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Electrical Safety Lesson Plans and Activities For Teachers
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Electrical Safety: Safety & Health for Electrical Trades (Student Manual)
Student manual on electrical safety with information on recognizing, evaluating and avoiding hazards related to electricity. January 2002
Safety Model Stage 3—Controlling Hazards: Safe Work Practices
- What could go wrong?
- Do I have the knowledge, tools, and experience to do this work safely?
- Plan your work and plan for safety.
- Avoid wet working conditions and other dangers.
- Avoid overhead powerlines.
- Use proper wiring and connectors.
- Use and maintain tools properly.
- Wear correct PPE.
- Work with a “buddy” —Do not work alone. Both of you should be trained in CPR. Both of you must know what to do in an emergency.
- Plan to lock out and tag out circuits and equipment— Make certain all energy sources are locked out and tagged out before performing any work on an electrical circuit or electrical device. Working on energized (“hot”) circuits is one of the most dangerous things any worker could do. If someone turns on a circuit without warning, you can be shocked, burned, or electrocuted. The unexpected starting of electrical equipment can cause severe injury or death. Before ANY work is done on a circuit, shut off the circuit, lock out and tag out the circuit at the distribution panel, then test the circuit to make sure it is de-energized. Before ANY equipment inspections or repairs—even on so-called low-voltage circuits—the current must be turned off at the switch box, and the switch must be padlocked in the OFF position. At the same time, the equipment must be securely tagged to warn everyone that work is being performed. Again, test circuits and equipment to ensure they are de-energized. No two locks should be alike. Each key should fit only one lock, and only one key should be issued to each worker. If more than one worker is working on a circuit or repairing a piece of equipment, each worker should lock out the switch with his or her own lock and never permit anyone else to remove it. At all times, you must be certain that you are not exposing other workers to danger. Workers who perform lock-out/tag-out must be trained and authorized to repair and maintain electrical equipment. A locked-out switch or feeder panel prevents others from turning on a circuit. The tag informs other workers of your action.
- Remove jewelry and metal objects— Remove jewelry and other metal objects or apparel from your body before beginning work. These things can cause burns if worn near high currents and can get caught as you work.
- Plan to avoid falls— Injuries can result from falling off scaffolding or ladders. Other workers may also be injured from equipment and debris falling from scaffolding and ladders.
- Put your feet at the base of the ladder and extend your arms straight out.
- If you can touch the closest part of the ladder without bending your arms, the ladder is probably at the correct angle.
- If you have to bend your arms to touch the closest part of the ladder or if you can’t reach the ladder at all, the ladder is not positioned at a safe angle.
- Use a GFCI— Always use a GFCI when using portable tools and extension cords.
- Avoid overloads— Do not overload circuits.
- Test GFCI’s— Test GFCI’s monthly using the “test” button.
- Use three-prong plugs— Never use a three-prong grounding plug with the third prong broken-off. When using tools that require a third-wire ground, use only three-wire extension cords with three-prong grounding plugs and three-hole electrical outlets. Never remove the grounding prong from a plug! You could be shocked or expose someone else to a hazard. If you see a cord without a grounding prong in the plug, remove the cord from service immediately.
- Use extension cords properly— If an extension cord must be used, choose one with sufficient ampacity for the tool being used. An undersized cord can overheat and cause a drop in voltage and tool power. Check the tool manufacturer’s recommendations for the required wire gauge and cord length. Make sure the insulation is intact. To reduce the risk of damage to a cord’s insulation, use cords with insulation marked “S” (hard service) rather than cords marked “SJ” (junior hard service). Make sure the grounding prong is intact. In damp locations, make sure wires and connectors are waterproof and approved for such locations. Do not create a tripping hazard.
- Check power cords and extensions— Electrical cords should be inspected regularly using the following procedure: 1. Remove the cord from the electrical power source before inspecting. 2. Make sure the grounding prong is present in the plug. 3. Make sure the plug and receptacle are not damaged. 4. Wipe the cord clean with a diluted detergent and examine for cuts, breaks, abrasions, and defects in the insulation. 5. Coil or hang the cord for storage. Do not use any other methods. Coiling or hanging is the best way to avoid tight kinks, cuts, and scrapes that can damage insulation or conductors. You should also test electrical cords regularly for ground continuity using a continuity tester as follows: 1. Connect one lead of the tester to the ground prong at one end of the cord. 2. Connect the second lead to the ground wire hole at the other end of the cord. 3. If the tester lights up or beeps (depending on design), the cord’s ground wire is okay. If not, the cord is damaged and should not be used.
- Do not pull on cords— Always disconnect a cord by the plug.
