dung without getting blocked, and be easy to clean/ Suitable dimensions are 2″ width with a cross-fall of 1″ away from standing.
  • The gutter should have a gradient of 1″ for every 10′ length.
  • This will permit a free flow of liquid excreta.
  • The doors of a single range cowshed should be 5″ wide with a height of 7′, and for double row shed the width should not be less than 8″ to 9′.
  • All doors of the barn should lie flat against the external wall when fully open.

Calving Boxes

  • Allowing cows to calve in the milking cowshed is highly undesirable and objectionable.
  • It leads to in sanitary in milk production and spread of disease like contagious abortion in the herd. Special accommodation in the form of loose-boxes enclosed from all sides with a door should be furnished to all parturient cows.
  • It should have an area of about 100 to 150 sq.ft.
  • With ample soft bedding, it should be provided with sufficient ventilation through windows and ridge vent.

Isolation Boxes

  • Animals suffering from infectious disease must be segregated soon from the rest of the herd.
  • Loose boxes of about 150 sq. feet. are very suitable for this purpose.
  • They sh9uld be situated at some distance from the other barns.
  • Every isolation box should be self-contained and should have separate connection to the drainage disposal system.

Sheds For Young Stocks

  • Calves should never be accommodated with adults in the cow shed.
  • The calf house must have provision for daylight ventilation and proper drainage.
  • Damp and ill-drained floors cause respiratory trouble in calves to which they are susceptible.
  • For an efficient management and housing, the young stock should be divided into three groups, viz., young calves aged tip to one year bull calves, female calves.
  • Each group should be sheltered in a separate calf house or calf shed.
  • As far as possible the shed for the young calves should be quite close to the cow shed.
  • Each calf shed should have an open paddock or exercise yard.
  • An area of 100 square feet per head for a stock of 10 calves and an increase of 50 square feet for every additional calf will make a good paddock.
  • It is useful to classify the calves below one year into three age groups, viz., and calves below the age of 3 months, 3-6 months old calves and those over 6 months for a better allocation of the resting area.
  • An overall covered space of:
  • 20-25 square feet per calf below the age of 3 months,
  • 25 -30 square feet per calf from the age of 3-6 months,
  • 30-40 square feet per calf from the age of 6-12 months and over, and
  • 40-45 square feet for every calf above one year, should be made available for the sheltering such climatic conditions. A suitable· interior lay-out of a calf shed will be to arrange the standing space along each side of a 4 feet wide central passage having a shallow gutter along its length on both sides. Provision of water troughs inside each calf shed and exercise yard should never be neglected.

Bull or Bullock Shed

  • Safety and ease in handling a comfortable shed protection from weather and a provision for exercise are the key points while planning accommodation for bulls or bullocks.
  • A bull should never be kept in confinement particularly on hard floors.
  • Such a confinement without adequate exercise leads to overgrowth of the hoofs creating difficulty in mounting and loss in the breeding power of the bull.
  • A loose box with rough cement concrete floor about 15′ by 10′ in dimensions having an adequate arrangement of light and ventilation and an entrance 4′ in width and 7′ in height will make a comfortable housing for a bull.
  • The shed should have a manger and a water trough.
  • If possible, the arrangement should be such that water and feed can be served without actually entering the bull house.
  • The bull should have a free access to an exercise yard provided with a strong fence or a boundary wall of about 2′ in height, i.e., too high for the bull to jump over.
  • From the bull yard, the bull should be able to view the other animals of the herd so that it does not feel isolated.
  • The exercise yard should also communicate with a service crate via a swing gate which saves the use of an attendant to bring the bull to the service crate.

Cleaning of animal sheds

  • The easy and quick method of cleaning animal house is with liberal use of tap water, proper lifting and disposes all of dung and used straw bedding, providing drainage, to the animal house for complete removal of liquid waste and urine.
  • The daily removal of feed and fodder left over in the manger, reduces the fly nuisance.
  • Periodical cleaning of water through eliminates the growth of algae, bacterial and viral contamination and thus keeps the animal healthy.

Sanitation in dairy farm

  • Sanitation is necessary in the dairy farm houses for eliminations of all microorganisms that are capable of causing disease in the animals.
  • The presence of organisms in the animal shed contaminates the milk produced thus reducing its self-life, milk produced in an unclean environment is likely to transmit diseases which affect human health: Dry floorings keeps the houses dry and protects from foot injury.
  • Similarly, the presence of flies and other insects in the dairy farm area are not only, disturbs the animals but also spreads deadly diseases to the animal’s egg. Babesiosis, Theileriosis.
  • Sunlight is the most potent and powerful sanitizer which destroy most of the disease producing organism. Disinfection of animal sheds means making these free from disease producing bacteria and is mainly-carried out by sprinkling chemical agents such as bleaching powder, Iodine and lodophor, sodium carbonate, Washing soda, Slaked Lime (Calcium hydroxide), Quick Lime (Calcium oxide) and phenol.
  • Bleaching Powder –  This is also called calcium hypo chloride. It contains upto 39 % available chlorine which has high disinfecting activity.
  • Iodine and Lodophor –  This is commercially available as lodophores and contains between 1 and 2 % available Iodine which is an effective germicide.
  • Sodium Carbonate –  A hot 4 % solution of washing soda is a powerful disinfectant against many viruses and certain bacteria.
  • Slaked Lime and Quick Lime –  White washing with these agents makes the walls of the sheds and the water troughs free from bacteria.
  • Phenol –  Phenol or carbolic acid is very disinfectants which destroy bacteria as well as fungus.


  • Insecticides are the substances or preparations used for killing insects.
  • In dairy farms, ticks usually hide in cracks and crevices of the walls and mangers.
  • Smaller quantities of insecticide solutions are required for spraying.
  • Liquid insecticides can be applied with a powerful sprayer, hand sprayer, a sponge or brush; commonly used insecticides are DDT, Gramaxane wettable powders, malathion, Sevin 50 % emulsifying concentration solutions.
  • These are highly poisonous and need to be handled carefully and should not come in contact with food material, drinking, water, milk etc.

Precautions while using disinfection in insecticide

  • Remove dung and used bedding completely.
  • Avoid spilling of dung and used bedding while carrying it out.
  • Avoid the use of dirty water in cleaning the sheds.
  • Never put the fresh fodder over: the previous day’s left over fodder in the manger.
  • Prevent algae to grow in the water troughs
  • Use proper concentration of disinfectant / insecticide solutions to avoid any toxic effects poisoning.
  • Avoid of the mat the milking time as milk absorbs these quickly.

Procedure for cleaning

  • Remove the dung from the floor and urine channel with the help of a shovel and basket (iron) and transfer it to the wheel – barrow.
  • Remove the used bedding and leftovers from the mangers in a similar way.
  • Empty the water trough and scrape its sides and bottom with the help of a floor brush.
  • Wash the water trough with clean water and white wash it with the help of lime mixture once a week.
  • Scrape the floor with a brush and broom and wash with water.
  • Clean and disinfect the splashes of dung on the side walls, railing and stanchions.
  • Remove the cobwebs periodically with the help of a wall brush.
  • Sprinkle one of the available disinfecting agents in the following concentration. Bleaching powder should have more than 30% available chlorine. Phenol 1-2% solution. Washing Soda (4% solution).
  • Allow adequate sunlight to enter in to the shed.
  • Spray insecticides at regular intervals especially during the rainy season (Fly season).
  • Whitewash the walls periodically by mixing insecticides in it to eliminate ticks and mites living in cracks and crevices.

Other provisions

  • The animal sheds should have proper facilities for milking barns, calf pens, calving pens and arrangement for store rooms etc.
  • In each shed, there should be arrangement for feeding manger, drinking area and loafing area.
  • The shed may be cemented or brick paved, but in any case, it should be easy to clean.
  • The floor should be rough, so that animals will not slip. The drains in the shed should be shallow and preferably covered with removable tiles.
  • The drain should have a gradient of 1″ for every 10″ length.
  • The roof may be of corrugated cement sheet, asbestos or brick and rafters.
  • Cement concrete roofing is too expensive. Inside the open unpaved area it is always desirable to plant some good shady trees for excellent protection against direct cold winds in winter and to keep cool in summer.