- Use locking connectors— Use locking-type attachment plugs, receptacles, and other connectors to prevent them from becoming unplugged.
- Inspect tools before using them— Check for cracked casings, dents, missing or broken parts, and contamination (oil, moisture, dirt, corrosion). Damaged tools must be removed from service and properly tagged. These tools should not be used until they are repaired and tested.
- Use the right tool correctly— Use tools correctly and for their intended purposes. Follow the safety instructions and operating procedures recommended by the manufacturer. When working on a circuit, use approved tools with insulated handles. However, DO NOT USE THESE TOOLS TO WORK ON ENERGIZED CIRCUITS. ALWAYS SHUT OFF AND DE-ENERGIZE CIRCUITS BEFORE BEGINNING WORK ON THEM.
- Protect your tools— Keep tools and cords away from heat, oil, and sharp objects. These hazards can damage insulation. If a tool or cord heats up, stop using it! Report the condition to a supervisor or instructor immediately. If equipment has been repaired, make sure that it has been tested and certified as safe before using it. Never carry a tool by the cord. Disconnect cords by pulling the plug—not the cord!
- Use double-insulated tools— Portable electrical tools are classified by the number of insulation barriers between the electricalconductors in the tool and the worker. The NEC permits the use of portable tools only if they have been approved by Underwriter’s Laboratories (UL Listed). Equipment that has two insulation barriers and no exposed metal parts is called double-insulated. When used properly, double-insulated tools provide reliable shock protection without the need for a third ground wire. Power tools with metal housings or only one layer of effective insulation must have a third ground wire and three-prong plug.
- Use multiple safe practices— Remember: A circuit may not be wired correctly. Wires may contact other “hot” circuits. Someone else may do something to place you in danger. Take all possible precautions.
- Contain and secure loose hair— Wear your hair in such a way that it does not interfere with your work or safety.
- Wear proper foot protection— Wear shoes or boots that have been approved for electrical work. (Tennis shoes will not protect you from electrical hazards.) If there are non-electrical hazards present (nails on the floor, heavy objects, etc.), use footwear that is approved to protect against these hazards as well.
- Wear a hard hat— Wear a hard hat to protect your head from bumps and falling objects. Hard hats must be worn with the bill forward to protect you properly.
- Wear hearing protectors— Wear hearing protectors in noisy areas to prevent hearing loss.
- Follow directions— Follow the manufacturer’s directions for cleaning and maintaining PPE.
- Make an effort— Search out and use any and all equipment that will protect you from shocks and other injuries.
Electrical safety training: 5 steps
Lecture for one-third; facilitate activities for two-thirds.
The jobs in Table S-4 (OSHA 1910.332) face a higher than normal risk of electrical accident if exposed to circuits that operate at 50 volts or more to ground. These employees require training respective to their job assignment in electrical safety -related work practices (OSHA standard 1910.331 through 1910.335). Also, employees permitted by their employer to work on or near exposed energized parts must be qualified by training to acquire the skills and techniques to determine voltage of exposed live parts. These training requirements were established by OSHA in August 1990.
Blue collar supervisors
Electrical and electronic engineers
Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers
Electrical and electronic technicians
Industrial machine operators
Mechanics and repairers
Riggers and roustabouts
Deloitte’s Resources 2015 Study found that 55 percent of businesses plan to generate some portion of their electricity supply on-site; mostly through use of fossil fuels but with a growing interest in creating electricity.
OSHA’s 2014 revised rules for electric power generation, transmission and distribution seek to keep pace with today’s understanding of electrical risk. Understanding of electrical risk is best demonstrated in NFPA 70E® Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. 70E is updated and revised every three years, with 2015 being the latest revision.
Risk, not hazard, is the 70E concept emphasized today. Depending upon risk, an employee in Table S-4 (and other employees not listed) may be qualified for some electrical work but unqualified in other electrical work.
According to OSHA and NFPA 70E, the type and extent of electrical safety training shall be determined by the risk to each employee. NFPA 70E standards, and expectations by OSHA, require training by classroom, on-the-job, or a combination of the two. An instructor-led course as opposed to using a canned video is expected. Retraining under 70E must occur at a minimum every three years, except for emergency response — first aid, CPR and AED that require annual training. Additional or retraining must occur when audits discover deficiencies or when new hazards are introduced. 70E requires training documentation including course content, employee’s name, and date of training.
Training for electrical safety covers broad areas. NFPA 70E 2015 Annex F, Risk Assessment Procedures includes training employees on risk assessment concepts, including use of hierarchy of controls — eliminate hazard first and use PPE last.
NFPA 70E 2015 Annex G includes a sample LOTO procedure. Lockout is the preferred method to control an employee’s exposure to electrical energy risks. OSHA’s generic LOTO standard 1910.147 and associated electrical LOTO requirements at 1910.269 and 1910.333 include training requirements.
NFPA 70E 2015 Annex H provides guidance on selection of PPE. OSHA’s general requirements for PPE selection, use and training are found at 1910.132. OSHA’s electrical PPE requirements are found at 1910.137. Electrical PPE may include hearing protection with training requirements from OSHA’s noise standard at 1910.95.
Training under NFPA 70E 2015 includes first aid responders (know methods for safe release of victims from contact with electricity); employees exposed to chemicals during battery operations (this may connect to OSHA HazCom training at 1910.1200); employees engaged in climbing during electrical work; and employees who may work around electrical equipment, such as tree trimmers.
Update electrical training
OSHA’s August 2015 publication: “Resource for Development and Delivery of Training to Workers” should be reviewed before updating your electrical safety training. Activity-based learning should fill at least two-thirds of training hours (no more than one-third is lecture). Activity-based training can include “learning exchanges” such as drawing upon participant experiences and knowledge. The facilitator’s role is to, “guide discussions, encourage participation, draw out and/or add information as needed, and highlight key issues and points.”
I usually follow five steps when conducting classroom electrical safety training:
1 — The class has the option to view a YouTube video of a man in India electrocuted while standing atop a train car. Classes almost always unanimously want to view the video. Serious discussion ensues as to why the electrocution happened and how the tragedy could be avoided. I guide comments on electrical risk and hierarchy of controls.
2 — When discussion about the electrocution video slows, the class is promptly shown a 15-second YouTube video, “How to find out if your friend is a wuss.” A person pranks his friend into thinking he is electrically shocked. What’s the point of the video? Most classes give very astute feedback about how risk of electricity should be treated.
3 — Following discussion of the two videos, an approximate 10-minute lecture is given on the basics of “what is electricity?” I encourage Q&A — even if the class is full of electricians. Examples of actual workplace hazards and risks, again led by students, follow the basic lecture.
4 — A predetermined needs assessment steers the rest of the class. “Hands-on” training with volt meters, PPE, and other equipment is generally practiced. One or more students can explain the hands-on activities, and they are encouraged to show what they know.
If your budget is tight, provide students access to NIOSH’s 2009 “Electrical Safety: Safety and Health for Electrical Trades” (Student Manual) – document number 2009-113. The manual is in the public domain and may be freely printed. If your budget allows (about $25 each) provide each student with Ugly’sTM Electrical Safety and NFPA 70E® 2015 edition pocket book.
5 — Students must complete a 15-question written test after completion of learning. The written test serves several purposes including training documentation.
Steps 1 through 3 can be completed in one hour. Plan on 2 to 4 hours, and depending upon needs assessment, much longer to complete step 4. Allow 30 minutes for students to complete a 15-question test
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OSHA Training Requirements For Electrical Safety
Based on the number of questions I get from clients, the electrical safety-related OSHA training requirements can be confusing. In simple terms, a company has to provide electrical safety-related work practices and train employees on them. A worker has to be qualified, trained and can demonstrate skills, on any task they are to perform when exposed to electrical hazards. How much training is required? Enough to accomplish that.
Below in OSHA’s words:
1910.332(a) Scope. The training requirements contained in this section apply to employees who face a risk of electric shock that is not reduced to a safe level by the electrical installation requirements of 1910.303 through 1910.308.
Note: Employees in occupations listed in Table S-4 face such a risk and are required to be trained. Other employees who also may reasonably be expected to face comparable risk of injury due to electric shock or other electrical hazards must also be trained. 1910.332(b) Content of training. 1910.332(b)(1) Practices addressed in this standard. Employees shall be trained in and familiar with the safety-related work practices required by 1910.331 through 1910.335 that pertain to their respective job assignments. 1910.332(b)(2) Additional requirements for unqualified persons. Employees who are covered by paragraph (a) of this section but who are not qualified persons shall also be trained in and familiar with any electrically related safety practices not specifically addressed by 1910.331 through 1910.335 but which are necessary for their safety. 1910.332(b)(3) Additional requirements for qualified persons. Qualified persons (i.e. those permitted to work on or near exposed energized parts) shall, at a minimum, be trained in and familiar with the following: 1910.332(b)(3)(i) The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment. 1910.332(b)(3)(ii) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts, and 1910.332(b)(3)(iii) The clearance distances specified in 1910.333(c) and the corresponding voltages to which the qualified person will be exposed.
Note 1: For the purposes of 1910.331 through 1910.335, a person must have the training required by paragraph (b)(3) of this section in order to be considered a qualified person.