Source :  Pashu sakhi Handbook

In India, the need for expanding the supplementary and subsidiary foods especially proteins has been increasingly realized in recent years.  The demand for these articles has specially increased and with the rise in income it is likely to increase more rapidly in future.  The prospects of augmenting the supply of milk and milk products, table birds, eggs etc depends on the development of dairy farming and poultry keeping which are an integral part of a sound system of diversified agriculture.  Therefore special emphasis is laid on mixed farming, in which crop production and animal husbandry are dovetailed for efficient and economic utilization of land laboures and capital.   The integration of farming with animal husbandry is essential for the fuller utilization of farm by products maintenance of soil fertility fuller employment ofr agriculturists throughout the year and increase in rural incomes.  Hence for better management and breeding of the farm animals in healthy condition animal shelters are inevitable.

The kind of shelter required for an animal depends upon the kind of animal and the climate condition of the region.  The rapid increase in temperature and extreme temperatures affects the animals.  So to maintain the in properly, a shed is to be provided with a roof.  The space available for each animal should be sufficient to allow free movement so as to maximize the ability to adjust to the environments.  In the case of high velocity wind also, animals are affected and hence to protect them from wind droughts, enclosures is of provided.  The sheds for housing the clarity cows and poultry hers are dealt in detail.

Dairy Barns

When planning a new dairy form, the size and location of barn with relation to the entire farm, the fields, roads, drainage channels, prevailing winds and landscaping are of importance are of importance and should be considered.  The requirements of the dairy cows and calves should also be considered before any construction work is undertaken.  The location of the fodder and feeder storage buildings should be included in the plan.

Milk straining, weighing, cooling and cleaning of the milk utensils require significant of labour and therefore  the location of a well planned milk house should be carefully chosen.  Before a new dairy barn is planned the future expansion of the business should also be considered.  The size of the hard is usually determined on the basis of the total quantity of fodder the farm is capable of producing annually.   Generally, it is economical to produce fodder on the farm and to buy concentrates from the market, and thus are can afford to have a large size hard than if its farm itself had to provide all the feed stuffs.

The dairy barn, when properly located should have a good approach from the highway, as well as from the farm house.  The milk house is best located on a clean, well drained site near the barn, but separated from it by a 6 m long paved passage.  It should face the road and be provided with doors fixed with wire mesh to keep off the flies.   In tropical countries like India, it is better to have enclosed becomes facing in the east west direction.  The location of the feed and fodder stores w.r.r barn should be planned so that the minimum time is spent in taking the supplies to the barn.  The topography of the barn site determines the drainage pattern required.  Drainage should be diverted around the barn by proper grading of the surrounding land.

Besides the natural rainwater, water used in grooming the cows, and cleaning the barn and dairy utensils has to be disposed off.  It is desirable to have paved approaches to the dairy barn, since this prevents stagnation of water and mud formation.  Under these conditions, it is not possible to transport the cow dung from the barn daily, it is desirable to fence an area near the barn of storage of manure.

Types of Dairy Barn

There are three general types of barns.

  • i) Stanchion barn
  • ii) The loose housing barn with milking room and

iii) The open air barn

In the  stanchion barn the cows are housed and milled in the some building.  It is also called the general purpose barn of the cow.  The loose housing barn is one in which the cows are housed in a covered or partially covered yard, but they are milked in batches in a special milking house called the milking barlour.  This system is also called the milking house system.  the open air barn does not have any coves.  The cows live in field and they are fed and milked there.  The system is also known as the leafing barn system and is not common on a well established dairy barn.

Stanchion barn is one is which the cow is kept tied in separate stalls and provided with feed.  Each stall consists of a bedding place and feed place so that the cow can be kept in the stall itself at all times.  Stanchion is a frame work made up of pipe or angle iron with an oval shaped adjustable ring kept one end hanging from the frame and the other hinged to the floor.  It shoul0d be wide enough to pin it on easily to the neck to the animal and to lock it.  It should also give facility for the animal to rest and move its neck side ways to reach feed l./ and water. Instead of using oval shaped ring chains are also used to fasten the animals to the stanchion.  For this a strap is around the neck of each animal.

The animals are arranged in rows according to the members to be housed.  In enclosed shelters for more than 8 cows two rows is preferable.  The rows can be arranged so that they may be facing each other known as ‘face in’ arrangement of is the opposite  direction known as ‘face out’ arrangement.  Face in type arrangements will reduce the floor area give facility for cleaning manure to the open sides an is suited mostly for unenclosed barns or for bullodes.  The stalls are separated by a small partition wall usually of concrete to 12.5cm height, with a bent pipe fixed equal to the length of stall for efficiency of management the length of rows should be restricted to have maximum of 10 cows in a row.  If the limit is exuded.

Stall size:  The size of stall depend upon the size and age of animals. Narrow and cramped stall should be avoided, as it restricts the movement of animal resulting in discomfort and even injury to the animal which will affect the milk yield. As the size old cow varies with different breeds, a general space requirement of each type of the basis of its weight is given in the following table

Table .  Dimensions of cow stall

Mangers :  are feeding structures for the animals. The size of the mangers should be sufficient to hold the feed.  It should, be sufficient to hold the feed.  It should be shaped in a curved form so that no wastage of feed is allowed. The two usual types of mangers adopted are shown in figures.

The low manger known as “sweep in” is simple and easy to construct and it affords facility for quick feeding.  The waste thrown by the animal away from the manger can easily be swept back.  The high front manger, though a bit  difficult and costlier in construction, is still adopted of less wastage by throwing the feet out of mangers.  The usual width of manger varies from 60 cm to 90 cm.  The back of low manger is flush with feeder alley and the back of height front manger is about 70 cm above the feeder alley.

At the foot of manger a stanchion curb of height 12.5 cm is provided to prevent the animal from dragging the feed into the stall.  This curb separate the manger and the stall and provides support for the bottom of stanchion.

Cement concrete tubes of 150-200 liter capacity are provided in between two cows.

Space for pathways: To increase the efficiency of diary management enough space for pathways should be provided for  conveying feed to the manger, milking the cows and removing the manure waste etc.  The pathways provided in a stanchion barn are feed alleys and litter alleys.  Feed alleys are pathways provided between two rows of mangers in case of face in system or pathways between the mangers and side wall in the case of face out system.  the usual space left is 1.2 m so as to allow the conveyance of feed in a push cart.  In the case of big dairy barns the should be wide enough for a farm cart drawn by bullocks or farm tractor.  In the case of face in arrangement no separate litter alley is provided as the sides are not enclosed.  But in face ant arrangement litter alleys are provided for a width of 1.8m to 2.4 m for facility of milking and taking out animals.  Cross alleys are also provided where the number of animal are more to have access from one side to the other without back tracking.

Cutters:  these are provided to convey the animal waste and to drain urine and wash-water to manure pits provided out side the dairy barn.   These are provided by the side of litter alleys and their width varies from 40cm to 45cm and the depth is 15 cm.  A minimum bed slope of 2% should be given for the gutters to drain without any stagnation.

Flooring:  The flooring for dairy barns may be laid either with cement or lime concrete as sub grade, with a meet rough finish on top with c.m.  The stall platforms should be sloped well for maintaining the clean liners.  The top surface of the flooring should not be left smooth as it may cause slipping of animals.  Thread linings. Made on the floor renders grip to the animals.  A toe hold known as toe drain provided at the front of the stall for 1/3 length helps the animals to sit or stand without slipping.

Walls :  Brick or rubble mesory in lime or cement marker can be adopted for enclosing the barn.  The length should be a minimum of 2.4m.  ventilators or opening of 0.37 sqm (4 sq ft) per each cow should be provided to give natural lighting & air.  It climate and environment do not call for enclosures, pillars at 2.4m to 3m apart (8 to 10 ft) can be had to support the roof.

Roofing:  In not regions, tiled roofing can be advantage adopted rather than A.C. sheet or other corrugated sheet roofing, be cause of its less heat radiation.  A.C. sheet can be adopted where the temp is moderate.  Concrete roofing is the best, if the investment in justifiable.  In the case of two rows. Barns, roof trusses of iron or timber should be used, since the width will be more than gm.

Loose housing system :  In this system of housing the milking, feeding and bedding operations are arranged in separate places.  An open exercising yard is also provided in this system.  the labour requirement is less and efficiency of management is more since the milking is done in a small enclosed area and he manure allowed to accumulate in the bedding area to cleared once or twice is an year.  The success of this method is related to the allotment of enough space and shelter.

Feeding shed    This is a covered shed to protect the feed from rain and an area of 3.7 sqm (40 sqft) is recorded for each cow.  Pavement with mangers is betters for keeping the feeding area clean. The space of manger for each cow varies from 67.5 cm to 75 cm.  and the depth should be sufficient to prevent wastage by dragging out of the mangers.  Water tub of 300 litres capacity are provided for every 15 cows in the feeding room.  For feeding shed a lean to root shed with no enclosure on are side is economical and suitable.

Bedding area :  This is also a covered area with an ample space of 6.4 sqm per cow.  The shed room should be a min.  of 3m to allow piling up of manure for 0.9m height.  The bedding area should include separate place for caves at the rate of 2.8 sqm (30 sqft) per cow.

Exercising yard:  This is an open enclosed space to afford free movement of animals to get fresh air and exercise.  The space required for each cow is 9.2 sqm (100 sqft).  This is provided adjoining the bedding area.  The yard should have a slope of 1 in 6 for the first 1.0m width and then 2% slope away from the bedding ara for draining water.

Milking rooms :   The milking room is provided separately where facilities are made for milking a few cows at a time.  This is constructed adjoining the feed room so that other animals can be kept there awaiting their turn to be led to milking.  For providing facility for milking, stalls should be constructed to keep the animals at the floor level or raise above the floor where the operator works.  The level floor stall arrangements are similar to stall barns with space for litter and feeder alleys.  The room is covered on the sides and top to keep it clean.

Stall systems are either floor level, with the platforms at the same level as he floor on which the operator works or elevated with the cow platform from 30” to 36” above the operators (fig) floor level stalls are usually arranged abreast like the stalls in a stall barn.

The cows may walk thro after milking or back at F or one operator the most convenient number of stalls in this arrangement see was to be 6 to 1, for two operators,  8 to 12 or 16 stalls should be provided.

The elevated stall system places to cows at a more convenient and comfortable work height for the operator.  If milk is carried from milking room to milk house, the operators floor should be at the same level as the milk house floor.  The stalls are the a elevate and suitable ramps provided for the cows.

Chute: There are a no of arrangements of stalls suited to the elevated stall system.  the chute type stalls are probably the least expensive to construct, because no wall fot eh cows is necessary and fewer gates need be provided for handing the cows.  However all the cows, in one line must be let in and released at one time.  A slow milker may hold up the line and cause lost time.  Feed boxes that slide out into 1 operators ara permit clean.  Passage for the cows to move thro.  The chute arrangement can be built force single row or two rows of cows.  Feed in  tube is filled with feed with the help of chute pipe from an elevated feed   storage hub.

Tandem type:  The tandem type of arrangement permit cows to enter and be released individually.  However a wale for the cows must be provided along the side.  Gate must be provided on each stall, one for entrance and one for exit.  The tandem arrangement man be built for one or two cows of cows.

U Type:  or square type of arrangements are modifications of the tandem arrangement.  In both the cows can be brought in and released individually.  These arrangements may centralize the milking operation more than other types.

Montana: It is an abreast arrangement with elevated stall.  For one operator, one working area and two stalls are provided for two operators, two working areas and four stalls are provided.

Dairy Cattle Housing

Stall systems for the milking room.  Stall systems are another floor-level, with the platforms at the same level as the floor on which the operator works, or elevated, with the cow platform from 30 to 36 inches above the operator floor (See Figure 16.14).  Floor level stalls are usually arranged abreast like the stalls in a stall barn (Figure 16.15)

The cows may walk through after milking or back out.  For one operator, the most convenient number of stalls in this arrangement seems to be 6 to 1; for two operators, 8 to 12 or 16 stalls should be provided.

The elevated-stall system places the cows at a more convenient and comfortable work height for the operator (Figure 16.16).  If milk is carried from milking room to milk house, the operator floor should be at the same level as the level as the milk-house floor.  The stalls are then elevated, and suitable range provided for the cows.  With the pipeline milker, the operator may be in a pit, and the cows at the same level as the holding area.

Chute.   There are a number of arrangements of stalls sited to the elevated-stall system.  The chute-type stalls are probably the lest expensive to construct, because no walk for the cows is necessary, and fewer gates need to provided for handling the cows.  However, all the cows in one line must be let in and released at one time.  A slow milker may hold up the line and cause lost time.  Fed boxes that slide out into the operators area permit clear passage for the cows to move through.  The chute arrangement can be built for a single row or two rows of cows.

Tandem.  The tandem type of arrangement permits cows to enter and be released individually.  However, a walk for the cows must be provided along the side.  Gates must be provided on each stall, one for entrance and one for exit.  Ropes over pulleys from the gates to the operator’s area facilitate the handling of the cows.  The tandem arrangement can be built for one or two rows of cows.

U type.  The U-type and square-type arrangements are moderations of the tandem arrangement.  In both, the cows can be brought  in and released individually.  These arrangements may centralize the milking operation more than other types.  In the square-type arrangement the pipeline milker is essential, because the operator has no exit through which to carry the milk when the cows are in the stalls.

Montana.   The Montana-type milking room is an abreast arrangement  with elevated stalls.  For one operator, one working area and two stalls are provided for two operators, two working areas and four stalls are provided.

Since concentrate grain is normally fed in the milking room, an adequate supply should be readily available at milking time.  This can be provided by overhead storage with chutes, or by storage in a large container in the operation’s area.

In some regions of mild climate, where little or no housing is required for dairy animal, the milking area is a separate milking barn.  This milking barn is similar in arrangement to the loose housing milking area.

Arrangement for efficiency.  For maximum efficiency in operating the loose housing system.  it is essential that he various units be correctly located with respect to one another.  Such an efficient layout incorporating the ideas already discussed is shown in

Space Requirements of Dairy Animals and Layouts of Dairy Farms

All animals require shelter for protection and comfort. They can perform better under favourable environmental conditions. Housing of animals need initial capital to the extent the dairy farmers can afford. The animals are to be protected from high and low temperature, strong sunlight, heavy rainfall, high humidity, frost, snowfall, strong winds, ecto-parasite and endo-parasites. The comfortable temperature range for dairy breeds of cattle, buffaloes and goats is 150C to 270C. Climatic stress occurs when the temperature goes 50C below or above this range.

High humidity combined with high temperature causes more stress to animals in tropics. Rainfall in cold climate also causes stress in temperate zone. Strong winds further aggravate the conditions both in tropics and temperate climate. Several techniques are available to provide relief from hot weather conditions for lactating dairy cows. In tropical and sub-tropical climates, well-ventilated shed is a necessity at points of high heat stress, such as feed barns, loafing areas, and in holding areas. It is important to provide a sufficient flow of air through the building in which the animals are kept to ensure optimum thermal conditions for dairy animals.

The space requirements of dairy animals as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) are given in table belo

*      Based on ISI Standards for housing in India . **   The actual length and width of water trough may be decided as per the strength of group and size of the paddock.