Note 2: Qualified persons whose work on energized equipment involves either direct contact or contact by means of tools or materials must also have the training needed to meet 1910.333(C)(2). 1910.332(c) Type of training. The training required by this section shall be of the classroom or on-the-job type. The degree of training provided shall be determined by the risk to the employee.
1910.333(a) “General.” Safety-related work practices shall be employed to prevent electric shock or other injuries resulting from either direct or indirect electrical contacts, when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits which are or may be energized. The specific safety-related work practices shall be consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards. 1910.333(a)(1) “Deenergized parts.” Live parts to which an employee may be exposed shall be deenergized before the employee works on or near them, unless the employer can demonstrate that deenergizing introduces additional or increased hazards or is infeasible due to equipment design or operational limitations. Live parts that operate at less than 50 volts to ground need not be deenergized if there will be no increased exposure to electrical burns or to explosion due to electric arcs. Note 1: Examples of increased or additional hazards include interruption of life support equipment, deactivation of emergency alarm systems, shutdown of hazardous location ventilation equipment, or removal of illumination for an area. Note 2: Examples of work that may be performed on or near energized circuit parts because of infeasibility due to equipment design or operational limitations include testing of electric circuits that can only be performed with the circuit energized and work on circuits that form an integral part of a continuous industrial process in a chemical plant that would otherwise need to be completely shut down in order to permit work on one circuit or piece of equipment. Note 3: Work on or near deenergized parts is covered by paragraph (b) of this section. ..1910.333(a)(2) 1910.333(a)(2) “Energized parts.” If the exposed live parts are not deenergized (i.e., for reasons of increased or additional hazards or infeasibility), other safety-related work practices shall be used to protect employees who may be exposed to the electrical hazards involved. Such work practices shall protect employees against contact with energized circuit parts directly with any part of their body or indirectly through some other conductive object. The work practices that are used shall be suitable for the conditions under which the work is to be performed and for the voltage level of the exposed electric conductors or circuit parts. Specific work practice requirements are detailed in paragraph (c) of this section. 1910.333(b) “Working on or near exposed deenergized parts.” 1910.333(b)(1) “Application.” This paragraph applies to work on exposed deenergized parts or near enough to them to expose the employee to any electrical hazard they present. Conductors and parts of electric equipment that have been deenergized but have not been locked out or tagged in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section shall be treated as energized parts, and paragraph (c) of this section applies to work on or near them. 1910.333(b)(2) “Lockout and Tagging.” While any employee is exposed to contact with parts of fixed electric equipment or circuits which have been deenergized, the circuits energizing the parts shall be locked out or tagged or both in accordance with the requirements of this paragraph. The requirements shall be followed in the order in which they are presented (i.e., paragraph (b)(2)(i) first, then paragraph (b)(2)(ii), etc.). Note 1: As used in this section, fixed equipment refers to equipment fastened in place or connected by permanent wiring methods. Note 2: Lockout and tagging procedures that comply with paragraphs (c) through (f) of 1910.147 will also be deemed to comply with paragraph (b)(2) of this section provided that:  The procedures address the electrical safety hazards covered by this Subpart; and  The procedures also incorporate the requirements of paragraphs (b)(2)(iii)(D) and (b)(2)(iv)(B) of this section. 1910.333(b)(2)(i)
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“Procedures.” The employer shall maintain a written copy of the procedures outlined in paragraph (b)(2) and shall make it available for inspection by employees and by the Assistant Secretary of Labor and his or her authorized representatives. Note: The written procedures may be in the form of a copy of paragraph (b) of this section. ..1910.333(b)(2)(ii) 1910.333(b)(2)(ii) “Deenergizing equipment.” 1910.333(b)(2)(ii)(A) Safe procedures for deenergizing circuits and equipment shall be determined before circuits or equipment are deenergized. 1910.333(b)(2)(ii)(B) The circuits and equipment to be worked on shall be disconnected from all electric energy sources. Control circuit devices, such as push buttons, selector switches, and interlocks, may not be used as the sole means for deenergizing circuits or equipment. Interlocks for electric equipment may not be used as a substitute for lockout and tagging procedures. 1910.333(b)(2)(ii)(C) Stored electric energy which might endanger personnel shall be released. Capacitors shall be discharged and high capacitance elements shall be short-circuited and grounded, if the stored electric energy might endanger personnel. Note: If the capacitors or associated equipment are handled in meeting this requirement, they shall be treated as energized. 1910.333(b)(2)(ii)(D) Stored non-electrical energy in devices that could reenergize electric circuit parts shall be blocked or relieved to the extent that the circuit parts could not be accidentally energized by the device. 