Layout of Dairy Farm for 20 Cow/Buffalo Unit

dairy farm planning and design in india

As prepared by Dr. M.L. Kamboj (NDRI, Karnal)

Layout of Dairy Farm for 50 Cow/Buffalo Unit

dairy farm planning and design in india

Layout of Dairy Farm for 200 Cow/Buffalo Unit

dairy farm planning and design in india



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Dairy Farming Business Plan Guide

Table of contents, for frequently asked dairy farm questions: read here., for green fodder production: read here., for silage making process: read here., dairy farming business plan guide:.

Dairy Farming Business Plan.

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Introduction to Dairy Farming:- No matter what the season is and no matter what the place is “There is always a great demand for milk” in India. Due to the population increase and consumption of milk tremendously increasing day by day. The rising unemployment and people who are looking for starting a dairy farm in recent years are almost doubled. Milk production in India is expected to grow at about 3 to 4% every year. There are many people who want to get into the small-scale or large-scale dairy farming business. However, due to lack of knowledge and initial investment involved they are unable to set up a dairy unit. We advise you not to get into this dairy business unless you dedicate your effort and time on your farm round the clock. You are not necessarily starting a dairy farm on a commercial scale; you can start on a small-scale business and expand it to a large scale once you are aware of ins and outs of dairy farming.

Before starting a dairy farm, makes sure to follow these:

  • Dairy Farming Business Plan #1- However as a beginner, you should definitely get some professional training from Agriculture Universities or Training centers of the Animal Husbandry Department or Krishi Vigyan Kendras or any private training dairy consultancies.
  • Dairy Farming Business Plan #2 – Visit local dairy farms and talk to the management so you can get an idea of managing the farm. Always question them about “problems” and ask how they are overcoming them.
  • Dairy Farming Business Plan #3 – Read any dairy magazines, online dairy blogs, and YouTube videos to get an overall idea of farming.
  • Dairy Farming Business Plan #4 – If you don’t have capital investment and want to get a subsidy and loan the dairy farm, visit your local agriculture/co-operative banks for more information.
  • Dairy Farming Business Plan #5 – As feed or fodder is the main component of dairy farming that directly impacts the profits; you must have good knowledge of green fodder cultivation practices and silage-making procedures. You can study the feed and fodder market in your region to find out the feasible and economical fodder solution.
  • Dairy Farming Business Plan #6 – Initially, you must visit some cattle markets to observe animals on sale and talk with persons engaged with purchasing animals to get an idea of the best breed, animal prices, and milk yield of animals. You can also learn some negotiation skills.
  • Dairy Farming Business Plan #7 – You should learn good labour management skills.

To encourage the rural agriculture sector and increase the milk production as per demand, NABARD (National Bank For Agriculture & Rural Development) helping farmers by providing subsidies on dairy farms and dairy farming loans through approved banks. One can avail of this by visiting your nearest commercial or co-operative or rural agriculture banks. One can get decent profits in dairy farming under good dairy management practices. In the following write-up, let us talk about the “Dairy Farming Business Plan” in detail. Let us take an example of 15 dairy cow farming.

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Requirements of Dairy Farming in India:- There are some components of dairy farming you should be aware of before setting up a dairy farm.

  • Land – You must have some cultivated land for growing green fodder crops for your cattle on the farm. The land area depends on the number of animals (cows or buffalo’s). Usually, 2 acres of land is sufficient to feed about 15 cows.
  • Shed – There must be a proper and covered secured shed in place before getting cows into your farm.
  • Water – Clean and abundant water facility is required for both cattle and to grow the green fodder.
  • Fodder – As cows need three types of fodder for best milk yield and high-fat content, you must have good fodder management from growing fodder to feeding fodder on daily basis. Dry fodder, green fodder, and feed concentrate (for extra nutrition) are required to feed the cows in your dairy.
  • Breed Selection – Selection of a good breed of cows that yield more milk is essential in dairy farming. Good milk yielding cows such as “Jersy”, “Red Sindhi” “Holstein Friesian (HF cows)”, “Sahiwal”, “Gir”, “Deoni” and “Ongole” etc.
  • Labour – Labour is a major task in dairy farming, the selected labour should be very good at handling the farm activities including growing green fodder. It is better to give one or two days of training so that they can understand the routine activities of dairy.
  • Vaccinations – To control diseases and protect cow health, you must have a proper vaccination schedule. For this purpose, you can hire a veterinary doctor for routine checkups and medication of cows. For the vaccination schedule, see the vaccination schedule table at the bottom of this article.

HF Cow.

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Shed Construction:- Well ventilated and the spacious shed is required for dairy farming. Hygienic conditions are very important in the shed for cattle health. When it comes to space, it is recommended to have 8 feet x 12 feet area for 1 cow. So total space required for 15 cows is about 120 feet x 12 feet. However, this area is not fixed and depends on cow size. Cow feeders should be constructed in between with a separation wall so that the cows can be fed from both sides facing head to head each other; this is what is called a “Head to Head arrangement”.

Care should be taken while constructing the dairy shed. The selected location should be elevated to prevent any water stagnation around the shed and it also provides well ventilation (sunlight and air). The dairy shed roof should be made with asbestos sheets and the floor should be made of either bricks or cement with enough inclination. This can provide good drainage for cattle urine and excrete. The shed should be cleaned daily to maintain hygienic conditions. Collect the manure on daily basis and store it somewhere outside of the shed. You can also make an outlet to the shed so that whenever the shed is cleaned the cow urine any leftover manure can flow into the field. All electrical fittings and water supply requirements should be fully filled as per need in hot areas, it may need to have fans and coolers for cows, especially in summer.

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Fodder Management:- Fodder management is very important in dairy farming. The daily milk yield of a cow depends on the type of fodder and the nutritional facts of the given fodder. High-yielding cows should be given 1 kg of concentrate along with mineral mixture to get 2.5 liters of milk yield. For example, if a cow yields 15 liters of milk daily then these cows should be given 6 kg of concentrate with a mineral mixture.

There are three types of fodder that can be provided under dairy fodder management practices.

  • Dry fodder: wheat hay, kutti (rice / pady straw), chokar (wheat bran),
  • Green fodder: Any leguminous crops which are good in protein supplements. For example Any gram crop, barseem, maize/corn, masoor, and hybrid grass-like CO-3 and CO-4, niper grass etc.. These green fodder crops can be utilized to make silage. This silage is very nutritious and milk yield will be increased. Silage making is very important and especially it is needed in dry periods. The link will be given at the bottom of the article about “steps in involved in silage making or how to make silage for cattle”. Generally, 2 to 3 acres of fertile land enough to grow green fodders for 15 cows. However, the yield of green fodder depends on many factors.
  • Concentrate and Mineral Mixture: Mineral mixture:- It is necessary to provide concentrate feed along with a mineral mixer on regular basis to prevent cows from mineral deficiency. All three types such as dry green and mineral mixture should be accurate proportions for best milk yield.

Note: The cost of feed may depend on the animal milk capacity. On average, the feed may cost about 200 to 250 rupees/day/cow.

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Water Supply:- Clean water supply is required for drinking and cleaning purposes of the shed. Arrangements can be done by providing overhead tanks on the shed.

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Selection of Dairy Breeds:- Successful dairy farming requires a good breed selection of cows. Select the dairy cow/cattle breed that is suitable for your climatic conditions and high milking capacity. You can visit your local farms and can observe the different breed types that are suitable. A crossbreed of HF cows (Holstein Frisian) with Indian Sahiwal. Or Jersey with Sahiwal or Jersey with Red Sindhi is preferable for the good milk yield. It is preferred to select the breed which produces milk of 20 to 25 liters/day. Artificial insemination plays a major role to cross with high-yielding breeds.

Jersey Cow.