1910.333(b)(2)(iii) “Application of locks and tags.” 1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(A) A lock and a tag shall be placed on each disconnecting means used to deenergize circuits and equipment on which work is to be performed, except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2)(iii)(C) and (b)(2)(iii)(E) of this section. The lock shall be attached so as to prevent persons from operating the disconnecting means unless they resort to undue force or the use of tools. ..1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(B) 1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(B) Each tag shall contain a statement prohibiting unauthorized operation of the disconnecting means and removal of the tag. 1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(C) If a lock cannot be applied, or if the employer can demonstrate that tagging procedures will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by the use of a lock, a tag may be used without a lock. 1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(D) A tag used without a lock, as permitted by paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(C) of this section, shall be supplemented by at least one additional safety measure that provides a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by use of a lock. Examples of additional safety measures include the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, or opening of an extra disconnecting device. 1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(E) A lock may be placed without a tag only under the following conditions: 1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(E)(1) Only one circuit or piece of equipment is deenergized, and 1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(E)(2) The lockout period does not extend beyond the work shift, and 1910.333(b)(2)(iii)(E)(3) Employees exposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing the circuit or equipment are familiar with this procedure. ..1910.333(b)(2)(iv) 1910.333(b)(2)(iv) Verification of deenergized condition. The requirements of this paragraph shall be met before any circuits or equipment can be considered and worked as deenergized. 1910.333(b)(2)(iv)(A) A qualified person shall operate the equipment operating controls or otherwise verify that the equipment cannot be restarted. 1910.333(b)(2)(iv)(B) A qualified person shall use test equipment to test the circuit elements and electrical parts of equipment to which employees will be exposed and shall verify that the circuit elements and equipment parts are deenergized. The test shall also determine if any energized condition exists as a result of inadvertently induced voltage or unrelated voltage backfeed even though specific parts of the circuit have been deenergized and presumed to be safe. If the circuit to be tested is over 600 volts, nominal, the test equipment shall be checked for proper operation immediately after this test. 1910.333(b)(2)(v) “Reenergizing equipment.” These requirements shall be met, in the order given, before circuits or equipment are reenergized, even temporarily. 1910.333(b)(2)(v)(A) A qualified person shall conduct tests and visual inspections, as necessary, to verify that all tools, electrical jumpers, shorts, grounds, and other such devices have been removed, so that the circuits and equipment can be safely energized. ..1910.333(b)(2)(v)(B) 1910.333(b)(2)(v)(B) Employees exposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing the circuit or equipment shall be warned to stay clear of circuits and equipment. 1910.333(b)(2)(v)(C) Each lock and tag shall be removed by the employee who applied it or under his or her direct supervision. However, if this employee is absent from the workplace, then the lock or tag may be removed by a qualified person designated to perform this task provided that: 1910.333(b)(2)(v)(C)(1) The employer ensures that the employee who applied the lock or tag is not available at the workplace, and 1910.333(b)(2)(v)(C)(2) The employer ensures that the employee is aware that the lock or tag has been removed before he or she resumes work at that workplace. 1910.333(b)(2)(v)(D) There shall be a visual determination that all employees are clear of the circuits and equipment. 1910.333(c) “Working on or near exposed energized parts.” 1910.333(c)(1) “Application.” This paragraph applies to work performed on exposed live parts (involving either direct contact or by means of tools or materials) or near enough to them for employees to be exposed to any hazard they present. ..1910.333(c)(2) 1910.333(c)(2) “Work on energized equipment.” Only qualified persons may work on electric circuit parts or equipment that have not been deenergized under the procedures of paragraph (b) of this section. Such persons shall be capable of working safely on energized circuits and shall be familiar with the proper use of special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools. 1910.333(c)(3) “Overhead lines.” if work is to be performed near overhead lines, the lines shall be deenergized and grounded, or other protective measures shall be provided before work is started. If the lines are to be deenergized, arrangements shall be made with the person or organization that operates or controls the electric circuits involved to deenergize and ground them. If protective measures, such as guarding, isolating, or insulating, are provided, these precautions shall prevent employees from contacting such lines directly with any part of their body or indirectly through conductive materials, tools, or equipment. Note: The work practices used by qualified persons installing insulating devices on overhead power transmission or distribution lines are covered by 1910.269 of this Part, not by 1910.332 through 1910.335 of this Part. Under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, unqualified persons are prohibited from performing this type of work. 1910.333(c)(3)(i) “Unqualified persons.” 1910.333(c)(3)(i)(A) When an unqualified person is working in an elevated position near overhead lines, the location shall be such that the person and the longest conductive object he or she may contact cannot come closer to any unguarded, energized overhead line than the following distances: 1910.333(c)(3)(i)(A)(1) For voltages to ground 50kV or below – 10 feet (305 cm); 1910.333(c)(3)(i)(A)(2) For voltages to ground over 50kV – 10 feet (305 cm) plus 4 inches (10 cm) for every 10kV over 50kV. ..1910.333(c)(3)(i)(B) 1910.333(c)(3)(i)(B) When an unqualified person is working on the ground in the vicinity of overhead lines, the person may not bring any conductive object closer to unguarded, energized overhead lines than the distances given in paragraph (c)(3)(i)(A) of this section. Note: For voltages normally encountered with overhead power line, objects which do not have an insulating rating for the voltage involved are considered to be conductive. 1910.333(c)(3)(ii) “Qualified persons.” When a qualified person is working in the vicinity of overhead lines, whether in an elevated position or on the ground, the person may not approach or take any conductive object without an approved insulating handle closer to exposed energized parts than shown in Table S-5 unless: 1910.333(c)(3)(ii)(A) The person is insulated from the energized part (gloves, with sleeves if necessary, rated for the voltage involved are considered to be insulation of the person from the energized part on which work is performed), or 1910.333(c)(3)(ii)(B) The energized part is insulated both from all other conductive objects at a different potential and from the person, or 1910.333(c)(3)(ii)(C) The person is insulated from all conductive objects at a potential different from that of the energized part.
Go to www.OSHA.gov for full text of the OSHA regulations.
- July 20, 2018
- | Categories: 70E Training , Arc Flash Training , OSHA Electrical Safety
- | Tags: 70E , arc flash , Electrical Safety , electrical safety training , osha electrical safety , osha training requirements
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Electrical Safety Related Work Practices
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OSHA Training Requirements - Electrical Safety Related Work Practices
This website is not the official or final authority to determine OSHA compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Because OSHA regulations are constantly being added, deleted, and/or revised, you must not rely on this website as the official or final authority of OSHA training requirements; refer to the official OSHA regulations available on OSHA’s website (osha.gov). – See disclaimers .
1910.332 – 1910.333 –Electrical Safety Related Work Practices
1910.332 – Training
(a) – Scope. The training requirements contained in this section apply to employees who face a risk of electric shock that is not reduced to a safe level by the electrical installation requirements of 1910.303 through 1910.308.
Note: Employees in occupations listed in Table S-4 face such a risk and are required to be trained. Other employees who also may reasonably be expected to face comparable risk of injury due to electric shock or other electrical hazards must also be trained.
(b) – Content of training.
(1) – Practices addressed in this standard. Employees shall be trained in and familiar with the safety-related work practices required by 1910.331 through 1910.335 that pertain to their respective job assignments.
(2) – Additional requirements for unqualified persons. Employees who are covered by paragraph (a) of this section but who are not qualified persons shall also be trained in and familiar with any electrically related safety practices not specifically addressed by 1910.331 through 1910.335 but which are necessary for their safety.
(3) – Additional requirements for qualified persons. Qualified persons (i.e. those permitted to work on or near exposed energized parts) shall, at a minimum, be trained in and familiar with the following:
(i) The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment.
(ii) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts, and
(iii) The clearance distances specified in 1910.333(c) and the corresponding voltages to which the qualified person will be exposed.
Note 1: For the purposes of 1910.331 through 1910.335, a person must have the training required by paragraph (b)(3) of this section in order to be considered a qualified person.
Note 2: Qualified persons whose work on energized equipment involves either direct contact or contact by means of tools or materials must also have the training needed to meet 1910.333(C)(2).
(c) – Type of training. The training required by this section shall be of the classroom or on-the-job type. The degree of training provided shall be determined by the risk to the employee.
TABLE S-4. — Typical Occupational Categories of Employees Facing a Higher Than Normal Risk of Electrical Accident
Blue collar supervisors(1) Electrical and electronic engineers(1) Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers(1) Electrical and electronic technicians(1) Electricians Industrial machine operators(1) Material handling equipment operators(1) Mechanics and repairers(1) Painters(1) Riggers and roustabouts(1) Stationary engineers(1) Welders
Footnote(1) Workers in these groups do not need to be trained if their work or the work of those they supervise does not bring them or the employees they supervise close enough to exposed parts of electric circuits operating at 50 volts or more to ground for a hazard to exist.
1910.333 – Selection and Use of Work Practices
(c)(2) – “Work on energized equipment.” Only qualified persons may work on electric circuit parts or equipment that have not been deenergized under the procedures of paragraph (b) of this section. Such persons shall be capable of working safely on energized circuits and shall be familiar with the proper use of special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools.