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Cow and Calves Management and Care:- Artificial insemination or mating of cows should be carried out after every 3 months (90 days) of calving. Indian cattle breeds take 3 years in reaching the maturity phase whereas high yield  Jersey crossbreed or HF cows reach maturity at 16 to 18 months and they will be ready for mating. In general, for every 13 months, cows should be calving. The lactation period of cows should be 300 days and the service period should be 90-120 days. The gestation period of cows is going to be 266 days. More attention and care are needed in the case of pregnant cows as they need more nutrition during this stage. Concentrate & mineral mixture should be given during the gestation period of cows and this feed intake should be increased as time passes to ensure proper growth of calves and their udder.

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Vaccination Program in Dairy Cow Farming:- Before giving any vaccination in dairy, deworming should be done to get better results. However, deworming should be carried out frequently and the veterinary doctor is your point of contact for this. The following table is the typical vaccination schedule in dairy farming.

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Vaccination Schedule in Dairy Farming:

Dairy Farming Business Plan – Bottom Line:- The above write-up can be assumed for Dairy Farming Business Plan in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, and other states of India. However, the labour cost, Cow breeds, feed cost, or green fodder production cost and inputs may slightly vary from region to region. You can expect excellent profits with proper dairy management practices, perfect planning, and dedication completely to the farm 24/7.

In case if you are interested in this: Quail Farming Business Plan .

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Hello, my name is Anuj purwar, I am a student. And want to start organic farming with two members team MAYANK SHINHA and rishab pandey. We planned for a loan by the bank and use hydraulic solar panels energy for electricity which help us in earning money because of this electricity were given to our nearly farmers who use petrol, diesel water pump by which we decrease less use of pratrol. We are 17-19 year old and planed for this. We need your support to prove ourselves and promote the organic forming and start online sale of our crops from us to customers directly.

I am not sure about your question. You say solar and talk about Organic.

Read here about : Organic Farming .

Selling electricity to anyone except the government is prohibited in india. Please make sure you are not breaking any law.

GUPTA DAIRY FARM KARNAL Supplying Pure Breed and vaccinated Murrah Buffalo, Sahiwal Breed Cattle, Jersey Cow, Dairy Cow, Cow Heifer, Buffalo Heifer, Australian Cow, American Cow, and other types of Cows and Buffaloes…

We don’t sell any livestock or agriculture produce.

we don’t call or have personal support. You can post comments and get reply.

Respected Concerned person/ / Can you deliver the cows and buffalos throughout india?

Dear sir, I want to open new dairy farm in Jhabua (MadhyaPradesh). I have required 10 Buffalo with good quality and can give 10-15 litre milk per day. please send me the details about buffalo , price, purchasing locations , transportation etc.

regards dinesh bhayal

We don’t sell any cattle/buffaloes.

You must be an adult for eligibility of the loan for dairy farming.

hi i want to set up dairy farm, kindly suggest me the details in pdf, want to do at odisha. if u have, [email protected]

Soon we will introduce farming or agriculture pdf’s to download.

Hello, Can any one suggest the process of dairy loan. I will start dairy farming immediately.

For Dairy farming subsidy and loan, read this: Dairy Farming Subsidy .

You mean for dairy shed construction and design?

Above article is really helping. I have around 7 Bigha land in Kotdwar-Uttarakhand and looking to get in to dairy farm business, Can I expect a professional help from you ? like in Planning the dairy farm, loans and subsidy, good milk yielding cows and buffalo.

Glad the information is helping at least some people. We don’t have personal consulting support at this point in time. However, you talk to NABARD branch in your city for qualified agriculture/farming loans.

Hai, my name is Mohith and I from Telagana state, I want to start Cow farm. Please guide me.

Well, Mohith Dairy farming needs investment, patience and hard work along with dedication. You can not trust the third person in this business as feed management and care is utmost priorities of dairy cow farming. From, NABARD you can get a subsidy and loan for setting up a dairy cow farm. Here is some information which may be helpful: Dairy Farming Subsidy .

Dairy Cow Farming Project Report t .

Sir, I am from Odisha. I am interested to start a Dairy Farming In Odisha where can I get assistance? and necessary help. Please advise.

NABARD is your point of contact for any livestock subsidy. You can read >DAIRY FARMING SUBSIDY .

Hi, I am Prashant Deshmukh. I really interested to start a new Dairy farm business in Maharashtra. How to start, please guide me.

Well, to start a dairy farm, you must have proper planning, dedication. It requires your hard work. First, decide which dairy breed, you would like to go for. Feed management is very important in dairy farming. Make sure you have enough laborers to handle the farm. Our advice is to start with less number of cows and start increasing as you get more experience. Apart from this marketing is another factor for your dairy products. Here is some information which may help you. Read: DAIRY COW FARMING PROJECT REPORT .

Hello Sir, I am Rohidas Sapke and looking to start my own dairy farm business. Can you advise me is there any private institute who gives training on How to handle dairy farms/animal care/business related things and all?

Very soon, we will update training and consulting services addresses.

I am exploring possibility of dairy farming near Raipur in Uttarakhand.The subject is new to me as I am not a professional from this field.I would like to see a viable business plan,if you have one,for a midsized investment. Regards

It is really a resourceful information on every aspect. Thank you Can you please write on financial breakups, for shed, cows , fodder cost etc all occurring expenses. just as a template it will give an idea for us on financial planning.

Check these:

Dairy Farming FAQ .

How To Get NABARD Subsidy and Loan .

Dairy Shed Design and Construction .

Dairy Cow Farming Project Report .

Sir, I am 37 yrs old from Barshi, in Solapur district. We have some farm land and wish to start a dairy business from scratch. How can I start?

Read this: Dairy Farming FAQ .

Dear Sir, I really appreciate the guideline for my knowledge I am an MBA qualified. I hate jobs, I love business have a full plan to start a dairy farm business I have 5 acre land in one place 4 acre land in other areas which are in a part. Anyhow, I made a contact in our area and there is no a single dairy farm. This would be a great opportunity for me. But need knowledge of this business.

Umar Saood from pakistan currently working in UAE

Dairy farming is not simple as you think. However, with proper planning, dedication and hard work defiantly will pay you off. You cannot depend and trust third person.

To have complete idea. You better read all the dairy farming articles.

Read: Dairy Farming Information .

I am Mahesh and I want to know whether Coorg, Karnataka is best suited for HF breed cows, since we have 2 to 3 acres of land is coorg but due to heavy rain during June to October, we are still worried whether we can go-ahead for dairy farming with HF breeds. Your guidance and suggestions will help us further.

Hi I am a pure science graduate and I have interest in polyhouse and hydroponic agriculture. I want to start cultivation of vegetables in a small area like 1000 sq.m for commercial purposes..n establish my career on it. I like to spread it through out my state working as a professional consultant too. For this, I need proper training and guide and financial resources. Now plz help me to know all about high tech poly house, hydroponics that can help me to build my financial path as a grower and as a consultant too. Plese, help me show me the way. Thank u.

Dear sir new dairy farming business open in my village Bila gujarat so plz help me loan and ideas 7778014786 my WhatsApp number

hello sir, i am 20 yrs old and i want to open dairy farm. can you tell me about problems we face in this field.

Hello Mr. Reddy, Thanks for your effort to put this content in internet, it is very much informative. I am very much interested to start a dairy farm, but need proper guidance to set up this. I’m gathering information from youtube channels and some blogs like your. I may contact you to get some information.

Thanks Sahoo

very useful information sir Thank you

Hello sir, Iam r kanaka raj Ex-Servicemen Army I live from andaman and nicobar Islands. I want to open dairy farm. Can you tell me about problems we face in this field.

Please suggest the training institutes for dairy farming short courses.

Regards Mahesh

Subject: New Dairy Farm

This is Harish (farmer) from Telangana state, I’m really interested to start to start new dairy farm in my village I am having 5 acres land, Hence pls could you advice that from where to get the good livestock’s and what is the cost per cow. Pls could you share with me the shed diagram how to build for at least 10-12 cows.