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Electrical Safety and Hazards of Electricity Essay
Electrical Safety is a part of industrial safety programs aimed to protect workers and outside environment from threats and risks. The electrical safety regulation involves congressional legislation stating the need to protect health, safety, and the environment; setting goals for improvements in the present condition; and establishing the commissions to deal with the day-to-day problems of actually achieving the goals. Once established, the new agencies attempt to settle quickly into full-blown and efficient administrative processes. While the legislation provided guidelines as to why the agency should proceed, it usually does specify the method or process of regulation.
Electricity is dangerous for a human causing death and health hazards. If a current runs through a human body it burns the flesh and causes the shock. In its turn, shock leads to heart attack and heart failure. One-tenth of an ampere may prove death if it passes through the main part of the body. “Of all the skin layers, keratin exhibits the highest resistance to the passage of electricity” (Cadick et al 2005, p. 1.20).
For instance, the 110 volts is enough to be fatal. in industrial setting, electricity is dangerous because it causes rapid heating and expansion of sap vapors in case of fire. In current, “electrons move because they push on each other to spread apart. When more electrons are in one place than another, those in the crowded area push harder than those in the emptier area, so electrons move from the former to the latter. Resistance is modeled as a blocking process in which “imperfections” in the material act as obstacles in the electrons’ paths” (McCutchen 1999, p. 259).
In industrial settings, electricity is dangerous because of high voltage and metal constructions used in many plants and factories. “Employees who work around electricity don’t survive on luck. Worse is the fact that having a near death accident doesn’t “feel” lucky to most” (Cadick et al 2005, p. 8.14). The regulation of worker safety goes toward specifying equipment. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is enacted to reverse the rising trend of worker accidents during the 1960s. When the act became law, the secretary of labor set the first safety standards based on equipment specifications arrive at over the previous two decades by industry health associations and nonprofit safety organizations (Viscusi 2000).
Today, electrical safety issues contain extremely detailed specifications of the physical conditions of production, ranging from the cleanliness of the working area to the position and size of mesh screens over moving machinery. The goals are to set in terms of improving health and safety across the country, EPA, NHTSA, and OSHA regulations evolved away from performance to setting out and partially enforcing detailed equipment specifications (Viscusi 2000).
Because standard setting has been litigious and prolonged, the existing set of rules has not been complete. But these regulations when available and applied to the individual plant have proven to be extremely detailed and inflexible. When they have not fit, the only way to resolve an all-or-nothing confrontation has been to postpone application. in utility and industrial settings, ”electricity is conducted along copper wires in power generation, transmission, and distribution” (Cadick et al 2005, p. 11.8).
By controlling equipment and production processes, the agencies regulating electrical safety have had some impact on industry costs and prices. Electrical safety concerns logically fall into four basic categories: product design standards, installation standards, safety-related maintenance information and usage instructions “(Cadick et al 2005, p. 6.16). The impact is realized by the companies in higher equipment costs and reduced equipment options. This, in turn, increases the long-run, and increases the short-run, costs of production. Behavior modification approaches to workplace safety invoke a domino model, such that reinforcement strategies affect safe behavior, which in turn affects accident rates.
Following Patterson (1999), the simplest form of event sequence model accords less attention to causes and more attention to the outcomes leading up to an accident. The nuance here is that an accident is a process, rather than a single discrete event. Patterson (1999) conceptualizes the accident process as a hazard buildup cycle. At first, the workplace is safe with no uncontrolled hazards. As people start to work, however, tools are left out in work spaces, and different people enter the work space to do different things with different tools and equipment. People and objects move around and make opportunities to bump into each other.
Eventually hazards accumulate to a critical level when an accident occurs. Notice that there is a entropy concept implicit in the hazard buildup view of an accident process. For instance, in industrial settings: “whenever possible, safety grounds are applied to create a zone of equal potential around the employee. This means that the voltage is equal on all components within reach of the employee” (Cadick et al 2005, p. 2.84).
An intervention based on the hazard buildup cycle would emphasize training for good factory housekeeping. Other possible forms of training would center on the best use of tools, and procedures that would minimize the acceleration of the hazard buildup. Workers should learn to recognize the buildup cycle, and to spontaneously intervene by reorganizing their work spaces for a safer outcome (Viscusi 2000). The intervention essentially kick-starts a self-organization process for all workers. Entropy, having increased unto chaos, now causes the system to self-organize into a state where there is less internal entropy, and a more controlled transferral of energy into the work environment.