Kind regards: Harish

Hi, Can you explain this business in financial terms….like cost of animals…on average how much they can produce milk….cost of milk….animal maintenance cost etc…if you can provide a table then it will be very useful

Dear sir I have plan to start up a dairy farm but I don’t have any idea I need some guid line to start up I need some ideas can u tell how can help me on this can u help me on this

My name is Obeng Kingsley an M. PHIL student at University of Ghana pursuing Agricultural science. I am currently rearing sheep but facing challenges in the housing system. I need advise on housing management system. thanks

Dear sir, I want to open new dairy farm in CUMBUM (Andhra Pradesh). I have required 10 Buffalo with good quality and can give 20-30 litre milk per day. please send me the details about buffalo , price, purchasing locations , transportation etc. is it supporting goverment like subsidy and any extra allowance.let me know sir,i donot have any idea.ping me your phone number sir.i need to talk to you..ok sir.


Hi, Do you have any worksheet to make business plan? I need to calculate EBITDA for my Dairy Venture.

Thanks in advance.

thanks so much for such relevant information that will guide us in our development in business.

hi, I want to set up a dairy farm, kindly suggest to me the details in pdf, want to do it at Haveri.

can you please inform me about loans from centre govt subsidy and financial loans ?

i want starting small scale from kerala . please suggest to me rules and regulations

can you suggest names high feeding cows ?

I want to start Cow farming. How much amount will be required for 15 number Cow farming inclusive of Construction, feeder, medical treatment and labour cost etc.

How much monthly income i get with 15 cows?

Hi everyone I am planing for Dairy farming.can any one tell about the cost and land requirements & government rules

nice information

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Bullocks provide almost all of the draught power for farm activities and transportation. Dairy farming provides year-round work for many people because agriculture is mostly seasonal. As a result, dairy provides year-round work. Small and marginal farmers are the primary beneficiaries of dairy programs. Experts always recommend that farmers begin a small dairy operation. Establishing a small-scale enterprise benefits farmers with little or no prior expertise.

It can be a good way for them to supplement their income. Farmers can gradually expand their farms to large herds in the future. Many banks and financial institutions offer loans to farmers under various development programs to support them. Since the introduction of refrigeration technology in the late 1800s, including direct expansion refrigeration and the plate heat exchanger, milk preservation methods have improved.

Dairy farms could preserve milk by decreasing spoilage caused by bacterial growth and humidity using these cooling technologies. Many countries, including India, the United States, China, and New Zealand, have large dairy sectors that act as critical producers, exporters, and importers of milk. According to the FAO, total milk production has risen steadily since the late twentieth century, with 827,884,000 tonnes produced in 2017.

  • Currently, the milk manufacturing sector is the most sought-after industry on the planet. In the market, milk and milk products are in high demand. This is the most significant advantage of starting a commercial dairy cow farming business.
  • Milk and its products will never be in short supply because both vegetarians and non-vegetarians will consume it.
  • You won’t have to bother about promoting the products because it’s a typical firm, which means you’ll be able to sell them quickly.
  • It is an environmentally friendly company.
  • Instead of employing workers, you can improve dairy output through technology.
  • Proper planning, managing, and caring for your animals may make the most profit. As a result, you will have an excellent source of revenue.

The dairy sector is a dynamic industry that is always changing. New technology and legislation modify management techniques, allowing the industry to evolve toward greater economic and environmental sustainability. Intensive and extensive systems can be used to categorize management strategies. Extensive systems follow a philosophy of low input and low output, whereas intensive systems follow a philosophy of high input and high output.

In case you missed it: How to Start Sustainable Dairy Farming: Benefits and How to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint With Dairy Cattle

50 Cow Dairy Farming Project Report2

Different management of nutrition, housing, health, reproduction, and waste reflects these beliefs, as well as available technologies, local rules, and environmental conditions. Animals are divided into distinct management units on most modern dairy farms based on their age, nutritional demands, reproductive state, and milk production status. The milking herd, or the group of cows that are now lactating, is frequently maintained the most actively to ensure that their nutrition and surroundings are suitable to produce as much high-quality milk as possible.

On specific farms, the milking herd is separated into milking strings, which are groups of cows with varying nutritional requirements. Dry cows are members of the adult herd who are not being milked during their resting phase before giving birth to their next calf. Heifers are female animals that have not yet given birth to their first calf. They will eventually grow up to replace older animals in the milking herd and are consequently referred to as the replacement herd.

I ndia is home to the world’s greatest livestock population. It is home to 57.3 percent of the world’s buffalo population and 14.7% of the world’s cattle population. In 2011-12, milk production was valued at Rs. 3,05,484 crores. At the end of the Eleventh Plan (2011-12), the country’s total milk production was 127.9 million tonnes per year, with demand predicted to reach 180 million tonnes by 2020.

To meet this demand, milk output must grow at a rate of 5% per year rather than the current 2.5 percent. In 2011-12, the annual growth rate for milk production was at 5%. As a result, there is a huge opportunity/potential for profitable dairy farming to increase milk output.

Milk-Producing Cow Breeds in India

This cattle breed is native to the Gir forests of Gujarat’s South Kathiawar district but can also be found in Rajasthan and Maharashtra. Bhandari, Desan, Gujarati, Sorthi, Kathiawari, and Surati are some of the other names for it. Gir cattle’s horns are unusually curled, giving them a ‘half-moon’ look. It produces between 1200 and 1800 kilos of milk every lactation. This bread is known for its hardiness and resistance to disease.

Sahiwal is the Punjabi language that emerged in undivided India’s Montgomery region (now Pakistan). Lola, Lambi Bar, Teli, Montgomery, and Multani are all names for this cow breed. The Sahiwal is the country’s best indigenous dairy breed. Sahiwal milk yields between 1400 and 2500 kilos per lactation on average. Haryana, Punjab, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh are just a few of the states where it may be found.

The red Sindhi is primarily prevalent in Pakistan’s Karachi and Hyderabad districts. Sindhi and Red Karachi are two other names for it. This cattle breed’s body color is primarily red, with tints ranging from dark to light red and white stripes. It produces milk in quantities ranging from 1100 to 2600 kilos. In crossbreeding programs, red Sindhi is frequently employed.

Another milch cattle breed is found in Rajasthan’s arid regions. This breed is thought to have arisen from a cross between the Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, and Dhanni breeds, with a heavy Sahiwal influence. The cows are efficient and excellent milkers. The lactation milk yield ranges from 1062 to 2810 kilos, and they produce 1560 kilograms of milk.

In case you missed it: Sustainable Solutions of Cow Dung Manure: Production Process, Exploring the Benefits and Applications

50 Cow Dairy Farming Project Report3

This cattle breed is native to the Ongole taluk in Andhra Pradesh’s Guntur region. They are a huge, muscular cattle breed with a prominent hump. Ongole is well-suited to heavy-duty draught work. They’re also known as Nellore, and their average milk supply per lactation is 1000 kg.

Deoni is native to Western Andhra Pradesh, but it can also be found in Maharashtra’s Marathwada region and bordering Karnataka. Deoni’s milk output ranges from 636 to 1230 kg each lactation, with an average calving interval of 447 days. Bullocks are employed to help with hard farming.

Detailed project studies will be required for dairy schemes with high outlays. Capital asset purchases, such as dairy cows, shed construction, and equipment purchases, are examples of finance items. The cost of feeding for the first one or two months is capitalized and lent as a term loan.

Land development, fencing, well drilling, diesel engine/pump set commissioning, electrical connections, essential servants’ quarters, godowns, transport vehicles, milk processing facilities, and other costs may be eligible for a loan. Borrowers can use the services of NABARD Consultancy Services (NABCONS) for high-value projects, as they have extensive experience in preparing Detailed Project Reports.

  • Proper location, and Effective use of Land
  • Number of animals to consider
  • Cowshed, storage rooms, and labor rooms
  • Required equipment such as feed cutting machine (you can get a subsidy on this), digging pits for sailage, feed storage bags,s, etc.
  • Transport van, milking machines, milking cans, etc.
  • Division of shed for adult cows and calfs
  • Selection of best cow breeds from a genuine source
  • Management of lactation periods, milk yield per day, dry days, conception rate, the mortality rate
  • Fodder management and nutrition management
  • Taking care of veterinary requirements for any diseases and regular checkups and vaccinations
  • Outlay : The cost of the project is determined by the local conditions, unit size, and project components. The outlay may be calculated using current market values.
  • Margin cash : The margin varies depending on the borrower’s category and might range from 10% to 25%. Within the broad guidelines, banks are permitted to set their interest rates. However, we used a 12.50 percent-per-annum interest rate to calculate the financial viability and bankability of the model projects.
  • Protection : The security would be by NABARD/RBI norms that are updated regularly.
  • Repayment period of the loan : The scheme’s gross surplus determines the repayment period. The loan will be repaid in convenient monthly/quarterly installments over five to seven years.
  • Insurance : The animals and capital assets may be insured annually or on a long-term master policy, where ever it is applicable.

In case you missed it: How to Make Cow Dung Manure Compost: A Step-by-Step Guide to Use in Your Farm/Garden

50 Cow Dairy Farming Project Report4

50 Cow Dairy Farming Project Report

In case you missed it: Country/Free Range Chicken Farming Project Report: Business Plan, Investment, Profit, and Loan in India

50 Cow Dairy Farming Project Report5

Investment Capital

In case you missed it: Beekeeping Business Plan: Bee Farming Cost, Profit, and Project Report in India

50 Cow Dairy Farming Project Report6

Disclaimer : The figures above are entirely fictitious and are just assumed (not verified) to produce excellent outcomes in practice. We are not responsible for any inaccuracies in this project, as well as any decisions or activities performed as a result of using this site.

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Opening Dairy Farm 100 Cattles 50 bufflows 50 cows

hi Sudershanji,

all the best wishes, just enquirying , have to started your project and how it goes, what are the major advice you can give . thanking you.

i m very interest in Dairy Farming but due to money and place(plot) I could not do. If any of you help and support me sir I promise will success and show my ability.

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How to Start a Dairy Farm

Last Updated: August 27, 2023 References Approved

This article was co-authored by Karin Lindquist . Karin Lindquist earned a BSc in Agriculture as an Animal Science major from the University of Alberta, Canada. She has over 20 years of experience working with cattle and crops. She's worked for a mixed-practice veterinarian, as a sales representative in a farm supply store, and as a research assistant doing rangeland, soil, and crop research. She currently works as a forage and beef agriculture extension specialist, advising farmers on a variety of issues relating to their cattle and the forages they grow and harvest. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 105 testimonials and 92% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,317,857 times.

Dairy farms take a lot of money and capital to start up, way more than a meat operation does. Know what you're getting into and how you want to get into it before you decide to start a dairy farm. Even if you grew up on a farm, managing your own means sitting down for long, careful planning sessions. This guide will help you through these, but remember that local knowledge is invaluable for any farmer.

Planning Your Dairy Farm

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 1

  • Rule out breeds that can't thrive in your climate.
  • For each breed, divide annual upkeep cost by annual milk production to find production cost per unit of milk.
  • Is there local demand for the breed's milk (based on species and milk fat %)? What about for butter and cheese (where a high fat % is useful)?
  • How much time and money does it take to raise a calf to milk-producing age? How much can you sell the male calves for?

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 2

  • Livestock need about 4% of their weight in forage each day. Ideally, your pasture should produce more than this at peak season, so you can stockpile the surplus for winter.
  • Renting land is usually better than purchasing for a new farm. Wait until your farm is well-established and you no longer need the financial flexibility.

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 3

  • Artificial insemination programs are now widespread in India and many African countries. The savings are not as significant and the programs vary in quality, but it is still usually worth it.
  • Male:female herd ratio varies between species and with the male's age. A young bull can typically service 20–25 cows, while a healthy, mature bull may be able to handle up to 40. [2] X Trustworthy Source University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Division of the University of Georgia focused on research and community education Go to source

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 4

  • If this is all new to you, try to get some work experience on another dairy farm first.

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 5

  • A sterile facility for storing milk, and for pasteurizing if required in your area
  • Dry, sunny sheds or barns protected from weather and temperature changes
  • Milking parlor with stanchions
  • Feed storage and manure storage
  • Separate living space for calves
  • Equipment (including tractors) and equipment storage area
  • Well for watering cattle, plus water transport system to tanks in pasture
  • Irrigation system for pasture (optional) [5] X Research source
  • Note — if possible, give yourself room to expand to a larger herd

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 6

  • Contact government institutions about subsidies and loans for farmers before you take out a loan from a bank.
  • Use the average milk prices (or slightly lower) over the past few years when estimating future profits. You don't want your business to go under if milk prices drop.
  • As a rule of thumb, you'll need one laborer per 10 milk animals, and one per 20 "dry" animals. [7] X Research source This includes you and your family.

Learning the Basics

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 10

  • Equipment shared between farms can spread disease. Try to confirm where the equipment has been used and whether the animals there were healthy. [8] X Research source
  • Disease-carrying ticks are a major problem for livestock. [9] X Research source Inspect animals for ticks regularly, and keep the shed area clear of brush.

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 12

  • Mineral licks and/or mineral supplements are an important part of the animal's diet.
  • Moldy feed or feed stored in the same area as pesticides and other contaminants can transfer dangerous toxins to the milk. [10] X Research source
  • Dairy animals have high nutrition requirements compared to animals raised for meat. Improper nutrition can lead to lower milk production or lower quality milk.

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 13

  • If you've never milked an animal before, learn how to milk a cow or goat.

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 14

  • Unlike farms that raise livestock for meat, you will be calving all year round to keep milk production steady. Keeping track of where each animal is in the cycle is vital so you can stick to a plan that keeps your income as regular as possible.

Image titled Start a Dairy Farm Step 15

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • Herd health is very important for dairy operations. Dairy cows can get sick quite easily, and are more prone to injury to their feet and udders than beef cows are, and are also prone to milk fever and ketosis after calving. In order to have a healthy dairy herd, stringent health practices must be in place. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Make sure you have good practices to make your cows as comfortable as possible during the time you're milking them. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Allow your calves to milk for at least a month to give them enough strength. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

dairy farm planning and design in india

  • Don't go in to this operation thinking it's going to be a smooth ride. You will be very busy from before sunrise to past sunset every day, doing everything from milking cows to red tape to fixing machinery. It helps to have trusty hired hands, but you will need to supervise them to keep the farm running smoothly. Thanks Helpful 91 Not Helpful 39
  • Starting a dairy farm is very expensive. Going too far into debt can be very risky without a second job to rely on, since a shift in grain or milk prices could bankrupt you. If you don't have the finances yet, consider raising animals for meat instead. Thanks Helpful 79 Not Helpful 37

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Identify Holstein Cattle

  • ↑ http://www.cias.wisc.edu/starting-your-own-dairy-farm/
  • ↑ http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.cfm?number=C553
  • ↑ http://www.vethelplineindia.co.in/starting-a-dairy-farm-india/
  • ↑ http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/dairy-farm-management/dairy-cattle-housing-and-layout-of-dairy-farm/36250/
  • ↑ http://onpasture.com/2014/06/16/should-i-irrigate-my-pastures/
  • ↑ http://www.sites.ext.vt.edu/newsletter-archive/dairy/2004-02/lactation.html
  • ↑ http://www.vethelplineindia.co.in/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/GoodDairyFarmingPractice_FAO.pdf
  • ↑ http://agrifarming.in/dairy-farming
  • ↑ http://dairy.ahdb.org.uk/technical-information/animal-health-welfare/cow-culling/