The concept of electrical safety climate was first expressed by Zohar (1980 cited Patterson 1999), who was investigating the safety practices, and workers’ views of those safety practices, that distinguished factories with good safety performance from those with poor performance. Attitudes toward the organization’s safety program and its effectiveness, worker training, availability of needed tools and personal protection equipment, and the foreman’s attentiveness to rule violations, all served to distinguish high and low performing groups (Viscusi 2000). The set of survey questions, taken together denoted a climate for safety.
The concept of climate was similar in principle to the organizational climate concepts, except that climate was viewed with respect to a more limited set of objectives or issues. The introduction of an organizational construct was justified because the measurements distinguished organizations rather than individuals (Patterson 1999).
Electrical workers and inspectors operate with a variety of notions of compliance. Full compliance is a standard set of conditions which they are aiming towards: this will usually be at least the legal or administrative definition of compliance, and it may represent a standard above the legal minimum. Inspectors may also operate with temporary definitions of compliance, that is a state of affairs which is less than full compliance but which is tolerated for a fixed period, until such time as they consider it reasonable for a state of full compliance to have been achieved (Cadick et al 2005).
Both of these are positive definitions, to the extent that they emphasize the degree to which something measures up to the required standard. When inspectors are wanting to emphasize the negative aspects of a situation they talked in terms of non-compliance. The definition, achievement, and maintenance of compliance is a process which continues for as long as a business is in operation and known about by the regulatory authorities. But while the activities regulated by inspectors are continuous, inspectors’ visits to these sites are ‘momentary’ and sometimes infrequent (Patterson 1999).
They therefore make decisions from ‘snapshots’ of activity, and with the benefit of varying levels of training, guidance, and experience. Issues of compliance therefore emerge in different contexts and settings and the meanings they take on are molded accordingly. It may take inspectors a long time to become familiar with some very large and complex organizations, a task which may be made more difficult by reorganizations.
For instance, British Railways is perhaps a good example, since its national organization was differentiated both on a regional basis and according to specialisms such as civil engineering, mechanical and electrical engineering, signals and telecommunications, and operations (Patterson 1999). Not only was this a complicated organization in itself but it was not a static organization. Each of the parts might be reorganized, leaving members of the RI with the problem of not knowing whom to contact, especially if jobs were awkwardly defined. However, some inspectors felt that reorganizations could help them if individual managers became responsible for larger areas, as inspectors would then need to contact fewer managers to effect improvements across a greater area.
In industrial settings, the environmental hazard parameters can be thought of as background and trigger variables, respectively. The relationship between hazards and accidents is thought to be linear in the sense of the Patterson (1999) hazard buildup process. Other evidence suggests that the electrical safety is actually a log-linear relationship, such that hazards are more closely related to the log of accidents rates, rather than to accident rates directly (Parkhurst and Niebur 2002).
Variables that represent sources of stress, which in turn affect performance, are thought to cause a sharp inflection of risk over a short amount of time when the background hazard level is sufficiently strong. Risk inflection, which is greatest when anxiety and stress are high, safety management is poor, and group size is small. Good safety management is thought to produce only a relatively low. Safety management is a control mechanism both in real circumstances and as a bifurcating effect in the model. Tests of the cusp model in two situations showed that the model provides a good description of the accident process and affords a variety of qualitative recommendations that an organization can use to enhance its safety performance (McCutchen 1999).
In sum, electricity is dangerous because it causes deaths and injuries if the workers are not protected and safety measures are not kept. Behavior modification programs, which selectively reward desired safety responses and censure undesirable behaviors, rank among the most effective means of controlling accidents, as long as the contingencies of reinforcement center on rewarding the desired behavior to a greater extent than on punishing undesirable behavior. Their chief limitations are, however, that they require constant monitoring by the agencies delivering the rewards, and only a narrow set of behaviors can be targeted effectively within a specific program. Also, they tend to view targeted behaviors in isolation, rather than as results of a complex system process. Sometimes those limitations are not problems, of course, but sometimes they are.
- Cadick, J., Capelli_M., Neitzel, D. K. Electrical Safety Handbook . McGraw-Hill Professional; 3 edition, 2005.
- McCutchen, D. Making Their Own Connections: Students’ Understanding of Multiple Models in Basic Electricity. Cognition and Instruction , 17, 1999. 249-259.
- Patterson, W. Transforming Electricity: The Coming Generation of Change . Earthscan Ltd, 1999.
- Parkhurst, D. J., Niebur, E., Variable-Resolution Displays: A Theoretical, Practical, and Behavioral Evaluation. Human Factors , 44, 2002, p. 611.
- Viscusi, K. Corporate Risk Analysis: A Reckless Act? Stanford Law Review , 52, 2000, pp. 547-597.
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