About This Article

If you want to start a dairy farm, decide which species and breed you'd like to keep, such as cows, goats, or water buffalo. Then, choose a food source, such as feed, hay, or grazing, and with the cost of labor and land in mind. Once you've decided on these, make a breeding plan, which might involve paying for a bull's service or doing artificial insemination. Make sure you know about the care requirements for dairy animals of all ages, since you will have both adult and baby animals. When you're ready to start the farm, make sure you have all permits in order and make a business plan to propose to investors. For tips on learning the basics of dairy farming and taking care of dairy animals, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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    dairy farm planning and design in india

  5. Dairy Farm Layout Design

    dairy farm planning and design in india

  6. Dairy Farm Project, Noida, Square Feet, Vansun Technologies Private

    dairy farm planning and design in india


  1. Dairy farm |Dairy farm business |Choudhary dairy farm |Dairy farming in India |My first vlog #shorts

  2. Alum a Dairy Farmer Basic need for his Dairy Farm in India

  3. How to Start Small Dairy Farm, Cow Dairy Farming Business with Milk


  5. सस्ता डेयरी फार्म कैसे बनाए // Low Cost Dairy Farm // Dairy Farm in India// Natural Dairy Farm

  6. 🤭🙄😱 #shorts 25 लाख how to start dairy farming business


  1. Dairy Housing Systems

    A Step-by-Step Guide to Dairy Housing Systems - Types, Design, Layout, and Requirements Key Aspects of Dairy Housing Good Ventilation for Dairy Housing Systems Selection and Location of Dairy Housing Systems Advantages of Proper Dairy Housing Systems Important Points in Dairy Housing Design Dairy Housing Layout


    Module 1. Introduction of Dairy Plant Design and Layout Lesson 1.Types of Dairies and Perishable nature of milk Lesson 2.Importance of Dairy Plant Design Lesson 3.Milk Procurement Lesson 4.Milk Reception Lesson 5.Classification of Dairy Plants Module 2. Location and Site Selection for Dairy Plants Lesson6.

  3. Dairy Farming in India: Beginner's Guide to Start a Dairy Farm

    Business tactics Ready to work hard day and night without a holiday The above list is a basic list that can go endless. Commercial dairy farming is very different from the traditional farming as it has a lot of technological requirements and challenges. Choosing Healthy Cattle for Dairy Farm

  4. Dairy Farming Plan in India

    The basic requirements of Dairy farming in India includes-proper shed construction, surplus area of land for cultivation of green fodder (1-2 acre of land is sufficient for 15 cows), adequate water supply, good breed of cows (high yielding cows like hf,jersey, sahiwal etc.), fodder management (dry fodder , green fodder and concentrate), labour, ...

  5. Dairy Farming Set Up in India

    Management: Calf Management: Care and management immediately after calving: Essential requirements in calf housing: Floor space requirement for calves: Feeding and watering space requirements of calves: A feeding schedule of calves: Vaccination particulars for calves: Milking Practices in the Dairy Farm:

  6. Digitalisation Of India's Dairy Farming

    Digitalisation will have ...

  7. Planning procedure for setting- up a commercial dairy farm

    Planning procedure for setting- up a commercial dairy farm Authors: Priyanka Lal Lovely Professional University Gunjan Bhandari National Dairy Research Institute Abstract Dairy farming in...

  8. Dairy Farming

    Scope for dairy farming. India is endowed with the largest livestock population in the world. It accounts for about 57.3 per cent of the world's buffalo population and 14.7 per cent of the cattle population. Thus, there is a tremendous scope/potential for increasing the milk production through profitable dairy farming.

  9. (PDF) Future aspirations and planning of dairy farmers in India

    Keeping these facts in view, a study was conducted to document the present status and future aspirations of dairy farmers in India by 2020. Haryana, Maharashtra and Odisha states were purposively ...

  10. (PDF) An expert system for planning and designing dairy farms in hot

    The developed expert system is able to plan and design several dairy farm facilities, e.g. housing system (corrals system), shade structure and roof material, concrete base, cooling system,...

  11. PDF Planning procedure for settingup a commercial dairy farm

    the number of farm households with 10-15 cows (Dairy farms in India become bigger, 2017)and efforts are being made for modernization of dairy owing to its positive returns.

  12. Principles , Bis Recomendation and Layout Design of Dairy Cattle and

    February 14, 2022 0 1548 PRINCIPLES , BIS RECOMENDATION AND LAYOUT DESIGN OF DAIRY CATTLE AND BUFFALO HOUSING IN INDIA Model Layouts of Dairy Farms of Various Sizes Model layouts for the construction of various farm buildings have been prepared under loose system of housing.

  13. Small-Scale Dairy Farming Manual

    In most countries in the Asian region, ruminant animals, particularly cattle and buffalo, have an important economic role in village farming systems to provide milk, draught power, manure, meat and hides. Milk is an important constituent in the diet of large populations in countries like India and Pakistan. Its value is being increasingly recognized in other countries in the region too.

  14. 19 Key Rules for Effective Dairy Farm Management: From Planning to

    Image Source Key rules for effective dairy farm management Effective objectives of dairy farm management Effective livestock management can play an essential role in improving household livelihoods. The effectiveness of management practices largely determines success in dairy production.

  15. Dairy Farming Business Plan Guide

    Dairy Farming Business Plan - Shed Construction:- Well ventilated and the spacious shed is required for dairy farming. Hygienic conditions are very important in the shed for cattle health. When it comes to space, it is recommended to have 8 feet x 12 feet area for 1 cow. So total space required for 15 cows is about 120 feet x 12 feet.

  16. PDF 1 Introduction to Dairy Farming

    2. Per capita milk availability in India is 100 grams. 3. Dairy provides seasonal income to the farmers in India. 4. India is the biggest consumer of dairy products in the world. 5. A majority of dairy farmers in India raise animals on a small scale. Check Your Progress NOTES Unit-1 Introduction to Dairy Farmer.indd 5 9/13/2018 9:53:55 AM

  17. planning to start new dairy plant

    Setting up dairy farming commercial enterprise in India is not so easy. you need to go through several crucial steps for putting in dairy farming in India. recall the following tips whilst beginning dairy farming enterprise in India. first of all, you need to determine the aim and objective of your farm (includes housing, feeding, breeding, variety of animals to be maintained etc.try to visit ...

  18. Cow Shed Plans and Design

    0:00 / 2:49 Cow Shed Plans and Design | Dairy Farm Design Discover Agriculture 1.03M subscribers Join Subscribe 488K views 3 years ago #CowShed #3D #Design In this video, we will show you the...

  19. Dairy Farm Design

    The total system approach to developing your dairy is custom tailored to your situation, using the latest technology and modern concepts for herds of 100 to 12,000 cows. Learn more about planning and engineering. Some areas of development may include:

  20. PDF Guide to good dairy farming practice

    To elaborate a practical, farm orientated, globally achievable Guide to good dairy farm-ing practices for dairy farmers, covering key aspects of dairy farm management including: animal health, milk hygiene, animal nutrition, animal welfare, the environment and socio-economic management. Helen Dornom Berhe G. Tekola Chair Director

  21. 50 Cow Dairy Farming Project Report: Profits, Setup Cost, and Bank Loan

    Red Sindh Rathi Ongole Deoni Financial Assistance Technicals/Business Plan Lending Terms 50 Cow Dairy Farming Project Report Particulars Lactation and Dry Period Feed Consumption Chart Investment Capital Capital Cost Recurring Cost Income Table Loan Repayment Schedule And Profit Margin Years

  22. How to Start a Dairy Farm: 15 Steps (with Pictures)

    Part 1 Planning Your Dairy Farm 1 Research species and breed. The most common dairy animals are cows, goats (good for a small farm), or water buffalo (in south Asia). Each one has many dairy breeds, and local knowledge is your best way to choose between them.


    Dairy farming entails the raising of cows, the milking of such cows, and the sale of the milk. Dairy cow farming is a lucrative sector, and many people around the world are making money by beginning dairy milk farms.However, adequate knowledge of how to effectively keep milk cows, strong management skills, and a good dairy farming business plan are needed to develop a profitable, sustainable ...